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Sample records for total season phases

  1. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  2. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω3), linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid. (C20:5 ω3) had the highest levels among the PUFAs. ... coronary artery disease, diabetes, hyper-tension and .... factors such as season, the type and amount of feed ..... composition of some Malaysian freswater fish.

  3. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  4. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  5. Total energy calculations for structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Harmon, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    The structural integrity and physical properties of crystalline solids are frequently limited or enhanced by the occurrence of phase transformations. Martensitic transformations involve the collective displacement of atoms from one ordered state to another. Modern methods to determine the microscopic electronic changes as the atoms move are now accurate enough to evaluate the very small energy differences involved. Extensive first principles calculations for the prototypical martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to closepacked 9R structure in sodium metal are described. The minimum energy coordinate or configuration path between the bcc and 9R structures is determined as well as paths to other competing close-packed structures. The energy barriers and important anharmonic interactions are identified and general conclusions drawn. The calculational methods used to solve the Schrodinger equation include pseudopotentials, fast Fourier transforms, efficient matrix diagnonalization, and supercells with many atoms

  6. A solid-phase-radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, G.; Sokolowski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A new solid phase radioimmunoassay for total serum thyroxine was evaluated over a longer time under clinical routine conditions and compared with an established test system. The results show up that the T 4 values are precise, reliable and reproducible, the is incomplicate to handle and well suitable for semiautomatic pipetting systems. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  7. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa; Black, Paleah; Lean, David

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. → With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m -3 . → During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. → We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. → With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean temperature is 20 deg. C

  8. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa [Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, LAQAT-UNA, Universidad Nacional, P.O. Box 86-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Black, Paleah [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, P.O. Box 450 Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: drslean@gmail.com [P.O. Box 309, Apsley, Ontario, K0L 1A0 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. {yields} With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m{sup -3}. {yields} During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. {yields} We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. {yields} With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean

  9. Independence and totalness of subspaces in phase space methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.

    2018-04-01

    The concepts of independence and totalness of subspaces are introduced in the context of quasi-probability distributions in phase space, for quantum systems with finite-dimensional Hilbert space. It is shown that due to the non-distributivity of the lattice of subspaces, there are various levels of independence, from pairwise independence up to (full) independence. Pairwise totalness, totalness and other intermediate concepts are also introduced, which roughly express that the subspaces overlap strongly among themselves, and they cover the full Hilbert space. A duality between independence and totalness, that involves orthocomplementation (logical NOT operation), is discussed. Another approach to independence is also studied, using Rota's formalism on independent partitions of the Hilbert space. This is used to define informational independence, which is proved to be equivalent to independence. As an application, the pentagram (used in discussions on contextuality) is analysed using these concepts.

  10. Comparative Assessments of the Seasonality in "The Total Number of Overnight Stays" in Romania, Bulgaria and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugănaru Ion Dănuț

    2017-01-01

    For the quantitative research carried out in this study, we processed a database consisting of the monthly values of “the total number of overnight stays” indicator, recorded between January 2005 and December 2016, using the moving average method, the seasonality coefficient and EViews 5. The results led to the formulation of comparative assessments regarding the seasonality in the tourism activities from Romania and Bulgaria and their situation compared to the average of the seasonality recorded in the EU.

  11. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  12. Nitrates in surface waters, inputs and seasonality: Phase 2

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, H.; Clarke, R.T.; Smith, S.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in management practices and agricultural productivity over the past twenty years have lead to nitrate pollution and eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Information on nitrate concentrations and discharge has been collected on the River Frome at East Stoke since 1965, using the same analytical nitrate method so that the results are comparable. These records of weekly spot values of nitrate concentration and daily mean discharges have been analysed for trends and seasonal patterns in bo...

  13. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  14. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of proteins was similar in all

  15. Seasonal Synchronization of Diapause Phases in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Guillaume; Chanaud, Lionel; L'Ambert, Grégory; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In temperate areas, population dynamics of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus are strongly affected by winter. The work we present here analyzes the adaptive synchronization of the diapause process in the wintry generation of A. albopictus, where the egg stage is exposed to adverse winter conditions. The seasonal pattern of egg laying activity of a French Mediterranean population of the Asian tiger mosquito was monitored weekly for 2 years with ovitraps. The field diapause incidence and the critical photoperiod (CPP, i.e. the maternal day length inducing diapause in 50% of the eggs), were determined by hatching experiments on the collected eggs. The period of diapause termination was estimated by a field survey of the first hatchings for both years. The CPP is equal to 13.5 hours of light and occurs in the field on the 25th of August. Thus, it is on September 11th, 17 days after the CPP, that 50% of the eggs are in a prediapause stage in the field. The egg diapause rate increases rapidly during September, whereas the mean number of eggs laid decreases sharply after mid-September. Surprisingly, after having reached a peak of 95% at the end of September, from mid-October the diapause incidence declined and stayed below 50%. Indeed, both years the diapause initiates before the rapid decrease of the environmental temperature. This leaves a sufficient period of time to the complete development of one generation of A. albopictus with effective induction of diapause in the laid eggs. The very first larvae hatched were sampled both years in the first half of March. With 20 to 26 weeks in the egg stage and about 7 weeks in the larval stages, the first annual generation spends a long time in immature stages. On a practical point of view, this long development time represents a wide window for eggs and larvae control in early spring.

  16. Changes and trends of seasonal total rainfall in the province of Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Yurtseven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes and trends of seasonal total rainfall in the province of Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Several studies revealed that climate change can affect local and regional precipitation patterns. Long term trends and cycles in precipitation is important for the health of ecosystems in the region. The possible impacts in near future can affect the forest and water resources of Istanbul. In this study, daily, monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation analyses for the different meteorology stations were examined for the İstanbul province. Northern and southern different climatic conditions of İstanbul have been effective selection of the station. The Mann-Kendall test results showed that there is positive statistically significant trend in some meteorology stations. According to Mann-Kendall results the increased fall precipitation trend were found in Florya, Kireçburnu ve Kumköy meteorology stations and decreased summer precipitation trend were found in Göztepe meteorology stations Keywords: Mann-Kendall trend analysis, precipitation time series, the regional precipitation reactions analysis, climate change İstanbul ilinde mevsimsel toplam yağışların değişimleri ve eğilimleri Özet: İklim değişikliğinin bölgesel ve yöresel ölçekte yağış rejimi üzerinde etkileri olabileceği birçok araştırma ile ortaya konulmuştur. Yağış serilerindeki uzun dönemli yönelimler ve döngüler yöredeki ekosistemlerin sağlığı ve geleceği açısından büyük önem arzetmektedir. İstanbul ilinde önümüzdeki dönemde gerçekleşebilecek etkiler ise hem su kaynakları hem de ormanlar üzerinde önemli sonuçlar ortaya çıkarabilir. Bu çalışmada İstanbul iline ait farklı meteoroloji istasyonlarının uzun dönemli mevsimlik verileri araştırılmıştır. Çalışmadaki amacımız ileriye dönük tahminlerdeki belirsizlikleri belli oranda ortadan kaldırabilecek geçmişe dönük veriler yardımıyla istatistiksel analizleri ger

  17. Seasonal Variation of Total Mercury Burden in the American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Dorsey, Jonathan E.; Long, Stephen E.; Schock, Tracey B.; Bowden, John A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation of mercury (Hg) is not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations with great accuracy and correlates to environment impact. However, monitoring these trends in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, bacterial composition) that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms. Here, we utilized an abundant and healthy population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, and assessed Hg burden in whole blood samples over a span of 7 years (2007 2014; n 174) in an effort to assess seasonal variation of total [Hg]. While the majority of this population is assumed healthy, 18 individuals with low body mass indices (BMI, defined in this study) were captured throughout the 7 year sampling period. These individual alligators exhibited [Hg] that were not consistent with the observed overall seasonal [Hg] variation, and were statistically different from the healthy population of alligators. The alligators with low BMI had elevated concentrations of Hg compared to their age/sex/season matched counterparts with normal BMI. Statistically significant differences were found between the winter and spring seasons for animals with normal BMI. The data in this report supports the conclusion that organismal total [Hg] do fluctuate directly with seasonal deposition rates as well as other seasonal environmental parameters, such as average rainfall and prevailing wind direction. This study highlights the unique environment of MINWR to permit annual assessment of apex predators, such as the American alligator, to determine detailed environmental impact of contaminants of concern.

  18. How the 2008 stock market crash and seasons affect total and cardiac deaths in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan Glen; Pezzullo, John Christopher; McDonald, Scott Andrew; Poole, William Kenneth; Kloner, Robert Alan

    2012-05-15

    Various stressors trigger cardiac death. The objective was to investigate a possible relation between a stock market crash and cardiac death in a large population within the United States. We obtained daily stock market data (Dow Jones Industrial Average Index), death certificate data for daily deaths in Los Angeles County (LA), and annual LA population estimates for 2005 through 2008. The 4 years death rate curves (2005 through 2008) were averaged into a single curve to illustrate annual trends. Data were "deseasonalized" by subtracting from the daily observed value the average value for that day of year. There was marked seasonal variation in total and cardiac death rates. Even in the mild LA climate, death rates were higher in winter versus summer including total death (+17%), circulatory death (+24%), coronary heart disease death (+28%), and myocardial infarction death (+38%) rates (p stock market crash in October 2008 did not affect death rates in LA. Death rates remained at or below seasonal averages during the stock market crash. In conclusion, after correcting for seasonal variation, the stock market crash in October 2008 was not associated with an increase in total or cardiac death in LA. Annual coronary heart disease death rates continue to decrease. However, seasonal variation (specifically winter) remains a trigger for death and coronary heart disease death even in LA where winters are mild. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ideas of Kindergarten Students on the Day-Night Cycles, the Seasons and the Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Bostan, Ayberk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine ideas of the kindergarten students on day-night, seasons, and the phases of the Moon. Although there are lots of studies on kindergarten students about science education, few of them are present on astronomy. Fifty-two students (age 6) from four different kindergartens were chosen as a sample of the study. The…

  20. Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian

    2017-02-22

    Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.

  1. Seasonal and diurnal variation in concentrations of gaseous and particulate phase endosulfan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xianyu; Song, Jing; Sui, Hongqi; Huang, Lei; Li, Lu

    2012-12-01

    Successive 52-week air monitoring of α-endosulfan (α-E), β-endosulfan (β-E) and endosulfan sulfate (E.S) in the gaseous and particulate phases was conducted in Dalian city, northeast China by using an active high-volume sampler. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations in endosulfan concentrations were observed. It was found that the concentration of gaseous-phase α-E peaked in the summer and the concentration of particulate phase α-E peaked in the winter. For E.S, both gaseous and particulate phase concentrations peaked in the summer. α-E was distributed predominantly in the gas phase in the summer but was distributed mainly in the particulate phase in the winter. β-E was distributed mainly in the gas phase in the summer and in the particulate phase at other times of the year. E.S was distributed mainly in the particulate phase throughout the year. Elevated temperatures facilitated the volatilization of α-E from particle surfaces but exerted little effect on β-E and had almost no effect on E.S. Trajectory-based analysis indicates that the seasonal variation in atmospheric concentrations of endosulfan in Dalian city was influenced strongly by the land and sea air masses. In addition, differences in endosulfan concentrations in the particulate phase between day and night were likely due to the circulation of sea/land breezes. The 'cold-condensation' effect occurring during the night may result in the attachment of endosulfan to the particulate phase.

  2. Identification of symmetric and asymmetric responses in seasonal streamflow globally to ENSO phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Ward, Philip J.; Block, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has large-ranging effects on streamflow and hydrologic conditions globally. While many studies have evaluated this relationship through correlation analysis between annual streamflow and ENSO indices, an assessment of potential asymmetric relationships between ENSO and streamflow is lacking. Here, we evaluate seasonal variations in streamflow by ENSO phase to identify asymmetric (AR) and symmetric (SR) spatial pattern responses globally and further corroborate with local precipitation and hydrological condition. The AR and SR patterns between seasonal precipitation and streamflow are identified at many locations for the first time. Our results identify strong SR patterns in particular regions including northwestern and southern US, northeastern and southeastern South America, northeastern and southern Africa, southwestern Europe, and central-south Russia. The seasonally lagged anomalous streamflow patterns are also identified and attributed to snowmelt, soil moisture, and/or cumulative hydrological processes across river basins. These findings may be useful in water resources management and natural hazards planning by better characterizing the propensity of flood or drought conditions by ENSO phase.

  3. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM)is an important parameter for determining the water quality in coastal regions as it is responsible for the reduction in the light available to the aquatic vegetation which subsequently alters the health and quality...

  4. Monitoring Training Load and Well-Being During the In-Season Phase in NCAA Division I Men's Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Daniele; Kolb, Nicholas; Scanlan, Aaron T; Santolamazza, Fabrizio

    2018-02-12

    this study aimed to characterize the weekly training load (TL) and well-being in college basketball players during the in-season phase. Ten (6 guards and 4 forwards) male basketball players (age: 20.9 ± 0.9 years; stature: 195.0 ± 8.2 cm; body mass: 91.3 ± 11.3 kg) from the same Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association team were recruited to participate in this study. Individualized training and game loads were assessed using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) at the end of each training and game session, while well-being status was collected before each session. Weekly changes (%) in TL, acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and well-being were determined. Differences in TL and well-being between starting and bench players and between 1-game and 2-game weeks were calculated using magnitude-based statistics. Total weekly TL and ACWR demonstrated high week-to-week variation with spikes up to 226% and 220%, respectively. Starting players experienced a higher (most likely negative) total weekly TL and similar (unclear) well-being status compared to bench players. Game scheduling influenced TL with 1-game weeks demonstrating a higher (likely negative) total weekly TL and similar (most likely trivial) well-being status compared to 2-game weeks. These findings provide college basketball coaches information to optimize training strategies during the in-season phase. Basketball coaches should concurrently consider the number of weekly games and player status (starting vs. bench player) when creating individualized periodization plans, with increases in TL potentially needed in bench players, especially in 2-game weeks.

  5. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  6. Seasonal variations of total {sup 234}Th and dissolved {sup 238}U concentration activities in surface water of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, from March to October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Flavia V.; Oliveira, Joselene de; Costa, Alice M.R., E-mail: fvlapa@ipen.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br, E-mail: lice_mrc@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 234}Th and {sup 238}U were used to investigate the magnitude of upper ocean particulate organic carbon export in Bransfield Strait, Southern Ocean. This region is the largest oceanic high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area in the world and is known to contribute to regulate of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} via the biological pump. Due to its different geochemical behavior in seawater, the resulting U/Th disequilibria can be easily used to constrain the transport rates of particles and reaction processes between solution and particulate phases. Sampling occurred during the summer (March and November) 2011. Total {sup 234}Th activities in surface seawater samples ranged from 1.3 to 3.7 dpm L{sup -1} (station EB 011) during March/11 campaign, while in October/11 total {sup 234}Th activity concentrations varied from 1.4 to 2.9 dpm L{sup -1}. Highest total {sup 234}Th activities were found late in the austral summer season. Activity concentrations of dissolved {sup 238}U in surface seawater varied from 2.1 to 2.4 dpm L{sup -1}. Taking into account all sampling stations established in March and October/11 the relative variability of total {sup 234}Th distribution was 22%. (author)

  7. Seasonal variations of total 234Th and dissolved 238U concentration activities in surface water of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, from March to October 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Flavia V.; Oliveira, Joselene de; Costa, Alice M.R.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study the naturally occurring radionuclides 234 Th and 238 U were used to investigate the magnitude of upper ocean particulate organic carbon export in Bransfield Strait, Southern Ocean. This region is the largest oceanic high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area in the world and is known to contribute to regulate of the atmospheric CO 2 via the biological pump. Due to its different geochemical behavior in seawater, the resulting U/Th disequilibria can be easily used to constrain the transport rates of particles and reaction processes between solution and particulate phases. Sampling occurred during the summer (March and November) 2011. Total 234 Th activities in surface seawater samples ranged from 1.3 to 3.7 dpm L -1 (station EB 011) during March/11 campaign, while in October/11 total 234 Th activity concentrations varied from 1.4 to 2.9 dpm L -1 . Highest total 234 Th activities were found late in the austral summer season. Activity concentrations of dissolved 238 U in surface seawater varied from 2.1 to 2.4 dpm L -1 . Taking into account all sampling stations established in March and October/11 the relative variability of total 234 Th distribution was 22%. (author)

  8. [Distributions and seasonal variations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu-Hong; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Jin-E; Du, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, De-Di

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs) were measured by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). Two cruises were carried out in the river, estuary, coastal area and groundwater of eastern Hainan in December 2006 and August 2007. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in December 2006 were 4.0-9.4, 1.3-13.3, 13.3-17.3 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in August 2007 were 1.6-15.5, 2.4-15.9, 10.8-17.6 nmol x L(-1), respectively. There was no significantly seasonal variation of TDIAs in the rivers and estuaries during the dry and wet seasons. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentration of TDIAs in the Eastern Hainan remained at pristine levels. TDIAs showed conservatively mixing in the both estuaries. The concentration of TDIAs of groundwater was below detection limit (BDL)-41.7 nmol x L(-1). The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal area was estimated in the drainage basin of Wenchang/Wenjiao river based on the average concentration of TDIAs in the groundwater and SGD water discharge, with the value of 1 153 mol x a(-1). Budget estimation indicated that the SGD discharge is one of the important sources of arsenic in the coastal area.

  9. Total IgE and eotaxin (CCL11) contents in tears of patients suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Simone; Berguiga, Marouen; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Guex-Crosier, Catherine; Guex-Crosier, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To prospectively investigate patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) during the pollen season and test associations between tears total IgE, eotaxin concentrations, and SAC severity. Enrolled patients presented ocular symptoms and clinical signs of SAC at the time of presentation. Ocular itching, hyperaemia, chemosis, eyelid swelling, and tearing were scored, and the sum of these scores was defined as the clinical score. Conjunctival papillae were separately graded. We measured eotaxin concentration in tears by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total tear IgE by Lacrytest strip. Among thirty patients (30 eyes), 11 showed neither tear IgE nor tear eotaxin, while 15 out of 19 patients with positive IgE values presented a positive amount of eotaxin in their tears (Fisher's test: p tear IgE, we observed a lower conjunctival papilla grade than in patients whose tears contained some amount of IgE (trend test: p = 0.032). In the 15 patients whose tear eotaxin concentration was null, tear IgE concentration was 5.3 ± 3.5 arbitrary units; in the other 15 patients whose eotaxin was positive, IgE reached 21 ± 4.3 arbitrary U (Mann-Whitney: p tear IgE concentrations of both groups did not differ statistically significantly (p = 0.947). If IgE and eotaxin secreted in tears are major contributors in SAC pathogenesis, they however act at different steps of the process.

  10. Controlling total spot power from holographic laser by superimposing a binary phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Gan, Yu; Wu, Liying

    2011-04-25

    By superimposing a tunable binary phase grating with a conventional computer-generated hologram, the total power of multiple holographic 3D spots can be easily controlled by changing the phase depth of grating with high accuracy to a random power value for real-time optical manipulation without extra power loss. Simulation and experiment results indicate that a resolution of 0.002 can be achieved at a lower time cost for normalized total spot power.

  11. Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP, Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples′ turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.

  12. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  13. Lunar phase does not influence perioperative complications in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklscherer, Andreas; Angermann, Alexander; Weber, Patrick; Wegener, Bernd; Pietschmann, Matthias; Müller, Peter

    2012-02-29

    Lunar calendars, publishing recommendations for daily life, are gaining more and more attention in Germany, where 10.5% of the population believe in lunar effects on disease. A widespread and often heard belief is that a full moon has the most negative effects on surgical outcome. The present study evaluates the effects of lunar phase on perioperative complications in total hip arthroplasty. We performed a retrospective study with 305 patients being provided with a primary hip arthroplasty. To identify possible influences of the lunar phase on perioperative complications we investigated data such as operation length, blood loss and course of C-reactive protein that were collected during the patients' stay in the hospital and allocated them to moon illumination. There were no significant differences in all collected data concerning the lunar phase (p > 0.05). Although not statistically significant, there were fewer operations during the full moon phase. Therefore there is no evidence that lunar phase has an effect on perioperative complications in total hip arthroplasty. Fewer, though not significantly fewer, operations were performed during the full moon phase. Although this was not a prospective randomized trial, the statistical magnitude of the results does not support any recommendations for scheduling patients for total hip arthroplasty at any particular day of the lunar phase.

  14. Analysis of warm season thunderstorms using an object-oriented tracking method based on radar and total lightning data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rigo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring thunderstorms activity is an essential part of operational weather surveillance given their potential hazards, including lightning, hail, heavy rainfall, strong winds or even tornadoes. This study has two main objectives: firstly, the description of a methodology, based on radar and total lightning data to characterise thunderstorms in real-time; secondly, the application of this methodology to 66 thunderstorms that affected Catalonia (NE Spain in the summer of 2006. An object-oriented tracking procedure is employed, where different observation data types generate four different types of objects (radar 1-km CAPPI reflectivity composites, radar reflectivity volumetric data, cloud-to-ground lightning data and intra-cloud lightning data. In the framework proposed, these objects are the building blocks of a higher level object, the thunderstorm.

    The methodology is demonstrated with a dataset of thunderstorms whose main characteristics, along the complete life cycle of the convective structures (development, maturity and dissipation, are described statistically. The development and dissipation stages present similar durations in most cases examined. On the contrary, the duration of the maturity phase is much more variable and related to the thunderstorm intensity, defined here in terms of lightning flash rate. Most of the activity of IC and CG flashes is registered in the maturity stage. In the development stage little CG flashes are observed (2% to 5%, while for the dissipation phase is possible to observe a few more CG flashes (10% to 15%. Additionally, a selection of thunderstorms is used to examine general life cycle patterns, obtained from the analysis of normalized (with respect to thunderstorm total duration and maximum value of variables considered thunderstorm parameters. Among other findings, the study indicates that the normalized duration of the three stages of thunderstorm life cycle is similar in most thunderstorms

  15. Analysis of warm season thunderstorms using an object-oriented tracking method based on radar and total lightning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, T.; Pineda, N.; Bech, J.

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring thunderstorms activity is an essential part of operational weather surveillance given their potential hazards, including lightning, hail, heavy rainfall, strong winds or even tornadoes. This study has two main objectives: firstly, the description of a methodology, based on radar and total lightning data to characterise thunderstorms in real-time; secondly, the application of this methodology to 66 thunderstorms that affected Catalonia (NE Spain) in the summer of 2006. An object-oriented tracking procedure is employed, where different observation data types generate four different types of objects (radar 1-km CAPPI reflectivity composites, radar reflectivity volumetric data, cloud-to-ground lightning data and intra-cloud lightning data). In the framework proposed, these objects are the building blocks of a higher level object, the thunderstorm. The methodology is demonstrated with a dataset of thunderstorms whose main characteristics, along the complete life cycle of the convective structures (development, maturity and dissipation), are described statistically. The development and dissipation stages present similar durations in most cases examined. On the contrary, the duration of the maturity phase is much more variable and related to the thunderstorm intensity, defined here in terms of lightning flash rate. Most of the activity of IC and CG flashes is registered in the maturity stage. In the development stage little CG flashes are observed (2% to 5%), while for the dissipation phase is possible to observe a few more CG flashes (10% to 15%). Additionally, a selection of thunderstorms is used to examine general life cycle patterns, obtained from the analysis of normalized (with respect to thunderstorm total duration and maximum value of variables considered) thunderstorm parameters. Among other findings, the study indicates that the normalized duration of the three stages of thunderstorm life cycle is similar in most thunderstorms, with the longest

  16. Phase Transitions in Definite Total Spin States of Two-Component Fermi Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A

    2017-05-19

    Second-order phase transitions have no latent heat and are characterized by a change in symmetry. In addition to the conventional symmetric and antisymmetric states under permutations of bosons and fermions, mathematical group-representation theory allows for non-Abelian permutation symmetry. Such symmetry can be hidden in states with defined total spins of spinor gases, which can be formed in optical cavities. The present work shows that the symmetry reveals itself in spin-independent or coordinate-independent properties of these gases, namely as non-Abelian entropy in thermodynamic properties. In weakly interacting Fermi gases, two phases appear associated with fermionic and non-Abelian symmetry under permutations of particle states, respectively. The second-order transitions between the phases are characterized by discontinuities in specific heat. Unlike other phase transitions, the present ones are not caused by interactions and can appear even in ideal gases. Similar effects in Bose gases and strong interactions are discussed.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Variability of the Phase of Total Ozone Quasi-Decennial Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visheratin, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    The SBUV/SBUV2 (65° S-65° N) and Bodeker Scientific (90° S-90° N) satellite databases have been used for composite and cross-wavelet analyses of the spatio-temporal variability of phase relations between a 11-year cycle of solar activity (SA) and quasi-decennial oscillations (QDOs) of total ozone content (TOC). For globally average TOC values, the QDO maxima coincide in phase with the solar-activity maxima, and amplitude variations of TOC correlate with those of the 11-year solar cycle. According to the analysis of amplitude and phase of QDOs for the zonal average TOC fields, a QDO amplitude is about 6-7 Dobson Units (DU) in the high northern and southern latitudes, and it does not exceed 2-3 DU in the tropic regions. The latitudinal TOC variations are distinguished by a delay of the quasi-decennial oscillation phase in the southern latitudes in comparison with the northern latitudes. The TOC maxima phase coincides with the SA maxima phase in the tropic regions; the TOC variations go ahead of the SA variations, on average, in moderate and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere; the TOC variations are behind the SA variations in the Southern Hemisphere. The phase delay between TOC QDO maxima in the northern and southern latitudes appears to increase in the course of time, and the TOC quasi-decennial variations in the Arctic and Antarctic subpolar regions occur approximately in an antiphase over the last two decades.

  18. Australia’s seasonal worker pilot scheme for Pacific Islanders—Ideas for the Next Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Stephan, Carly; Lee, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In August 2008, the Australian Government initiated a seasonal worker pilot scheme for Pacific Islanders to examine whether a seasonal worker program could contribute to the Pacific region economic development objectives and also assist Australian employers.Even in a contracting Australian econom...

  19. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    carried out in late winter 1996 under ideal viewing conditions yielded only two caribou on Somerset Island and none on Prince of Wales Island or Russell Island (Miller, 1997. In 2004, a combination aerial and ground survey of caribou by the Nunavut Wildlife Service, using a helicopter and snowmobile-mounted Inuit observers, failed to find even one caribou or any recent sign of caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands (Gunn et al., 2006. Gunn et al. (2006 found no evidence that an absolute shortage of forage, relative unavailability of forage due to extreme snow and ice conditions, intraspecific competition with muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus, large-scale emigration, widespread disease, or heavy parasite burdens played a major role in the near-total loss of caribou on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands. They did, however, conclude that both wolf (Canis lupus predation and hunting on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands most likely contributed to and deepened the final stage of the decline. The role of annual seasonal migration between the islands and Boothia Peninsula was not considered by Gunn et al. (2006. Therefore, we investigated how annual seasonal migration of the Arctic-island caribou ecotype from Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands to Boothia Peninsula could have played the major role by providing a yearly ongoing supply of caribou “recruits” on Boothia Peninsula to buffer the heavy annual harvest of caribou there. We carried out a series of multiple analyses of required population structure, required proportion of females producing calves, required proportion of calves surviving to yearlings, allowable annual harvest, and resultant annual harvest shortfall (the number of caribou lost annually at the estimated level of annual harvest or the number of additional caribou required annually from beyond Boothia Peninsula to sustain the annual harvest in relation to the required size of the 1985 caribou population on Boothia

  20. Total robotic radical rectal resection with da Vinci Xi system: single docking, single phase technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Anup Sunil; Jatal, Sudhir; Saklani, Avanish

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to assess the advantages of Da Vinci Xi system in rectal cancer surgery. It also assesses the initial oncological outcomes after rectal resection with this system from a tertiary cancer center in India. Robotic rectal surgery has distinct advantages over laparoscopy. Total robotic resection is increasing following the evolution of hybrid technology. The latest Da Vinci Xi system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, USA) is enabled with newer features to make total robotic resection possible with single docking and single phase. Thirty-six patients underwent total robotic resection in a single phase and single docking. We used newer port positions in a straight line. Median distance from the anal verge was 4.5 cm. Median robotic docking time and robotic procedure time were 9 and 280 min, respectively. Median blood loss was 100 mL. One patient needed conversion to an open approach due to advanced disease. Circumferential resection margin and longitudinal resection margins were uninvolved in all other patients. Median lymph node yield was 10. Median post-operative stay was 7 days. There were no intra-operative adverse events. The latest Da Vinci Xi system has made total robotic rectal surgery feasible in single docking and single phase. With the new system, four arm total robotic rectal surgery may replace the hybrid technique of laparoscopic and robotic surgery for rectal malignancies. The learning curve for the new system appears to be shorter than anticipated. Early perioperative and oncological outcomes of total robotic rectal surgery with the new system are promising. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Davidson; A.D. Richardson; K.E. Savage; D.Y. Hollinger

    2006-01-01

    Annual budgets and fitted temperature response curves for soil respiration and ecosystem respiration provide useful information for partitioning annual carbon budgets of ecosystems, but they may not adequately reveal seasonal variation in the ratios of these two fluxes. Soil respiration (Rs) typically contributes 30-80% of...

  2. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  3. The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME): Phase-1 Seasonal to Interannual Prediction, Phase-2 Toward Developing Intra-Seasonal Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P.; Min, Dughong; Infanti, Johnna M.; Kinter, James L., III; Paolino, Daniel A.; Zhang, Qin; vandenDool, Huug; Saha, Suranjana; Mendez, Malaquias Pena; Becker, Emily; hide

    2013-01-01

    The recent US National Academies report "Assessment of Intraseasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction and Predictability" was unequivocal in recommending the need for the development of a North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) operational predictive capability. Indeed, this effort is required to meet the specific tailored regional prediction and decision support needs of a large community of climate information users. The multi-model ensemble approach has proven extremely effective at quantifying prediction uncertainty due to uncertainty in model formulation, and has proven to produce better prediction quality (on average) then any single model ensemble. This multi-model approach is the basis for several international collaborative prediction research efforts, an operational European system and there are numerous examples of how this multi-model ensemble approach yields superior forecasts compared to any single model. Based on two NOAA Climate Test Bed (CTB) NMME workshops (February 18, and April 8, 2011) a collaborative and coordinated implementation strategy for a NMME prediction system has been developed and is currently delivering real-time seasonal-to-interannual predictions on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) operational schedule. The hindcast and real-time prediction data is readily available (e.g., http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.Models/.NMME/) and in graphical format from CPC (http://origin.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/people/wd51yf/NMME/index.html). Moreover, the NMME forecast are already currently being used as guidance for operational forecasters. This paper describes the new NMME effort, presents an overview of the multi-model forecast quality, and the complementary skill associated with individual models.

  4. Laser induced ultrasonic phased array using full matrix capture data acquisition and total focusing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratoudaki, Theodosia; Clark, Matt; Wilcox, Paul D

    2016-09-19

    Laser ultrasonics is a technique where lasers are employed to generate and detect ultrasound. A data collection method (full matrix capture) and a post processing imaging algorithm, the total focusing method, both developed for ultrasonic arrays, are modified and used in order to enhance the capabilities of laser ultrasonics for nondestructive testing by improving defect detectability and increasing spatial resolution. In this way, a laser induced ultrasonic phased array is synthesized. A model is developed and compared with experimental results from aluminum samples with side drilled holes and slots at depths of 5 - 20 mm from the surface.

  5. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  6. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured

  8. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  9. Three-phase bone scan pattern in asymptomatic uncemented total knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubello, D. [Nuclear Medicine-PET Center, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Caricasulo, D. [Orthopaedics Dept., General Hospital of Bassano del Grappa (Italy); Borsato, N. [Nuclear Medicine-PET Center, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Chierichetti, F. [Nuclear Medicine-PET Center, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Zanco, P. [Nuclear Medicine-PET Center, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Ferlin, G. [Nuclear Medicine-PET Center, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    In this study we investigated the bone scan pattern in a homogeneous group of asymptomatic patients implanted with the same type of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Twenty-nine patients (21 females, 8 males, mean age 62 years), with a total of 30 uncemented Hofmann TKAs, were entered in the study. The time interval from surgery to scintigraphic evaluation ranged from 2 to 4 years. Bone scan was performed using the three-phase technique and images were interpreted by visual analysis using a three-point scale for the dynamic and blood pool phases and a five-point scale for the bone phase. Areas of increased periprosthetic technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake were observed until 4 years after surgery. However, comparing the TKAs implanted 2, 3 and 4 years previously, a decreasing pattern in tracer uptake intensity was noted this being more evident in the femoral and lateral tibial components. In some cases, a persistently elevated tracer uptake, not exceeding a moderate grade, was found in the medial tibial component. In conclusion, increased periprosthetic {sup 99m}TC-MDP uptake is a common finding in asymptomatic uncemented Hofmann TKAs for a prolonged period after surgery, but the uptake intensity is generally mild or moderate and shows a characteristic decreasing pattern over time. Furthermore, in contrast with other types of asymptomatic knee implants previously investigated, no case of high or very high bone uptake was recorded with this type of implant. We may speculate that scintigraphic parameters of normality, and pathology, should be determined for each type of TKA. It is likely that, with the uncemented Hofmann TKA, a high or very high tracer uptake or a progressive increase in the uptake intensity is suggestive of the presence of complications. (orig.)

  10. Three-phase bone scan pattern in asymptomatic uncemented total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubello, D.; Caricasulo, D.; Borsato, N.; Chierichetti, F.; Zanco, P.; Ferlin, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we investigated the bone scan pattern in a homogeneous group of asymptomatic patients implanted with the same type of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Twenty-nine patients (21 females, 8 males, mean age 62 years), with a total of 30 uncemented Hofmann TKAs, were entered in the study. The time interval from surgery to scintigraphic evaluation ranged from 2 to 4 years. Bone scan was performed using the three-phase technique and images were interpreted by visual analysis using a three-point scale for the dynamic and blood pool phases and a five-point scale for the bone phase. Areas of increased periprosthetic technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake were observed until 4 years after surgery. However, comparing the TKAs implanted 2, 3 and 4 years previously, a decreasing pattern in tracer uptake intensity was noted this being more evident in the femoral and lateral tibial components. In some cases, a persistently elevated tracer uptake, not exceeding a moderate grade, was found in the medial tibial component. In conclusion, increased periprosthetic 99m TC-MDP uptake is a common finding in asymptomatic uncemented Hofmann TKAs for a prolonged period after surgery, but the uptake intensity is generally mild or moderate and shows a characteristic decreasing pattern over time. Furthermore, in contrast with other types of asymptomatic knee implants previously investigated, no case of high or very high bone uptake was recorded with this type of implant. We may speculate that scintigraphic parameters of normality, and pathology, should be determined for each type of TKA. It is likely that, with the uncemented Hofmann TKA, a high or very high tracer uptake or a progressive increase in the uptake intensity is suggestive of the presence of complications. (orig.)

  11. Self-Reported Wellness Profiles of Professional Australian Football Players During the Competition Phase of the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2017-02-01

    Gallo, TF, Cormack, SJ, Gabbett, TJ, and Lorenzen, CH. Self-reported wellness profiles of professional Australian football players during the competition phase of the season. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 495-502, 2017-With the prevalence of customized self-report measures in high-performance sport, and the incomplete understanding of athletes' perceived wellness in response to matches and training load, the objective of this study was to explore weekly wellness profiles within the context of the competitive season of professional Australian football. Internal match load, measured through the session-rating of perceived exertion method, match-to-match microcycle, stage of the season, and training load were included in multivariate linear models to determine their effect on weekly wellness profile (n = 1,835). There was a lower weekly training load on a 6-day microcycle compared with a 7-day and 8-day microcycle. Match load had no significant impact on weekly wellness profile, while there was an interaction between microcycle and days postmatch. There was a likely moderately lower wellness Z-score 1 day postmatch for an 8-day microcycle (mean; 95% confidence interval: -1.79; -2.02 to -1.56) compared with a 6-day (-1.19; -1.30 to -1.08) and 7-day (-1.22; -1.34 to -1.09) cycle (d; 95% confidence interval: -0.82; -1.3 to -0.36, -0.78; -1.3 to -0.28, respectively). The second half of the season saw a possibly small reduction in overall wellness Z-score than the first half of the season (0.22; 0.12-0.32). Finally, training load had no effect on wellness Z-score when controlled for days postmatch, microcycle, and stage of the season. These results provide information on the status of players in response to matches and fixed conditions. Knowing when wellness Z-score returns to baseline relative to the length of the microcycle may lead practitioners to prescribe the heaviest load of the week accordingly. Furthermore, wellness "red flags" should be made relative to the

  12. Ecohydrology in Mediterranean areas: a numerical model to describe growing seasons out of phase with precipitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pumo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic description of soil moisture dynamics is a relatively new topic in hydrology. The most common ecohydrological models start from a stochastic differential equation describing the soil water balance, where the unknown quantity, the soil moisture, depends both on spaces and time. Most of the solutions existing in literature are obtained in a probabilistic framework and under steady-state condition; even if this last condition allows the analytical handling of the problem, it has considerably simplified the same problem by subtracting generalities from it.

    The steady-state hypothesis, appears perfectly applicable in arid and semiarid climatic areas like those of African's or middle American's savannas, but it seems to be no more valid in areas with Mediterranean climate, where, notoriously, the wet season foregoes the growing season, recharging water into the soil. This moisture stored at the beginning of the growing season (known as soil moisture initial condition has a great importance, especially for deep-rooted vegetation, by enabling survival in absence of rainfalls during the growing season and, however, keeping the water stress low during the first period of the same season.

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the soil moisture dynamics using a simple non-steady numerical ecohydrological model. The numerical model here proposed is able to reproduce soil moisture probability density function, obtained analytically in previous studies for different climates and soils in steady-state conditions; consequently it can be used to compute both the soil moisture time-profile and the vegetation static water stress time-profile in non-steady conditions.

    Here the differences between the steady-analytical and the non-steady numerical probability density functions are analyzed, showing how the proposed numerical model is able to capture the effects of winter recharge on the soil moisture. The dynamic

  13. DNA priming for seasonal influenza vaccine: a phase 1b double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Ledgerwood

    Full Text Available The efficacy of current influenza vaccines is limited in vulnerable populations. DNA vaccines can be produced rapidly, and may offer a potential strategy to improve vaccine immunogenicity, indicated by studies with H5 influenza DNA vaccine prime followed by inactivated vaccine boost.Four sites enrolled healthy adults, randomized to receive 2011/12 seasonal influenza DNA vaccine prime (n=65 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS (n=66 administered intramuscularly with Biojector. All subjects received the 2012/13 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent (IIV3 36 weeks after the priming injection. Vaccine safety and tolerability was the primary objective and measurement of antibody response by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI was the secondary objective.The DNA vaccine prime-IIV3 boost regimen was safe and well tolerated. Significant differences in HAI responses between the DNA vaccine prime and the PBS prime groups were not detected in this study.While DNA priming significantly improved the response to a conventional monovalent H5 vaccine in a previous study, it was not effective in adults using seasonal influenza strains, possibly due to pre-existing immunity to the prime, unmatched prime and boost antigens, or the lengthy 36 week boost interval. Careful optimization of the DNA prime-IIV3 boost regimen as related to antigen matching, interval between vaccinations, and pre-existing immune responses to influenza is likely to be needed in further evaluations of this vaccine strategy. In particular, testing this concept in younger age groups with less prior exposure to seasonal influenza strains may be informative.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01498718.

  14. Recent Developments in Solid-Phase Extraction for Near and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Huck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review with more than 100 references on the principles and recent developments in the solid-phase extraction (SPE prior and for in situ near and attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared spectroscopic analysis is presented. New materials, chromatographic modalities, experimental setups and configurations are described. Their advantages for fast sample preparation for distinct classes of compounds containing different functional groups in order to enhance selectivity and sensitivity are discussed and compared. This is the first review highlighting both the fundamentals of SPE, near and ATR spectroscopy with a view to real sample applicability and routine analysis. Most of real sample analyses examples are found in environmental research, followed by food- and bioanalysis. In this contribution a comprehensive overview of the most potent SPE-NIR and SPE-ATR approaches is summarized and provided.

  15. Relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculation of total muon capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketin, T.; Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of total muon capture rates on a large set of nuclei from 12 C to 244 Pu, for which experimental values are available. The microscopic theoretical framework is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model for the nuclear ground state, and transitions to excited states are calculated using the pn-RQRPA. The calculation is fully consistent, i.e., the same interactions are used both in the RHB equations that determine the quasiparticle basis, and in the matrix equations of the pn-RQRPA. The calculated capture rates are sensitive to the in-medium quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant. By reducing this constant from its free-nucleon value g A =1.262 by 10% for all multipole transitions, the calculation reproduces the experimental muon capture rates to better than 10% accuracy.

  16. Seasonal variation of total particulate matter and children respiratory diseases at Lisbon primary schools using passive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canha, N.; Almeida, M.; Do Carmo Freitas, M.; Almeida, S.M.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, 14 primary schools of Lisbon city, Portugal, followed a questionnaire of the ISAAC - International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program, in 2009/2010. The questionnaire contained questions to identify children with respiratory diseases (wheeze, asthma and rhinitis). Total

  17. Seasonal variations of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals under tropical conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Trindade, H.A.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Londres, H.; Oliveira, A.E.

    The total suspended particle (TSP) and heavy metal concentrations are studied in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1974 until 1981. The principal aims are to determine how these things vary in two different areas and how meteorological parameters responsible for the transport and dilution of atmospheric pollutants affect these areas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Development and evaluation of a magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay for total human thyroxine (T4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Abdalla, O. M.; Zahran, A. B.; Shabbo, N. M.; Ali, N. I.; Gubara, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this study a simple and rapid magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human thyroxine (T4) was developed using locally raised sheep thyroxine antibody and radioiodinated thyroxine (T4) tracer by chloramine-T method. The assay involves two hours incubation at ambient temperature rang (30 to 35 o C ) associated with the antibody covalently linked by the easily performed carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) method to magnetic particles obtained from SIPAC. 0.1% triton with sodium azide used as a wash buffer. L-Thyroxine Na-salt peta hydrate from sigma was used for the preparation of standards and quality control sera. The coupled magnetic anti-T4 solid phase titrated in order to find out the suitable antibody concentration (titre) to be used in the assay. Optimizations followed by validation procedures were done. When correlated with kits imported from NETRIA and AMERSHAM, results were found to be highly comparable r=0.965 and p<0.05. Shelf life was also studied, so that the local prepared T4 RIA magnetic reagents can be used for the measurement of total human thyroxine with a very low cost compared to imported kits. (Author)

  19. Seasonal determination of trace and ultra-trace content in Macrocystis pyrifera from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Vanesa N.; Riera, Marina; Cerchietti, Luciana; Custo, Graciela; Muniain, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Seaweed have a great capacity to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues. The chemical characterization of seaweed is important due to their use in environmental monitoring and human or animal food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the multi-elemental composition of seaweed from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). The elements As, Br, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn were seasonally analyzed and quantified in blades of Macrocystis pyrifera. TXRF showed to be a suitable technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis in this kind of samples. The results revealed seasonal variations in the chemical content for some elements; arsenic content was maximum in summer and autumn, iron concentration increased to the winter and zinc concentration was maximum in autumn. The sum of principal micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Mn + Cu) varied between 114 and 171 mg k- 1 g dw. The total As concentration ranged between 36 and 66 mg kg- 1. Lead, nickel and copper were not detected.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variations of rare earth elements in rainwaters, river waters and total suspended particles in air in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J.S.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.G.; Lee, D.; Chang, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the seasonal and spatial variations of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in natural waters in the central part of South Korea, rain and river waters were collected during 2003-2004. Total suspended particles (TSP) in air were also sampled to investigate the effect of the Asian dust (the Yellow sand) on the chemistry of rainwaters. All samples showed that the absolute concentrations of the light REEs (LREEs) were higher than those of the heavy REEs (HREEs). The post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS)-normalized REE patterns indicate that the REEs in TSP and rainwaters were affected by Asian dust and anthropogenic contaminant, whereas those of river waters were mainly controlled by the geology of their drainage basin and seasonal changes in water regime. The calculated fluxes and yields of total REEs (REEs plus Y) in the South Han River were much greater than those in the North Han River due to the more widespread distribution of sedimentary rocks in the drainage area and more efficient chemical weathering

  1. Malaria prevalence defined by microscopy, antigen detection, DNA amplification and total nucleic acid amplification in a malaria-endemic region during the peak malaria transmission season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitumbi, John N; Gerlach, Jay; Afonina, Irina; Anyona, Samuel B; Koros, Joseph N; Siangla, Joram; Ankoudinova, Irina; Singhal, Mitra; Watts, Kate; Polhemus, Mark E; Vermeulen, Nicolaas M; Mahoney, Walt; Steele, Matt; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2011-07-01

    To determine the malaria prevalence by microscopy, antigen detection and nucleic acid detection in a defined subpopulation in a Plasmodium falciparum-endemic region during the peak transmission season. Blood specimens were collected in a cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-10 years (n = 195) presenting with acute fever to two clinics in Western Kenya. All specimens underwent microscopy, HRP2 and aldolase antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), parasite-specific DNA and total nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) by real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Microscopy detected 65/195 cases of malaria infection [95% confidence interval (CI) 52-78]. HRP2 and aldolase EIA had similar sensitivity levels detecting antigen in 65/195 (95% CI, 52-78) and 57/195 (95% CI, 45-70) cases. Discordants in antigen detection vs. microscopy occurred at Detection of total nucleic acid allowed a 3 log lower limit of detection than just DNA detection by real-time PCR in vitro. In clinical specimens, 114/195 (95% CI, 100-127) were qPCR positive (DNA), and 187/195 (95% CI, 179-191) were qRT-PCR positive (DNA plus RNA). The prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection was significantly higher when detecting total nucleic acid than just DNA in this outpatient population during the high transmission season. Defining standards for submicroscopic infection will be important for control programmes, diagnostics development efforts and molecular epidemiology studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource.Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165.This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance with the testis morphology during these phases. This study will pave

  3. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  4. The arctic seasonal cycle of total column CO2 and CH4 from ground-based solar and lunar FTIR absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buschmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar absorption spectroscopy in the near infrared has been performed in Ny-Ålesund (78.9° N, 11.9° E since 2002; however, due to the high latitude of the site, the sun is below the horizon from October to March (polar night and no solar absorption measurements are possible. Here we present a novel method of retrieving the total column dry-air mole fractions (DMFs of CO2 and CH4 using moonlight in winter. Measurements have been taken during the polar nights from 2012 to 2016 and are validated with TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network measurements by solar and lunar absorption measurements on consecutive days and nights during spring and autumn. The complete seasonal cycle of the DMFs of CO2 and CH4 is presented and a precision of up to 0.5 % is achieved. A comparison of solar and lunar measurements on consecutive days during day and night in March 2013 yields non-significant biases of 0. 66 ± 4. 56 ppm for xCO2 and −1. 94 ± 20. 63 ppb for xCH4. Additionally a model comparison has been performed with data from various reanalysis models.

  5. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  6. Phase-II trial of fractionated total body radiation in bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.; Opelz, G.; Feig, S.

    1979-01-01

    The addition of low doses of fractionated total body irradiation and a radiosensitizing agent to more conventional doses of total body irradiation was well tolerated but did not improve the antileukemic effect. The DAFT regimen was not associated with a higher incidence of GVHD or interstitial pneumonitis. This observation has led us to consider escalation of the dose of FTBI in our next clinical trial

  7. Landsat-Based Long-Term Monitoring of Total Suspended Matter Concentration Pattern Change in the Wet Season for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhubin Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of environmental change and anthropogenic activities on the historical and current total suspended matter (TSM pattern in Dongting Lake, China, is a large challenge. We addressed this challenge by using more than three decades of Landsat data. Based on in situ measurements, we developed an algorithm based on the near-infrared (NIR band to estimate TSM in Dongting Lake. The algorithm was applied to Landsat images to derive TSM distribution maps from 1978 to 2013 in the wet season, revealing significant inter-annual and spatial variability. The relationship of TSM to water level, precipitation, and wind speed was analyzed, and we found that: (1 sand mining areas usually coincide with regions that have high TSM levels in Dongting Lake; (2 water level and seven-day precipitation were both important to TSM variation, but no significant relationship was found between TSM and wind speed or other meteorological data; (3 the increased level of sand mining in response to rapid economic growth has deeply influenced the TSM pattern since 2000 due to the resuspension of sediment; and (4 TSM variation might be associated with policy changes regarding the management of sand mining; it might also be affected by lower water levels caused by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam since 2000.

  8. Quantitative measurement of total cerebral blood flow using 2D phase-contrast MRI and doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Keum Soo; Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Young Il [Dong-A Univ., College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare of quantitative measurement of the total cerebral blood flow using two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound. In 16 volunteers (mean age, 26 years; mean body weight, 66 kg) without abnormal medical histories, two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging was performed at the level of the C2-3 inter vertebral disc for flow measurement of the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. Volume flow measurements using Doppler ultrasound were also performed at the internal carotid arteries 2cm above the carotid bifurcation, and at the vertebral arteries at the level of the upper pole of the thyroid gland. Flows in the four vessels measured by the two methods were compared using Wilcoxon's correlation analysis and the median score. Total cerebral blood flows were calculated by summing these four vessel flows, and mean values for the 16 volunteers were calculated. Cerebral blood flows measured by 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasounds were 233 and 239 ml/min in the right internal carotid artery, 250 and 248 ml/min in the left internal carotid artery, 62 and 56 ml/min in the right vertebral artery, and 83 and 68 ml/min in the left vertebral artery. Correlation coefficients of the blood flows determined by the two methods were 0.48, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.62 in each vessel, while total cerebral blood flows were 628{+-}68 (range, 517 to 779) ml/min and 612{+-}79 (range, 482 to 804)ml/min, respectively. Total cerebral blood flow was easily measured using 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound, and the two noninvasive methods can therefore be used clinically for the measurement of total cerebral blood flow.

  9. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  10. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  11. Development and validation of a learning progression for change of seasons, solar and lunar eclipses, and moon phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Italo; Galano, Silvia; Leccia, Silvio; Puddu, Emanuella

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report about the development and validation of a learning progression about the Celestial Motion big idea. Existing curricula, research studies on alternative conceptions about these phenomena, and students' answers to an open questionnaire were the starting point to develop initial learning progressions about change of seasons, solar and lunar eclipses, and Moon phases; then, a two-tier multiple choice questionnaire was designed to validate and improve them. The questionnaire was submitted to about 300 secondary students of different school levels (14 to 18 years old). Item response analysis and curve integral method were used to revise the hypothesized learning progressions. Findings support that spatial reasoning is a key cognitive factor for building an explanatory framework for the Celestial Motion big idea, but also suggest that causal reasoning based on physics mechanisms underlying the phenomena, as light flux laws or energy transfers, may significantly impact a students' understanding. As an implication of the study, we propose that the teaching of the three discussed astronomy phenomena should follow a single teaching-learning path along the following sequence: (i) emphasize from the beginning the geometrical aspects of the Sun-Moon-Earth system motion; (ii) clarify consequences of the motion of the Sun-Moon-Earth system, as the changing solar radiation flow on the surface of Earth during the revolution around the Sun; (iii) help students moving between different reference systems (Earth and space observer's perspective) to understand how Earth's rotation and revolution can change the appearance of the Sun and Moon. Instructional and methodological implications are also briefly discussed.

  12. Multivariable polynomial fitting of controlled single-phase nonlinear load of input current total harmonic distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Roman; Markiewicz, Przemysław; Pabjańczyk, Wiesława

    2018-04-01

    The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.

  13. Multivariable polynomial fitting of controlled single-phase nonlinear load of input current total harmonic distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Roman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.

  14. Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

  15. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  16. The use of phase sequence image sets to reconstruct the total volume occupied by a mobile lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Isabelle M.; Robinson, Don M.; Halperin, Ross; Roa, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The use of phase sequence image (PSI) sets to reveal the total volume occupied by a mobile target is presented. Isocontrast composite clinical target volumes (CCTVs) may be constructed from PSI sets in order to reveal the total volume occupied by a mobile target during the course of its travel. The ability of the CCTV technique to properly account for target motion is demonstrated by comparison to contours of the true total volume occupied (TVO) for a number of experimental phantom geometries. Finally, using real patient data, the clinical utility of the CCTV technique to properly account for internal tumor motion while minimizing the volume of healthy lung tissue irradiated is assessed by comparison to the standard approach of applying safety margins. Results of the phantom study reveal that CCTV cross sections constructed at the 20% isocontrast level yield good agreement with the total cross sections (TXO) of mobile targets. These CCTVs conform well to the TVOs of the moving targets examined whereby the addition of small uniform margins ensures complete circumscription of the TVO with the inclusion of minimal amounts of surrounding external volumes. The CCTV technique is seen to be clearly superior to the common practice of the addition of safety margins to individual CTV contours in order to account for internal target motion. Margins required with the CCTV technique are eight to ten times smaller than those required with individual CTVs

  17. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of threecultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. Thecultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments withfour replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 wasfound in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found inGk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantlydifferent, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can beconcluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gkcultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. Atreproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase

  18. Nutritional analysis of dietary intake of professional female volleyball players during the competitive phase of the regular season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mielgo-Ayuso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: nutritional aspects women’s volleyball has been little studied and more in a specific period of training as the competitive period. The aim is to assess and know the caloric and macronutrients intake by professional volleyball players of the Spanish Superliga for 16 weeks of training for the competition phase and compare with the references marked for athlete population.Material and methods: the study included 10 female volleyball players (JVF (26.6±5.9 years and height 178.05±8.7cm, for a total of 16 weeks of training and competition. They all gave written informed consent. They completed a food intake frequency questionary of the 16 week study, data corroborated by a dietary record (CFCA of 7 consecutive days in week 9 and 16. We were calculated daily nutritional intake from CFCA with the food composition table of CESNID by Easy Diet software, the Spanish Association of Dietitians-Nutritionists (AEDN.Results: the energy and nutritional analysis of the female professional volleyball players shows that the amount of energy and macronutrients does not meet to the recommendations for sports collective.Conclusions: it is observed low energy and carbohydrates intake and high intake of protein and lipids. Recommended practical aspects for improving nutrition education in this professional sports group.

  19. Development and Validation of a Learning Progression for Change of Seasons, Solar and Lunar Eclipses, and Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Italo; Galano, Silvia; Leccia, Silvio; Puddu, Emanuella

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report about the development and validation of a learning progression about the Celestial Motion big idea. Existing curricula, research studies on alternative conceptions about these phenomena, and students' answers to an open questionnaire were the starting point to develop initial learning progressions about change of seasons,…

  20. Seasonal and life-phase related differences in growth in Scarus ferrugineus on a southern Red Sea fringing reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeworki, Y.; Videler, J. J.; Berhane, Y. H.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    Temporal trends in growth of the rusty parrotfish Scarus ferrugineus were studied on a southern Red Sea fringing reef that experiences seasonal changes in environmental conditions and benthic algal resources. Length increment data from tagging and recapture were compared among periods and sexes and

  1. Separation of total lipids on human lipoproteins using surfactant-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as pseudostationary phase in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Yen-Yi; Yang, Jian-Ying; Lin, You-Sian; Lin, Yang-Wei; Liu, Mine-Yine

    2014-04-01

    Surfactant-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were used as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in CE to investigate the total lipids of high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins. To optimize the CE conditions, several experimental factors including carbon nanotube concentration, bile salt concentration, sodium phosphate (PB) concentration, organic modifier concentration and buffer pH value have been examined. In addition, the CE capillary temperature and applied voltage have also been examined. The optimal separation buffer selected was a mixture of 3.2 mg/L MWNT, 50 mM bile salt, 10 mM PB, 20% 1-propanol, pH 9.5. The optimal capillary temperature and applied voltage selected were 50°C and 20 kV, respectively. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) has been used as a model analyte and investigated by the optimal CE method. The linear range for PC was 0.1-3 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9934, and the concentration LOD was 0.055 mg/mL. The optimal CE method has been used to characterize the total lipids of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein. At absorbance 200 nm, one major peak and two or three minor peaks showed for the total lipids of lipoproteins within 13 minutes. Resolutions of the total lipids were enhanced using surfactant-coated MWNTs as PSPs in the CE separation buffer. However, resolutions of the total lipids were not enhanced using surfactant-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes as PSPs in the CE separation buffer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Phase I Trial of Gross Total Resection, Permanent Iodine-125 Brachytherapy, and Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chang, Susan; Pouliot, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.; Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Malec, Mary K.; McDermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchell S.; Larson, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: From April 1999 to May 2002, 21 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were enrolled on a Phase I protocol investigating planned gross total resection and immediate placement of permanent I-125 seeds, followed by postoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy at 100 cGy b.i.d., 5 days per week. Median age and Karnofsky performance status were 50 years (range, 32-65 years) and 90 (range, 70-100), respectively. Toxicity was assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: Eighteen patients completed treatment according to protocol. The median preoperative tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging was 18.6 cm 3 (range, 4.4-41.2 cm 3 ). The median brachytherapy dose measured 5 mm radially outward from the resection cavity was 400 Gy (range, 200-600 Gy). Ten patients underwent 12 reoperations, with 11 of 12 reoperations demonstrating necrosis without evidence of tumor. Because of high toxicity, the study was terminated early. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 57 and 114 weeks, respectively, but not significantly improved compared with historical patients treated at University of California, San Francisco, with gross total resection and radiotherapy without brachytherapy. Conclusions: Treatment with gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy as performed in this study results in high toxicity and reoperation rates, without demonstrated improvement in survival

  3. Macroalgae Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima as Potential Biomasses for Biogas and Total Phenolics Production: Focusing on Seasonal and Spatial Variations of the Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Ciofalo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Laminaria digitata (L. digitata) and Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) are the most common species of macroalgae in the north Atlantic and north Pacific. Because of their interesting composition, they have recently attracted attention as useful biomass for various purposes such as for biochemic......Laminaria digitata (L. digitata) and Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) are the most common species of macroalgae in the north Atlantic and north Pacific. Because of their interesting composition, they have recently attracted attention as useful biomass for various purposes...... such as for biochemicals and bioenergy production. Nevertheless their composition varies according to the season and to the local environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study different samples harvested throughout a year and in different locations in Denmark were analyzed. The aim of the study was identifying...

  4. Watershed and discharge influences on the phase distribution and tributary loading of total mercury and methylmercury into Lake Superior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiarz, Christopher; Hoffmann, Stephen; Wieben, Ann; Hurley, James; Andren, Anders; Shafer, Martin; Armstrong, David

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the partitioning and sources of mercury are important to understanding the human impact on mercury levels in Lake Superior wildlife. Fluvial fluxes of total mercury (Hg T ) and methylmercury (MeHg) were compared to discharge and partitioning trends in 20 sub-basins having contrasting land uses and geological substrates. The annual tributary yield was correlated with watershed characteristics and scaled up to estimate the basin-wide loading. Tributaries with clay sediments and agricultural land use had the largest daily yields with maxima observed near the peak in water discharge. Roughly 42% of Hg T and 57% of MeHg was delivered in the colloidal phase. Tributary inputs, which are confined to near-shore zones of the lake, may be more important to the food-web than atmospheric sources. The annual basin-wide loading from tributaries was estimated to be 277 kg yr −1 Hg T and 3.4 kg yr −1 MeHg (5.5 and 0.07 mg km −2 d −1 , respectively). - Highlights: ► The highest mercury yields occurred during spring melt except in forested watersheds. ► Roughly half of the mercury yield occurred in the colloidal phase. ► About 277 kg of Hg T and 3.4 kg of MeHg were delivered annually via tributaries. ► Whole-water MeHg loading was roughly equivalent to the estimated atmospheric loading. ► Watersheds with peat, loam or sandy soils deliver more MeHg than those with clays. - Tributary inputs, which are confined to the near-shore zones of Lake Superior, provide more mercury to these sensitive aquatic habitats than direct atmospheric deposition.

  5. Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K. L. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Parang, M. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Landguth, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coleman, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-09-13

    TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

  6. Comparison of particle image velocimetry and phase contrast MRI in a patient-specific extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Hiroumi D; Sundareswaran, Kartik S; Teisseyre, Thomas Z; Astary, Garrett W; Parks, W James; Skrinjar, Oskar; Oshinski, John N; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2008-08-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) have not been compared in complex biofluid environments. Such analysis is particularly useful to investigate flow structures in the correction of single ventricle congenital heart defects, where fluid dynamic efficiency is essential. A stereolithographic replica of an extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is studied using PIV and PC-MRI in a steady flow loop. Volumetric two-component PIV is compared to volumetric three-component PC-MRI at various flow conditions. Similar flow structures are observed in both PIV and PC-MRI, where smooth flow dominates the extracardiac TCPC, and superior vena cava flow is preferential to the right pulmonary artery, while inferior vena cava flow is preferential to the left pulmonary artery. Where three-component velocity is available in PC-MRI studies, some helical flow in the extracardiac TCPC is observed. Vessel cross sections provide an effective means of validation for both experiments, and velocity magnitudes are of the same order. The results highlight similarities to validate flow in a complex patient-specific extracardiac TCPC. Additional information obtained by velocity in three components further describes the complexity of the flow in anatomic structures.

  7. Human Phase 1 trial of low-dose inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David L; Sajkov, Dimitar; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Wilks, Samuel H; Aban, Malet; Barr, Ian G; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-07-19

    Influenza vaccines are usually non-adjuvanted but addition of adjuvant may improve immunogenicity and permit dose-sparing, critical for vaccine supply in the event of an influenza pandemic. The aim of this first-in-man study was to determine the effect of delta inulin adjuvant on the safety and immunogenicity of a reduced dose seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy male and female adults aged 18-65years were recruited to participate in a randomized controlled study to compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a reduced-dose 2007 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (LTIV+Adj) when compared to a full-dose of the standard TIV vaccine which does not contain an adjuvant. LTIV+Adj provided equivalent immunogenicity to standard TIV vaccine as assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays against each vaccine strain as well as against a number of heterosubtypic strains. HI responses were sustained at 3months post-immunisation in both groups. Antibody landscapes against a large panel of H3N2 influenza viruses showed distinct age effects whereby subjects over 40years old had a bimodal baseline HI distribution pattern, with the highest HI titers against the very oldest H3N2 isolates and with a second HI peak against influenza isolates from the last 5-10years. By contrast, subjects >40years had a unimodal baseline HI distribution with peak recognition of H3N2 isolates from approximately 20years ago. The reduced dose TIV vaccine containing Advax adjuvant was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Hence, delta inulin may be a useful adjuvant for use in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12607000599471. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal to hour variation scales in abundance and production of total and particle-attached bacteria in the open NW Mediterranean Sea (0–1000 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mével

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the vertical and temporal dynamics of total vs. particle-attached bacterial abundance and activity over a 5 week period under summer to autumn transition in NW Mediterranean Sea. At a weekly time scale, total bacterial biomass and production in the euphotic layers was significantly correlated with phytoplanktonic biomass. At an hourly time scale, total bacterial biomass responded very rapidly to chlorophyll a fluctuations, suggesting a tight coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria for resource partitioning during the summer-autumn transition. In contrast, no influence of diel changes on bacterial parameters was detected. Episodic events such as coastal water intrusions had a significant positive effect on total bacterial abundance and production, whereas we could not detect any influence of short wind events whatever the magnitude. Finally, we show that particle-attached bacteria can represent a large proportion (up to 49% of the total bacterial activity in the euphotic layer but display rapid and sporadic changes at hourly time scales. In the mesopelagic layers, bacterial abundance and production linearly decreased with depth, except some production peaks at 400–750 m. This study underlines the value of large datasets covering different temporal scales to clarify the biogeochemical role of bacteria in the cycling of organic matter in open seawater.

  9. Vapor phase treatment–total reflection X-ray fluorescence for trace elemental analysis of silicon wafer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Hikari; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Harumi; Shimazaki, Ayako; Shabani, Mohammad B.; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Yabumoto, Norikuni; Nishihagi, Kazuo; Gohshi, Yohichi

    2013-01-01

    Vapor phase treatment (VPT) was under investigation by the International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 201/Working Group 2 (ISO/TC201/WG2) to improve the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) for trace metal analysis of silicon wafers. Round robin test results have confirmed that TXRF intensity increased by VPT for intentional contamination with 5 × 10 9 and 5 × 10 10 atoms/cm 2 Fe and Ni. The magnification of intensity enhancement varied greatly (1.2–4.7 in VPT factor) among the participating laboratories, though reproducible results could be obtained for average of mapping measurement. SEM observation results showed that various features, sizes, and surface densities of particles formed on the wafer after VPT. The particle morphology seems to have some impact on the VPT efficiency. High resolution SEM observation revealed that a certain number of dots with SiO 2 , silicate and/or carbon gathered to form a particle and heavy metals, Ni and Fe in this study were segregated on it. The amount and shape of the residue should be important to control VPT factor. - Highlights: • This paper presents a summary of study results of VPT–TXRF using ISO/TC201/WG2. • Our goal is to analyze the trace metallic contamination on silicon wafer with concentrations below 1 × 10 10 atoms/cm 2 . • The efficiency and mechanism of VPT are discussed under several round robin tests and systematic studies

  10. Arctic boundary layer properties and its influence on cloud occurrence frequency, phase and structure in autumn season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, S.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, autumnal boundary layer characteristics and cloud properties have been investigated using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope of Alaska (ARM NSA) site from January 2002 to December 2008. We found that both cloud and planetary boundary layer (PBL) properties can be well distinguished by surface wind directions. When the ARM NSA site is dominated by a northerly wind during the period September- November, the PBL is at near saturation for all three months; while the maximum RH layer varies from low and thin in September, to higher and thicker in October, and then it becomes close to surface again in November. Both the ceilometer and the MPL derived cloud base heights coincide well with the RH maximum layer in the PBL for all three autumnal months. The frequencies of occurrence of mixed phase clouds in September and October are around 60-80% under a northerly wind, which are about 1.5 times higher than those during a southerly wind. Under northerly wind, the PDFs of PBL temperature and specific humidity are narrow and unimodal, with a peak probability around 0.4-0.5. Under a southerly wind, on the other hand, the PBL is both warmer and wetter than northerly wind profiles, which result in lower RH values (10-15% lower) in September and October; and the PDFs of PBL temperature and specific humidity are more evenly distributed with larger distribution range and lower PDF peak values (<0.3). In September, colder and dryer PBL is more favorable for mixed phase cloud formation, cloud occurrence frequency decreases from 90% to 60% as PBL temperature and specific humidity increase. In October, the frequency of occurrence of mixed phase clouds also decreases from 90% to 50-60% as PBL temperature increases. While in November, it increases first and then decreases with increasing PBL temperature and specific humidity. The frequency of occurrence of mixed phase clouds is linearly correlated to PBL RH values: for all three months, it

  11. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1980 in Sunshine Project. Development of a total flow electric power plant(Two-phase rotation inflator); 1980 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Out of the development of a total flow power plant in the Sunshine Project, this paper describes a two-phase rotatry inflator. It reports the achievements in fiscal 1980. It is intended to utilize effectively the energy of gas-liquid two-phase fluid (containing a great amount of hot water) often seen in geothermal resources in Japan. Therefore, development is considered on a two-phase rotary inflator as a total flow power generation technology to inflate the gas-liquid fluid as it is without performing separation thereof, and convert it to an external work to draw out output. The inflator is a volume type rotary engine, which has the highest efficiency theoretically, but has not been put into practical use worldwide. Based on the result obtained in the previous fiscal year, development is made on a most suitable seal to be applied to circumferential seal of an external rotor, apex seal, and intake port seal. A rotary inflation performance testing machine is fabricated to study inflation of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid. Setting the engine efficiency of 60% or higher as the target, detailed design, fabrication and assembly shall be completed on two-phase rotation inflators of volume type and self-rotation type of 300 kW class. (NEDO)

  12. The hamster clock phase-response curve from summerlike light:dark cycles and its role in daily and seasonal timekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, John J; Alleva, Frederic R

    2002-11-01

    We address the subject of entrainment of the hamster clock by the day:night cycle in summer when the sun sets after 6 PM and rises before 6 AM (nights cycles were simulated by 6 light:dark (LD) cycles with D estrus and wheel running in hamsters. The onset of estrus was observed every 4 d in the same hamsters as a phase marker of their 24 h clock. On the day before an experimental estrus, preceded and followed by control onsets, a dark period was imposed to cover a putative 6 PM-6 AM light-sensitive period (LSP). This was scanned with a light pulse (and periodic 5 sec bell alarms) lasting 5-240 min. Shifts in onset of estrus on the next day were plotted vs. the end of the light pulse for PM times ("dusk") and its onset for AM times ("dawn"). The resulting phase shifts from the six SLDs were similar, permitting their combination into a single phase-response curve (PRC) of 1605 shifts. This SLD composite PRC rose at 10:15 PM, peaked at 2 AM (81 min advanced shift), fell linearly to 5:55 AM, and then abruptly to normal at 6 AM (no shift). Peak shift was unaffected by light pulse duration or intensity, or hamster age. The SLD composite PRC lacked the 6 PM-9 PM curve of delayed shifts present in reported PRCs from LD 12 h:12 h and DD. However, a two-pulse experiment showed that all light from 6 PM to L-off was needed to block (balance) the advancing action of a 5 min morning light pulse, thereby maintaining entrainment. A working hypothesis to explain daily entrainment and seasonal fertility in the golden hamster is illustrated. A nomenclature for labeling the phases of the hamster clock (circadian time) is proposed.

  13. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  14. Baseline toxicity of a chlorobenzene mixture and total body residues measured and estimated with solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Hermens, J.L.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Body residues of compounds with a narcotic mode of action that exceed critical levels result in baseline toxicity in organisms. Previous studies have shown that internal concentrations in organisms also can be estimated by way of passive sampling. In this experiment, solid-phase microextraction

  15. Divergent solid-phase synthesis of natural product-inspired bipartite cyclodepsipeptides : total synthesis of seragamide A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arndt, H.-D.; Rizzo, S.; Nöcker, Chr.; Wackchaure, V.N.; Milroy, L.G.; Bieker, V.; Calderon, A.; Tran, T.T.N.; Brand, S.; Dehmelt, L.; Waldmann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic natural products (NPs) and analogues thereof often show high affinity, selectivity, and metabolic stability, and methods for the synthesis of NP-like macrocycle collections are of major current interest. We report an efficient solid-phase/cyclorelease method for the synthesis of a

  16. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  17. The phase differences of the interdecadal variabilities of tropical cyclone activity in the peak and late seasons over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Xu, Shibin; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Jinping

    2018-04-01

    This study compares the interdecadal variations in tropical cyclone (TC) activities over the western North Pacific (WNP) basin during the peak season (July-September) and late season (October-December) of 1955-2014 and explores the possible physical mechanisms behind the variations. Both the peak- and late-season tropical storm (TS) days show distinct interdecadal variations, while the late-season TS days lead the peak-season TS days by approximately 4 years on an interdecadal time scale. The late-season TC activity is related to the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The westerly winds induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the low-level vorticity, which favors TC genesis over the TC genesis region. The peak-season TC activity appears to relate to the SST gradient between the Indian Ocean and the Central Pacific. The westerly wind induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the mid-level relative humidity, thereby enhancing the TC activity. The full picture of the interdecadal variation in the WNP TC activity during the peak and late seasons revealed in this study provides a new perspective on the seasonal TC forecasts and future projections.

  18. Total recovery of the waste of two-phase olive oil processing: isolation of added-value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Gómez, Esther; Guillén, Rafael; Jiménez, Ana; Heredia, Antonia; Rodríguez, Rocío

    2004-09-22

    A process for the value addition of solid waste from two-phase olive oil extraction or "alperujo" that includes a hydrothermal treatment has been suggested. In this treatment an autohydrolysis process occurs and the solid olive byproduct is partially solubilized. From this water-soluble fraction can be obtained besides the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol several other compounds of high added value. In this paper three different samples of alperujo were characterized and subjected to a hydrothermal treatment with and without acid catalyst. The main soluble compounds after the hydrolysis were represented by monosaccharides xylose, arabinose, and glucose; oligosaccharides, mannitol and products of sugar destruction. Oligosaccharides were separated by size exclusion chromatography. It was possible to get highly purified mannitol by applying a simple purification method.

  19. AS03-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine against seasonal influenza in elderly people: a phase 3 randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhaney, J.E.; Beran, J.; Devaster, J.M.; Esen, M.; Launay, O.; Leroux-Roels, G.; Ruiz-Palacios, G.M.; Essen, G.A. van; Caplanusi, A.; Claeys, C.; Durand, C.; Duval, X.; Idrissi, M. El; Falsey, A.R.; Feldman, G.; Frey, S.E.; Galtier, F.; Hwang, S.J.; Innis, B.L.; Kovac, M.; Kremsner, P.; McNeil, S.; Nowakowski, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Trofa, A.; Oostvogels, L.; Verheugt, F.W.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare AS03-adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with non-adjuvanted TIV for seasonal influenza prevention in elderly people. METHODS: We did a randomised trial in 15 countries worldwide during the 2008-09 (year 1) and 2009-10 (year 2) influenza seasons.

  20. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  1. NEW SEASON NEW HOPES: OFF-SEASON OPTIMISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Ersan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While literature on the relation between on-field sports performance and stock returns is ample, there is very limited evidence on off-season stage. Constituting around 3 months, off-seasons do not only occupy a significant part of the year but also represent totally different characteristics than on-seasons. They lack the periodic, unambiguous news events in on-seasons (match results, instead they are associated with highly uncertain transfer news and rumors. We show that this distinction has several impacts on the stock market performances of soccer clubs. Most notably, off-seasons generate substantially higher (excess returns. After controlling for other variables, the estimated effect of off-season periods is as high as 38.75%, annually. In line with several seminal studies, we link this fact to increased optimism and betting behavior through uncertain periods; and periods prior to the start of a new calendar (in our case, new season. For all of the examined 7 clubs (3 from Italy and 4 from Turkey, mean excess returns over the market are positive (negative in off-seasons (on-seasons. On-seasons are associated with increased trading activity due to more frequent news. Stocks of Italian clubs are evidently more volatile through off-seasons while volatility results for the stocks of Turkish clubs are not consistent.

  2. A novel solid phase extraction procedure on Amberlite XAD-1180 for speciation of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and total chromium in environmental and pharmaceutical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narin, Ibrahim; Kars, Ayse; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Due to the toxicity of chromium, species depend on their chemical properties and bioavailabilities, speciation of chromium is very important in environmental samples. A speciation procedure for chromium(III), chromium(VI) and total chromium in environmental samples is presented in this work, prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of chromium. The procedure is based on the adsorption of Cr(III)-diphenylcarbazone complex on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin. After oxidation of Cr(III), the developed solid phase extraction system was applied to determinate the total chromium. Cr(III) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr content and the Cr(VI) content. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of Cr(VI) on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was found to be 75. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for Cr(VI) and total chromium were 7.7 and 8.6 μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory results for the analysis of total chromium in the stream sediment (GBW7310) certified reference material for the validation of the presented method was obtained. The procedure was applied to food, water and pharmaceutical samples successfully

  3. Safety of Russian-backbone seasonal trivalent, live-attenuated influenza vaccine in a phase II randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial among children in urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Goswami, Doli; Lewis, Kristen D C; Sharmeen, Amina Tahia; Ahmed, Moshtaq; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammed Z; Feser, Jodi; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Brooks, W Abdullah

    2015-06-26

    Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have the potential to be affordable, effective, and logistically feasible for immunization of children in low-resource settings. We conducted a phase II, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial on the safety of the Russian-backbone, seasonal trivalent LAIV among children aged 24 through 59 months in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2012. After vaccination, we monitored participants for six months with weekly home visits and study clinic surveillance for solicited and unsolicited adverse events, protocol-defined wheezing illness (PDWI), and serious adverse events (SAEs), including all cause hospitalizations. Three hundred children were randomized and administered LAIV (n=150) or placebo (n=150). No immediate post-vaccination reactions occurred in either group. Solicited reactions were similar between vaccine and placebo groups during the first 7 days post-vaccination and throughout the entire trial. There were no statistically significant differences in participants experiencing PDWI between LAIV and placebo groups throughout the trial (n=13 vs. n=16, p=0.697). Of 131 children with a history of medical treatment or hospitalization for asthma or wheezing at study entry, 65 received LAIV and 66 received placebo. Among this subset, there was no statistical difference in PDWI occurring throughout the trial between the LAIV or placebo groups (7.7% vs. 19.7%, p=0.074). While there were no related SAEs, LAIV recipients had six unrelated SAEs and placebo recipients had none. These SAEs included three due to traumatic injury and bone fracture, and one each due to accidental overdose of paracetamol, abdominal pain, and acute gastroenteritis. None of the participants with SAEs had laboratory-confirmed influenza, wheezing illness, or other signs of acute respiratory illness at the time of their events. In this randomized, controlled trial among 300 children aged 24 through 59 months in urban Bangladesh, Russian

  4. Determination of total selenium and selenium distribution in the milk phases in commercial cow's milk by HG-AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Naveiro, Oscar; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cocho, Jose A. [University Clinical Hospital, Laboratory of Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fraga, Jose M. [University Clinical Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    A procedure has been developed for determining the selenium in cow's milk using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) following microwave-assisted acid digestion. The selenium distributions in milk whey, fat and micellar casein phases were studied after separating the different phases by ultracentrifugation and determining the selenium in all of them. The detection limits obtained by HG-AAS for the whole milk, milk whey and micellar casein were 0.074, 0.065 and 0.075 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy for the whole milk was checked by using a Certified Reference Material CRM 8435 whole milk powder from NIST, and the analytical recoveries for the milk whey and casein micelles were 100.9 and 96.9%, respectively. A mass balance study of the determination of selenium in the different milk phases was carried out, obtaining values of 95.5-100.8%. The total content of selenium was determined in 37 milk samples from 15 different manufacturers, 19 whole milk samples and 18 skimmed milk samples. The selenium levels found were within the 8.5-21 {mu}g l{sup -1} range. The selenium distributions in the different milk phases were studied in 14 whole milk samples, and the highest selenium levels were found in milk whey (47.2-73.6%), while the lowest level was found for the fat phase (4.8-16.2%). A strong correlation was found between the selenium levels in whole milk and the selenium levels in the milk components. (orig.)

  5. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... by Thomson (“The Seasons, Global Temperature and Precession”, Science, 7 April 1995, vol 268, p. 59–68), a number of studies have documented a shift in the phase of the annual cycle implying an earlier onset of the spring season at various European locations. A significant reduction in the amplitude...... and stochastic trends, as well as seasonally varying autocorrelation and residual variances. The model can be summarized as containing a permanent and a transitory component, where global warming is captured in the permanent component, on which the seasons load differentially. The phase of the seasonal cycle...

  6. A total pressure-saturation formulation of two-phase flow incorporating dynamic effects in the capillary-pressure-saturation relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H K; Celia, M A; Hassanizadeh, S M; Karlsen, K H

    2002-07-01

    New theories suggest that the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation should be enhanced by a dynamic term that is proportional to the time rate of change of saturation. This so-called dynamic capillary pressure formulation is supported by laboratory experiments, and can be included in various forms of the governing equations for two-phase flow in porous media. An extended model of two-phase flow in porous media may be developed based on fractional flow curves and a total pressure - saturation description that includes the dynamic capillary pressure terms. A dimensionless form of the resulting equation set provides an ideal tool to study the relative importance of the dynamic capillary pressure effect. This equation provides a rich set of mathematical research questions, and numerical solutions to the equation provide insights into the behavior of two-phase immiscible flow. For typical two-phase flow systems, dynamic capillary pressure acts to retard infiltration fronts, with responses dependent on system parameters including boundary conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that the traditional algebraic relationship between capillary pressure and saturation may be inadequate. Instead, a so-called dynamic capillary pressure formulation is needed, where capillary pressure is defined as a thermodynamic variable, and the difference between phase pressures is only equal to the capillary pressure at equilibrium. Under dynamic conditions, the disequilibrium between phase-pressure differences and the capillary pressure is taken to be proportional to the time rate of change of saturation. A recent study by Hassanizadeh et al. presents experimental evidence, culled from the literature, to support this claim. Numerical simulations using dynamic pore-scale network models and upscaling also support the claim. Hassanizadeh et al. also presented numerical solutions for an enhanced version of Richards' equation that included the dynamic terms. A preliminary

  7. Global distribution of GPS losses of phase lock and total electron content slips during the 2005 May 15 and the 2003 November 20 magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasyukevich, Yuriy; Astafeva, Elvira; Givetev, Ilya; Maksikov, Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Using data of worldwide network of GPS receivers we investigated losses of GPS phase lock (LoL) during two strong magnetic storms. At fundamental L1 frequency, LoL density is found to increase up to 0.25 % and at L2 frequency the increase is up to 3 %. This is several times as much compared with the background level. During the 2003 November 20 magnetic storm, the number of total electron content (TEC) slips exceeded the background level ~50 times. During superstorms, the most number of GPS LoL is observed at low and high latitudes. At the same time, the area of numerous TEC slips correspond to auroral oval boundaries.

  8. Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yamamura, Kazuya; Mimura, Hidekazu; Sano, Yasuhisa; Saito, Akira; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Souvorov, Alexei; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuzo

    2005-11-10

    The intensity flatness and wavefront shape in a coherent hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by flat mirrors that have surface bumps modeled by Gaussian functions were investigated by use of a wave-optical simulation code. Simulated results revealed the necessity for peak-to-valley height accuracy of better than 1 nm at a lateral resolution near 0.1 mm to remove high-contrast interference fringes and appreciable wavefront phase errors. Three mirrors that had different surface qualities were tested at the 1 km-long beam line at the SPring-8/Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute. Interference fringes faded when the surface figure was corrected below the subnanometer level to a spatial resolution close to 0.1 mm, as indicated by the simulated results.

  9. Optimization of total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME) for the determination of lipid profiles of Phormia regina, a forensically important blow fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren; Picard, Christine; Goodpaster, John

    2017-11-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of fatty acids, sterols, and other lipids which naturally occur within pupae of the blow fly Phormia regina. The method relies upon liquid extraction in non-polar solvent, followed by derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) w/ 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS) carried out inside the sample vial. The analysis is facilitated by total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) serving as the instrumentation for analysis. The TV-SPME delivery technique is approximately a factor of five more sensitive than traditional liquid injection, which may alleviate the need for rotary evaporation, reconstitution, collection of high performance liquid chromatography fractions, and many of the other pre-concentration steps that are commonplace in the current literature. Furthermore, the ability to derivatize the liquid extract in a single easy step while increasing sensitivity represents an improvement over current derivatization methods. The most common lipids identified in fly pupae were various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranging from lauric acid (12:0) to arachinoic acid (20:4), as well as cholesterol. The concentrations of myristic acid (14:0), palmitelaidic acid (16:2), and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the most reliable indicators of the age of the pupae. Graphical abstract Blow fly pupae were extracted prior to emerging as adults. The extracts were analyzed via total vaporization solid-phase microextraction (TV-SPME), revealing a complex mixture of lipids that could be associated with the age of the insect. This information may assist in determining a post-mortum interval (PMI) in a death investigation.

  10. Optimization of a new mobile phase to know the complex and real polyphenolic composition: towards a total phenolic index using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2003-11-07

    An HPLC method is reported for the separation and quantification of five major polyphenolic groups found in fruits and related products: single ring phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. A binary mobile phase consisting of 6% acetic acid in 2 mM sodium acetate aqueous solution (v/v, final pH 2.55) (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) was used. The use of sodium acetate was new and key to the near baseline separation of 25 phenolics commonly found in fruits. A photodiode array detector was used and data were collected at four wavelengths (280, 320, 360, and 520 nm). This method was sensitive and gave good separation of polyphenolics in apple, cherry, strawberry, blackberry, grape, apple juice, and a processing by-product. The improved separation has led to better understanding of the polyphenolic profiles of these fruits. Individual as well as total phenolic content was obtained, and the latter was close to and correlated well with that obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (FC). The HPLC data can be used as a total phenolic index (TPI) for quantification of fruit phenolics, which is advantageous over the FC because it has more information on individual compounds.

  11. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...... for prediction purposes due to the large number of parameters required. In the particular case with exponentially distributed exceedances and Poissonian occurrence times the precision of the T year event estimator has been thoroughly examined considering both seasonal and nonseasonal models. The two......-seasonal probability density function of the T year event estimator has been deduced and used in the assessment of the precision of approximate moments. The nonseasonal approach covered both a total omission of seasonality by pooling data from different flood seasons and a discarding of nonsignificant season(s) before...

  12. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  13. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100 mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL-1 with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL-1 were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  14. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Mirna, E-mail: msigrist@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH{sub 3} generation using 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.6 {mu}g L{sup -1} for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 {mu}L sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h{sup -1}. The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species

  15. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH 3 generation using 3.5 mol L -1 HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH 4 in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , HCO 3 - on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C 6 H 8 O 6 solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 μL sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h -1 . The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species separation was performed through the employ of a serial connection of membrane filters and

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H

    2015-10-31

    Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non

  18. A sensitive method for determining total vanadium in water samples using colorimetric-solid-phase extraction-fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filik, Hayati; Yanaz, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    A selective colorimetric-solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) method for the determination of total vanadium in water samples was developed. This method introduced a new variation of C-SPE. The colour reaction is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) ternary complex formed with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in the presence hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this technique, the target analytes in samples are extracted onto solid matrix loaded with a colorimetric reagent and then quantified directly on the adsorbent surface by using a miniature fiber optic reflectance spectrometer. The measurements were carried out at a wavelength of 589.4 nm since it yielded the largest divergence different in reflectance spectra before and after reaction with the vanadium. The overall time required for the C-SPE procedure was ∼20 min. The amount of concentrated V is then determined in a few seconds by using miniature reflectance spectrometer. At the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was constructed, revealing a linear range of 0.05-0.52 mg L -1 and a detection limit as low as 0.01 mg L -1 while the RSD lower than 2.8%. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a certified reference water samples (TMDA) were analysed and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water, seawater samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 98-102%.

  19. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  20. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a cell culture derived trivalent live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine: a Phase I dose escalating study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Jacco; Hulskotte, Ellen; Voeten, Theo; Breedveld, Belinda; Verweij, Pierre; van Duijnhoven, Wilbert; Rudenko, Larissa; van Damme, Pierre; van den Bosch, Han

    2014-09-03

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. Two types of MDV lineages have been described, the Ann Arbor lineages and the A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR/60 lineages. Here the safety and immunogenicity of a Madin Darby Canine Kidney - cell culture based, intranasal LAIV derived from A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR, was evaluated in healthy influenza non-naive volunteers 18-50 years of age. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1×10(5), 1×10(6), or 1×10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. A statistically significant geometric mean increase in hemagglutination inhibition titer was reached for influenza strain A/H3N2 after immunization with all doses of LAIV. For the A/H1N1 and B strains, the GMI in HI titer did not increase for any of the doses. Virus neutralization antibody titers showed a similar response pattern. A dose-response effect could not be demonstrated for any of the strains, neither for the HI antibody nor for the VN antibody responses. No influenza like symptoms, no nasal congestions, no rhinorrhea, or other influenza related upper respiratory tract symptoms were observed. In addition, no difference in the incidence or nature of adverse events was found between vaccine and placebo treated subjects. Overall, the results indicated that the LAIV for nasal administration is immunogenic (i.e. able to provoke an immune response) and safe both from the perspective of the attenuated virus and the MDCK cell line from which it was derived, and it warrants

  2. Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Influenza Seasonal Summarv 2014-2015 Season EpiData Center Department Communicable Disease Division NMCPHC-EDC-TR-394-2015 REPORT DOCUMENTATION... Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season Sb. GRANT NUMBER $c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORjS) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ashleigh K McCabe, Kristen R...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 1<l. ABSTRACT This report summartzes influenza activity among Department of Navy (DON) and Depar1ment of Defense (DOD

  3. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season; influence of diet and exercise load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Reyes-Ortiz, A; Suarez Moreno-Arrones, L; García A, A; Garcíacaballero, M

    2014-04-01

    Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season taking into account the position of the player for measuring exercise intensity, and developing a personalized nutritional and training plan to each player. At baseline the players were away from the internationally recommended body composition, with high percentages of body fat. Appropriate and personalized diet plans and training custom achieved fat percentages close to those recommended. The personalized program of diet and training directed has adequate leverage to improve all parameters studied them bringing them as close to the ideal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; van Gijn, W; Muller, E W; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C B M; Fokstuen, T; Gelderblom, H; Kapiteijn, E; Leer, J W H; Marijnen, C A M; Martijn, H; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Nagtegaal, I D; Påhlman, L; Punt, C J A; Putter, H; Roodvoets, A G H; Rutten, H J T; Steup, W H; Glimelius, B; van de Velde, C J H

    2015-04-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision (TME). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial recruited patients from 52 hospitals. Patients with histologically proven stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to observation or adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME. Radiotherapy consisted of 5 × 5 Gy. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of 25 × 1.8-2 Gy combined with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU/LV (PROCTOR) or eight courses capecitabine (SCRIPT). Randomization was based on permuted blocks of six, stratified according to centre, residual tumour, time between last irradiation and surgery, and preoperative treatment. The primary end point was overall survival. Of 470 enrolled patients, 437 were eligible. The trial closed prematurely because of slow patient accrual. Patients were randomly assigned to observation (n = 221) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 216). After a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 5-year overall survival was 79.2% in the observation group and 80.4% in the chemotherapy group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-1.39; P = 0.73]. The HR for disease-free survival was 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.07; P = 0.13). Five-year cumulative incidence for locoregional recurrences was 7.8% in both groups. Five-year cumulative incidence for distant recurrences was 38.5% and 34.7%, respectively (P = 0.39). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial could not demonstrate a significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine monotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME on overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate. However, this trial did not complete

  6. Allogeneic marrow transplantation following cyclophosphamide and escalating doses of hyperfractionated total body irradiation in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies: a phase I/II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirer, Taner; Petersen, Finn B.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Barnett, Todd A.; Sanders, Jean; Deeg, H. Joachim; Storb, Rainer; Doney, Kristine; Bensinger, William I.; Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen; Buckner, C. Dean

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of unshielded total body irradiation (TBI) delivered from dual 60 C sources at an exposure rate of 0.08 Gy/min and given in thrice daily fractions of 1.2 Gy in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with a median age of 28 (range 6-48) years were entered into a Phase I/II study. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), 120 mg/kg administered over 2 days before TBI. Marrow from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical siblings was infused following the last dose of TBI. An escalation-deescalation schema designed to not exceed an incidence of 25% of Grade 3-4 regimen-related toxicities (RRTs) was used. The first dose level tested was 13.2 Gy followed by 14.4 Gy. Results: None of the four patients at the dose level of 13.2 Gy developed Grade 3-4 RRT. Two of the first eight patients receiving 14.4 Gy developed Grade 3-4 RRT, establishing this as the MTD. An additional 32 patients were evaluated at the 14.4 Gy level to confirm these initial observations. Of 40 patients receiving 14.4 Gy, 13 (32.5%) developed Grade 3-4 RRTs; 46% in adults and 12% in children. The primary dose limiting toxicity was Grade 3-4 hepatic toxicity, which occurred in 12.5% of patients. Noninfectious Grade 3-4 interstitial pneumonia syndrome occurred in 5% of patients. The actuarial probabilities of event-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality at 2 years were 0.10, 0.81, and 0.47, respectively, for patients who received 14.4 Gy of TBI. Conclusions: The outcome for patients receiving 14.4 Gy of TBI was not different from previous studies of other CY and TBI regimens in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies. These data showed that the incidence of Grade 3-4 RRTs in adults was greater than the 25% maximum set as the goal of this study, suggesting that 13.2 Gy is a more appropriate dose of TBI for adults, while 14.4 Gy is an appropriate dose for children

  7. A total Ammonium Reactor (NHxR) for In Situ Mobile Measurements: A Critical Tool to Understand Aerosol Formation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop, demonstrate, and optimize a front-end ammonium reactor (NHxR) for the fast, precise, and accurate measurement of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and...

  8. Multivariate analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopic data to confirm phase partitioning in methacrylate-based dentin adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiang; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Abedin, Farhana; Laurence, Jennifer S; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous in the mouths of healthy individuals and is a major interfering factor in the development of a durable seal between the tooth and composite restoration. Water leads to the formation of a variety of defects in dentin adhesives; these defects undermine the tooth-composite bond. Our group recently analyzed phase partitioning of dentin adhesives using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration measurements provided by HPLC offered a more thorough representation of current adhesive performance and elucidated directions to be taken for further improvement. The sample preparation and instrument analysis using HPLC are, however, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for rapid, reliable, and accurate quantitative analysis of near-equilibrium phase partitioning in adhesives exposed to conditions simulating the wet oral environment. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal component regression (PCR), were used for multivariate calibration to quantify the compositions in separated phases. Excellent predictions were achieved when either the hydrophobic-rich phase or the hydrophilic-rich phase mixtures were analyzed. These results indicate that FT-IR spectroscopy has excellent potential as a rapid method of detection and quantification of dentin adhesives that experience phase separation under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment.

  9. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  10. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  11. The magic school bus TV project. Final technical performance report, July 1, 1992--July 31, 1995. Season III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For Season III, our goal has been to produce 13 new episodes that can optimally benefit from our research and experience in developing this unique series. With a total of 39 episodes, MSB`s third season will move the production from a weekly to a daily series, airing Monday to Friday and Sundays on PBS. As we delivered the 13 Season II episodes to PBS during fall of 1995, we also completed 13 more scripts for Season III production. During the remaining portion of Season III, these 13 scripts are being animated and prepared for delivery to PBS for an October 7th, 1996 launch date. Based on staggered phases of production used since the project`s inception, the development of science topics and show scripting for Season IV occurs at the same time that Season III shows are in animation and post-production. Thus, topics for Season IV shows are being selected, and science research and scripting have also begun during this time period. Both the National Science Foundation and PBS have made a commitment to Season IV, and a proposal has been submitted to Microsoft for consideration.

  12. Unexpected seasonality in quantity and composition of Amazon rainforest air reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, A C; Yañez-Serrano, A M; Wolff, S; de Araujo, A Carioca; Lavrič, J V; Kesselmeier, J; Williams, J

    2016-01-22

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) removes most atmospheric pollutants from air. The loss frequency of OH radicals due to the combined effect of all gas-phase OH reactive species is a measureable quantity termed total OH reactivity. Here we present total OH reactivity observations in pristine Amazon rainforest air, as a function of season, time-of-day and height (0-80 m). Total OH reactivity is low during wet (10 s(-1)) and high during dry season (62 s(-1)). Comparison to individually measured trace gases reveals strong variation in unaccounted for OH reactivity, from 5 to 15% missing in wet-season afternoons to mostly unknown (average 79%) during dry season. During dry-season afternoons isoprene, considered the dominant reagent with OH in rainforests, only accounts for ∼20% of the total OH reactivity. Vertical profiles of OH reactivity are shaped by biogenic emissions, photochemistry and turbulent mixing. The rainforest floor was identified as a significant but poorly characterized source of OH reactivity.

  13. Comparison of core-shell and totally porous ultra high performance liquid chromatographic stationary phases based on their selectivity towards alfuzosin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulfer, Jarosław; Plenis, Alina; Bączek, Tomasz

    2014-06-13

    This paper focuses on the application of a column classification system based on the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven for the characterization of physicochemical properties of core-shell and ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic stationary phases, followed by the verification of the reliability of the obtained column classification in pharmaceutical practice. In the study, 7 stationary phases produced in core-shell technology and 18 ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic columns were chromatographically tested, and ranking lists were built on the FKUL-values calculated against two selected reference columns. In the column performance test, an analysis of alfuzosin in the presence of related substances was carried out using the brands of the stationary phases with the highest ranking positions. Next, a system suitability test as described by the European Pharmacopoeia monograph was performed. Moreover, a study was also performed to achieve a purposeful shortening of the analysis time of the compounds of interest using the selected stationary phases. Finally, it was checked whether methods using core-shell and ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic columns can be an interesting alternative to the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of alfuzosin in pharmaceutical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  15. Lake topography and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial dynamics of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2) = 0.720, pwind speed and TSM concentration (r(2)= 0.685, pwind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution.

  16. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  17. Effect of Daikenchuto, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, after Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Wakabayashi, Go; Ishida, Koichiro; Kaiho, Takashi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Sakamoto, Junichi; Shiraishi, Norio; Koeda, Keisuke; Mochiki, Erito; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Satoshi; Kitano, Seigo; Saji, Shigetoyo; Kanematsu, Takashi; Kitajima, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT) has widely been used to improve abdominal symptoms by being expected to accelerate bowel motility. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of DKT for prevention of ileus and associated gastrointestinal symptoms after total gastrectomy. Two hundred and forty-five gastric cancer patients who underwent total gastrectomy were enrolled. Patients received either DKT (15.0 g/d) or matching placebo from postoperative days 1 to 12. Primary end points were time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement (BM), and frequency of BM. Secondary end points included quality of life, C-reactive protein level, symptoms indicative of a severe gastrointestinal disorder, and incidence of postoperative ileus. A total of 195 patients (DKT, n = 96; placebo, n = 99) were included in the per-protocol set analysis. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of patient background characteristics. Median time to first BM was shorter in the DKT group than in the placebo group (94.7 hours vs 113.9 hours; p = 0.051). In patients with high medication adherence, median time to first BM was significantly shorter in the DKT group than in the placebo group (93.8 hours vs 115.1 hours; p = 0.014). Significantly fewer patients in the DKT group had ≥2 symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction than those in the placebo group on postoperative day 12 (p = 0.026). Administration of DKT during the immediate postoperative period after total gastrectomy appears to promote early recovery of postoperative bowel function. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  19. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  20. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Difficult Purine-Rich PNAs through Selective Hmb Incorporation: Application to the Total Synthesis of Cell Penetrating Peptide-PNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tailhades

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-based drug development is gaining significant momentum following the recent FDA approval of Eteplirsen (an ASO based on phosphorodiamidate morpholino and Spinraza (2′-O-methoxyethyl-phosphorothioate in late 2016. Their attractiveness is mainly due to the backbone modifications which have improved the in vivo characteristics of oligonucleotide drugs. Another class of ASO, based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA chemistry, is also gaining popularity as a platform for development of gene-specific therapy for various disorders. However, the chemical synthesis of long PNAs, which are more target-specific, remains an ongoing challenge. Most of the reported methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of PNA suffer from poor coupling efficiency which limits production to short PNA sequences of less than 15 residues. Here, we have studied the effect of backbone modifications with Hmb (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl and Dmb (2,4-dimethoxybenzyl to ameliorate difficult couplings and reduce “on-resin” aggregation. We firstly synthesized a library of PNA dimers incorporating either Hmb or Dmb and identified that Hmb is superior to Dmb in terms of its ease of removal. Subsequently, we used Hmb backbone modification to synthesize a 22-mer purine-rich PNA, targeting dystrophin RNA splicing, which could not be synthesized by standard coupling methodology. Hmb backbone modification allowed this difficult PNA to be synthesized as well as to be continued to include a cell-penetrating peptide on the same solid support. This approach provides a novel and straightforward strategy for facile solid-phase synthesis of difficult purine-rich PNA sequences.

  1. Solid-phase synthesis of difficult purine-rich PNAs through selective Hmb incorporation: Application to the total synthesis of cell penetrating peptide-PNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailhades, Julien; Takizawa, Hotake; Gait, Michael J.; Wellings, Don A.; Wade, John D.; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Shabanpoor, Fazel

    2017-10-01

    Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-based drug development is gaining significant momentum following the recent FDA approval of Eteplirsen (an ASO based on phosphorodiamidate morpholino) and Spinraza (2’-O-methoxyethyl-phosphorothioate) in late 2016. Their attractiveness is mainly due to the backbone modifications which have improved the in vivo characteristics of oligonucleotide drugs. Another class of ASO, based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) chemistry, is also gaining popularity as a platform for development of gene-specific therapy for various disorders. However, the chemical synthesis of long PNAs, which are more target-specific, remains an ongoing challenge. Most of the reported methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of PNA suffer from poor coupling efficiency which limits production to short PNA sequences of less than 15 residues. Here we have studied the effect of backbone modifications with Hmb (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) and Dmb (2,4-dimethoxybenzyl) to ameliorate difficult couplings and reduce “on-resin” aggregation. We firstly synthesized a library of PNA dimers incorporating either Hmb or Dmb and identified that Hmb is superior to Dmb in terms of its ease of removal. Subsequently, we used Hmb backbone modification to synthesize a 22-mer purine-rich PNA, targeting dystrophin RNA splicing, which could not be synthesized by standard coupling methodology. Hmb backbone modification allowed this difficult PNA to be synthesized as well as to be continued to include a cell-penetrating peptide on the same solid support. This approach provides a novel and straightforward strategy for facile solid-phase synthesis of difficult purine-rich PNA sequences.

  2. Quantitative analysis of unconjugated and total bisphenol A in human urine using solid-phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS: method implementation, method qualification and troubleshooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Brigitte; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Markham, Dan A; Budinsky, Robert A; Dimond, Stephen S; Nath, Rajesh V; Snyder, Stephanie A; Hentges, Steven G

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the presented investigation was to document challenges encountered during implementation and qualification of a method for bisphenol A (BPA) analysis and to develop and discuss precautions taken to avoid and to monitor contamination with BPA during sample handling and analysis. Previously developed and published HPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of unconjugated BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34 (2010) 293-303) [17] and total BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38 (2014) 194-203) [20] in human urine were combined and transferred into another laboratory. The initial method for unconjugated BPA was developed and evaluated in two independent laboratories simultaneously. The second method for total BPA was developed and evaluated in one of these laboratories to conserve resources. Accurate analysis of BPA at sub-ppb levels is a challenging task as BPA is a widely used material and is ubiquitous in the environment at trace concentrations. Propensity for contamination of biological samples with BPA is reported in the literature during sample collection, storage, and/or analysis. Contamination by trace levels of BPA is so pervasive that even with extraordinary care, it is difficult to completely exclude the introduction of BPA into biological samples and, consequently, contamination might have an impact on BPA biomonitoring data. The applied UPLC-MS/MS method was calibrated from 0.05 to 25ng/ml. The limit of quantification was 0.1ng/ml for unconjugated BPA and 0.2ng/ml for total BPA, respectively, in human urine. Finally, the method was applied to urine samples derived from 20 volunteers. Overall, BPA can be analyzed in human urine with acceptable recovery and repeatability if sufficient measures are taken to avoid contamination throughout the procedure from sample collection until UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Fuel Rod Consolidation Project]: The estimated total life cycle cost for the 30-year operation of prototypical consolidation demonstration equipment: Volume 4, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Total Life Cycle Costs have been developed for the construction, operation and decommissioning of a single line of hot-cell-enclosed production consolidation equipment operating on spent fuel at the rate of 750 MTU/year for 30 years. The cost estimate is for a single production line that is part of an overall facility at either a Monitored Retrievable Storage or a Repository facility. This overall facility would include other capabilities and possibly other consolidation lines. However, no costs were included in the cost estimate for other portions of the plant, except that staff costs include an overhead charge that reflects the overhead support services in an overall facility

  4. Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy as a Debulking Agent for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An open-label prospective phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M R; Lindahl, Lise Maria; Gniadecki, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a powerful treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Based on the occurrence of relapses with low radiation doses, doses of 30-36 Gy are commonly used but most patients still eventually relapse and repeat treatment courses are limited...... due to the cumulative toxicity. Complete response rates are about 60-90% for T2-4 stages with a 5-year relapse-free survival of 10-25% for stages IB-III. Objectives: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of low-dose TSEBT (10 Gy) in terms of complete cutaneous response rate, overall response rate...... and response duration in CTCL. Methods: Ten patients with stage IB-IV mycosis fungoides (MF) were treated in an open-label manner with 4 fractions of 1 Gy/week TSEB to a total skin dose of 10 Gy. Treatment responses were assessed at 1 and 3 months after treatment and subsequently at least every 6 months...

  5. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Chengdu, a southwest city of China, were determined from March 2015 to February 2016. Here, two diagnostic ratios (DR were determined and a principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR analysis was performed to identify the sources of PAHs during the four seasons. The gaseous and particle phase samples were analyzed separately. The sampled air had a gas-to particle ratio of 4.21, and between 18.7% and 31.3% of the total detected PAHs were found in the particulate phase. The total concentration of all 16-PAHs combined (gas + particles varied from 176.94 in summer to 458.95 ng·m−3 in winter, with a mean of 300.35 ± 176.6 ng·m−3. In the gas phase, phenanthrene(Phe was found at the highest concentrations in all four seasons, while benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF and (in winter chrysene(Chr were the highest in the particle phase. The DR of Fluroanthene (Flua/(Flua + Pyrene (Pyr was higher in the gas phase than in the particle phase, while the Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP/(IcdP + Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP ratio was more variable in the gas than that in the particle phase. The main sources for both phases were a mixture of liquid fossil fuel combustion and the burning of biomass and coal, with clear seasonal variation. Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR analysis identified the main PAH sources as coal burning (52% with motor vehicle exhaust and coke (48% in spring; coal (52%, coke (21%, and motor vehicle exhaust (27% in summer; coal (47%, vehicle exhaust (34%, and coke (19% in autumn; and coal (58% and vehicle exhaust (42% in winter.

  6. Meteorological factors and pollen season dynamics of selected herbaceous plants in Szczecin, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of mugwort, plantain, sorrel, nettle and pigweed is an important airborne allergen source worldwide. The occurrence of pollen grains in the air is a seasonal phenomenon and estimation of seasonal variability in the pollen count permits evaluation of the threat posed by allergens over a given area. The aim of the study was to analyse the dynamics of Artemisia, Plantago, Rumex, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae pollen season in Szczecin (western Poland in 2004-2008 and to establish a relationship between the meteorological parameters versus the pollen count of the taxa studied. Measurements were performed by the Hirst volumetric trap (model Lanzoni VPPS 2000. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 99% of annual total and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, temporary differences in the dynamics of the seasons were most evident for Artemisia. Correlation analysis with weather parameters demonstrated that the maximum wind speed, mean and maximum air temperature, relative humidity and dew point are the main factors influencing the average daily pollen concentrations in the atmosphere.

  7. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of recurrent, metastatic, or occult colorectal cancer with technetium 99m-labeled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59: results of pivotal, phase III multicenter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, A N; Klein, J L; Wolff, B G; Baum, R; Chetanneau, A; Pecking, A; Fischman, A J; Hoover, H C; Wynant, G E; Subramanian, R; Goroff, D K; Hanna, M G

    1998-05-01

    To assess the performance and potential clinical impact of a totally human monoclonal antibody, 88BV59 (HumaSPECT) (INTRACEL, Corp, Rockville, MD), in 202 assessable presurgical patients with recurrent, metastatic, or occult colorectal cancer. 88BV59, labeled with technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) (HumaSPECT-Tc), was injected intravenously, and planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) images were obtained 14 to 20 hours postinjection. Surgical and pathologic verification of tumor were used as the standard against which the performance of HumaSPECT-Tc imaging and computed tomography (CT) analysis were evaluated. All patients entered onto the recurrent disease study had at least one tumor site defined on CT. The sensitivity of HumaSPECT-Tc in those CT-positive patients was 87%. The specificity of HumaSPECT-Tc was 57% compared with 17% for CT and the difference was statistically significant (P HAHA) response (90 ng/mL) at 9 weeks postinfusion was observed. HumaSPECT-Tc can provide important and accurate information about the presence and location of disease in patients with a high clinical suspicion of metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer and either positive (known disease) or negative (occult disease) CT scans.

  8. Long Term Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of the Totally Occluded Infarct-Related Artery in the Subacute Phase after Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Judith S; Reynolds, Harmony R; Džavík, Vladimír; Buller, Christopher E; Ruzyllo, Witold; Sadowski, Zygmunt P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Carvalho, Antonio C; Rankin, James M.; White, Harvey D.; Goldberg, Suzanne; Forman, Sandra A; Mark, Daniel B; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite observations suggesting a benefit for late opening of occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA) post-myocardial infarction (MI), the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) demonstrated no reduction in the composite of death, reinfarction and class IV heart failure (HF) over 2.9-yearmean follow-up. Follow-up was extended to determine whether late trends would favor either treatment group. Methods and Results OAT randomized 2201 stable patients with IRA occlusion >24hours (calendar days3-28) after MI. Severe inducible ischemia, rest angina, class III-IV HF and 3-vessel/left main disease were excluded. We conducted extended followed up of enrolled patients for an additional 3 years for the primary endpoint and angina (6-year median survivor follow up, longest 9 years, 12,234 patient-years).Rates of the primary endpoint (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.28), fatal and nonfatal MI (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.89-1.75), death and class IV HF were similar for PCI vs. MED groups. No interaction between baseline characteristics and treatment group on outcomes were observed. The vast majority of patients at each follow-up visit did not report angina. There was less angina in the PCI group through early in follow-up; by 3 years the between group difference was consistently <4 patients per 100 treated and not significantly different though there was a trend toward less angina in the PCI group at 3 and 5 years. The 7-year rate of PCI of the IRA during follow up was 11.1% for the PCI group compared to 14.7% for the MED group (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-1.01. p=0.06). Conclusions Extended follow up of the OAT cohort provides robust evidence for no reduction of long-term rates of clinical events after routine PCI in stable patients with an occluded IRA and without severe inducible ischemia in the subacute phase post-MI. PMID:22025606

  9. A phase III randomized three-arm trial of physical therapist delivered pain coping skills training for patients with total knee arthroplasty: the KASTPain protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddle Daniel L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of patients report persistent and disabling pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA despite an apparently normally functioning prosthesis. One potential risk factor for unexplained persistent pain is high levels of pain catastrophizing. We designed a three-arm trial to determine if a pain coping skills training program, delivered prior to TKA, effectively reduces function-limiting pain following the procedure in patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing. Methods/design The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain coping skills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain coping skills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Discussion The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain coping skills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain coping skills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Trial Registration NCT

  10. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... depression is associated with lowered ω3 PUFA levels. (Hibbeln, 1998; Maes ... The amount of long chain ω3 PUFAs differs among and can be influenced ..... composition of some Malaysian freswater fish. Food Chem. 54(1):.

  11. Project subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1982. Report on achievements in the project commissioned from NEDO for development of a total flow power generation plant (Two-phase rotation inflator); 1982 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Developmental research has been performed on a two-phase rotation inflator in the total flow power generation technology to inflate gas-liquid two-phase fluid containing a great amount of hot water in the form as it is to draw out output. Subsequently from the previous fiscal year, the present fiscal year has improved the performance of a 300-kW class two-phase rotation inflator. The factory test data acquired in the previous fiscal year were analyzed, and an investigation was given on the cause of leakage loss and machine loss which were greater than what has been expected initially. The result revealed leakage from the circumferential seal grooves and leakage due to increase in the side seal clearance as a result of deformation of the external rotor flange. In addition, the static pressure bearing was found to have small displacement in the shaft center, but have large loss. Small modifications on these deficiencies raised the engine efficiency by about 44% at a rotation speed of 1,200 rpm, proving the effect of the improvement. However, the inflator showed a trend that, at the rotation speed higher than 1,600 rpm, air intake amount has increased, and the output has decreased. Therefore, analyses and investigations were carried out on water film loss, bearing loss and machine loss, and total modification was given on the inner and outer rotors, the inner wheel chamber, the sealing device, and the bearings. (NEDO)

  12. Preparation and quantification of the total phenolic products in Citrus fruit using solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Honglian; Liu, Zhenli; Zhao, Siyu; Shu, Yisong; Song, Zhiqian; Wang, Chun; Dong, Yunzhuo; Ning, Zhangchi; He, Dan; Wang, Menglei; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping

    2016-10-01

    Citrus fruit is an important health-promoting food that is rich in dietary phenolic metabolites. Traditional Chinese medicines, such as Zhishi and Zhiqiao, come from young and immature fruits of Citrus cultivars. The preparation of diversified bioactive phenolic products and establishment of the corresponding quality control methodology are challenging and necessary. In the current study, four types of solid-phase extraction sorbents for the enrichment and clean-up of the phenolic matrix were evaluated. A solid-phase extraction column coated with Strata-X was finally used in the procedure. Twenty phenolic compounds were selected to evaluate the extraction performances of the sorbents using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained with R 2 more than 0.9996 for all analytes with LODs of 0.04-1.012 μg/g. Intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were less than 3%, and the recovery was equal to or higher than 90.02%. Compared to non-solid-phase extraction process, the content of total phenolic products was elevated 35.55-68.48% with solid-phase extraction. Finally, the developed and validated method was successfully applied to the discrimination of Zhishi samples from different species as well as Zhishi and Zhiqiao samples in different development stages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Timing of Seasonal Sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Li, Hao

    1999-01-01

    We present a model of timing of seasonal sales where stores choose several designs at the beginning of the season without knowing wich one, if any, will be fashionable. Fashionable designs have a chance to fetch high prices in fashion markets while non-fashionable ones must be sold in a discount market. In the beginning of the season, stores charge high prices in the hope of capturing their fashion market. As the end of the season approaches with goods still on the shelves, stores adjust down...

  14. Preseason Workload Volume and High-Risk Periods for Noncontact Injury Across Multiple Australian Football League Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Marcus J; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Rosenberg, Michael; Lester, Leanne; Peeling, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Colby, MJ, Dawson, B, Heasman, J, Rogalski, B, Rosenberg, M, Lester, L, and Peeling, P. Preseason workload volume and high-risk periods for noncontact injury across multiple Australian Football League seasons. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1821-1829, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the association between preseason workloads and noncontact injury risk in Australian football players. Individual player injury data were recorded over 4 full seasons (2012-15) from one professional club. Noncontact injury incidence (per 1,000 "on legs" field training and game hours) was compared across the preseason, precompetition, and in-season phases to determine relative noncontact injury risk. Preseason workloads (global positioning system-derived total distance run and sprint distance) and individual (fixed) injury risk factors (age, previous injury history) were incorporated into the analysis. A generalized estimating equation with a binary logistic function modeled potential risk factors with noncontact injury for selected periods across the annual cycle. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative injury risk. The (preseason) precompetition phase (19.1 injuries per 1,000 hours) and (in-season) rounds 12-17 (16.0 injuries per 1,000 hours) resulted in the highest injury incidence. Low cumulative total distances in late preseason (<108 km) and precompetition (76-88 km) periods were associated with significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater injury risk during the in-season phase. In conclusion, these results suggest players are at the greatest injury risk during the precompetition period, with low preseason cumulative workloads associated with increased in-season injury risk. Therefore, strength and conditioning staff should place particular emphasis on achieving at least moderate training loads during and leading into this phase, where competitive game play is first introduced.

  15. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  16. Is Information Enough? User Responses to Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Report to the World Bank, AFTE1-ENVGC. Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in Sub{sub S}aharan Africa, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Karen; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto; Kingamkono, Robert; Hochobeb, Ben

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, long-lead climate forecasts have been developed and used to predict the onset of El Nino events and their impact on climate variability. This report discusses user responses to seasonal climate forecasts in southern Africa, with an emphasis on small-scale farmers in Namibia and Tanzania. The study examines how farmers received and used the forecasts in the agricultural season of 1997/1998. It also summarises a workshop on user responses to seasonal forecasts in southern Africa. Comparison of case studies across south Africa revealed differences in forecast dissemination strategies and in the capacity to respond to extreme events. However, improving these strategies and the capacity to respond to the forecasts would yield net profit to agriculture in southern Africa. In anticipation of potential changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme events associated with global climate change, there clearly is a need for improved seasonal forecasts and improved information dissemination.

  17. Divergent surface and total soil moisture projections under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis; Sheffield, Justin; Milly, Paul C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Land aridity has been projected to increase with global warming. Such projections are mostly based on off-line aridity and drought metrics applied to climate model outputs but also are supported by climate-model projections of decreased surface soil moisture. Here we comprehensively analyze soil moisture projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, including surface, total, and layer-by-layer soil moisture. We identify a robust vertical gradient of projected mean soil moisture changes, with more negative changes near the surface. Some regions of the northern middle to high latitudes exhibit negative annual surface changes but positive total changes. We interpret this behavior in the context of seasonal changes in the surface water budget. This vertical pattern implies that the extensive drying predicted by off-line drought metrics, while consistent with the projected decline in surface soil moisture, will tend to overestimate (negatively) changes in total soil water availability.

  18. Testing For Seasonal Cointegration and Error Correction: The U.S. Pecan Price-Inventory Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    2005-01-01

    Using time series data we examine behavior of pecan prices and inventories at zero and seasonal frequencies, given results of seasonal cointegration tests. Both, seasonally unadjusted and adjusted quarterly data are used (1991-2002). Results suggest that, first, shelled and total pecan inventories and shelled pecan prices have common unit roots at both the non-seasonal and seasonal frequencies; second, there is no long run equilibrium between pecan prices and shelled or total inventories when...

  19. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in emission factors illustrated large deviations when emission factors are applied for other seasons than those in which they were experimentally

  20. Preferential Ty1 retromobility in mother cells and nonquiescent stationary phase cells is associated with increased concentrations of total Gag or processed Gag and is inhibited by exposure to a high concentration of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Andrew C; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2018-03-21

    Retrotransposons are abundant mobile DNA elements in eukaryotic genomes that are more active with age in diverse species. Details of the regulation and consequences of retrotransposon activity during aging remain to be determined. Ty1 retromobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more frequent in mother cells compared to daughter cells, and we found that Ty1 was more mobile in nonquiescent compared to quiescent subpopulations of stationary phase cells. This retromobility asymmetry was absent in mutant strains lacking BRP1 that have reduced expression of the essential Pma1p plasma membrane proton pump, lacking the mRNA decay gene LSM1 , and in cells exposed to a high concentration of calcium. Mother cells had higher levels of Ty1 Gag protein than daughters. The proportion of protease-processed Gag decreased as cells transitioned to stationary phase, processed Gag was the dominant form in nonquiescent cells, but was virtually absent from quiescent cells. Treatment with calcium reduced total Gag levels and the proportion of processed Gag, particularly in mother cells. We also found that Ty1 reduced the fitness of proliferating but not stationary phase cells. These findings may be relevant to understanding regulation and consequences of retrotransposons during aging in other organisms, due to conserved impacts and regulation of retrotransposons.

  1. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal model, developed to predict seasonal nitrogen cycles on Triton, has been modified and applied to Pluto. The model was used to calculate the partitioning of nitrogen between surface frost deposits and the atmosphere, as a function of time for various sets of input parameters. Volatile transport was confirmed to have a significant effect on Pluto's climate as nitrogen moved around on a seasonal time scale between hemispheres, and sublimed into and condensed out of the atmosphere. Pluto's high obliquity was found to have a significant effect on the distribution of frost on its surface. Conditions that would lead to permanent polar caps on Triton were found to lead to permanent zonal frost bands on Pluto. In some instances, frost sublimed from the middle of a seasonal cap outward, resulting in a "polar bald spot". Frost which was darker than the substrate did not satisfy observables on Pluto, in contrast to our findings for Triton. Bright frost (brighter than the substrate) came closer to matching observables. Atmospheric pressure varied seasonally. The amplitudes, and to a lesser extent the phase, of the variation depended significantly on frost and substrate properties. Atmospheric pressure was found to be determined both by Pluto's distance from the sun and by the subsolar latitude. In most cases two peaks in atmospheric pressure were observed annually: a greater one associated with the sublimation of the north polar cap just as Pluto receded from perihelion, and a lesser one associated with the sublimation of the south polar cap as Pluto approached perihelion. Our model predicted frost-free dark substrate surface temperatures in the 50 to 60 K range, while frost temperatures typically ranged between 30 to 40 K. Temporal changes in frost coverage illustrated by our results, and changes in the viewing geometry of Pluto from the Earth, may be important for interpretation of ground-based measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.

  2. Seasonality in the Austrian Economy: Common Seasonals and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Kunst, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Abstract: Seasonal cointegration generalizes the idea of cointegration to processes with unit roots at frequencies different from 0. Here, also the dual notion of common trends, "common seasonals", is adopted for the seasonal case. Using a five-variable macroeconomic core system of the Austrian economy, it is demonstrated how common seasonals and seasonal cointegrating vectors look in practice. Statistical tests provide clear evidence on seasonal cointegration in the system. However, it is sh...

  3. Compensatory Changes in Energy Balance Regulation over One Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; MüLLER, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, LUíS B

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms in energy balance (EB) regulation may include compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and metabolic adaption (MA), but information is unavailable in athletes who often change EB components. We aim to investigate EB regulation compensatory mechanisms over one athletic season. Fifty-seven athletes (39 males/18 females; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive phase of the season. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively, and physical activity energy expenditure was determined as TEE - 0.1(TEE) - REE. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and changed body energy stores was determined by 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). EI was derived as TEE + EB. REE was predicted from baseline FFM, FM, sex, and sports. %MA was calculated as 100(measured REE/predicted REE-1) and MA (kcal) as %MA/100 multiplied by baseline measured REE. Average EI minus average physical activity energy expenditure was computed as a proxy of average energy availability, assuming that a constant nonexercise EE occurred over the season. Body mass increased by 0.8 ± 2.5 kg (P energy availability (r = 0.356 and r = 0.0644, respectively). TEE increased over the season without relevant mean changes in weight, suggesting that EI compensation likely occurred. The thrifty or spendthrift phenotypes observed among sports and the demanding workloads these athletes are exposed to highlight the need for sport-specific energy requirements.

  4. A new classification of large-scale climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Gang Dai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a large-scale climate classification for investigating the characteristics of the climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal precipitation, moisture transport and moisture divergence using in situ observations and ERA40 reanalysis data. The results indicate that the climate can be attributed to four regimes around the Plateau. They situate in East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and the semi-arid zone in northern Central Asia throughout the dryland of northwestern China, in addition to the Köppen climate classification. There are different collocations of seasonal temperature and precipitation: 1 in phase for the East and South Asia monsoon regimes, 2 anti-phase for the Central Asia regime, 3 out-of-phase for the westerly regime. The seasonal precipitation concentrations are coupled with moisture divergence, i.e., moisture convergence coincides with the Asian monsoon zone and divergence appears over the Mediterranean-like arid climate region and westerly controlled area in the warm season, while it reverses course in the cold season. In addition, moisture divergence is associated with meridional moisture transport. The northward/southward moisture transport corresponds to moisture convergence/divergence, indicating that the wet and dry seasons are, to a great extent, dominated by meridional moisture transport in these regions. The climate mean southward transport results in the dry-cold season of the Asian monsoon zone and the dry-warm season, leading to desertification or land degradation in Central Asia and the westerly regime zone. The mean-wind moisture transport (MMT is the major contributor to total moisture transport, while persistent northward transient eddy moisture transport (TEMT plays a key role in dry season precipitation, especially in the Asian monsoon zone. The persistent TEMT divergence is an additional mechanism of the out-of-phase collocation in the westerly regime zone. In addition

  5. Should seasonal rainfall forecasts be used for flood preparedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Coughlan de Perez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In light of strong encouragement for disaster managers to use climate services for flood preparation, we question whether seasonal rainfall forecasts should indeed be used as indicators of the likelihood of flooding. Here, we investigate the primary indicators of flooding at the seasonal timescale across sub-Saharan Africa. Given the sparsity of hydrological observations, we input bias-corrected reanalysis rainfall into the Global Flood Awareness System to identify seasonal indicators of floodiness. Results demonstrate that in some regions of western, central, and eastern Africa with typically wet climates, even a perfect tercile forecast of seasonal total rainfall would provide little to no indication of the seasonal likelihood of flooding. The number of extreme events within a season shows the highest correlations with floodiness consistently across regions. Otherwise, results vary across climate regimes: floodiness in arid regions in southern and eastern Africa shows the strongest correlations with seasonal average soil moisture and seasonal total rainfall. Floodiness in wetter climates of western and central Africa and Madagascar shows the strongest relationship with measures of the intensity of seasonal rainfall. Measures of rainfall patterns, such as the length of dry spells, are least related to seasonal floodiness across the continent. Ultimately, identifying the drivers of seasonal flooding can be used to improve forecast information for flood preparedness and to avoid misleading decision-makers.

  6. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  7. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than any non-seasonal depressions. Symptoms of Major Depression Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  8. CCAA seasonal forecasting

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrating meteorological and indigenous knowledge-based seasonal climate forecasts in ..... Explanation is based on spiritual and social values. Taught by .... that provided medicine and food became the subject of strict rules and practices ...

  9. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  10. Determination of blood concentrations of main active compounds in Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction and their total plasma protein binding rates based on hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Runqin; Peng, Xiaoli; Bai, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Oil-in-salt hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for determination of the blood concentrations of the main active compounds, hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin, after oral administration of Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction (ZCCQD) and their total plasma protein binding rates. In the procedure, a hollow fiber segment was immersed in organic solvent to fill the solvent in the fiber lumen and wall pore, and then the fiber was immersed into sodium chloride solution to cover a thin salt membrane on the fiber wall pore filling organic solvent. Various factors affecting the procedure, such as extraction solvent, sample phase pH, stirring rate, extraction time, NaCl concentration and fiber immersion time in the NaCl solution, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearities (r 2 ≥0.9905), low limits of detection (0.7-2.5ng/mL) or quantitation (1.2-12ng/mL), satisfactory precision (2.6%-12.8%) and accuracy (81.0%-114.2%) of this method, were observed. The results showed that, after oral administration of a 25g/kg dose, (1) the blood concentrations (at 0.5h) of hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin were 0.45, 0.40, 0.48, 0.74, 0.11 and 1.11μg/mL, respectively; (2) the total plasma protein binding rates of the six active compounds were 42.0% (hesperidin), 71.8% (honokiol), 64.6% (shikonin), 77.7% (magnolol), 75.3% (emodin) and 75.7% (β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin), respectively. The proposed procedure coupled with HPLC shows obvious advantages, such as low solvent consumption, simple operation, high sensitivity and strong purifying and can be used for the determination of both the blood concentrations and total plasma protein binding rates of active compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoplankton community characteristics of the icebound season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taxonomic structure and spatial variability of phytoplankton abundance in the icebound season was obtained from the Zhalong Wetland. A total of 109 taxa were identified in all samples, 92 taxa occurring in at least two samples or the percentages over 1% in at least one sample were utilized in further study. The algal ...

  12. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  13. Seasonal atmospheric extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)

  14. Seasonality of Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  15. The Hungry Season

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    start to go some way towards addressing this fundamental question. A delightful animation of The Hungry Season, commissioned by Leonie Joubert and funded by the University of Cape Town's Criminology. Department and the Embassy of Finland, is available online at http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=iX77NZttLKo.

  16. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  17. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  18. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  19. Energy Balance over One Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-08-01

    Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as TEE - 0.1 TEE - REE. Fat mass (FM), FFM, and bone mineral were evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; changed body energy stores were calculated as 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). Total-body water (TBW) and its compartments were assessed through dilution techniques, and total-body protein was calculated from a four-compartment model, with body volume assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Although a negative EB of -17.4 ± 72.7 kcal·d was observed (P sports and across sex groups resulting in a net weight increase (0.7 ± 2.3 kg) that is attributable to significant changes in FFM (1.2 ± 1.6 kg) and FM (-0.7 ± 1.5 kg) (P sports, and age. The mean negative EB observed over the season resulted from the rate of FM use and FFM accretion, but with a large variation by sex and sports. TBW, but not total-body protein or mineral balance, explained the magnitude of EB, which means that athletes under a positive or a negative EB showed a TBW expansion or shrinkage, respectively, specifically within the cells, over one athletic season.

  20. Seasonal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) variability in Dona Paula Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.S.; Chinchkar, U.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    as producers of DMSP in Dona Paula bay. Dinoflagellates also contributed during the non-monsoon seasons. Another factor involved in the variability of DMSPt was DMSP utilizing bacteria, which ranged from 1 to 10% of the total heterotrophic count...

  1. Seasonal ionospheric scintillation analysis during increasing solar activity at mid-latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wasiu Akande; Wu, Falin; Agbaje, Ganiyu Ishola; Ednofri, Ednofri; Marlia, Dessi; Zhao, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring of ionospheric parameters (such as Total Electron Content and scintillation) is of great importance as it affects and contributes to the errors encountered by radio signals. It thus requires constant measurements to avoid disastrous situation for space agencies, parastatals and departments that employ GNSS applications in their daily operations. The research objective is to have a better understanding of the behaviour of ionospheric scintillation at midlatitude as it threatens the performances of satellite communication, navigation systems and military operations. This paper adopts seasonal ionospheric scintillation scenario. The mid-latitude investigation of ionospheric effect of scintillation was conducted during the increasing solar activity from 2011-2015. Ionospheric scintillation data were obtained from four ionospheric monitoring stations located at mid-latitude (i.e Shenzhen North Station, Beijing Changping North Station Branch, Beijing North Station and Beijing Miyun ground Station). The data was collected from January 2011 to December 2015. There were absence of data due to software problem or system failure at some locations. The scintillation phenomenon was computed using Global Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitoring Model. There are four seasons which existed in China namely: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. The relationship between TEC, amplitude and phase scintillation were observed for each of these seasons. The results indicated that the weak amplitude scintillation was observed as against phase scintillation which was high. Phase scintillation was gradually enhanced from 2011 to 2012 and later declined till 2014. TEC was also at peak around 00:00-10:00 UT (08:00-18:00 LT). The seasonal events temporal density characteristics comply with solar cycle prediction as such it ascended from 2011 to 2013 and then scintillation parameters declined significantly afterwards.

  2. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  3. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  4. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  5. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  6. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  7. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  8. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. Joshua; Chow, Oliver S.; Gollub, Marc J.; Nash, Garrett M.; Temple, Larissa K.; Weiser, Martin R.; Guillem, José G.; Paty, Philip B.; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or—in patients treated with NOM—the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment

  9. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Joshua; Chow, Oliver S; Gollub, Marc J; Nash, Garrett M; Temple, Larissa K; Weiser, Martin R; Guillem, José G; Paty, Philip B; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-10-23

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or--in patients treated with NOM--the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment compliance

  10. Seasonal and Sexual Variation in Metabolism, Thermoregulation, and Hormones in the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Christopher S; Heeren, Tim; Kunz, Thomas H

    In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase). We hypothesized that all three hormones are seasonally primarily metabolic hormones and secondarily thermogenic hormones. In males, only BMR significantly changed seasonally. In females, all five variables significantly changed seasonally. The seasonal pattern of plasma leptin and cortisol levels correlated with the seasonal pattern of BMR, with an initial increase followed by a decrease, suggesting that leptin and cortisol are primarily metabolic hormones. The seasonal pattern of plasma T 3 levels generally paralleled the basic seasonal pattern of RNST, with both increasing at the second half of the season, suggesting that T 3 is primarily a thermogenic hormone. The observed decrease in plasma leptin levels may be necessary to allow for the observed seasonal decrease in BMR, with the similar cortisol pattern important for leptin regulation. While T 3 is needed to maintain BMR, it may play a more critical role in the seasonal regulation of RNST than of BMR.

  11. Short-term forecasting of non-OPEC supply: a test of seasonality and seasonal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazayeri, S.M.R.T.; Yahyai, A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is, first to find out, based on historical data, whether quarterly averages of non-OPEC supply follow a seasonal pattern. If that is mathematically established, then, secondly, it is attempted to estimate the best seasonal factors to decompose the estimated yearly average into seasonal averages. This study applies the Fourier analysis to quarterly supply series to test for seasonality, and provides estimates of seasonal factors for the year 2001 by applying the so-called X-11 decomposition method to the annual estimate. A set of historical data, consisting of quarterly supply averages of individual countries, regional subtotals and aggregate non-OPEC for the period 1971-2000, forms the basis of the analysis. Through the application of the Fourier analysis and X-11 decomposition method, it is demonstrated that quarterly non-OPEC supply, be it by an individual major producer or regional sub-totals, clearly follows a seasonal pattern. This is a very useful conclusion for the market analyst involved with forecasting the quarterly supply. (author)

  12. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  13. Cost of living in free-ranging degus (Octodon degus) : seasonal dynamics of energy expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozinovic, F; Bacigalupe, LD; Vasquez, RA; Visser, GH; Veloso, C; Kenagy, GJ

    Animals process and allocate energy at different seasons at variable rates, depending on their breeding season and changes in environmental conditions and resulting physiological demands. Overall total energy expenditure, in turn, should either increase in some seasons due to special added demands

  14. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, M; Raymond, K

    2015-01-01

    and phase of the yearly cycles to change. RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer (May...... again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. CONCLUSION: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s...

  15. Seasonal dynamic thinning at Helheim Glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Suzanne L.; Luckman, Adrian; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2015-01-01

    of 671±70kgm-3 and calculate that total water equivalent volume loss from the active part of the glacier (surface flow speeds >1 m day-1) ranges from 0.5 km3 in 2011 to 1.6 km3 in 2013. A rough ice-flux divergence analysis shows that at lower elevations (... the time series, that melt-induced acceleration is most likely the main driver of the seasonal dynamic thinning, as opposed to changes triggered by retreat....

  16. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, M; Mahalov, A; Moustaoui, M

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of natural to urban land forms imparts influence on local and regional hydroclimate via modification of the surface energy and water balance, and consideration of such effects due to rapidly expanding megapolitan areas is necessary in light of the growing global share of urban inhabitants. Based on a suite of ensemble-based, multi-year simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we quantify seasonally varying hydroclimatic impacts of the most rapidly expanding megapolitan area in the US: Arizona’s Sun Corridor, centered upon the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Using a scenario-based urban expansion approach that accounts for the full range of Sun Corridor growth uncertainty through 2050, we show that built environment induced warming for the maximum development scenario is greatest during the summer season (regionally averaged warming over AZ exceeds 1 °C). Warming remains significant during the spring and fall seasons (regionally averaged warming over AZ approaches 0.9 °C during both seasons), and is least during the winter season (regionally averaged warming over AZ of 0.5 °C). Impacts from a minimum expansion scenario are reduced, with regionally averaged warming ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 °C for all seasons except winter, when no warming impacts are diagnosed. Integration of highly reflective cool roofs within the built environment, increasingly recognized as a cost-effective option intended to offset the warming influence of urban complexes, reduces urban-induced warming considerably. However, impacts on the hydrologic cycle are aggravated via enhanced evapotranspiration reduction, leading to a 4% total accumulated precipitation decrease relative to the non-adaptive maximum expansion scenario. Our results highlight potentially unintended consequences of this adaptation approach within rapidly expanding megapolitan areas, and emphasize the need for undeniably sustainable development paths that account for

  17. Music season coming soon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld

    2012-01-01

    On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: music.club@cern.ch.   The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...

  18. Flu season and trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of us who are practicing medicine know that we are in a very active flu season. This was brought home to me when last week trying to admit a patient to the hospital from the office. She was a bone marrow transplant patient who had severe diarrhea and dehydration probably secondary to C. difficile. Hospital admissions said the patient had to be sent to the Emergency Room because the hospital was full due to the flu epidemic. Nationwide there has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospitalizations due to influenza over the past week from 13.7 to 22.7 per 100,000 (1. Influenza A(H3N2 has been the most common form of influenza reported this season. These viruses are often linked to more severe illness, especially in children and people age 65 years and older. Fortunately, the CDC also says that the flu cases may be peaking. However, at ...

  19. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  20. Investigating the patterns and determinants of seasonal variation in vitamin D status in Australian adults: the Seasonal D Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura King

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D status generally varies seasonally with changing solar UVB radiation, time in the sun, amount of skin exposed, and, possibly, diet. The Seasonal D Study was designed to quantify the amplitude and phase of seasonal variation in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25OHD and identify the determinants of the amplitude and phase and those of inter-individual variability in seasonal pattern. Methods The Seasonal D Study collected data 2-monthly for 12 months, including demographics, personal sun exposure using a diary and polysulphone dosimeters over 7 days, and blood for serum 25(OHD concentration. The study recruited 333 adults aged 18–79 years living in Canberra (35°S, n = 168 and Brisbane (27°South, n = 165, Australia. Discussion We report the study design and cohort description for the Seasonal D Study. The study has collected a wealth of data to examine inter- and intra-individual seasonal variation in vitamin D status and serum 25(OHD levels in Australian adults.

  1. A seasonal nitrogen deposition budget for Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K B; Carrico, C M; Kreidenweis, S M; Schichtel, B; Malm, W C; Collett, J L

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen deposition is a concern in many protected ecosystems around the world, yet few studies have quantified a complete reactive nitrogen deposition budget including all dry and wet, inorganic and organic compounds. Critical loads that identify the level at which nitrogen deposition negatively affects an ecosystem are often defined using incomplete reactive nitrogen budgets. Frequently only wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate are considered, despite the importance of other nitrogen deposition pathways. Recently, dry deposition pathways including particulate ammonium and nitrate and gas phase nitric acid have been added to nitrogen deposition budgets. However, other nitrogen deposition pathways, including dry deposition of ammonia and wet deposition of organic nitrogen, still are rarely included. In this study, a more complete seasonal nitrogen deposition budget was constructed based on observations during a year-long study period from November 2008 to November 2009 at a location on the east side of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Measurements included wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm, nitrate, and ammonium) concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, and atmospheric gas phase concentrations of ammonia, nitric acid, and NO2. Dry deposition fluxes were determined from measured ambient concentrations and modeled deposition velocities. Total reactive nitrogen deposition by all included pathways was found to be 3.65 kg N x ha(-1) yr(-1). Monthly deposition fluxes ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1), with peak deposition in the month of July and the least deposition in December. Wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate were the two largest deposition pathways, together contributing 1.97 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1) or 54% of the total nitrogen deposition budget for this region. The next two largest deposition pathways were wet

  2. Relationship Between Preseason Training Load and In-Season Availability in Elite Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nick B; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the proportion of preseason training sessions completed and load and injury during the ensuing Australian Football League season. Single-cohort, observational study. Forty-six elite male Australian football players from 1 club participated. Players were divided into 3 equal groups based on the amount of preseason training completed (high [HTL], >85% sessions completed; medium [MTL], 50-85% sessions completed; and low [LTL], technology was used to record training and game loads, with all injuries recorded and classified by club medical staff. Differences between groups were analyzed using a 2-way (group × training/competition phase) repeated-measures ANOVA, along with magnitude-based inferences. Injury incidence was expressed as injuries per 1000 h. The HTL and MTL groups completed a greater proportion of in-season training sessions (81.1% and 74.2%) and matches (76.7% and 76.1%) than the LTL (56.9% and 52.7%) group. Total distance and player load were significantly greater during the first half of the in-season period for the HTL (P = .03, ES = 0.88) and MTL (P = .02, ES = 0.93) groups than the LTL group. The relative risk of injury for the LTL group (26.8/1000 h) was 1.9 times greater than that for the HTL group (14.2/1000 h) (χ 2 = 3.48, df = 2, P = .17). Completing a greater proportion of preseason training resulted in higher training loads and greater participation in training and competition during the competitive phase of the season.

  3. Future climate change enhances rainfall seasonality in a regional model of western Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suchul; Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, future changes in rainfall due to global climate change are investigated over the western Maritime Continent based on dynamically downscaled climate projections using the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) with 12 km horizontal resolution. A total of nine 30-year regional climate projections driven by multi-GCMs projections (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-MR and ACCESS1.0) under multi-scenarios of greenhouse gases emissions (Historical: 1976-2005, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5: 2071-2100) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) are analyzed. Focusing on dynamically downscaled rainfall fields, the associated systematic biases originating from GCM and MRCM are removed based on observations using Parametric Quantile Mapping method in order to enhance the reliability of future projections. The MRCM simulations with bias correction capture the spatial patterns of seasonal rainfall as well as the frequency distribution of daily rainfall. Based on projected rainfall changes under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the ensemble of MRCM simulations project a significant decrease in rainfall over the western Maritime Continent during the inter-monsoon periods while the change in rainfall is not relevant during wet season. The main mechanism behind the simulated decrease in rainfall is rooted in asymmetries of the projected changes in seasonal dynamics of the meridional circulation along different latitudes. The sinking motion, which is marginally positioned in the reference simulation, is enhanced and expanded under global climate change, particularly in RCP8.5 scenario during boreal fall season. The projected enhancement of rainfall seasonality over the western Maritime Continent suggests increased risk of water stress for natural ecosystems as well as man-made water resources reservoirs.

  4. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  5. Bayesian analyses of seasonal runoff forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztofowicz, R.; Reese, S.

    1991-12-01

    Forecasts of seasonal snowmelt runoff volume provide indispensable information for rational decision making by water project operators, irrigation district managers, and farmers in the western United States. Bayesian statistical models and communication frames have been researched in order to enhance the forecast information disseminated to the users, and to characterize forecast skill from the decision maker's point of view. Four products are presented: (i) a Bayesian Processor of Forecasts, which provides a statistical filter for calibrating the forecasts, and a procedure for estimating the posterior probability distribution of the seasonal runoff; (ii) the Bayesian Correlation Score, a new measure of forecast skill, which is related monotonically to the ex ante economic value of forecasts for decision making; (iii) a statistical predictor of monthly cumulative runoffs within the snowmelt season, conditional on the total seasonal runoff forecast; and (iv) a framing of the forecast message that conveys the uncertainty associated with the forecast estimates to the users. All analyses are illustrated with numerical examples of forecasts for six gauging stations from the period 1971 1988.

  6. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  7. Seasonal variations in nutrients and secondary metabolites in semi-arid savannas depend on year and species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scogings, PF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available concentrations are highest in the dry season. We measured nitrogen, phosphorus, total polyphenols and condensed tannins in six woody species (including one evergreen) seasonally at the Nkuhlu exclosure, Kruger National Park, South Africa, for three consecutive...

  8. Birth seasonality in Korean Prader-Willi syndrome with chromosome 15 microdeletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a well-known genetic disorder, and microdeletion on chromosome 15 is the most common causal mechanism. Several previous studies have suggested that various environmental factors might be related to the pathogenesis of microdeletion in PWS. In this study, we investigated birth seasonality in Korean PWS.MethodsA total of 211 PWS patients born from 1980 to 2014 were diagnosed by methylation polymerase chain reaction at Samsung Medical Center. Of the 211 patients, 138 were born from 2000-2013. Among them, the 74 patients of a deletion group and the 22 patients of a maternal uniparental disomy (UPD group were compared with general populations born from 2000 using the Walter and Elwood method and cosinor analysis.ResultsThere was no statistical significance in seasonal variation in births of the total 211 patients with PWS (χ2=7.2522, P=0.2982. However, a significant difference was found in the monthly variation between PWS with the deletion group and the at-risk general population (P<0.05. In the cosinor model, the peak month of birth for PWS patients in the deletion group was January, while the nadir occurred in July, with statistical significance (amplitude=0.23, phase=1.2, low point=7.2. The UPD group showed the peak birth month in spring; however, this result was not statistically significant (χ2=3.39, P=0.1836.ConclusionCorrelation with birth seasonality was identified in a deletion group of Korean PWS patients. Further studies are required to identify the mechanism related to seasonal effects of environmental factors on microdeletion on chromosome 15.

  9. Studies of the Seasonal Pattern of Multiple Maternities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Johan

    2017-06-01

    The seasonality of population data has been of great interest in demographic studies. When seasonality is analyzed, the population at risk plays a central role. In a study of the monthly number of births and deaths, the population at risk is the product of the size of the population and the length of the month. Usually, the population can be assumed to be constant, and consequently, the population at risk is proportional to the length of the month. Hence, the number of cases per day has to be analyzed. If one studies the seasonal variation in twin or multiple maternities, the population at risk is the total number of monthly confinements, and the study should be based on the rates of the multiple maternities. Consequently, if one considers monthly twinning rates, the monthly number of birth data is eliminated and one obtains an unaffected seasonality measure of the twin maternities. The strength of the seasonality is measured by a chi-squared test or by the standard deviation. When seasonal models are applied, one must pay special attention to how well the model fits the data. If the goodness of fit is poor, it can erroneously result in a statement that the seasonality is slight, although the observed seasonal fluctuations are marked.

  10. Season and Weight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hayati

    and a typical production system expends nearly 75% of total feed energy ... The data used in this study enabled us to evaluate the ... Since this paper was an evaluation of feedlot performance, the economic data were not ..... Heat wave.

  11. A season of football injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.

  12. Seasonal inter-relationships in atmospheric methane and companion delta13C values: effects of sinks and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K. R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E. (NIWA, Wellington (New Zealand)), e-mail: k.lassey@niwa.co.nz; Allan, W. (Allan Planning and Research Ltd., Petone (New Zealand))

    2011-07-15

    Recent developments in applying carbon-isotope information to better understand regional and global methane budgets infer a strong role by a highly fractionating seasonal sink such as atomic chlorine. Specifically, OH as the predominant seasonal sink cannot account for the 'phase ellipses' based on observed seasonal cycles of methane mixing ratio and isotope ratio, delta13C. Although a strong role by atomic chlorine is inferred empirically, open questions remain about the interplay between sources and sinks in determining the properties of phase ellipses. This paper employs a simple didactic model of the seasonal cycling of atmospheric methane to understand such interplay. We demonstrate that a single seasonal sink and seasonal source act together to imprint anti-phase seasonalities on atmospheric methane and delta13C, which lead to phase ellipses that collapse onto a straight line with slope characteristic of that sink. This explains empirical findings of these anti-phase relationships in three-dimensional modelling studies. We also demonstrate that multiple seasonal sinks acting with a seasonal source can yield surprising properties for the phase ellipse that not only explain some features of phase ellipses reported in modelling studies but also have the potential to explain marked inter-annual variation in phase ellipses based on observation

  13. Seasonal variation of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Тhe aim of the present study was identification of flavone aglycones and determination of the content of each and the content of total flavonoids as well as investigation of the eventual seasonal variations of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae. The plant samples were collected at six different locations in Republic of Macedonia, during summer in 1999, 2000 and 2003. For determination of seasonal variations, the samples were collected in v. Koleshino, in 2004, each month during the whole season. Six flavone aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin and cirsilineol were identified in the hydrolyzed extracts of the over ground part of Teucrium polium by HPLC method. The most abundant flavone was luteolin, followed by apigenin and cirsimaritin. Great seasonal variations were found in the content of each and in the content of total amount of flavonoids. The most abundant flavone during the whole season was luteolin with the highest content in May. The content of total flavonids was the highest in the period from May to July, which could be recommended as the most convenience period in the season for collecting of the plant material from Teucrium polium.

  14. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  15. Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; P.G. Schaberg; G.J. Hawley; C.H. Borer; J.R. Cumming; J.R. Strimbeck

    1997-01-01

    We examined the pattern of seasonal variation in total foliar calcium (Ca) pools and plasma membrane-associated Ca (mCa) in mesophyll cells of current-year and 1-year-old needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and the relationship between mCa and total foliar Ca on an individual plant and seasonal basis. Foliar samples were collected from...

  16. Increased health risk in subjects with high self-reported seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M Øyane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in mood and behaviour, termed seasonality, are commonly reported in the general population. As a part of a large cross-sectional health survey in Hordaland, Norway, we investigated the relationship between seasonality, objective health measurements and health behaviours. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 11,545 subjects between 40-44 years old participated, completing the Global Seasonality Score, measuring seasonality. Waist/hip circumference, BMI and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on miscellaneous health behaviours (exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations between seasonality and objective health measurements, while binary logistic regression was used for analysing associations between seasonality and health behaviours. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, month of questionnaire completion and sleep duration. Seasonality was positively associated with high waist-hip-ratio, BMI, triglyceride levels, and in men high total cholesterol. Seasonality was negatively associated with HDL cholesterol. In women seasonality was negatively associated with prevalence of exercise and positively associated with daily cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High seasonality was associated with objective health risk factors and in women also with health behaviours associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

  17. Cold season emissions dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Henderson, John M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D.; Kimball, John S.; Lipson, David A.; Oechel, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra total 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y-1, ∼25% of global emissions from extratropical wetlands, or ∼6% of total global wetland methane emissions. The dominance of late-season emissions, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 emissions will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming.

  18. Seasonal variations and size distributions of water-soluble ions of atmospheric particulate matter at Shigatse, Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongjie; Zhou, Rui; Yan, Yan; Yu, Yue; Liu, Junqing; Di, Yi'an; Du, Zhenyu; Wu, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from July 2012 to September 2013 at Shigatse, high-altitude (3836 m above sea level) site on the south Tibetan Plateau (TP); objectives were to determine the characteristics and size distribution of water-soluble ions (WSIs). Eight major WSIs (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NH4(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) were detected by ion chromatography. The total concentrations of WSIs were 6370 ± 1916 ng m(-3) in dry season (October - December, January - April), and 5261 ± 769 ng/m(3) during wet phase (May - September). The contribution of K(+) (130 ng m(-3)), Cl(-) (2035 ng m(-3)), SO4(2-) (1176 ng m(-3)), and NO3(-) (706 ng m(-3))(-)were significantly enhanced in dry season, and that of Na(+) (455 ng m(-3)), Mg(2+)(65.4 ng m(-3)), Ca(2+)(1034 ng m(-3)), and NH4(+) (1948 ng m(-3)) were significantly enhanced during wet phase. Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were concentrated in the coarse mode, and the other ions concentrated in fine mode and coarse mode during two seasons. The correlation coefficients between K(+) and NH4(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were 0.58 (P burning in dry season. The significant correlation between NH4(+) and HCO3(-) which were calculated by ion balance (r = 0.89, P < 0.01), suggesting the source from nitrogen fertilizers during wet phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal response of biomass growth and allocation of a boreal bioenergy crop (Phalaris arundinacea L.) to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhang

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse how the seasonal biomass growth and allocation in a boreal bioenergy crop (Phalaris arundinacea L., hereafter RCG) were affected by elevated temperature and CO{sub 2} under different levels of groundwater. For this purpose, plants in peat monoliths representing young and old cultivations were grown in auto-controlled environmental chambers over two growing seasons (April-September, 2009 and 2010) under elevated temperature (ambient + 3.5 deg C) and CO{sub 2} (700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}). (CON: ambient conditions, EC: elevated CO{sub 2}, ET: elevated temperature, ETC: elevated temperature and CO{sub 2}). Three levels of groundwater, ranging from high (HW, 0 cm below the soil surface), to normal (NW, 20 cm below the soil surface) and low (LW, 40 cm below the soil surface), were used. Compared to growth under CON, ET enhanced leaf development and photosynthesis in the RCG plant. Consequently, ET enhanced biomass growth during early growing periods. It also reduced photosynthesis and caused earlier leaf senescence during later growing periods. ET therefore reduced total biomass growth across the entire growing season. EC significantly increased biomass growth throughout the growing period primarily because of increased leaf area and photosynthesis. LW decreased the growth of RCG, mainly because of lower leaf area and photosynthesis. Furthermore, LW accelerated the cessation of growth, thus making the growing season shorter compared with the effects of higher groundwater levels. The LW- induced reductions in biomass growth were exacerbated by ET and partially mitigated by EC. The ETC slightly increased final plant growth. The age of cultivation did not affect the biomass growth among the three major organs (leaf, stem and root) and thus did not affect total biomass growth. Biomass growth was mainly allocated to leaves (LMF) and stems (SMF) in the early growing season, to stems in the middle of the growing season and to roots (RMF) later

  20. Variability of cold season surface air temperature over northeastern China and its linkage with large-scale atmospheric circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuanhuang; Zhang, Jingyong; Wang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Cold temperature anomalies and extremes have profound effects on the society, the economy, and the environment of northeastern China (NEC). In this study, we define the cold season as the months from October to April, and investigate the variability of cold season surface air temperature (CSAT) over NEC and its relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns for the period 1981-2014. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis shows that the first EOF mode of the CSAT over NEC is characterized by a homogeneous structure that describes 92.2% of the total variance. The regionally averaged CSAT over NEC is closely linked with the Arctic Oscillation ( r = 0.62, 99% confidence level) and also has a statistically significant relation with the Polar/Eurasian pattern in the cold season. The positive phases of the Arctic Oscillation and the Polar/Eurasian pattern tend to result in a positive geopotential height anomaly over NEC and a weakened East Asian winter monsoon, which subsequently increase the CSAT over NEC by enhancing the downward solar radiation, strengthening the subsidence warming and warm air advection. Conversely, the negative phases of these two climate indices result in opposite regional atmospheric circulation anomalies and decrease the CSAT over NEC.

  1. Stormwater impact in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro): Evidences of seasonal variability in the dynamic of the sediment heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E. M.; Baptista Neto, J. A.; Silva, C. G.; McAlister, J. J.; Smith, B. J.; Fernandez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Guanabara Bay is one of the most prominent coastal bays in Brazil. This environment is an estuary of 91 rivers and channels, surrounded by the metropolis of Rio de Janeiro. The bay receives considerable amounts of contaminants introduced from sewage effluents, industrial discharge, urban and agricultural runoff, atmospheric fallout, and the combined inputs from the rivers, making Guanabara Bay one of the most polluted coastal environments on the Brazilian coastline. The aim of this work is to study the concentration and fractionation of the heavy metals within the sediments of the bay. In order to understand the possible seasonal influence on the heavy metal fractionation, two campaigns were carried out in two different seasons of the year (rainy and dry). Twelve stations, in four different areas, with different oceanographic characteristics, where chosen. To assess the bioavailability of the metals a selective extraction procedure was used to study the geochemical fractionation and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb. The rainy season was very important with respect to variation in the total concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb and their fractionation within different "operational" phases present in Guanabara Bay sediments. The water-soluble phase showed little importance, with respect to metal adsorption and this would suggest very low mobility of metals in the water column. Nevertheless, the potentially available metals within these sediments showed a high probability for their release and therefore cause contamination of the water column, since different parts of the bay are constantly subjected to dredging projects promoted by the harbor authorities.

  2. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  3. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  5. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  7. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  8. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  9. Remotely Sensed Northern Vegetation Response to Changing Climate: Growing Season and Productivity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of seasonal total gross primary productivity of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts on growing season and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we first investigate how vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthesis state are evolved and how such components contribute on inter-annual variation of seasonal total gross primary productivity. Furthermore, seasonally different response of northern vegetation to changing temperature and water availability is also investigated. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed data to extract larger scale growing season metrics (growing season start, end and duration) and productivity (i.e., growing season summed vegetation index, GSSVI) for answering these questions. We find that regionally diverged growing season shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity inter-annual variability and trend. Also seasonally different response of vegetation gives different view of spatially varying interaction between vegetation and climate. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern vegetation to changing climate.

  10. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  11. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  12. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  13. Seasonal behavior of carbonyls and source characterization of formaldehyde (HCHO) in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, K. H.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Louie, Peter K. K.; Chan, C. S.; Lee, S. C.; Hu, Di; Chan, P. W.; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Ho, K. F.

    2017-03-01

    Gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO) is an intermediate and a sensitive indicator for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) oxidation, which drives tropospheric ozone production. Effective photochemical pollution control strategies demand a thorough understanding of photochemical oxidation precursors, making differentiation between sources of primary and secondary generated HCHO inevitable. Spatial and seasonal variations of airborne carbonyls based on two years of measurements (2012-2013), coupled with a correlation-based HCHO source apportionment analysis, were determined for three sampling locations in Hong Kong (denoted HT, TC, and YL). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the two most abundant compounds of the total quantified carbonyls. Pearson's correlation analysis (r > 0.7) implies that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde possibly share similar sources. The total carbonyl concentration trends (HT rural). A regression analysis further quantifies the relative primary HCHO source contributions at HT (∼13%), TC (∼21%), and YL (∼40%), showing more direct vehicular emissions in urban than rural areas. Relative secondary source contributions at YL (∼36%) and TC (∼31%) resemble each other, implying similar urban source contributions. Relative background source contributions at TC could be due to a closed structure microenvironment that favors the trapping of HCHO. Comparable seasonal differences are observed at all stations. The results of this study will aid in the development of a new regional ozone (O3) control policy, as ambient HCHO can enhance O3 production and also be produced from atmospheric VOCs oxidation (secondary HCHO).

  14. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  15. Consumer Acceptance Comparison Between Seasoned and Unseasoned Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiming; Albiol Tapia, Marta; Okada, Kyle; Castaneda Lazo, Nuria Blanca; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Phillips, Carter; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2018-02-01

    Recent findings show that approximately 87% of the U.S. population fail to meet the vegetable intake recommendations, with unpleasant taste of vegetables being listed as the primary reason for this shortfall. In this study, spice and herb seasoning was used to enhance palatability of vegetables, in order to increase consumer acceptance. In total, 749 panelists were screened and recruited as specific vegetable likers of the vegetable being tested or general vegetable likers. Four sessions were designed to evaluate the effect of seasoning within each type of vegetable, including broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, and green bean. Each panelist was only allowed to participate in one test session to evaluate only one vegetable type, so as to mitigate potential learning effect. Overall, the results showed that seasoned vegetables were significantly preferred over unseasoned vegetables (P trend of seasoned vegetable being preferred remained. The findings from this study demonstrate the effect of seasoning in enhancing consumer liking of vegetables, which may lead to increased consumption to be assessed in future studies. To improve the sensory properties of vegetables, masking the bitter taste of vegetables using spice and herb seasoning are gaining increasing attention. Our findings suggest that the overall liking of vegetables could be improved by incorporating spice and herb seasonings that are specifically formulated for each vegetable. Ultimately, developing and commercializing spice and herb seasonings may aid to increase vegetable consumption, as well as expanding the vegetable seasoning market. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  16. Successional dynamics in the seasonally forced diamond food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

    2012-07-01

    Plankton seasonal succession is a classic example of nonequilibrium community dynamics. Despite the fact that it has been well studied empirically, it lacks a general quantitative theory. Here we investigate a food web model that includes a resource, two phytoplankton, and a shared grazer-the diamond food web-in a seasonal environment. The model produces a number of successional trajectories that have been widely discussed in the context of the verbal Plankton Ecology Group model of succession, such as a spring bloom of a good competitor followed by a grazer-induced clear-water phase, setting the stage for the late-season dominance of a grazer-resistant species. It also predicts a novel, counterintuitive trajectory where the grazer-resistant species has both early- and late-season blooms. The model often generates regular annual cycles but sometimes produces multiyear cycles or chaos, even with identical forcing each year. Parameterizing the model, we show how the successional trajectory depends on nutrient supply and the length of the growing season, two key parameters that vary among water bodies. This model extends nonequilibrium theory to food webs and is a first step toward a quantitative theory of plankton seasonal succession.

  17. Seasonal variations of ochreous precipitates in mine effluents in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Carlson, Liisa; Raeisaenen, Marja-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Ochreous precipitate and water samples were collected from the surroundings of seven closed sulphide mines in Finland. In the Hammaslahti Zn-Cu-Au mine, Otravaara pyrite mine and Paroistenjaervi Cu-W-As mine, the collection was repeated in different seasons to study mineralogical and geochemical variations of precipitates. The sampling was done in 1999-2002 from the ditches and drainage ponds of the tailings and waste rock piles that are susceptible to seasonal changes. Mineralogy of the precipitates was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), and precipitate geochemistry was examined by selective extractions. Schwertmannite (Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 6 SO 4 ) was the most typical Fe hydroxide mineral found. Goethite was almost as common as schwertmannite, was often poorly ordered, and contained up to 10 wt.% of SO 4 . Goethite and schwertmannite were commonly found as mixtures, and they occurred in similar pH and SO 4 concentrations. Ferrihydrite (nominally Fe 5 HO 8 . 4H 2 O) was typically found in areas not influenced by acid mine drainage, and also in acid mine waters with high organic matter or As content. Jarosite (KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ) was found only in one site. In addition, some gypsum (CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O) and aluminous sulphate precipitates (presumably basaluminite, Al 4 (SO 4 )(OH) 10 . 5H 2 O) were identified. Selective extractions showed that acid extracts Fe tot /S tot -ratios of schwertmannite and goethite samples were similar, but the ratio of oxalate-extractable to total Fe, Fe ox /Fe tot , of goethite samples were lower than those of the schwertmannite samples. Only Al, Si and As were bound to precipitates in substantial amounts, up to several wt.%. In schwertmannites and goethites, Al, Cu, Co, Mn and Zn were mostly structural, substituting for Fe in an Fe oxyhydroxide structure or bound to surface adsorption sites in pores limited by diffusion. In ferrihydrites, heavy metals were also partly bound in adsorbed form dissolving in

  18. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield ...

  19. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  20. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane and Total Intravenous Anesthesia for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery on Postoperative Cardiac Troponin Release: An International, Multicenter, Phase 3, Single-blinded, Randomized Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofland, Jan; Ouattara, Alexandre; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Gruenewald, Matthias; Hazebroucq, Jean; Ecoffey, Claude; Joseph, Pierre; Heringlake, Matthias; Steib, Annick; Coburn, Mark; Amour, Julien; Rozec, Bertrand; Liefde, Inge de; Meybohm, Patrick; Preckel, Benedikt; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Tritapepe, Luigi; Tonner, Peter; Benhaoua, Hamina; Roesner, Jan Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Hanouz, Luc; Tenbrinck, Rob; Bogers, Ad J J C; Mik, Bert G; Coiffic, Alain; Renner, Jochen; Steinfath, Markus; Francksen, Helga; Broch, Ole; Haneya, Assad; Schaller, Manuella; Guinet, Patrick; Daviet, Lauren; Brianchon, Corinne; Rosier, Sebastien; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Paarmann, Hauke; Schön, Julika; Hanke, Thorsten; Ettel, Joachym; Olsson, Silke; Klotz, Stefan; Samet, Amir; Laurinenas, Giedrius; Thibaud, Adrien; Cristinar, Mircea; Collanges, Olivier; Levy, François; Rossaint, Rolf; Stevanovic, Ana; Schaelte, Gereon; Stoppe, Christian; Hamou, Nora Ait; Hariri, Sarah; Quessard, Astrid; Carillion, Aude; Morin, Hélène; Silleran, Jacqueline; Robert, David; Crouzet, Anne-Sophie; Zacharowski, Kai; Reyher, Christian; Iken, Sonja; Weber, Nina C; Hollmann, Marcus; Eberl, Susanne; Carriero, Giovanni; Collacchi, Daria; Di Persio, Alessandra; Fourcade, Olivier; Bergt, Stefan; Alms, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic myocardial damage accompanying coronary artery bypass graft surgery remains a clinical challenge. We investigated whether xenon anesthesia could limit myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, as has been reported for animal ischemia models. In 17 university hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, and The Netherlands, low-risk elective, on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients were randomized to receive xenon, sevoflurane, or propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia for anesthesia maintenance. The primary outcome was the cardiac troponin I concentration in the blood 24 h postsurgery. The noninferiority margin for the mean difference in cardiac troponin I release between the xenon and sevoflurane groups was less than 0.15 ng/ml. Secondary outcomes were the safety and feasibility of xenon anesthesia. The first patient included at each center received xenon anesthesia for practical reasons. For all other patients, anesthesia maintenance was randomized (intention-to-treat: n = 492; per-protocol/without major protocol deviation: n = 446). Median 24-h postoperative cardiac troponin I concentrations (ng/ml [interquartile range]) were 1.14 [0.76 to 2.10] with xenon, 1.30 [0.78 to 2.67] with sevoflurane, and 1.48 [0.94 to 2.78] with total intravenous anesthesia [per-protocol]). The mean difference in cardiac troponin I release between xenon and sevoflurane was -0.09 ng/ml (95% CI, -0.30 to 0.11; per-protocol: P = 0.02). Postoperative cardiac troponin I release was significantly less with xenon than with total intravenous anesthesia (intention-to-treat: P = 0.05; per-protocol: P = 0.02). Perioperative variables and postoperative outcomes were comparable across all groups, with no safety concerns. In postoperative cardiac troponin I release, xenon was noninferior to sevoflurane in low-risk, on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Only with xenon was cardiac troponin I release less than with total intravenous

  2. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  3. Seasonal variation and predictors of epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Matthew R; Seeskin, Zachary; Chandra, Rakesh

    2014-09-01

    To examine the incidence of epistaxis as a function of season and age and to determine predictors of episodes within the epistaxis patient population presenting to a tertiary hospital system. Retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical record charts of patients presenting to the Northwestern Emergency Department, admitted to an inpatient ward, or seen in an outpatient setting between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed and selected for an International Classifications of Disease-Ninth Revision epistaxis code of 784.7. Season of presentation, demographic factors (age, race, gender, insurance status), medication use (including anticoagulants and topical nasal steroid administration), and several comorbidities were analyzed as potential predictors of episodes. A total of 2,405 patients were identified with a total of 3,666 individual epistaxis episodes over 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis (CRS), coagulopathy, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), hematologic malignancy, and hypertension (HTN) as predictors of a higher number of cases. Epistaxis occurred more frequently during colder months and in older patients. Epistaxis occurs more commonly during the winter and in older patients. AR, CRS, coagulopathy, HHT, hematologic malignancy, and HTN are associated with increased epistaxis incidence. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Understanding Seasonal Changes to Improve Good Practices in Livestock Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martelli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food quality control techniques based on process control methods are increasingly adopted in livestock production systems to fulfill increasing market's expectations toward competitiveness and issues linked to One Health pillars (environment, animal, and human health. Control Charts allow monitoring and systematic investigation of sources of variability in dairy production parameters. These parameters, however, may be affected by seasonal variations that render impractical, biased or ineffective the use statistical control charts. A possible approach to this problem is to adapt seasonal adjustment methods used for the analysis of economic and demographic seasonal time series. The aim of the present work is to evaluate a seasonal decomposition technique called X-11 on milk parameters routinely collected also in small farms (fat, protein, and lactose content, solids-not-fat, freezing point, somatic cell count, total bacterial count and to test the efficacy of different seasonal removal methods to improve the effectiveness of statistical control charting.Method: Data collection was carried out for 3 years on routinely monitored bulk tank milk parameters of a small farm. Seasonality presence was statistically assessed on milk parameters and, for those parameters showing seasonality, control charts for individuals were applied on raw data, on X-11 seasonally adjusted data, and on data smoothed with a symmetric moving average filter. Correlation of seasonally influenced parameters with daily mean temperature was investigated.Results: Presence of seasonality in milk parameters was statistically assessed for fat, protein, and solids-non-fat components. The X-11 seasonally-adjusted control charts showed a reduced number of violations (false alarms with respect to non-seasonally adjusted control chart (from 5 to 1 violation for fat, from 17 to 1 violation for protein, and from 9 to none violation for solids-non-fat.. This result was

  5. The effect of seasonality on burn incidence, severity and outcome in Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Gallaher, Jared; Mjuweni, Stephen; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2017-08-01

    In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed. Seasons were categorized as Rainy (December-February), Lush (March-May), Cold (June-August) and Hot (September-November). A negative binomial regression was used to assess the effect of seasonality on burn incidence. This was performed using both the raw and deseasonalized data in order to evaluate for trends not attributable to random fluctuation. A total of 905 patients were included. Flame (38%) and Scald (59%) burns were the most common mechanism. More burns occurred during the cold season (41% vs 19-20% in the other seasons). Overall mortality was 19%. Only the cold season had a statistically significant increase in burn . The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the hot, lush, and cold seasons were 0.94 (CI 0.6-1.32), 1.02 (CI 0.72-1.45) and 1.6 (CI 1.17-2.19), respectively, when compared to the rainy season. Burn severity and mortality did not differ between seasons. The results of this study demonstrate the year-round phenomenon of burns treated at our institution, and highlights the slight predominance of burns during the cold season. These data can be used to guide prevention strategies, with special attention to the implications of the increased burn incidence during the cold season. Though burn severity and mortality remain relatively unchanged between seasons, recognizing the seasonal variability in incidence of burns is critical for resource allocation in this low-income setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and Seasonal Variation of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Three Conifers in Mt. Taehwa, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Kyun; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-01-01

    The needled leaves of three conifer species were collected in Mt. Taehwa during different seasons of the year. Total 59 isolates and 19 species of endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves and identified using morphological and molecular characteristics. As a result, Shannon index was different in its host plant; Larix kaempferi had a highest value of species diversity. According to the sampling season, 9 species of 19 species were isolated during fall season. The results suggest that th...

  7. Seasonal variation in sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim

    2018-02-01

    This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.

  8. Demographic processes in a local population: seasonal dynamics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... differences in daily recruitment and within-patch survival rates. Males were most abundant relative to females early in the season, indicating protandry. Total adult population size was small and showed dramatic variation between the two years, indicating how vulnerable the local population is to demographic extinction.

  9. The prevalence and seasonality of livestock diseases in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total 1093 animals comprising 132 cattle, 240 goats, 318 sheep, 20 horses, 47 pigs and 336 dogs were examined at necropsy. Some diseases such as cowdriosis, Pneumonia, Ectoparasitism, and Haemonchosis showed seasonal fluctuation while others like Babesiosis, Trypanosomiasis and physical injuries were ...

  10. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... It is also known that melatonin, B-endorphin and prolactin are important in the timing of reactivation of reproduction in the European hedgehog (Fowler 1988b). Although the present study, based upon total circulating testosterone levels illustrates a clear seasonal cycle in plasma testosterone in A. fronlalis,.

  11. Seasonal variation of ground spiders in a Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Farcic Mineo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna Ecoregion (Cerrado is one of the richest biomes in the world, with a characteristic highly seasonal climate a dry season between May and September and a rainy season from October through April. Ground-dwelling spiders from three Cerrado phytophysiognomies, "campo cerrado", "cerrado" and "cerrad��o", were sampled using pitfall traps during two years, totaling 111 species and 3,529 individuals. The abundance of individuals and species richness was higher during the wet season. Fifty-eight species were captured exclusively during that period, whereas only nineteen were restricted to the dry season. Only two species were found in all samples. The number of juveniles was higher than the number of adults in all phytophysiognomies and in all species during both seasons. The highest abundance was registered in October and the lowest in April. Overall sex ratio was male-biased in all vegetation types sampled. Distinct climate variables affected the abundance of spiders depending on sex, age and vegetal physiognomy where they were sampled. This study involved the longest sampling of spider abundance and diversity on the ground of a Brazilian Savanna.

  12. Seasonality of selected surface water constituents in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Y; Migliaccio, K W; Wan, Y; Li, Y C; Chin, D

    2007-01-01

    Seasonality is often the major exogenous effect that must be compensated for or removed to discern trends in water quality. Our objective was to provide a methodological example of trend analysis using water quality data with seasonality. Selected water quality constituents from 1979 to 2004 at three monitoring stations in southern Florida were evaluated for seasonality. The seasonal patterns of flow-weighted and log-transformed concentrations were identified by applying side-by-side boxplots and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p turbidity, color, and chloride), except for turbidity at Station C24S49, exhibited significant seasonal patterns. Almost all nutrient species (NO(2)-N, NH(4)-N, total Kjeldahl N, PO(4)-P, and total P) had an identical seasonal pattern of concentrations significantly greater in the wet than in the dry season. Some water quality constituents were observed to exhibit significant annual or seasonal trends. In some cases, the overall annual trend was insignificant while opposing trends were present in different seasons. By evaluating seasonal trends separately from all data, constituents can be assessed providing a more accurate interpretation of water quality trends.

  13. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    in a double-blind study. Assessment of severity of symptoms from the nose, eyes and lungs were performed daily during the season 2000, and post-seasonally 6 months after the season in 1999 and 2000. A four-point verbal descriptor scale (VDS-4) was used at all occasions. A mean in-seasonal symptom rating...

  14. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  15. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  16. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  17. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  18. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  19. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  20. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  1. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  2. Seasonal dynamics of the inorganic pollution in a Niger Delta River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of inorganic anions of the Eleme River over the rainy and dry season periods was investigated. Results indicated that parameters like temperature, conductivity and total dissolved solids were higher during the dry than rainy seasons. Others like pH, phosphate, sulfate and dissolved oxygen had higher rainy than ...

  3. Assessment of GloSea4 seasonal forecasts for SADC and the global oceans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available totals during the austral spring (SON), mid-summer (DJF) and autumn (MAM) seasons in the region, and by testing for monthly sea-surface temperature anomalies during mid-summer. The model’s ability to simulate the region’s intra-seasonal rainfall and low...

  4. Out-of-season recollection of drug use for seasonal IgE-mediated rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen, Lars K

    2005-01-01

    in a double-blind study. Drug use was recorded daily during the season 2000 and out-seasonally 6 months after the seasons 1999 and 2000. The mean daily drug use was transformed into a 4-point categorical scale for simplicity and was calculated for the out-seasonal rating and for 6 in-seasonal periods...

  5. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  6. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  7. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  8. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  9. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  10. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  11. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  13. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Key factors that influence for seasonal production of Guinea grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Coelho de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Climate, soil and management are the main drives for growth and production of tropical pastures. Thus, a better understanding of the effects of these factors and their interactions under climate conditions is required to obtain effective management options. Here, we used data from two field trials to research on climate and management interactions on the production seasonality of Panicum maximum Jacq. Treatments included four sampling times (250, 500, 750, and 1000 °C accumulated during eight regrowth period, under irrigated and rainfed conditions and, cuts were made to simulate grazing intensity. All treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. At each sampling time, basal tillers were sampled to observe meristematic differentiation and were linked with the respective daylength. Soil moisture was determined, and the water availability index (WAI was calculated. The dry matter production (DMP was taken and relative productivity was calculated. Soil moisture was the key seasonal drive in spring-summer and the WAI could be used to adjust the maximum production for that season. The major drive for DMP in fall was the daylength, which was found at 11.81 h. For all seasons, DMP correlated better with the residues in early regrowth phase (r = 0.82 and p < 0.0001 and with degree-days at final regrowth phase (r = 0.73 p < 0.01. Applying these critical values to management guidelines should make Guinea grass DMP more efficient on tropical farms.

  16. Mood disorders and season ofpresentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Srarisrical Manual of Menral Disorders (DSM-III-R)), were looked at, and no attempt was made to delineate the occurrence of specific mood disorders. Reviewing publications on the association between season and its impact on mood, the findings are generally inconsistent but highly suggestive of an association.' However ...

  17. Seasonal Variability in European Radon Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Sinclair, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    In temperate climates, domestic radon concentration levels are generally seasonally dependent, the level in the home reflecting the convolution of two time-dependent functions. These are the source soil-gas radon concentration itself, and the principal force driving radon into the building from the soil, namely the pressure-difference between interior and exterior environment. While the meteorological influence can be regarded as relatively uniform on a European scale, its variability being defined largely by the influence of North-Atlantic weather systems, soil-gas radon is generally more variable as it is essentially geologically dependent. Seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration can therefore be expected to exhibit geographical variability, as is indeed the case. To compensate for the variability of domestic radon levels when assessing the long term radon health risks, the results of individual short-term measurements are generally converted to equivalent mean annual levels by application of a Seasonal Correction Factor (SCF). This is a multiplying factor, typically derived from measurements of a large number of homes, applied to the measured short-term radon concentration to provide a meaningful annual mean concentration for dose-estimation purposes. Following concern as to the universal applicability of a single SCF set, detailed studies in both the UK and France have reported location-specific SCF sets for different regions of each country. Further results indicate that SCFs applicable to the UK differ significantly from those applicable elsewhere in Europe and North America in both amplitude and phase, supporting the thesis that seasonal variability in indoor radon concentration cannot realistically be compensated for by a single national or international SCF scheme. Published data characterising the seasonal variability of European national domestic radon concentrations, has been collated and analysed, with the objective of identifying

  18. Diversity and seasonal variation of endophytic fungi isolated from three conifers in mt. Taehwa, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyun; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-06-01

    The needled leaves of three conifer species were collected in Mt. Taehwa during different seasons of the year. Total 59 isolates and 19 species of endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves and identified using morphological and molecular characteristics. As a result, Shannon index was different in its host plant; Larix kaempferi had a highest value of species diversity. According to the sampling season, 9 species of 19 species were isolated during fall season. The results suggest that the existing of host plant and sampling season are major factors of distribution of endophytic fungi.

  19. Seasonal variability of Internal tide energetics in the western Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, S.; Rao, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Internal Waves (IWs) are generated by the flow of barotropic tide over the rapidly varying and steep topographic features like continental shelf slope, seamounts, etc. These waves are an important phenomena in the ocean due to their influence on the density structure and energy transfer into the region. Such waves are also important in submarine acoustics, underwater navigation, offshore structures, ocean mixing and biogeochemical processes, etc. over the shelf-slope region. The seasonal variability of internal tides in the western Bay of Bengal is examined by using three-dimensional MITgcm model. The numerical simulations are performed for different periods covering August-September, 2013; November-December, 2013 and March-April, 2014 representing monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons respectively during which high temporal resolution observed data sets are available. The model is initially validated through the spectral estimate of density and the baroclinic velocities. From the estimate, it is found that its peak is associated with the semi-diurnal frequency at all the depths in both observations and model simulations for November-December and March-April. However in August, the estimate is found to be maximum near the inertial frequency at all available depths. EOF analysis suggests that about 70-80% of the total variance comes from Mode-1 semi-diurnal internal tide in both observations as well as in the model simulations. The phase speed, group speed and wavelength are found to be maximum for post-monsoon season compared to other two seasons. To understand the generation and propagation of internal tides over this region, barotropic-to-baroclinic M2 tidal energy conversion and energy flux are examined. The barotropic-to-baroclinic conversion occurs intensively along the shelf-slope regions and propagate towards the coast. The model simulated energy dissipation rate infers that its maximum occurs at the generation sites and hence the local mixing

  20. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  1. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  3. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  4. Effect of age and season on sperm morphology of Friesland bulls at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev Louw

    between age and season on the sperm morphological characteristics of a .... The long-term average rainfall of the area is 640 mm per annum, ... Theoriogenology, 1976) and expressed as a percentage of the total number of cells counted.

  5. Change in Length of Growing Season by State, 1895-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the total change in length of the growing season, time of first fall frost and time of last spring frost from 1895 to 2015 for each of the contiguous...

  6. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajendran, A

    Extensive observations have been made on the carbon dioxide system in the Arabian Sea during three different seasons as part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Programme. Concentrations of total carbon dioxide and partial pressure...

  7. Strong seasonality and interannual recurrence in marine myovirus communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagarete, A; Chow, C-E T; Johannessen, T; Fuhrman, J A; Thingstad, T F; Sandaa, R A

    2013-10-01

    The temporal community dynamics and persistence of different viral types in the marine environment are still mostly obscure. Polymorphism of the major capsid protein gene, g23, was used to investigate the community composition dynamics of T4-like myoviruses in a North Atlantic fjord for a period of 2 years. A total of 160 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the gene g23. Three major community profiles were identified (winter-spring, summer, and autumn), which resulted in a clear seasonal succession pattern. These seasonal transitions were recurrent over the 2 years and significantly correlated with progression of seawater temperature, Synechococcus abundance, and turbidity. The appearance of the autumn viral communities was concomitant with the occurrence of prominent Synechococcus blooms. As a whole, we found a highly dynamic T4-like viral community with strong seasonality and recurrence patterns. These communities were unexpectedly dominated by a group of persistently abundant viruses.

  8. Spatial Interpolation of Historical Seasonal Rainfall Indices over Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zulkarnain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inconsistency in inter-seasonal rainfall due to climate change will cause a different pattern in the rainfall characteristics and distribution. Peninsular Malaysia is not an exception for this inconsistency, in which it is resulting extreme events such as flood and water scarcity. This study evaluates the seasonal patterns in rainfall indices such as total amount of rainfall, the frequency of wet days, rainfall intensity, extreme frequency, and extreme intensity in Peninsular Malaysia. 40 years (1975-2015 data records have been interpolated using Inverse Distance Weighted method. The results show that the formation of rainfall characteristics are significance during the Northeast monsoon (NEM, as compared to Southwest monsoon (SWM. Also, there is a high rainfall intensity and frequency related to extreme over eastern coasts of Peninsula during the NEM season.

  9. Spatial Interpolation of Historical Seasonal Rainfall Indices over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zulkarnain; Haidir, Ahmad; Saad, Farah Naemah Mohd; Ayob, Afizah; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md.

    2018-03-01

    The inconsistency in inter-seasonal rainfall due to climate change will cause a different pattern in the rainfall characteristics and distribution. Peninsular Malaysia is not an exception for this inconsistency, in which it is resulting extreme events such as flood and water scarcity. This study evaluates the seasonal patterns in rainfall indices such as total amount of rainfall, the frequency of wet days, rainfall intensity, extreme frequency, and extreme intensity in Peninsular Malaysia. 40 years (1975-2015) data records have been interpolated using Inverse Distance Weighted method. The results show that the formation of rainfall characteristics are significance during the Northeast monsoon (NEM), as compared to Southwest monsoon (SWM). Also, there is a high rainfall intensity and frequency related to extreme over eastern coasts of Peninsula during the NEM season.

  10. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  11. Coral reef fish assemblages along a disturbance gradient in the northern Persian Gulf: A seasonal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilou, Amir; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Gladstone, William

    2016-04-30

    Seasonal dynamics of coral reef fish assemblages were assessed along a gradient of potential anthropogenic disturbance in the Northern Persian Gulf. Overall, the attributes of coral reef fish assemblages showed seasonality at two different levels: seasonal changes irrespective of the magnitude of disturbance level (e.g. species richness), and seasonal changes in response to disturbance level (e.g. total abundance and assemblage composition). The examined parameters mostly belonged to the second group, but the interpretation of the relationship between patterns of seasonal changes and the disturbance level was not straightforward. The abundance of carnivorous fishes did not vary among seasons. SIMPER identified the family Nemipteridae as the major contributor to the observed spatiotemporal variations in the composition of coral reef fish assemblages in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  13. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  14. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  15. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  16. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  17. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  18. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  19. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  20. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei; Xia, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. PMID:25407421

  1. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05. The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account.

  2. Seasonality of dizziness and vertigo in a tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alcione Botelho; Almeida, Leonardo Alves Ferreira; Pereira, Nayara Gorette; Menezes, Patrícia Andrade Freitas de; Felipe, Lilian; Volpe, Fernando Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common medical complaints in the emergency room, and are associated with a considerable personal and health care burden. Scarce and conflicting reports indicate those symptoms may present a seasonal distribution. This study aimed at investigating the existence of a seasonal distribution of vertigo/dizziness in a tropical region, and the correlations of these findings with climatic variables. The charts of all patients consecutively admitted between 2009 and 2012 in the emergency room of a Brazilian general hospital were reviewed. A total of 4920 cases containing these terms were sorted from a sample of 276,076 emergency records. Seasonality was assessed using Cosinor Analysis. Pearson's correlations were performed between the incidence of consultations, considering separately dizziness and vertigo and each of the predictor climatic variables of that index month. Significant seasonal patterns were observed for dizziness and vertigo in the emergency room. Vertigo was more frequent in late winter-spring, negatively correlating to humidity (r = -0.374; p = 0.013) and rainfall (r = -0.334; p = 0.020). Dizziness peaked on summer months, and positively correlated to average temperatures (r = 0.520; p vertigo indicate possible distinct underlying mechanisms of how seasons may influence the occurrence of those symptoms.

  3. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock-Lopez, Enrique, E-mail: epeacock@williams.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-08-15

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.

  4. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock-Lopez, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.

  5. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  6. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  7. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  8. Simulated sensitivity of African terrestrial ecosystem photosynthesis to rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kaiyu; Good, Stephen P.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Medvigy, David; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.; Sato, Hisashi; Biasutti, Michela; Chen, Min; Ahlström, Anders; Xu, Xiangtao

    2018-02-01

    There is growing evidence of ongoing changes in the statistics of intra-seasonal rainfall variability over large parts of the world. Changes in annual total rainfall may arise from shifts, either singly or in a combination, of distinctive intra-seasonal characteristics -i.e. rainfall frequency, rainfall intensity, and rainfall seasonality. Understanding how various ecosystems respond to the changes in intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics is critical for predictions of future biome shifts and ecosystem services under climate change, especially for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Here, we use an advanced dynamic vegetation model (SEIB-DGVM) coupled with a stochastic rainfall/weather simulator to answer the following question: how does the productivity of ecosystems respond to a given percentage change in the total seasonal rainfall that is realized by varying only one of the three rainfall characteristics (rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length)? We conducted ensemble simulations for continental Africa for a realistic range of changes (-20% ~ +20%) in total rainfall amount. We find that the simulated ecosystem productivity (measured by gross primary production, GPP) shows distinctive responses to the intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics. Specifically, increase in rainfall frequency can lead to 28% more GPP increase than the same percentage increase in rainfall intensity; in tropical woodlands, GPP sensitivity to changes in rainy season length is ~4 times larger than to the same percentage changes in rainfall frequency or intensity. In contrast, shifts in the simulated biome distribution are much less sensitive to intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics than they are to total rainfall amount. Our results reveal three major distinctive productivity responses to seasonal rainfall variability—‘chronic water stress’, ‘acute water stress’ and ‘minimum water stress’ - which are respectively associated with three broad spatial patterns of

  9. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  10. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  11. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  12. SEASONAL MARKETING: STRATEGIES USING THE CALENDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Anil Sardana; Dr PoojaTalwar; Shruti Gulati

    2018-01-01

    In this ever-dynamic world, the only thing that is constant is change. Change when happens, applies to all; then why should marketing remain the same? Each year is a witness to various seasons, and each season requires separate marketing efforts to be carried out differently. Seasonal marketing thus helps to capitalise on the varied demand through varied marketing. Every season requires special efforts and hence leads to different sales.

  13. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  14. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  15. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  17. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  18. Seasonal Scale Convective-Stratiform Pricipitation Variabilities at Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Seasonal Scale Convective-Stratiform Pricipitation Variabilities at Tropics Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT This study investigates the variabilities of convective and stratiform rainfall from 2011 to 2013 at a tropical coastal station in three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Understanding the climatological variability of these two dominant forms of precipitation and their implications in the total rainfall were the main objectives of this investigation. Variabilities in the frequency & duration of events, rain rate & total number of rain drops distribution in different events and the accumulated amount of rain water were analysed. Based on the ground & radar observations from optical & impact disdrometers, Micro Rain Radar and Atmospheric Electric Field Mill, precipitation events were classified into convective and stratiform in three seasons. Classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill is also used. Events which could not be included in both types were termed as 'mixed precipitation' and were included separately. Diurnal variability of the total rainfall in each seasons were also examined. For both convective and stratiform rainfall there exist distinct day-night differences. During nocturnal hours convective rain draged more attention. In all seasons almost 70% of rain duration and 60% of rain events of convective origin were confined to nocturnal hours. But stratiform rain was not affected by diurnal variations greatly because night time occurrences of stratiform duration and events were less than 50%. Also in Monsoon above 35% of

  19. 7 CFR 916.15 - Marketing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing season. 916.15 Section 916.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.15 Marketing season. Marketing season means the period beginning on...

  20. End-of-season heating fuel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The year-end report notes that the 1991-92 heating season had lower average oil prices (retail home heating fuel) than the past two winters and prices remained relatively stable throughout the season. This year, the heating season average was $.87 per gallon, $1.05 for kerosene, and $1.33 for propane

  1. Statistical properties of the seasonal fractionally integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate the properties of this new model providing stationary conditions, some explicit form of the autocovariance function and the spectral density. We also establish the asymptotic behaviour of the spectral density function near the seasonal frequencies. Keywords: Seasonality; Spatial short memory; Seasonal long ...

  2. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    ...., consolidated purchasing, lean and six sigma, productivity improvement projects, etc. This case study was conducted with the sponsorship and assistance of the Acquisition Research Program, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.

  3. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of total IgE and allergen-specific IgE antibodies with a uniform indicator system in allergies of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struy, H.; Schuster, R.; Sollich, V.; Thal, W.; Morenz, J.

    1984-01-01

    Solid-phase radioimmunoassays for the determination of allergen-specific and total IgE have been developed. In an indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of allergen-specific antibodies PVC blisters coated with allergens and in a sandwich solid-phase radioimmunoassay blisters coated with antihuman IgE antibodies are incubated sequentially with patient serum, unlabelled antihuman IgE from rabbits purified by affinity chromatography, and finally with antirabbitglobulin from sheep. Antirabbitglobuline was purified by immunoadsorption. The 125 I-labelled antibody with a specific activity of 30 kBq/μg antibody protein could be used universally for the determination of antibodies of each immunoglobulin class. In 160 patients mostly with seasonal asthma these assays supported RAST and PRIST kits and were helpful in the diagnosis of atopic diseases. (author)

  5. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  6. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  7. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  8. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  9. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  10. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  11. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  12. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  13. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  14. Changing Seasonality and the Role of the Shoulder Season - Evidence from Denamrk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2009-01-01

    the issue of the shoulder season in a time series framework. Departing from a discussion of the nature of types of seasonal variation, a test is set up in order to examine the impact of the shoulder season. The test examines the impact on the mean share of hotel nights in the shoulder season months in two...

  15. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  16. Seasonal and sexual variations of fatty acid composition in fillet of Capoeta erhani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Emre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The lowest lipid levels of Capoeta erhani observed in winter and vice versa in summer. The fatty acid composition of the fillets was significantly different among seasons (P0.05. The ratios of the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs were higher than half of the total fatty acids among all seasons. The level of PUFA was highest in autumn (25.91%, and lowest in summer (22.11%. Among seasons and sexes, the levels of total n3 PUFAs in total fatty acids changed from 15.43% to 21.89% and n6 PUFAs from 3.8% to 7.97%, respectively. The level of n3 PUFAs was present in excess that of the n6 PUFAs. The ratios of the n3 PUFAs to n6 PUFAs in the fillets of C. erhani were highest in autumn for both sexes and remarkably influenced by seasons.

  17. Harvest season, high polluted season in East China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Song Yu; Li Mengmeng; Li Jianfeng; Zhu Tong

    2012-01-01

    East China, a major agricultural zone with a dense population, suffers from severe air pollution during June, the agricultural harvest season, every year. Crop burning emits tremendous amounts of combustion products into the atmosphere, not only rapidly degrading the local air quality but also affecting the tropospheric chemistry, threatening public health and affecting climate change. Recently, in mid-June 2012, crop fires left a thick pall of haze over East China. We evaluated the PM 10 , PM 2.5 (particulates less than 10 and 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and BC (black carbon) emissions by analyzing detailed census data and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing images and then simulated the consequent pollution using meteorological and dispersion models. The results show that the crop fires sweeping from the south to the north are responsible for the intensive air pollution during harvest season. It is necessary for scientists and governments to pay more attention to this issue. (letter)

  18. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  19. Responses of Seasonal Precipitation Intensity to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-04-01

    Under global warming, the water vapor increases with rising temperature at the rate of 7%/K. Most previous studies focus on the spatial differences of precipitation and suggest that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier. Our recent studies show a temporal disparity of global precipitation, which the wet season becomes wetter and dry season becomes drier; therefore, the annual range increases. However, such changes in the annual range are not homogeneous globally, and in fact, the drier trend over the ocean is much larger than that over the land, where the dry season does not become drier. Such precipitation change over land is likely because of decreased omega at 500hPa (more upward motion) in the reanalysis datasets from 1980 to 2013. The trends of vertical velocity and moist static energy profile over the increased precipitation regions become more unstable. The instability is most likely attributed to the change in specific humility below 400hPa. Further, we will use Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archives to investigate whether the precipitation responses in dry season are different between the ocean and land under global warming.

  20. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  1. Decadal Seasonal Shifts of Precipitation and Temperature in TRMM and AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savtchenko, Andrey; Huffman, George; Meyer, David; Vollmer, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of seasonal phase shifts in the global precipitation and surface temperatures. We use data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Multi-satellite Precipitation Algorithm (TMPA), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua satellite, all hosted at NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). We explore the information content and data usability by first aggregating daily grids from the entire records of both missions to pentad (5-day) series which are then processed using Singular Value Decomposition approach. A strength of this approach is the normalized principal components that can then be easily converted from real to complex time series. Thus, we can separate the most informative, the seasonal, components and analyze unambiguously for potential seasonal phase drifts. TMPA and AIRS records represent correspondingly 20 and 15 years of data, which allows us to run simple “phase learning†from the first 5 years of records and use it as reference. The most recent 5 years are then phase-compared with the reference. We demonstrate that the seasonal phase of global precipitation and surface temperatures has been stable in the past two decades. However, a small global trend of delayed precipitation, and earlier arrival of surface temperatures seasons, are detectable at 95% confidence level. Larger phase shifts are detectable at regional level, in regions recognizable from the Eigen vectors to having strong seasonal patterns. For instance, in Central North America, including the North American Monsoon region, confident phase shifts of 1-2 days per decade are detected at 95% confidence level. While seemingly symbolic, these shifts are indicative of larger changes in the Earth Climate System. We thus also demonstrate a potential usability scenario of Earth Science Data Records curated at the NASA GES DISC in partnership with Earth Science Missions.

  2. Total charge fluctuation in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Garg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of positive, negative, total and net charge produced in relativistic nuclear collisions have been of interest to explore phase transition and/or a critical end point (CEP) which is believed to exist somewhere between the hadronic phase and the quark-gluon phase of the QCD phase diagram. The entropy is closely related to the particle multiplicity, and it is expected to be approximately conserved during the evolution of the matter created at the early stage. The entropy fluctuations are not directly observed but can be inferred from the experimentally measured quantities. The final state mean multiplicity is proportional to the entropy of the initial state ( ∼ S). The particle multiplicity can be measured on an event-by-event basis, whereas the entropy is defined by averaging the particle multiplicities in the ensemble of events. Thus, the dynamical entropy fluctuations can be measured experimentally by measuring the fluctuations in the mean multiplicity

  3. Seasonal variations of vivax and falciparum malaria: an observation at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Khan, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in the malaria endemic zones of the world. Various factors influence the prevalence of malaria. This study was conducted to determine the variation in frequency of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in different seasons of the year in Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Methods: A total of 411 patients were included in the study. All these febrile patients were reported to have trophozoites of either Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum malaria on Giemsa stained thick and thin smears. The frequency of vivax and falciparum malaria was worked out and statistically analysed for different season of the year. The study was carried out from 2nd Jan 2004 till 31st December 2008. Results: Out of total 411 diagnosed malaria cases, total 134 (32.60%) presented in the autumn season (vivax=33.58%, and falciparum=66.42%), 37 (9%) in winter season (vivax=32.4%, and falciparum=67.6%), 76 (18.49%) in spring season (vivax=93.4% and falciparum 6.6%) and 164 (39.90%) in summer season (vivax=89.6, and falciparum=10.4%). The malaria showed a highly significant pattern in different seasons of the year (p=0.00) in a way that Plasmodium falciparum malaria reached its highest frequency in autumn and winter seasons while Plasmodium vivax malaria reached its peak frequency in spring and summer seasons. Conclusion: There was highly significant seasonal variation of vivax and falciparum malaria. There is arrival of Plasmodium falciparum in autumn which peaks in winter followed by arrival of Plasmodium vivax in spring till the end of summer. (author)

  4. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B.; Madsen, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding...... between summer and winter (Psex-(P = 0.02) and genotype-(P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom...

  5. Sub-Seasonal Climate Forecast Rodeo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. S.; Nowak, K.; Cifelli, R.; Brekke, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation, as the largest water wholesaler and the second largest producer of hydropower in the United States, benefits from skillful forecasts of future water availability. Researchers, water managers from local, regional, and federal agencies, and groups such as the Western States Water Council agree that improved precipitation and temperature forecast information at the sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescale is an area with significant potential benefit to water management. In response, and recognizing NOAA's leadership in forecasting, Reclamation has partnered with NOAA to develop and implement a real-time S2S forecasting competition. For a year, solvers are submitting forecasts of temperature and precipitation for weeks 3&4 and 5&6 every two weeks on a 1x1 degree grid for the 17 western state domain where Reclamation operates. The competition began on April 18, 2017 and the final real-time forecast is due April 3, 2018. Forecasts are evaluated once observational data become available using spatial anomaly correlation. Scores are posted on a competition leaderboard hosted by the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). The leaderboard can be accessed at: https://www.drought.gov/drought/sub-seasonal-climate-forecast-rodeo. To be eligible for cash prizes - which total $800,000 - solvers must outperform two benchmark forecasts during the real-time competition as well as in a required 11-year hind-cast. To receive a prize, competitors must grant a non-exclusive license to practice their forecast technique and make it available as open source software. At approximately one quarter complete, there are teams outperforming the benchmarks in three of the four competition categories. With prestige and monetary incentives on the line, it is hoped that the competition will spur innovation of improved S2S forecasts through novel approaches, enhancements to established models, or otherwise. Additionally, the competition aims to raise

  6. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  7. Skilful seasonal forecasts of streamflow over Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Louise; Cloke, Hannah L.; Stephens, Elisabeth; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Prudhomme, Christel; Neumann, Jessica; Krzeminski, Blazej; Pappenberger, Florian

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers whether there is any added value in using seasonal climate forecasts instead of historical meteorological observations for forecasting streamflow on seasonal timescales over Europe. A Europe-wide analysis of the skill of the newly operational EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) seasonal streamflow forecasts (produced by forcing the Lisflood model with the ECMWF System 4 seasonal climate forecasts), benchmarked against the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) forecasting approach (produced by forcing the Lisflood model with historical meteorological observations), is undertaken. The results suggest that, on average, the System 4 seasonal climate forecasts improve the streamflow predictability over historical meteorological observations for the first month of lead time only (in terms of hindcast accuracy, sharpness and overall performance). However, the predictability varies in space and time and is greater in winter and autumn. Parts of Europe additionally exhibit a longer predictability, up to 7 months of lead time, for certain months within a season. In terms of hindcast reliability, the EFAS seasonal streamflow hindcasts are on average less skilful than the ESP for all lead times. The results also highlight the potential usefulness of the EFAS seasonal streamflow forecasts for decision-making (measured in terms of the hindcast discrimination for the lower and upper terciles of the simulated streamflow). Although the ESP is the most potentially useful forecasting approach in Europe, the EFAS seasonal streamflow forecasts appear more potentially useful than the ESP in some regions and for certain seasons, especially in winter for almost 40 % of Europe. Patterns in the EFAS seasonal streamflow hindcast skill are however not mirrored in the System 4 seasonal climate hindcasts, hinting at the need for a better understanding of the link between hydrological and meteorological variables on seasonal timescales, with the aim of improving climate

  8. Prescribed and self-reported seasonal training of distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D J; Hopkins, W G

    1995-12-01

    A survey of 123 distance-running coaches and their best runners was undertaken to describe prescribed seasonal training and its relationship to the performance and self-reported training of the runners. The runners were 43 females and 80 males, aged 24 +/- 8 years (mean +/- S.D.), training for events from 800 m to the marathon, with seasonal best paces of 86 +/- 6% of sex- and age-group world records. The coaches and runners completed a questionnaire on typical weekly volumes of interval and strength training, and typical weekly volumes and paces of moderate and hard continuous running, for build-up, pre-competition, competition and post-competition phases of a season. Prescribed training decreased in volume and increased in intensity from the build-up through to the competition phase, and had similarities with 'long slow distance' training. Coaches of the faster runners prescribed longer build-ups, greater volumes of moderate continuous running and slower relative paces of continuous running (r = 0.19-0.36, P training close to competition pace. The mean training volumes and paces prescribed by the coaches were similar to those reported by the runners, but the correlations between prescribed and reported training were poor (r = 0.2-0.6). Coaches may therefore need to monitor their runners' training more closely.

  9. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  10. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  11. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  12. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Rudolf; Acree, William E

    2017-06-25

    The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit ( Q ²) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol ( N = 3386 test molecules) for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol ( N = 1791) for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol ( N = 373) for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K ( N = 2637) for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K ( N = 2643) for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation coefficient R

  14. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Naef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit (Q2 and the standard deviation (σ of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol (N = 3386 test molecules for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol (N = 1791 for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol (N = 373 for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K (N = 2637 for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K (N = 2643 for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation

  15. Seasonal rhythms of seed rain and seedling emergence in two tropical rain forests in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M C M; Oliveira, P E A M

    2008-09-01

    Seasonal tropical forests show rhythms in reproductive activities due to water stress during dry seasons. If both seed dispersal and seed germination occur in the best environmental conditions, mortality will be minimised and forest regeneration will occur. To evaluate whether non-seasonal forests also show rhythms, for 2 years we studied the seed rain and seedling emergence in two sandy coastal forests (flooded and unflooded) in southern Brazil. In each forest, one 100 x 30-m grid was marked and inside it 30 stations comprising two seed traps (0.5 x 0.5 m each) and one plot (2 x 2 m) were established for monthly monitoring of seed rain and a seedling emergence study, respectively. Despite differences in soil moisture and incident light on the understorey, flooded and unflooded forests had similar dispersal and germination patterns. Seed rain was seasonal and bimodal (peaks at the end of the wetter season and in the less wet season) and seedling emergence was seasonal and unimodal (peaking in the wetter season). Approximately 57% of the total species number had seedling emergence 4 or more months after dispersal. Therefore, both seed dormancy and the timing of seed dispersal drive the rhythm of seedling emergence in these forests. The peak in germination occurs in the wetter season, when soil fertility is higher and other phenological events also occur. The strong seasonality in these plant communities, even in this weakly seasonal climate, suggests that factors such as daylength, plant sensitivity to small changes in the environment (e.g. water and nutrient availability) or phylogenetic constraints cause seasonal rhythms in the plants.

  16. Seasonality of mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, Uttam K; Stephens, Sarah H; Mitchell, Braxton D; Rohan, Kelly J; Vaswani, Dipika; Balis, Theodora G; Nijjar, Gagan V; Sleemi, Aamar; Pollin, Toni I; Ryan, Kathleen; Reeves, Gloria M; Weitzel, Nancy; Morrissey, Mary; Yousufi, Hassaan; Langenberg, Patricia; Shuldiner, Alan R; Postolache, Teodor T

    2013-05-01

    We examined seasonality and winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, a unique population that prohibits use of network electric light in their homes. We estimated SAD using the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (SPAQ) in 1306 Amish adults and compared the frequencies of SAD and total SAD (i.e., presence of either SAD or subsyndromal-SAD) between men and women, young and old, and awareness of (ever vs. never heard about) SAD. Heritability of global seasonality score (GSS) was estimated using the maximum likelihood method, including a household effect to capture shared environmental effects. The mean (±SD) GSS was 4.36 (±3.38). Prevalence was 0.84% (95% CI: 0.36-1.58) for SAD and 2.59% (95% CI: 1.69-3.73) for total SAD. Heritability of GSS was 0.14±0.06 (SE) (p=0.002) after adjusting for age, gender, and household effects. Limitations include likely overestimation of the rates of SAD by SPAQ, possible selection bias and recall bias, and limited generalizability of the study. In the Amish, GSS and SAD prevalence were lower than observed in earlier SPAQ-based studies in other predominantly Caucasian populations. Low heritability of SAD suggests dominant environmental effects. The effects of awareness, age and gender on SAD risk were similar as in previous studies. Identifying factors of resilience to SAD in the face of seasonal changes in the Amish could suggest novel preventative and therapeutic approaches to reduce the impact of SAD in the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal changes in water content and turnover in cattle, sheep and goats grazing under humid tropical conditions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggrey, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes on water content and water turnover of cattle, sheep and goats at pasture under humid tropical conditions was studied. Measurement of total body water and water turnover was based on the tritium dilution technique. Total body water was significantly higher in all three species of animal during the dry season, while water turnover was significantly lower in the dry season than in the wet season. In all seasons water turnover was highest in cattle, followed by sheep and then goat. Changes in body weight, body water, body solids and water turnover were associated with seasonal variations in nutrition. The indication was that the goat would be a more suitable animal for production under dry conditions than cattle and sheep. (author)

  18. Primary and secondary organic aerosol origin by combined gas-particle phase source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a prominent fraction of particulate organic mass (OA, remains poorly constrained. Its formation involves several unknown precursors, formation and evolution pathways and multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. Here a combined gas-particle phase source apportionment is applied to wintertime and summertime data collected in the megacity of Paris in order to investigate SOA origin during both seasons. This was possible by combining the information provided by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. A better constrained apportionment of primary OA (POA sources is also achieved using this methodology, making use of gas-phase tracers. These tracers made possible the discrimination between biogenic and continental/anthropogenic sources of SOA. We found that continental SOA was dominant during both seasons (24–50% of total OA, while contributions from photochemistry-driven SOA (9% of total OA and marine emissions (13% of total OA were also observed during summertime. A semi-volatile nighttime component was also identified (up to 18% of total OA during wintertime. This approach was successfully applied here and implemented in a new source apportionment toolkit.

  19. The influence of recovery and training phases on body composition, peripheral vascular function and immune system of professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Reinke

    Full Text Available Professional soccer players have a lengthy playing season, throughout which high levels of physical stress are maintained. The following recuperation period, before starting the next pre-season training phase, is generally considered short but sufficient to allow a decrease in these stress levels and therefore a reduction in the propensity for injury or musculoskeletal tissue damage. We hypothesised that these physical extremes influence the body composition, blood flow, and endothelial/immune function, but that the recuperation may be insufficient to allow a reduction of tissue stress damage. Ten professional football players were examined at the end of the playing season, at the end of the season intermission, and after the next pre-season endurance training. Peripheral blood flow and body composition were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography and DEXA scanning respectively. In addition, selected inflammatory and immune parameters were analysed from blood samples. Following the recuperation period a significant decrease of lean body mass from 74.4+/-4.2 kg to 72.2+/-3.9 kg was observed, but an increase of fat mass from 10.3+/-5.6 kg to 11.1+/-5.4 kg, almost completely reversed the changes seen in the pre-season training phase. Remarkably, both resting and post-ischemic blood flow (7.3+/-3.4 and 26.0+/-6.3 ml/100 ml/min respectively, were strongly reduced during the playing and training stress phases, but both parameters increased to normal levels (9.0+/-2.7 and 33.9+/-7.6 ml/100 ml/min during the season intermission. Recovery was also characterized by rising levels of serum creatinine, granulocytes count, total IL-8, serum nitrate, ferritin, and bilirubin. These data suggest a compensated hypo-perfusion of muscle during the playing season, followed by an intramuscular ischemia/reperfusion syndrome during the recovery phase that is associated with muscle protein turnover and inflammatory endothelial reaction, as demonstrated by i

  20. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  1. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  2. A Bayesian modelling method for post-processing daily sub-seasonal to seasonal rainfall forecasts from global climate models and evaluation for 12 Australian catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schepen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall forecasts are an integral part of hydrological forecasting systems at sub-seasonal to seasonal timescales. In seasonal forecasting, global climate models (GCMs are now the go-to source for rainfall forecasts. For hydrological applications however, GCM forecasts are often biased and unreliable in uncertainty spread, and calibration is therefore required before use. There are sophisticated statistical techniques for calibrating monthly and seasonal aggregations of the forecasts. However, calibration of seasonal forecasts at the daily time step typically uses very simple statistical methods or climate analogue methods. These methods generally lack the sophistication to achieve unbiased, reliable and coherent forecasts of daily amounts and seasonal accumulated totals. In this study, we propose and evaluate a Rainfall Post-Processing method for Seasonal forecasts (RPP-S, which is based on the Bayesian joint probability modelling approach for calibrating daily forecasts and the Schaake Shuffle for connecting the daily ensemble members of different lead times. We apply the method to post-process ACCESS-S forecasts for 12 perennial and ephemeral catchments across Australia and for 12 initialisation dates. RPP-S significantly reduces bias in raw forecasts and improves both skill and reliability. RPP-S forecasts are also more skilful and reliable than forecasts derived from ACCESS-S forecasts that have been post-processed using quantile mapping, especially for monthly and seasonal accumulations. Several opportunities to improve the robustness and skill of RPP-S are identified. The new RPP-S post-processed forecasts will be used in ensemble sub-seasonal to seasonal streamflow applications.

  3. A Bayesian modelling method for post-processing daily sub-seasonal to seasonal rainfall forecasts from global climate models and evaluation for 12 Australian catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepen, Andrew; Zhao, Tongtiegang; Wang, Quan J.; Robertson, David E.

    2018-03-01

    Rainfall forecasts are an integral part of hydrological forecasting systems at sub-seasonal to seasonal timescales. In seasonal forecasting, global climate models (GCMs) are now the go-to source for rainfall forecasts. For hydrological applications however, GCM forecasts are often biased and unreliable in uncertainty spread, and calibration is therefore required before use. There are sophisticated statistical techniques for calibrating monthly and seasonal aggregations of the forecasts. However, calibration of seasonal forecasts at the daily time step typically uses very simple statistical methods or climate analogue methods. These methods generally lack the sophistication to achieve unbiased, reliable and coherent forecasts of daily amounts and seasonal accumulated totals. In this study, we propose and evaluate a Rainfall Post-Processing method for Seasonal forecasts (RPP-S), which is based on the Bayesian joint probability modelling approach for calibrating daily forecasts and the Schaake Shuffle for connecting the daily ensemble members of different lead times. We apply the method to post-process ACCESS-S forecasts for 12 perennial and ephemeral catchments across Australia and for 12 initialisation dates. RPP-S significantly reduces bias in raw forecasts and improves both skill and reliability. RPP-S forecasts are also more skilful and reliable than forecasts derived from ACCESS-S forecasts that have been post-processed using quantile mapping, especially for monthly and seasonal accumulations. Several opportunities to improve the robustness and skill of RPP-S are identified. The new RPP-S post-processed forecasts will be used in ensemble sub-seasonal to seasonal streamflow applications.

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  5. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  6. Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.

    2009-03-01

    The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.

  7. Seasonal patterns of periphyton nitrogen fixation in calcareous wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, X.; Inglett, P.

    2011-12-01

    Periphyton mats are an ecologically important component of the Everglades ecosystem and plays various vital ecological functions. However, nitrogen fixation of periphyton, has received little attention throughout much of the Everglades system. The objective of this study was to characterize the seasonal pattern of periphyton N2 fixation in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) of Florida Everglades, where farmed marl prairie wetlands have been restored through complete soil removal (CSR) to reduce nutrient levels. Two restored areas (i.e., cleared in 2000 and 2003) and a reference (natural and unfarmed) marl prairie wetland sites were selected in the HID. Seven times of sampling were performed across the wet and dry season during the 2010 and 2011. The annual fixed nitrogen was approximately 0.4gN m-2 yr-1 in the restored sites which was higher in the reference site (~0.2gN m-2 yr-1). All the three sites showed similar seasonal patterns of N2 fixation that is higher values were observed in the wet season; but the peak value was one month later in reference sits (i.e., September) comparing to the restored areas (i.e., July). The peak of periphyton AR rates in the 2000- and 2003-restored areas appeared in July (i.e., wet season) within the range of 20-79 nmols g-1dw h-1 and 31-53nmols g-1dw h-1, respectively. In contrast, the peak of reference site was observed in September with the range of 2-5 nmols g-1dw h-1. Stable N isotopic ratios (i.e., δ15N) also varied with time but didn't show consistent seasonal pattern as nitrogen fixation. N2 fixation positively correlated with periphyton total phosphorus (TP) and negatively correlated with total nitrogen and phosphorus molar ratios (TN:TP), indicating that N2 fixation would be a indicator of nutrient limitation. In general, δ15N was negatively correlated with nitrogenase activity but the correlation became weakened in the wet season, especially in the flooded July and September, which would be explained by other environmental

  8. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuony, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the

  9. When Will It Be... USNO Seasons and Apsides Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn

    2018-01-01

    The turning of the Earth’s seasons (solstices and equinoxes) and apsides (perihelions and aphelions) are times often used in observational astronomy and also of interest to the public. To avoid tedious calculations, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has developed an on-line interactive calculator, Earth’s Seasons and Apsides to provide information about events between 1600 and 2200. The new data service uses an Application Programming Interface (API), which returns values in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party websites or applications. For a requested year, the Earth’s Seasons and Apsides API provides the Gregorian calendar date and time of the Vernal Equinox, Summer Solstice, Autumnal Equinox, Winter Solstice, Aphelion, and Perihelion. The user may specify the time zone for their results, including the optional addition of U.S. daylight saving time for years after 1966.On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Earth’s Seasons and Apsides is available, including sample calls (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). A traditional forms-based interface is available as well (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/EarthSeasons.php). This data service replaces the popular Earth's Seasons: Equinoxes, Solstices, Perihelion, and Aphelion page that provided a static list of events for 2000–2025. The USNO also provides API-enabled data services for Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneDay.php), Dates of the Primary Phases of the Moon (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/MoonPhase.php), Selected Christian Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php), Selected Islamic Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/islamic.php), Selected Jewish Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/passover.php), Julian Date Conversion (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.php), and Sidereal Time (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/siderealtime.php) as well as its Solar

  10. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  11. Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.

  12. Seasonal temperature extremes in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun

    2010-12-01

    The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.

  13. Thermal behavior of a heat exchanger module for seasonal heat storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretic investigations are carried out to study the heat transfer capacity rate of a heat exchanger module for seasonal heat storage with sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) supercooling in a stable way. A sandwich heat storage test module has been built with the phase change...... material (PCM) storage box in between two plate heat exchangers. Charge of the PCM storage is investigated experimentally with solid phase SAT as initial condition. Discharge of the PCM storage with the presence of crystallization is studied experimentally. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the PCM module......, recommendations on how best to transfer heat to and from the seasonal heat storage module are given....

  14. An Assessment of the Skill of GEOS-5 Seasonal Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Rienecker, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal forecast skill of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office coupled global climate model (CGCM) is evaluated based on an ensemble of 9-month lead forecasts for the period 1993 to 2010. The results from the current version (V2) of the CGCM consisting of the GEOS-5 AGM coupled to the MOM4 ocean model are compared with those from an earlier version (V1) in which the AGCM (the NSIPP model) was coupled to the Poseidon Ocean Model. It was found that the correlation skill of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) forecasts is generally better in V2, especially over the sub-tropical and tropical central and eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the improvement in skill in V2 mainly comes from better forecasts of the developing phase of ENSO from boreal spring to summer. The skill of ENSO forecasts initiated during the boreal winter season, however, shows no improvement in terms of correlation skill, and is in fact slightly worse in terms of root mean square error (RMSE). The degradation of skill is found to be due to an excessive ENSO amplitude. For V1, the ENSO amplitude is too strong in forecasts starting in boreal spring and summer, which causes large RMSE in the forecast. For V2, the ENSO amplitude is slightly stronger than that in observations and V1 for forecasts starting in boreal winter season. An analysis of the terms in the SST tendency equation, shows that this is mainly due to an excessive zonal advective feedback. In addition, V2 forecasts that are initiated during boreal winter season, exhibit a slower phase transition of El Nino, which is consistent with larger amplitude of ENSO after the ENSO peak season. It is found that this is due to weak discharge of equatorial Warm Water Volume (WWV). In both observations and V1, the discharge of equatorial WWV leads the equatorial geostrophic easterly current so as to damp the El Nino starting in January. This process is delayed by about 2 months in V2 due to the slower phase

  15. Daily and seasonal rhythms in immune responses of splenocytes in the freshwater snake, Natrix piscator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ramesh; Pati, Atanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Present study was designed to examine daily and seasonal variability in the innate immune responses of splenocytes in the fresh water snake, Natrix piscator. Animals were mildly anesthetized and spleen was aseptically isolated and processed for macrophage phagocytosis, NBT reduction, nitrite production, splenocyte proliferation and serum lysozyme activity. Samples were collected at seven time points, viz., 0000, 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 0000 h during three different seasons, namely summer, winter and spring. Cosinor analysis revealed that percent phagocytosis had a significant 24-h rhythm during summer and spring seasons. The peaks of rhythms in NBT reduction and nitrite release occurred in the morning hours at 10.88 h and 8.31 h, respectively, in winter. A significant 24-h rhythm was also observed in lysozyme concentration and splenocyte proliferation (both Basal and Concanavalin A stimulated) in all three seasons. A significant phase shift in splenocyte proliferation was obtained with a trend of delayed phase shift from winter to spring and from spring to summer. Of the nine variables, significant annual (seasonal) rhythms were detected in almost all variables, excluding phagocytic and splenosomatic indices. All rhythmic variables, except spleen cellularity, exhibited tightly synchronized peaks coinciding with the progressive and recrudescence phases of annual reproductive cycle. It is concluded that the snake synchronizes its daily and seasonal immune activity with the corresponding external time cues. The enhancement of immune function coinciding with one of its crucial reproductive phases might be helping it to cope with the seasonal stressors, including abundance of pathogens, which would otherwise jeopardize the successful reproduction and eventual survival of the species.

  16. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  17. Carbonate system and nutrients in the Pearl River estuary, China: Seasonal and inter-annual variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Located in southern China and surrounded by several metropolis, the Pearl River estuary is a large subtropical estuary under significant human perturbation. We examined the impact of sewage treatment rate on the water environmental factors. Carbonate system parameters (Dissolved inorganic carbon or DIC, Total alkalinity or TA, and pH), and nutrients were surveyed in the Pearl River estuary from 2000 to 2015. Spatially, concentrations of nutrients were high at low salinity and decreased with salinity in both wet and dry seasons although seasonal variation occurred. However, distribution patterns of DIC and TA differed in wet and dry seasons. In wet season, both DIC and TA were low at low salinity (600-1500 umol kg-1) and increased with salinity, but in dry season they were high at low salinity (3000-3500 umol kg-1) and decreased with salinity. Compared with the years before 2010, both values and distribution patterns of DIC, TA and pH were similar among the years in wet season, but they were conspicuously different in the upper estuary in dry season. Both DIC and TA were more than 1000 umol kg-1 lower than those in the years before 2010. For nutrients at low salinity, the ammonia concentration was much lower in the years after 2010 (200 vs. 400 umol kg-1 in wet season and 400 vs. 800 umol kg-1 in dry season), but nitrate concentration was slightly higher (180 vs 120 mmol kg-1 in wet season and 200 vs 180 mmol kg-1 in dry season). As a reference, carbonate system parameters and nutrients were stable among the 16 years in the adjacent northern South China Sea. The variations in biogeochemical processes induced by nutrients concentration and structure as a result of sewage discharge will be discussed in detail. The decrease in DIC, TA and nutrients in the upper Pearl River estuary after 2010 was due mainly to the improvement of sewage treatment rate and capacity.

  18. Seasonal variations in VO2max, O2-cost, O2-deficit, and performance in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Myklebust, Håvard; Spencer, Matt; Hallén, Jostein

    2013-07-01

    Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2 years; height, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 roller ski skating VO2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min or 6.0 ± 0.5 L·min) were tested during the early, middle, and late preparation phase: June (T1), August (T2), and October (T3); during the competition phase: January/February (T4); and after early precompetition phase: June (T5). O2-cost during submaximal efforts, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO2-deficit), and performance during a 1,000-m test were determined in the V2 ski skating technique on a roller ski treadmill. Subjects performed their training on an individual basis, and detailed training logs were categorized into different intensity zones and exercise modes. Total training volume was highest during the summer months (early preseason) and decreased toward and through the winter season, whereas the volume of high-intensity training increased (all p size; ES = 0.63-1.37, moderate to large, all p country skiers induced no significant changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak but improved performance, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit.

  19. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  20. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root

  1. Analysis of Seasonal Soil Organic Carbon Content at Bukit Jeriau Forest, Fraser Hill, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Adnan Mohamed; Ahmad Adnan Mohamed; Sahibin Abd Rahim; David Allan Aitman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Soil carbon is the carbon held within the soil, primarily in association with its organic content. The total soil organic carbon study was determined in a plot at Bukit Jeriau forest in Bukit Fraser, Pahang, Malaysia. The aim of this study is to determine the changing of soil organic carbon between wet season and dry season. Soil organic carbon was fined out using titrimetric determination. The soil organic carbon content in wet season is 223.24 t/ ha while dry season is 217.90 t/ ha. The soil pH range in wet season is between 4.32 to 4.45 and in dry season in 3.95 to 4.08 which is considered acidic. Correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon value is influenced by pH value and climate. Correlation analysis between clay and soil organic carbon with depth showed positively significant differences and clay are very much influenced soil organic carbon content. Correlation analysis between electrical conductivity and soil organic carbon content showed negative significantly difference on wet season and positively significant different in dry season. (author)

  2. Histaminergic regulation of seasonal metabolic rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I'anson, Helen; Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Ebling, Francis J P

    2011-06-01

    We investigated whether histaminergic tone contributes to the seasonal catabolic state in Siberian hamsters by determining the effect of ablation of histaminergic neurons on food intake, metabolic rate and body weight. A ribosomal toxin (saporin) conjugated to orexin-B was infused into the ventral tuberomammillary region of the hypothalamus, since most histaminergic neurons express orexin receptors. This caused not only 75-80% loss of histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus, but also some loss of other orexin-receptor expressing cells e.g. MCH neurons. In the long-day anabolic state, lesions produced a transient post-surgical decrease in body weight, but the hamsters recovered and maintained constant body weight, whereas weight gradually increased in sham-lesioned hamsters. VO(2) in the dark phase was significantly higher in the lesioned hamsters compared to shams, and locomotor activity also tended to be higher. In a second study in short days, sham-treated hamsters showed the expected seasonal decrease in body weight, but weight remained constant in the lesioned hamsters, as in the long-day study. Lesioned hamsters consumed more during the early dark phase and less during the light phase due to an increase in the frequency of meals during the dark and decreased meal size during the light, and their cumulative food intake in their home cages was greater than in the control hamsters. In summary, ablation of orexin-responsive cells in the posterior hypothalamus blocks the short-day induced decline in body weight by preventing seasonal hypophagia, evidence consistent with the hypothesis that central histaminergic mechanisms contribute to long-term regulation of body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal Variation of the Material Transport Processes in the Ariake Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Atsuyoshi; Kanehara, Hisao; Aoshima, Takashi; Kinoshita, Tsukasa; Uchida, Jun; Nakata, Hideaki; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the salt fluxes in the middle part of the Ariake Sea have been investigated by modeling with hydrographic and meteorological data. The salt flux due to the seasonally averaged density-driven currents accounts for approximately 60% of the total salt flux during summer. The salt flux due to the other processes, that are not treated explicitly, such as the tidal pumping, tideinduced residual currents, and short-term variations of the density- and winddriven currents dominat...

  4. Effect of irradiation dose on sensory characteristics and microbiological contamination of chosen seasonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, E.; Wasowicz, E.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Czaczyk, K.; Trojanowska, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) on sensory characteristics, volatiles constituents and microbiological contamination of several seasonings were studied. The dose of 3 kGy reduced microflora effectively, and did not cause evident changes in aroma. Complete sterilization, however, required 7 or 10 kGy particularly in the case of paprika. Such doses substantially changed the smell and taste of seasonings. Is some of them (paprika, mustard, coriander) the total volatiles content increased after radiation

  5. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R.M; Oliveira, M.S; Ferri, P.H; Santos, S.C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature) through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in...

  6. One-tiered vs. two-tiered forecasting of South African seasonal rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available -tiered Forecasting of South African Seasonal Rainfall Willem A. Landman1, Dave DeWitt2 and Daleen L?tter3 1: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research; WALandman@csir.co.za 2: International Research Institute for Climate and Society; Daved... modelled as fully interacting is called a fully coupled model system. Forecast performance by such systems predicting seasonal rainfall totals over South Africa is compared with forecasts produced by a computationally less demanding two-tiered system...

  7. Seasonal Admission Rates of Geriatric Patients with Musculoskeletal Problems to Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Zubeyir; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk; Polat, Mine Gulden; Ozgul, Bahar; Kanberoglu, Ayfer; Onel, Selma

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the admission rates of geriatric patients with musculoskeletal problems to physical therapy and rehabilitation clinics were examined in this study. Totally 2257 patients (1802, 79.84% female; 455, 20.16% male) over the age of 65 years (mean age 72.32±5.67years) who were admitted to Duygu Private Hospital and Burcu Private Physical Therapy Branch Center in Istanbul were included. Monthly admissions and seasonal distribution were retrospectively calculated for 2 years. Ad...

  8. Seasonality in the Mesozooplankton Community of Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, A.; Cohen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton communities in temperate estuaries undergo seasonal shifts in abundance and species composition, though the physical/biological mechanisms behind these shifts vary among systems. Delaware Bay is a well-mixed estuary on the mid-Atlantic coast with predictable seasonal variation in environmental conditions and circulation. To understand factors influencing mesozooplankton community dynamics in this system, we conducted seasonal sampling at 16 stations over the estuary's salinity range in 2014-2015. Sampling paralleled the last similar investigation into Delaware Bay zooplankton, conducted in the early 1950s. Biomass, measured as dry weight and totaled for all stations, was low in late summer and high in spring and fall. Bio-volume, measured either as displacement volume or calculated from ZooScan processing to exclude detritus, also showed a similar pattern. Across seasons, the mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods, representing over 60% of the relative abundance at each station. Acartia tonsa was the dominant calanoid species in summer and fall, with abundances up to 7,353 ind. m-3, which is similar to the 1950s. In spring, Centropages hamatus and C. typicus were dominant at densities up to 2,550 ind. m-3 throughout the estuary, which is an increase from the 1950s. Environmental data suggest the seasonal shift in dominance from neritic Centropages to estuarine Acartia could be driven by increased stratification of the estuary during periods of high river discharge in spring, creating a two-layer system with a bottom advection current fed by the coastal ocean, bringing coastal species into the estuary. As river discharge decreases, the advection current is reduced, creating a well-mixed estuary and allowing Acartia to dominante. As river discharge is ultimately determined by precipitation, which is predicted to increase during winter with climate change in this region, the phenology of mesozooplankton species dynamics could shift as well.

  9. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.

    2009-01-01

    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  10. Seasonal reproduction of vampire bats and its relation to seasonality of bovine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, R D

    1992-04-01

    Studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in northern Argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. The seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season.

  11. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  12. Episodical CO2 emission during shoulder seasons in the arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Elberling, Bo; Hansen, Birger

    soils. Our knowledge about the exchanges of CO2 and other trace gas fluxes in the arctic region has been constrained by the limited availability of measurements during the long winter season. For that reason only a small number of sites have been able to produce annual budgets of C exchange...... and the driving processes behind winter time exchange of CO2 are not fully understood. Here we present two very different examples of CO2 exchange from shoulder seasons in the Arctic. In an example from NE Greenland, eddy covariance measurements show that the snow cover has a significant effect on the release...... of CO2 during spring. The other example, from a study during late autumn and winter from high arctic Svalbard we found that episodical emissions of CO2 accounted for a significant part of the total CO2 emission form the site. The emission pattern could be associated with temperature variations...

  13. Boreal summer sub-seasonal variability of the South Asian monsoon in the Met Office GloSea5 initialized coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Turner, A. G.; Johnson, S. J.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Mohandas, Saji; Mitra, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Boreal summer sub-seasonal variability in the Asian monsoon, otherwise known as the monsoon intra-seasonal oscillation (MISO), is one of the dominant modes of intraseasonal variability in the tropics, with large impacts on total monsoon rainfall and India's agricultural production. However, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in MISO is incomplete and its simulation in various numerical models is often flawed. In this study, we focus on the objective evaluation of the fidelity of MISO simulation in the Met Office Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5), an initialized coupled model. We analyze a series of nine-member hindcasts from GloSea5 over 1996-2009 during the peak monsoon period (July-August) over the South-Asian monsoon domain focusing on aspects of the time-mean background state and air-sea interaction processes pertinent to MISO. Dominant modes during this period are evident in power spectrum analysis, but propagation and evolution characteristics of the MISO are not realistic. We find that simulated air-sea interactions in the central Indian Ocean are not supportive of MISO initiation in that region, likely a result of the low surface wind variance there. As a consequence, the expected near-quadrature phase relationship between SST and convection is not represented properly over the central equatorial Indian Ocean, and northward propagation from the equator is poorly simulated. This may reinforce the equatorial rainfall mean state bias in GloSea5.

  14. Monoterpene chemical speciation in a tropical rainforest:variation with season, height, and time of dayat the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Yáñez-Serrano, Ana; Nölscher, Anke Christine; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Gomes Alves, Eliane; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Bonn, Boris; Wolff, Stefan; Sa, Marta; Yamasoe, Marcia; Williams, Jonathan; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Speciated monoterpene measurements in rainforest air are scarce, but they are essential for understanding the contribution of these compounds to the overall reactivity of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions towards the main atmospheric oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), ozone (O3) and nitrate radicals (NO3). In this study, we present the chemical speciation of gas-phase monoterpenes measured in the tropical rainforest at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, Amazonas, Brazil). Samples of VOCs were collected by two automated sampling systems positioned on a tower at 12 and 24 m height and analysed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The samples were collected in October 2015, representing the dry season, and compared with previous wet and dry season studies at the site. In addition, vertical profile measurements (at 12 and 24 m) of total monoterpene mixing ratios were made using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. The results showed a distinctly different chemical speciation between day and night. For instance, α-pinene was more abundant during the day, whereas limonene was more abundant at night. Reactivity calculations showed that higher abundance does not generally imply higher reactivity. Furthermore, inter- and intra-annual results demonstrate similar chemodiversity during the dry seasons analysed. Simulations with a canopy exchange modelling system show simulated monoterpene mixing ratios that compare relatively well with the observed mixing ratios but also indicate the necessity of more experiments to enhance our understanding of in-canopy sinks of these compounds.

  15. Progressive-overload whole-body vibration training as part of periodized, off-season strength training in trained women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of progressive-overload, whole-body vibration (WBV) training on strength and power as part of a 15-week periodized, strength training (ST) program. Eighteen collegiate women athletes with ≥1 year of ST and no prior WBV training participated in the crossover design. Random assignment to 1 of the 2 groups followed pretests of seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), single-leg hop for distance (LSLH, RSLH), countermovement jump (CMJ), 3 repetition maximum (3RM) front squat (FS), pull-up (PU), and 3RM bench press (BP). Whole-body vibration was two 3-week phases of dynamic and static hold body weight exercises administered 2 d·wk in ST sessions throughout the 15-week off-season program. Total WBV exposure was 6 minutes broken into 30-second bouts with 60-second rest (1:2 work-to-relief ratio). Exercises, frequency, and amplitude progressed in intensity from the first 3-week WBV training to the second 3-week phase. Repeated-measures analysis of variances were used to analyze the SMBT, CMJ, LSLH, RSLH, FS, PU, and BP tests. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. Front squat, LSLH, and RSLH increased (p = 0.001) from pre- to posttest; FS increased from mid- to posttest. Pull-up increased (p = 0.008) from pre- to posttest. Seated medicine ball throw and BP showed a trend of increased performance from pre- to posttest (p = 0.11). Two 3-week phases of periodized, progressive-overload WBV + ST training elicited gains in strength and power during a 15-week off-season program. Greatest improvements in performance tests occurred in the initial WBV phase. Implementing WBV in conjunction with ST appears to be more effective in the early phases of training.

  16. The Effect of Regular-Season Rest on Playoff Performance Among Players in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, John W; Marshall, Hayden A; McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    There has been speculation that rest during the regular season for players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) improves player performance in the postseason. To determine whether there is a correlation between the amount of regular-season rest among NBA players and playoff performance and injury risk in the same season. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The Basketball Reference and Pro Sports Transactions archives were searched from the 2005 to 2015 seasons. Data were collected on players who missed fewer than 5 regular-season games because of rest (group A) and 5 to 9 regular-season games because of rest (group B) during each season. Inclusion criteria consisted of players who played a minimum of 20 minutes per game and made the playoffs that season. Players were excluded if they missed ≥10 games because of rest or suspension or missed ≥20 games in a season for any reason. Matched pairs were formed between the groups based on the following criteria: position, mean age at the start of the season within 2 years, regular-season minutes per game within 5 minutes, same playoff seeding, and player efficiency rating (PER) within 2 points. The following data from the playoffs were collected and compared between matched pairs at each position (point guard, shooting guard, forward/center): points per game, assists per game, PER, true shooting percentage, blocks, steals, and number of playoff games missed because of injury. A total of 811 players met the inclusion and exclusion criteria (group A: n = 744 players; group B: n = 67 players). Among all eligible players, 27 matched pairs were formed. Within these matched pairs, players in group B missed significantly more regular-season games because of rest than players in group A (6.0 games vs 1.3 games, respectively; P NBA regular season does not improve playoff performance or affect the injury risk during the playoffs in the same season.

  17. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  18. Seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relatio...

  19. Ensemble methods for seasonal limited area forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Takle, Eugene S.

    2004-01-01

    The ensemble prediction methods used for seasonal limited area forecasts were examined by comparing methods for generating ensemble simulations of seasonal precipitation. The summer 1993 model over the north-central US was used as a test case. The four methods examined included the lagged-average...

  20. 489 SEASONAL VARIATION IN PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher concentration during the wet season than in the dry season in all the Groups, except for BOD, sulphate and iron. ... availability and quality of groundwater due to waste and ... using 1 litre plastic containers that were treated with 3-4ml of ...

  1. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...

  2. Modeling seasonality in bimonthly time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA recurring issue in modeling seasonal time series variables is the choice of the most adequate model for the seasonal movements. One selection method for quarterly data is proposed in Hylleberg et al. (1990). Market response models are often constructed for bimonthly variables, and

  3. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  4. Seasonality of Congenital Anomalies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; O'Mahony, Mary; Mullaney, Carmel; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien; Yevtushok, Lyubov

    BackgroundThis study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relation to

  5. Seasonal variations in hospital admissions for mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    in summer. Higher admission rates were associated with more sunshine, more ultraviolet radiation, higher temperature and less snow but were unassociated with rainfall. We did not find a secular trend in the seasonal pattern. Finally, neither gender nor admission status impacted on the overall seasonal...

  6. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  7. Proxy of monsoon seasonality in carbon isotopes from paleosols of the southern Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Follmer, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbonate (SC) are common constituents in soils and are directly related to plant growth. SOM accumulates gradually from the decomposition of plant material over time, whereas SC formation is biased to dry-season soil-dissolved CO2 that derives from plant respiration during a drying phase of the growing season. In some mixed C3-C4 environments, the peak of C3 and C4 plant metabolism differs seasonally, and the carbon source that contributes to the SOM and SC can be different. Consequently, ??13C(SOM) values reflect an annual average of the floral biomass, but ??13C(SC) values reflect a seasonal aspect of the plant community. The relationship between ??13C(SC) and ??13C(SOM) is mainly controlled by how different the seasonal conditions are. Our results suggest that the relationship is a seasonal proxy that can be used to differentiate the seasonality effects of Indian, East Asian, and Siberian monsoons on the Chinese Loess Plateau during the last interglacial-glacial cycle.

  8. One-year study of polycyclic aromatic compounds at an urban site in Grenoble (France): Seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning and cancer risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Shahpoury, Pourya [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysiques de l' Environnement (LGGE), Université de Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France); Lammel, Gerhard [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno (Czech Republic); Perraudin, Emilie; Villenave, Eric [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Albinet, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.albinet@gmail.com [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2016-09-15

    21 PAHs, 27 oxy-PAHs and 32 nitro-PAHs were measured every third day over a year in both gaseous (G) and particulate PM{sub 10} (P) phases in ambient air of Grenoble (France). Mean total concentrations (G + P) of PAHs and oxy-PAHs were in the same range and about 10 ng m{sup −3}. Nitro-PAHs were 50 to 100 times less concentrated averaging 100 pg m{sup −3}. Polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) concentrations were 5 to 7 times higher in “cold” period (October to March) than in “warm” period (April to September). Seasonal variations may be explained by higher primary emissions from residential heating, especially biomass burning in “cold” season. Meteorological conditions and influence of the geomorphology around Grenoble, with the formation of thermal inversion layers leading to the stagnation of pollutants, were additional key parameters. Maximum individual PAC concentrations were observed during two PM{sub 10} pollution events in December and February–March. Chemical processes and secondary formation of oxy- and nitro-PAH were probably enhanced by the accumulation of the pollutants during these events. PAC gas/particle partitioning depended on compound molecular weight and vapour pressure. Gas/particle partitioning of oxy- and nitro-PAHs were evaluated using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free energy relationship model. The PAC cancer risk was assessed using toxic equivalency factors available in the literature (19 PAHs, 10 nitro-PAHs and 1 oxy-PAH). Overall, particle-bound PACs contributed about 76% of the cancer risk. While PAHs accounted for most of the total PAC cancer risk, oxy- and nitro-PAHs could account for up to 24%. The risk quantification across substance classes is limited by toxicological data availability. - Highlights: • The most comprehensive study about PAH, nitro- and oxy-PAH in ambient air. • 80 species studied in gaseous and particle phases over a year at French urban site. • Concentration seasonality governed by

  9. EFFECT OF DIETARY TRYPTOPHAN LEVELS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS REARED IN THE HOT SEASON UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Opoola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of tryptophan on growth performance of broiler chickens reared under tropical environment. At the starter phase, a total of two hundred and eighty five day old mixed sex Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with three replicates each having nineteen (19 chicks. At the finisher phase, two hundred and seventy broilers were also allotted to five dietary treatments with three replicates each having 18 broilers per replicate. The dietary tryptophan levels at the starter phase were 0.15, 0.19, 0.23, 0.27 and 0.31% respectively while the diets for the finisher phase contained 0.13, 0.17, 0.21, 0.25 and 0.29% dietary tryptophan respectively. All other nutrient levels were constant. The experiment was conducted at 0 to 28d (starter phase and 33 to 56d (finisher phase. Growth performance traits including weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. The results for the starter phase showed that chicks fed diet containing 0.23%, 0.27% and 0.31% dietary tryptophan had similar results in term of the weight gain, average daily weight gain, feed intake and average daily feed intake. For the finisher phase, the birds fed 0.21%, 0.25% and 0.29% tryptophan diets also had similar results in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed intake and average daily feed intake. Our results suggest that supplemental tryptophan was sufficient to have significant (P<0.05 effect on broiler performance. However, polynomial regression analysis reveals that the optimum performances were reached at 0.24% and 0.21% dietary tryptophan for the starter and finisher phases respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that dietary tryptophan requirements during the hot season for the starter and finisher phases were 0.24% and 0.21%, respectively.

  10. USING THE METHOD OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SEASONALITY OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна ПРОКОПЕНКО

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been proposed methods of fuzzy situational approach, providing decision-making in project management in enterprises with seasonal nature of production. The model of fuzzy graph situational project management in the investment phase, providing adequate and effective opportunity to describe the project taking into account seasonality and uncertainty in the tasks of planning and decision making. The conclusions about the choice of alternative strategic solutions for companies considering the seasonality of production based on the proposed fuzzy graph situational solutions that allow for the special factors such as the nature of the project and the environment; uncertainty in the design and environment; take account of the conditions of the process; and evaluate the results of actions and make choices alternatives for achieving the strategic objectives of the various activities of the enterprise, taking into account the seasonal factor.

  11. Insight in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J

    1997-01-01

    Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.

  12. Influenza seasonality in Madagascar: the mysterious African free-runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Wladimir Jimenez; Guillebaud, Julia; Viboud, Cecile; Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Orelle, Arnaud; Zhou, Steven Zhixiang; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal drivers of influenza activity remain debated in tropical settings where epidemics are not clearly phased. Antananarivo is a particularly interesting case study because it is in Madagascar, an island situated in the tropics and with quantifiable connectivity levels to other countries. We aimed at disentangling the role of environmental forcing and population fluxes on influenza seasonality in Madagascar. We compiled weekly counts of laboratory-confirmed influenza-positive specimens for the period 2002 to 2012 collected in Antananarivo, with data available from sub-Saharan countries and countries contributing most foreign travelers to Madagascar. Daily climate indicators were compiled for the study period. Overall, influenza activity detected in Antananarivo predated that identified in temperate Northern Hemisphere locations. This activity presented poor temporal matching with viral activity in other countries from the African continent or countries highly connected to Madagascar excepted for A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza detection in Antananarivo was not associated with travel activity and, although it was positively correlated with all climatic variables studied, such association was weak. The timing of influenza activity in Antananarivo is irregular, is not driven by climate, and does not align with that of countries in geographic proximity or highly connected to Madagascar. This work opens fresh questions regarding the drivers of influenza seasonality globally particularly in mid-latitude and less-connected regions to tailor vaccine strategies locally. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  14. A Malthusian Model for all Seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    It has become popular to argue (e.g. Clark 2007) that all societies were Malthusian until about 1800. At the same time, the phenomenon of surplus labour is well-documented for historical (as well as modern) pre-industrial societies. This study discusses the paradox of surplus labour in a Malthusian...... economy. Inspired by the work of Boserup (1965) and others, and in contrast to the Lewis (1954) approach, we suggest that the phenomenon of surplus labour is best understood through an acceptance of the importance of seasonality in agriculture. Boserup observed that the harvest season was invariably...... associated with labour shortages (the high-season bottleneck on production), although there might be labour surplus during the low season. We introduce the concept of seasonality into a stylized Malthusian model, and endogenize the extent of agricultural labour input, which is then used to calculate labour...

  15. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  16. Seasonal evolution of S q current system at sub-auroral latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichare, Geeta; Rawat, Rahul; Hanchinal, A.; Sinha, A. K.; Dhar, A.; Pathan, B. M.

    2012-11-01

    The quiet-time (Σ K p ≤ 3) daily variations of the geomagnetic field at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri (Geographic Coord.: 70.75°S, 11.73°E; Geomagnetic Coord.: 66.84°S, 56.29°E) during two consecutive years of a solar minimum are considered in order to investigate the characteristics of the solar quiet ( S q) current system. The present work reports the signatures of the south limb of the S q current loop of the southern hemisphere over a sub-auroral station. It is observed that the seasonal variation of the S q current strength over Maitri is strongest during the summer months and weakest during the winter months. In spite of the total darkness during the winter months, an S q pattern is identified at Maitri. The range of the horizontal field variation in the daily S q pattern during summer is one order higher than that during winter. An interesting feature regarding the phase of the local time variation in the seasonal pattern is found here. A sharp shift in the time of the peak S q current to later local times (> 1 hour per month) is observed during January-February and July-August, which may correspond to the transition from the complete presence, or absence, of sunlight to partial sunlight. The differences in the incoming solar UV radiation during such transitions can cause a sudden change in the local ionospheric conductivity pattern, and can also trigger some unusual thermo-tidal activity, that might be responsible for modifying the global S q pattern.

  17. Seasonal variations in sleep disorders of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuanmay; Lam, Calvin; Chen, Su-Ru; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the difference between nurses and the general population regarding seasonal variations in sleep disorders during 2004-2008. The effects of season and group interaction on sleep disorders with regard to different comorbidities were also examined. Studies on seasonal variations in sleep disorders were mainly conducted in Norway for the general population. Furthermore, whether different comorbidities cause seasonal variations in sleep disorders in nurses remains unknown. A retrospective study. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used in generalised estimating equation Poisson distribution models to investigate the differences in sleep disorders between nurses and the general population diagnosed with sleep disorders (each n = 7643) as well as the interaction effects of sleep disorders between the groups with respect to different seasons. Furthermore, the interaction effects between groups and seasons on sleep disorders in the subgroups of comorbid anxiety disorders and depressive disorders were studied. Both the nurses and the general population had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in other seasons. The nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. The nurses had more outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in summer compared with the general population in the comorbid depressive disorder subgroup but not in the comorbid anxiety disorder subgroup. Nurses and the general population exhibited similar seasonal patterns of sleep disorders, but nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. For nurses with comorbid depressive disorders, outpatient visits for sleep disorders were more numerous in winter than in summer, potentially because nurses with comorbid depressive disorders are affected by shorter daylight exposure during winter. Depression and daylight exposure may

  18. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  19. Evaluation of the milk physicochemical and microbiological patterns in different lactation phases in year seasons in milk farms of Paraná State – Brazil / Avaliação de padrões físico-químicos e microbiológicos do leite em diferentes fases de lactação nas estações do ano em granjas leiteiras no Estado do Paraná – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of milk in different lactation phases during a year in two Dairy farms producing type A milk (Brazilian Standards and classified as Farm 1 (G1 and Farm 2 (G2. The 320 raw milk samples were collected to analyze acidity Dornic, California Mastit Test (CMT, Somatic Cells Counting (SCC and Cryoscopy (0H during four seasons, in the period of January 00 to January 005. To data statistical analyses a General linear model (GLM was used. The CMT, the SCC, acidity Dornic and Cryoscopy (0H results were not significant (P>0.05, during the year seasons, between the farms and in the different lactation phases. The SCC (9 5.000 cells/mL average results are in disagreement with the legislation. To the Dornic acidity and Cryoscopy (0H, the values had not exceeded the limit demanded by IN5 . The results of mesophilic aerobic organisms counting during autumn (G and during spring (G had revealed a disagreement with IN5 . High levels of coliforms (TC and Escherichia coli (EC were observed in G in all seasons when compared with G . It was demonstrated that the physical-chemistry and microbiological quality are important to handling practical during milks.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos do leite em diferentes fases de lactação, durante as estações do ano em duas granjas leiteiras produtoras de leite tipo A (Granja (G e Granja (G , no período de janeiro de 00 a janeiro de 005. Foram colhidas e analisadas 0 amostras de leite cru para análise da acidez Dornic, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Contagem de Células Somáticas (CCS e crioscopia. Para as análises estatísticas dos dados, foram empregados os Modelos Lineares Generalizados (GLM. Constatou-se que os resultados das análises estatísticas não foram significativos (P>0,05, durante as estações do ano, nas diferentes fases de lactação, entre as granjas

  20. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage for Seasonal Thermal Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Vahab; Bloemendal, Martin; Keviczky, Tamas

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems allow storing large quantities of thermal energy in subsurface aquifers enabling significant energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions. This is achieved by injection and extraction of water into and from saturated underground aquifers, simultaneously. An ATES system consists of two wells and operates in a seasonal mode. One well is used for the storage of cold water, the other one for the storage of heat. In warm seasons, cold water is extracted from the cold well to provide cooling to a building. The temperature of the extracted cold water increases as it passes through the building climate control systems and then gets simultaneously, injected back into the warm well. This procedure is reversed during cold seasons where the flow direction is reversed such that the warmer water is extracted from the warm well to provide heating to a building. From the perspective of building climate comfort systems, an ATES system is considered as a seasonal storage system that can be a heat source or sink, or as a storage for thermal energy. This leads to an interesting and challenging optimal control problem of the building climate comfort system that can be used to develop a seasonal-based energy management strategy. In [1] we develop a control-oriented model to predict thermal energy balance in a building climate control system integrated with ATES. Such a model however cannot cope with off-nominal but realistic situations such as when the wells are completely depleted, or the start-up phase of newly installed wells, etc., leading to direct usage of aquifer ambient temperature. Building upon our previous work in [1], we here extend the mathematical model for ATES system to handle the above mentioned more realistic situations. Using our improved models, one can more precisely predict system behavior and apply optimal control strategies to manage the building climate comfort along with energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions

  1. Variations of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity before and after a flood season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangdong; Shu, Longcang; Lu, Chengpeng; Chen, Xunhong; Zhang, Xiao; Appiah-Adjei, Emmanuel K.; Zhu, Jingsi

    2015-11-01

    The change of vertical hydraulic conductivity ( K v) before and after a flood season is crucial in understanding the long-term temporal variation of streambed permeability. Therefore, in this study, a detailed K v field investigation was conducted at an in-channel site within the Dawen River, China, before and after a flood season. In-situ falling-head permeameter tests were performed for the determination of K v. The tests were conducted using a 10 × 10 grid, at five different depths. In total, 871 valid K v values from layers 1-5 were obtained. The Kruskal-Wallis test on these K v values before and after the flood season shows they belonged to different populations. The sediments before the flood season primarily consisted of sand and gravel, whereas after the flood season, patchy distribution of silt/clay occurred in the sandy streambed and silt/clay content increased with the increasing depth; under the losing condition during flooding, downward movement of water brought fine particles into the coarse sediments, partially silting the pores. Accordingly, the K v values after the flood season had a smaller mean and median, and a higher level of heterogeneity, compared to those before the flood season. Additionally, the distribution pattern in K v across the stream differed before and after flood season; after the flood season, there was an increasing trend in K v from the south bank to the north bank. Overall, the contrasts of K v before and after the flood season were predominantly subject to the infiltration of fine particles.

  2. Possible daily and seasonal variations in quantum interference induced by Chern-Simons gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawara, Hiroki; Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2012-12-07

    Possible effects of Chern-Simons (CS) gravity on a quantum interferometer turn out to be dependent on the latitude and direction of the interferometer on Earth in orbital motion around the Sun. Daily and seasonal variations in phase shifts are predicted with an estimate of the size of the effects, wherefore neutron interferometry with ~5 m arm length and ~10(-4) phase measurement accuracy would place a bound on a CS parameter comparable to the Gravity Probe B satellite.

  3. Melanopsin Gene Variations Interact With Season to Predict Sleep Onset and Chronotype

    OpenAIRE

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Franzen, Peter L.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Miller, Megan A.; Kepreos, Kyle M.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are asso...

  4. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene – 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv than the wet season (isoprene – 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m−2 h−1 and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m−2 h−1 were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m−2 h−1. These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf

  5. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliane G.; Jardine, Kolby; Tota, Julio; Jardine, Angela; Yãnez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Karl, Thomas; Tavares, Julia; Nelson, Bruce; Gu, Dasa; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Martin, Scot; Artaxo, Paulo; Manzi, Antonio; Guenther, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene - 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv) than the wet season (isoprene - 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv) for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m-2 h-1) and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m-2 h-1) were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m-2 h-1). These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf phenology seemed to be an important driver of seasonal

  6. Experimental and in silico characterization of xylitol as seasonal heat storage material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Duquesne, M.; Godin, A.; Niedermaier, S.; Palomo del Barrio, E.; Gaastra - Nedea, S.V.; Rindt, C.C.M.

    Solid-liquid phase change is one of the most favorable means of compact heat storage in the built environment. Recent studies propose C4-C6 polyalcohols for seasonal storage applications, for their high latent melting enthalpy, evident supercooling effect, and low environmental impact. In this

  7. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  8. Seasonality of the Mindanao Current/Undercurrent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiuping; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan; Song, Lina; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhai, Fangguo

    2018-02-01

    Seasonality of the Mindanao Current (MC)/Undercurrent (MUC) system is investigated using moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements off Mindanao (8°N, 127.05°E) and ocean model simulations. The mooring observation during December 2010 to August 2014 revealed that the surface-layer MC between 50-150 m is dominated by annual-period variation and tends to be stronger in spring (boreal) and weaker in fall. Prominent semiannual variations were detected below 150 m. The lower MC between 150 and 400 m is stronger in spring and fall and weaker in summer and winter, while the northward MUC below 400 m emerges in summer and winter and disappears in spring and fall. In-phase and out-of-phase current anomalies above and below 150 m were observed alternatively. These variations are faithfully reproduced by an eddy-resolving ocean model simulation (OFES). Further analysis demonstrates that seasonal variation of the MC is a component of large-scale upper-ocean circulation gyre, while current variations in the MUC layer are confined near the western boundary and featured by shorter-scale (200-400 km) structures. Most of the MC variations and approximately half of the MUC variations can be explained by the first and second baroclinic modes and caused by local wind forcing of the western Pacific. Semiannual surface wind variability and superimposition of the two baroclinic modes jointly give rise to the enhanced subsurface semiannual variations. The pronounced mesoscale eddy variability in the MUC layer may also contribute to the seasonality of the MUC through eddy-current interaction.

  9. Seasonality of Kawasaki Disease: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane C.; Herzog, Lauren; Fabri, Olivia; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Rodó, Xavier; Uehara, Ritei; Burgner, David; Bainto, Emelia; Pierce, David; Tyree, Mary; Cayan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding global seasonal patterns of Kawasaki disease (KD) may provide insight into the etiology of this vasculitis that is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries worldwide. Methods Data from 1970-2012 from 25 countries distributed over the globe were analyzed for seasonality. The number of KD cases from each location was normalized to minimize the influence of greater numbers from certain locations. The presence of seasonal variation of KD at the individual locations was evaluated using three different tests: time series modeling, spectral analysis, and a Monte Carlo technique. Results A defined seasonal structure emerged demonstrating broad coherence in fluctuations in KD cases across the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical latitudes. In the extra-tropical latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, KD case numbers were highest in January through March and approximately 40% higher than in the months of lowest case numbers from August through October. Datasets were much sparser in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics and statistical significance of the seasonality tests was weak, but suggested a maximum in May through June, with approximately 30% higher number of cases than in the least active months of February, March and October. The seasonal pattern in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics was consistent across the first and second halves of the sample period. Conclusion Using the first global KD time series, analysis of sites located in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics revealed statistically significant and consistent seasonal fluctuations in KD case numbers with high numbers in winter and low numbers in late summer and fall. Neither the tropics nor the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics registered a statistically significant aggregate seasonal cycle. These data suggest a seasonal exposure to a KD agent that operates over large geographic regions and is concentrated during winter

  10. Variation in the serum bilirubin levels in newborns according to gender and seasonal changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilirubin is a substance that is produced during the process of hemolysis. Gender influences on neonatal illnesses and outcomes have remained a topic of debate and investigation. Empirical neonatological experience suggests that prevalence and degree of neonatal jaundice might be dependent on seasonal variation also. The aim of our study is to interpret the bilirubin levels in newborns according to gender and seasonal variation. Materials and Methods: The study was done from October 2012 to July of 2013 (differentiated by seasonal variation. A total of 1000 jaundiced newborn (500 of each sex diagnosed clinically and divided equally in summer and winter season were studied to assess the total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels using colorimetry. Results: Out of total 1676 deliveries (439 were caesarean, 13 were assisted and rest were normal during winter season and 1475 deliveries (399 were Cesarean, 14 were assisted and rest were normal during summer season, 500 male newborn and 500 female newborn were analysed, divided equally in both seasons. Serum bilirubin was higher in males in summers and mainly comprised unconjugated bilirubin while direct bilirubin was higher in females in winters. Raised indirect bilirubin was more common in males born in summer than those born in winters (P = 041. In winters raised direct bilirubin was more common in females as compared to males (P = 0.019. Among female neonates total and indirect bilirubin was significantly raised in those born in summers (P = < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively while direct was raised in those born in winters (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Physiological and pathologic phenomena associated with male gender must be integrated in the frame of understanding of both susceptibility and protection of the male newborn which has not been available for adequate investigation in the past. The higher temperature during the summer, with a greater influence of higher breastfeeding

  11. Seasonal climate prediction for North Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryjov, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of the operational seasonal climate prediction for North Eurasia is presented. It is shown that the performance of existing climate models is rather poor in seasonal prediction for North Eurasia. Multi-model ensemble forecasts are more reliable than single-model ones; however, for North Eurasia they tend to be close to climatological ones. Application of downscaling methods may improve predictions for some locations (or regions). However, general improvement of the reliability of seasonal forecasts for North Eurasia requires improvement of the climate prediction models. (letter)

  12. A study on seasonal variation of skin parameters in Korean males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, E J; Lee, J A; Park, J J; Kim, H J; Kim, N S; Byun, K S; Choi, G S; Moon, T K

    2015-02-01

    The physiological characteristics of the skin are varied greatly, depending on gender, age, region and race, and many dermatologic researches have been performed through various research methods. This study aimed to examine how Korean men's skin conditions were influenced by temperature or humidity changes caused by seasonal rotations. A total of 100 healthy Korean men, age range 20-59 years, participated in the study for both summer and winter. We compared on the characteristics of skin between summer and winter. The skin hydration, skin pH and TEWL were evaluated on the forehead, cheek and forearm. The skin sebum content of the glabella, nasal ala and cheek was measured using Sebumeter(®) (SM810, Courage+Khazaka, Germany). Cutometer(®) (MPA 580 Courage+Khazaka, Germany) the elasticity was measured by on the cheeks, and PRIMOS lite(®) (Phase shift Rapid in vivo Measurement of Skin, GFMesstechnik GmbH, Germany) was used to evaluate wrinkles on crow's feet. Lastly, in addition, the skin pore of the face was measured using the Janus(®) (PSI, Korea) which is a facial analysis system. The results were as follows: the comparison of hydration in summer and winter shows significant differences in their forehead, cheeks and forearm. The pH values of the skin surface were generally higher in winter, and significantly different on each site, and the sebum content was higher in summer than in winter. As a result of the pore measurement, the summer showed more pores compared to the winter, and there was a statistically significant difference in skin pores between summer and winter. The sensitivity measured by stinging test increases significantly more in winter than in summer. However, there were no seasonal differences in wrinkles and skin brightness. The skin surface pH, TEWL, sebum content, hydration, elasticity, wrinkles, skin pore and skin sensitivity vary with seasons and body regions in Korean men. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  13. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  14. Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls.Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6 were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05 among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation.Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.

  15. Seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community in a tropical oligotrophic environment (Ilha Solteira reservoir, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, A S; Hisatugo, K F; Leite, M A; Luzia, A P; Regali-Seleghim, M H

    2013-05-01

    The seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community (ciliates and testate amoebae) was studied in a tropical oligotrophic reservoir in Brazil, which was under the influence of two contrasting climatic seasons (rainy/warm and dry/cold). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these climatic changes on physical, chemical and biological variables in the dynamic of this community. The highest mean density of total protozoans occurred in the rainy/warm season (5683.2 ind L-1), while the lowest was in the dry/cold (2016.0 ind L-1). Considering the seasonal variations, the protozoan groups that are truly planktonic, such as the oligotrichs (Spirotrichea), predominated in the dry season, whereas during the rainy season, due to the material input and resuspension of sediment, sessile protozoans of the Peritrichia group were the most important ones. The dominant protozoans were Urotricha globosa, Cothurnia annulata, Pseudodifflugia sp. and Halteria grandinella. The highest densities of H. grandinella were associated with more oxygenated and transparent water conditions, while the highest densities of C. annulata occurred in sites with high turbidity, pH and trophic state index (TSI). The study demonstrated that density and composition of protozooplanktonic species and groups of the reservoir suffered seasonal variation due to the environmental variables (mainly temperature, turbidity, water transparency, dissolved oxygen and TSI) and the biological variables (e.g. morphological characteristics, eating habits and escape strategies from predation of the species).

  16. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Taraborrelli, Valeria Taraborrelli

    Margheritini and Valeria Taraborrelli(valeria.taraborrelli@hotmail.it) with a total of 3 day visit from the developers. Laboratory tests in irregular waves will be performed by Lucia Margheritini. The report is aimed at the first stage testing of the Rolling Cylinder wave energy device. This phase includes...

  17. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. L. Winton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m−3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  18. Seasonal Variations in Physical Fitness and Performance Indices of Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Meckel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate seasonal variations in fitness and performance indices of professional male soccer players. Eighteen professional male soccer players (age range 22–32 years completed three similar sets of tests at three stages of the season: before preseason; after preseason and the middle of the competitive in-season. A significant decrease in body mass and percent fat was found during the preseason. A significant improvement (p < 0.05 was found in the vertical jump (preseason: 37.0 ± 5.3, post-preseason: 39.0 ± 4.8, mid-season: 40.3 ± 5.5 cm, the 4 × 10-m agility test (preseason: 8.1 ± 0.2, post-preseason: 7.9 ± 0.2, mid-season: 8.1 ± 0.3 s, flexibility (preseason: 45.2 ± 8.8, post-preseason: 48.2 ± 7.0, mid-season: 49.9 ± 6.9 cm and aerobic capacity (preseason: 52.7 ± 6.6, post-preseason: 56.4 ± 6.0, mid-season: 57.4 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min during preseason, with no further change during mid-season. Repeated sprint test (RST (6 × 30-m performance indices showed significant deterioration (p < 0.05 in ideal sprint time (IS; preseason: 21.8 ± 1.0, post-preseason: 23.0 ± 0.8, mid-season: 23.2 ± 0.8 s and total sprint time (TS; preseason: 22.5 ± 0.7, post-preseason: 23.5 ± 0.6, mid-season: 23.8 ± 0.6 s during preseason, with no further changes during mid-season. However, performance decrement (PD significantly decreased during the preseason with no change during mid-season. The findings suggest that while power training was probably responsible for the anaerobic fitness improvement, the high-volume training led to improvement in aerobic fitness during the preseason. However, the low-intensity aerobic-type training, coupled with the high total training load, may have led to fatigue and decreases in IS and TS during the preseason.

  19. Modeling seasonal water balance based on catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Zhao, J.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper develops a seasonal water balance model based on the hypothesis that natural catchments utilize hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality. According to the monthly aridity index, one year is split into wet season and dry season. A seasonal water balance model is developed by analogy to a two-stage reservoir operation model, in which seasonal rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration and saturation-excess runoff is corresponding to the inflow, release and surplus of the catchment system. Then the optimal hedging between wet season and dry season evapotranspiration is analytically derived with marginal benefit principle. Water budget data sets of 320 catchments in the United States covering the period from 1980 to 2010 are used to evaluate the performance of this model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient for evapotranspiration is higher than 0.5 in 84% of the study catchments; while the runoff is 87%. This paper validates catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality and shows its potential application for seasonal water balance, which is valuable for water resources planning and management.

  20. Understanding the evolution of the 2014–2016 summer rainfall seasons in southern Africa: Key lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rosa Mary Archer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent 2015/16 summer rainfall season in the terrestrial Southern African Development Community (SADC region appears to be the most severe since the droughts of the early 1980s and 1990s; with well-publicized significant impacts on agriculture and food security. Impacts have been particularly concerning since the 2015/6 season followed a poor rainy season in 2014/15, in certain areas compounding already compromised production (total maize production was, for example, down 40% relative to the previous 5 year average. This paper reviews climate forecasts and observations of the two seasons, and presents examples of the resulting impacts on agriculture within the region. We conclude by considering what may be learnt from this experience, focussing on operational recommendations for early warning within SADC, as well as longstanding needs for awareness raising and capacity building.

  1. Feature: Controlling Seasonal Allergies | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Controlling Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents In ... to allergens, helping to prevent allergic reactions. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Allergen and T-Cell Reagent ...

  2. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs annually, ...

  3. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  4. Seasonally-Active Water on Mars: Vapour, Ice, Adsorbate, and the Possibility of Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    southern caps. Similar climate-models of the water cycle also do not need much exchangeable adsorbed water in order to explain the observed vapour distributions. The possibility of liquid water is tantalizing, but difficult to definitively judge. On scales greater than a meter or so, Mars is most definitely well away from the water triple point--although the surface pressure can exceed 6.1 mbars, the partial pressure of water vapor (to which the triple point refers) is at best orders of magnitude lower. Several careful studies have shown, however, that locally transient (meta-stable) liquid is possible, if the net heating of ice deposits is high enough. This process is aided if the total surface pressure exceeds 6.1mbar (this prevents boiling, or the explosive loss of vapour into the atmosphere) or if the liquid is covered by a thin ice shell, and is only possible if surface temperatures exceed 273K (for pure water, or the appropriate eutectic for brines) and if ice is present. The former challenge is much easier to meet than the latter. The melt scenario requires that ice deposited in winter must be protected from sublimation as surface temperatures increase in spring, but then exposed to the peak of solar heating in summer. Available spacecraft observations of seasonal water will be discussed with the aid of GCM model simulations, and examined in the context of water distributions and phases.

  5. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... the flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the ...

  6. HealthLines: Seasons Change, Moods Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the onset of a form of depression called seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Most commonly, SAD usually occurs ... time. Others include: medicines, changes in diet, and stress management. If you ... Water Well? If your water comes from a private ...

  7. Seasonal Composite Chlorophyll Concentrations - Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were calculated...

  8. seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area ... animal feedlots, industrial waste and food processing ...... and conservation of groundwater quality; a) ... significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides.

  9. Seasonal Cycle in German Daily Precipitation Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Fischer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal cycle of extreme precipitation in Germany is investigated by fitting statistical models to monthly maxima of daily precipitation sums for 2,865 rain gauges. The basis is a non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV distribution variation of location and scale parameters. The negative log-likelihood serves as the forecast error for a cross validation to select adequate orders of the harmonic functions for each station. For nearly all gauges considered, the seasonal model is more appropriate to estimate return levels on a monthly scale than a stationary GEV used for individual months. The 100-year return-levels show the influence of cyclones in the western, and convective events in the eastern part of Germany. In addition to resolving the seasonality, we use a simulation study to show that annual return levels can be estimated more precisely from a monthly-resolved seasonal model than from a stationary model based on annual maxima.

  10. 27 CFR 11.39 - Seasonal dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Rules for the Return of Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Malt Beverages Exchanges and Returns for Ordinary and Usual Commercial Reasons § 11.39 Seasonal dealers. Industry...

  11. HORMONAL ANALYSIS IN ELITE BASKETBALL DURING A SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavi Schelling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In elite basketball, the high demands of competition and training require a detailed follow-up of the effects on the player's performance and health. Controlling these effects could improve the knowledge about the players' recovery process and allow a better design of their individual workloads. Aim: To describe the behavior of the total testosterone serum levels (T, cortisol (C and T/C ratio. Methodology: 8 blood samples were collected during the whole season of an elite basketball team (n=8 of the First Spanish Division (ACB. The samples were taken every 4-6 weeks, at 8:00 AM, after 24-36 hours of post-game recovery. Results: T increases after 4 after 3.5 days of rest (6th vs. 1st, p=0.039; 6th vs. 5th, p=0.041 and decreases significantly at the end of the season (8th vs. 7th, p=0.003. C does not show significant variation along the season. T/C ratio shows a significant decrease at the end of the season (8th vs. 1st , p=0.021; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.017 and in VarT/C (8th vs. 1st, p=0.005; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.036. Conclusions: Concentration values as well as percentages of variation are useful indicators to describe the studied parameters. T/C ratio and/or T could be used as recovery state indicators and could even induce, in conjunction with other indicators, necessary actions to optimize individual workloads. Future investigations should compare these variations to objective workload parameters and/or other hormonal modulators.

  12. Developing Novel Reservoir Rule Curves Using Seasonal Inflow Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-yi; Tung, Ching-pin

    2015-04-01

    Due to significant seasonal rainfall variations, reservoirs and their flexible operational rules are indispensable to Taiwan. Furthermore, with the intensifying impacts of climate change on extreme climate, the frequency of droughts in Taiwan has been increasing in recent years. Drought is a creeping phenomenon, the slow onset character of drought makes it difficult to detect at an early stage, and causes delays on making the best decision of allocating water. For these reasons, novel reservoir rule curves using projected seasonal streamflow are proposed in this study, which can potentially reduce the adverse effects of drought. This study dedicated establishing new rule curves which consider both current available storage and anticipated monthly inflows with leading time of two months to reduce the risk of water shortage. The monthly inflows are projected based on the seasonal climate forecasts from Central Weather Bureau (CWB), which a weather generation model is used to produce daily weather data for the hydrological component of the GWLF. To incorporate future monthly inflow projections into rule curves, this study designs a decision flow index which is a linear combination of current available storage and inflow projections with leading time of 2 months. By optimizing linear relationship coefficients of decision flow index, the shape of rule curves and the percent of water supply in each zone, the best rule curves to decrease water shortage risk and impacts can be developed. The Shimen Reservoir in the northern Taiwan is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method. Existing rule curves (M5 curves) of Shimen Reservoir are compared with two cases of new rule curves, including hindcast simulations and historic seasonal forecasts. The results show new rule curves can decrease the total water shortage ratio, and in addition, it can also allocate shortage amount to preceding months to avoid extreme shortage events. Even though some uncertainties in

  13. Seasonal unit roots in trade variables

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Alexander; Manuel Cantavella Jordá

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine the presence of seasonal unit roots in trade variables for Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy, using the procedure developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) [HEGY]. Both quarterly and monthly data reject the presence of unit roots at most seasonal frequencies, more frequently in quarterly than in monthly data. This has important implications for econometric modeling of trade balance, exchange rates and income in European Union (EU) countries. ...

  14. Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of opportunity in the summers of 2012- 2014. In...measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of...such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. In addition to SIZRS

  15. Visualization of uncertainties and forecast skill in user-tailored seasonal climate predictions for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Gubler, Stefanie; Spierig, Christoph; Flubacher, Moritz; Maurer, Felix; Quevedo, Karim; Escajadillo, Yury; Avalos, Griña; Liniger, Mark A.; Schwierz, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal climate forecast products potentially have a high value for users of different sectors. During the first phase (2012-2015) of the project CLIMANDES (a pilot project of the Global Framework for Climate Services led by WMO [http://www.wmo.int/gfcs/climandes]), a demand study conducted with Peruvian farmers indicated a large interest in seasonal climate information for agriculture. The study further showed that the required information should by precise, timely, and understandable. In addition to the actual forecast, two complex measures are essential to understand seasonal climate predictions and their limitations correctly: forecast uncertainty and forecast skill. The former can be sampled by using an ensemble of climate simulations, the latter derived by comparing forecasts of past time periods to observations. Including uncertainty and skill information in an understandable way for end-users (who are often not technically educated) poses a great challenge. However, neglecting this information would lead to a false sense of determinism which could prove fatal to the credibility of climate information. Within the second phase (2016-2018) of the project CLIMANDES, one goal is to develop a prototype of a user-tailored seasonal forecast for the agricultural sector in Peru. In this local context, the basic education level of the rural farming community presents a major challenge for the communication of seasonal climate predictions. This contribution proposes different graphical presentations of climate forecasts along with possible approaches to visualize and communicate the associated skill and uncertainties, considering end users with varying levels of technical knowledge.

  16. Seasonal mercury exposure and oxidant-antioxidant status of James Bay sport fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Marie-Claire; Mirault, Marc-Edouard; Dewailly, Eric; Plante, Michel; Berthiaume, Line; Noël, Micheline; Julien, Pierre

    2008-05-01

    The effects of a moderate seasonal exposure to methylmercury on plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and cardiovascular risk indices are not known. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a seasonal exposure to mercury at similar dose reported to increase cardiovascular risk through fish consumption. Effects on lipoprotein cholesterol and fatty acid profiles, LDL oxidation, and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance were to be assessed in sport fishermen presenting normal blood selenium and omega-3 fatty acid contents. Thirty-one healthy James Bay sport fishermen were assessed for within-subject longitudinal seasonal variations in hair and blood mercury, plasma oxidized LDL, lipophilic antioxidants, homocysteine, blood selenium, and glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities determined before and after the fishing season and compared by matched-pair tests. Hair mercury doubled during the fishing season (2.8+/-0.4 microg/g, P<.0001). Baseline blood selenium, homocysteine, and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles did not change. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (+5%, P=.05), whereas very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and oxidized LDL decreased (-8%, P=.05; -18%, P=.008). Blood glutathione peroxidase (+9.7%, P=.001), glutathione reductase (+7.2%, P<.0001), and total glutathione (+45% P<.0001) increased during the fishing season. Plasma total coenzyme Q10 (+13%, P=.02), ubiquinone-10 (+67%, P=.03), and beta-carotene (+46%, P=.01) also increased, whereas vitamin E status was unaffected. Pairwise correlations revealed no association between mercury exposure and any of the biomarkers investigated. In contrast, strong predictors of cardiovascular risk such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and glutathione peroxidase improved during the fishing season despite elevated methylmercury exposure. The beneficial effects of seasonal fishing activity and fish consumption on cardiovascular health may suppress

  17. The seasonal cycle of water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of water in the Mars atmosphere and subsurface is appropriate now that data from the Mariner and Viking spacecraft have been analyzed and discussed for several years following completion of those missions. Observations and analyses pertinent to the seasonal cycle of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars are reviewed, with attention toward transport of water and the seasonal exchange of water between the atmosphere and various non-atmospheric reservoirs. Possible seasonally-accessible sources and sinks for water include water ice on or within the seasonal and residual polar caps; surface or subsurface ice in the high-latitude regions of the planet; adsorbed or chemically-bound water within the near-surface regolith; or surface or subsurface liquid water. The stability of water within each of these reservoirs is discussed, as are the mechanisms for driving exchange of the water with the atmosphere and the timescales for exchange. Specific conclusions are reached about the distribution of water and the viability of each mechanism as a seasonal reservoir. Discussion is also included of the behavior of water on longer timescales, driven by the variations in solar forcing due to the quasi-periodic variations of the orbital obliquity. Finally, specific suggestions are made for future observations from spacecraft which would further define or constrain the seasonal cycle of water.

  18. Climatology of extreme daily precipitation in Colorado and its diverse spatial and seasonal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kelly M.; Ralph, F. Martin; Walter, Klaus; Doesken, Nolan; Dettinger, Michael; Gottas, Daniel; Coleman, Timothy; White, Allen

    2015-01-01

    The climatology of Colorado’s historical extreme precipitation events shows a remarkable degree of seasonal and regional variability. Analysis of the largest historical daily precipitation totals at COOP stations across Colorado by season indicates that the largest recorded daily precipitation totals have ranged from less than 60 mm day−1 in some areas to more than 250 mm day−1 in others. East of the Continental Divide, winter events are rarely among the top 10 events at a given site, but spring events dominate in and near the foothills; summer events are most common across the lower-elevation eastern plains, while fall events are most typical for the lower elevations west of the Divide. The seasonal signal in Colorado’s central mountains is complex; high-elevation intense precipitation events have occurred in all months of the year, including summer, when precipitation is more likely to be liquid (as opposed to snow), which poses more of an instantaneous flood risk. Notably, the historic Colorado Front Range daily rainfall totals that contributed to the damaging floods in September 2013 occurred outside of that region’s typical season for most extreme precipitation (spring–summer). That event and many others highlight the fact that extreme precipitation in Colorado has occurred historically during all seasons and at all elevations, emphasizing a year-round statewide risk.

  19. Presentations and outcomes of patients with acute decompensated heart failure admitted in the winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hidehiro; Suzuki, Shinya; Goto, Masato; Arita, Takuto; Yuzawa, Yasufumi; Yagi, Naoharu; Murata, Nobuhiro; Yajima, Junji; Oikawa, Yuji; Sagara, Koichi; Otsuka, Takayuki; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Kano, Hiroto; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal variations in cardiovascular disease is well recognized. However, little is known about the presentations and outcomes of Japanese heart failure (HF) patients in the winter season. We used a single hospital-based cohort from the Shinken Database 2004-2012, comprising all new patients (n=19,994) who visited the Cardiovascular Institute Hospital. A total of 375 patients who were admitted owing to acute decompensated HF were included in the analysis. Of these patients, 136 (36%) were admitted in winter. Winter was defined as the period between December and February. The HF patients admitted in winter were older, and had a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus than the patients admitted in other seasons. Patients with conditions categorized as clinical scenario 1 tended to be admitted more commonly in winter. HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was more common in HF patients admitted in winter than in those admitted in other seasons. Beta-blocker use at hospital discharge was more common in the patients admitted in other seasons. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test results indicated that the incidences of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and HF admission were comparable between the patients admitted in winter and those admitted in other seasons. HF admission was frequently observed in the winter season and HF patients admitted in the winter season were older, and had higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and preserved LVEF suggesting that we might need to pay more attention for elderly patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and HF with preserved LVEF to decrease HF admissions in the winter season. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NOVA making stuff: Season 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leombruni, Lisa [WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston, MA (United States); Paulsen, Christine Andrews [Concord Evaluation Group, Concord, MA (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  1. Seasonal and interannual variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical plantation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Greenberg, James

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of BVOC emissions, ozone concentration and environmental parameters were carried out from May 2013 to January 2016 in a subtropical Pinus plantation in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system and a gradient technique on an above-canopy tower. In 2013, isoprene comprised 21.2% of total terpenoid emissions, while α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and limonene constituting 51.5%, 2.4%, 9.1%, and 13.0% of total emissions, respectively. Monoterpenes together were the dominant VOCs measured contributing 71.6%. α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and limonene constituted 67.7%, 3.2%, 11.9%, 17.2% of total monoterpene emissions. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions displayed strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions varied with season and were the highest in summer, contributing more than half of the total annual emission, and the lowest emissions were in winter. Evident interannual variations of isoprene, monoterpenes and total BVOCs were observed. Compared to 2013, annual BVOC emissions decreased in 2015, associated with decreases of PAR, Temperature, water vapor, and an increase of all substances in gas, liquid and solid phases in the atmospheric column (e.g., S/Q, the ratio of solar scattered radiation to global radiation). Ozone concentration showed clear diurnal variation with PAR, higher around noon and lower in the early morning and late evening. Generally, there were no evident correlations between ozone concentrations and BVOC emissions, or the vertical gradients of ozone concentrations and BVOC concentrations. Under all sky conditions (including cloudy skies), no strong correlations at a high confidence level or very similar variation patterns were observed between any two following parameters, BVOC emissions

  2. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J de Winter

    Full Text Available The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  3. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels J; Snoeck, Christophe; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  4. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  5. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  6. Comparison of tropical cyclogenesis indices on seasonal to interannual timescales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkes, Christophe E. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); IRD, Noumea Cedex (New Caledonia); Institut de Recherche Pour le Developpement, LOCEAN, IRD/UPMC/MNHN/CNRS, Noumea Cedex (New Caledonia); Lengaigne, Matthieu [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, IRD, Goa (India); Marchesiello, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), IRD, Toulouse (France); Jourdain, Nicolas C. [IRD, Noumea Cedex (New Caledonia); Vincent, Emmanuel M. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); Lefevre, Jerome [IRD, Noumea Cedex (New Caledonia); Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), IRD, Toulouse (France); Chauvin, Fabrice; Royer, Jean-Francois [Meteo-France, CNRM/GAME (Meteo-France/CNRS), Toulouse Cedex 01 (France)

    2012-01-15

    This paper evaluates the performances of four cyclogenesis indices against observed tropical cyclone genesis on a global scale over the period 1979-2001. These indices are: the Genesis Potential Index; the Yearly Genesis Parameter; the Modified Yearly Convective Genesis Potential Index; and the Tippett et al. Index (J Clim, 2011), hereafter referred to as TCS. Choosing ERA40, NCEP2, NCEP or JRA25 reanalysis to calculate these indices can yield regional differences but overall does not change the main conclusions arising from this study. By contrast, differences between indices are large and vary depending on the regions and on the timescales considered. All indices except the TCS show an equatorward bias in mean cyclogenesis, especially in the northern hemisphere where this bias can reach 5 . Mean simulated genesis numbers for all indices exhibit large regional discrepancies, which can commonly reach up to {+-}50%. For the seasonal timescales on which the indices are historically fitted, performances also vary widely in terms of amplitude although in general they all reproduce the cyclogenesis seasonality adequately. At the seasonal scale, the TCS seems to be the best fitted index overall. The most striking feature at interannual scales is the inability of all indices to reproduce the observed cyclogenesis amplitude. The indices also lack the ability to reproduce the general interannual phase variability, but they do, however, acceptably reproduce the phase variability linked to El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) - a major driver of tropical cyclones interannual variations. In terms of cyclogenesis mechanisms that can be inferred from the analysis of the index terms, there are wide variations from one index to another at seasonal and interannual timescales and caution is advised when using these terms from one index only. They do, however, show a very good coherence at ENSO scale thus inspiring confidence in the mechanism interpretations that can be obtained by

  7. A further contribution to the seasonal variation of weighted mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Maohua; Hu, Wusheng

    2017-12-01

    The weighted mean temperature Tm is a variable parameter in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology and the Askne-Nordius zenith wet delay (ZWD) model. Some parameters about the Tm seasonal variation (e.g. the annual mean value, the annual range, the annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and the long-term trend) were discussed before. In this study, some additional results about the Tm seasonal variation on a global scale were found by using the Tm time series at 309 global radiosonde sites. Periodic signals of the annual and semi-annual variations were detected in these Tm time series by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The annual variation is the main component of the periodic Tm in non-tropical regions, while the annual variation or the semiannual variation can be the main component of the periodic Tm in tropics. The mean annual Tm almost keeps constant with the increasing latitude in tropics, while it decreases with the increasing latitude in non-tropical regions. From a global perspective, Tm has an increasing trend of 0.22 K/decade on average, which may be caused by the global warming effects. The annual phase is almost found in about January for the non-tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in about July for the non-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it has no clear symmetry in tropics. Unlike the annual phase, the geographical distributions of semi-annual phase do not follow obvious rules. In non-tropical regions, the maximum and minimum Tm of the seasonal model are usually found in respective summer and winter days while the maximum and minimum Tm are distributed over a whole year but not in any fixed seasons for tropical regions. The seasonal model errors increase with the increasing value of annual amplitude. A primary reason for the irregular seasonal variation in tropics is that Tm has rather small variations in this region.

  8. Seasonal dependence of aerosol processing in urban Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, A. M.; Waring, M. S.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban aerosols pose an important threat to human health due to the conflation of emissions and concentrated population exposed. Winter and summer aerosol and trace gas measurements were taken in downtown Philadelphia in 2016. Measurements included aerosol composition and size with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), particle size distributions with an SMPS, and an aethalometer. Trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CH4, CO, and CO2 were taken concurrently. Sampling in seasonal extremes provided contrast in aerosol and trace gas composition, aerosol processing, and emission factors. Inorganic aerosol components contributed approximately 60% of the submicron aerosol mass, while summertime aerosol composition was roughly 70% organic matter. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on the organic aerosol (OA) matrix revealed three factors in common in each season, including an oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factor with different temporal behavior in each season. In summertime, OOA varied diurnally with ozone and daytime temperature, but in the wintertime, it was anti-correlated with ozone and temperature, and instead trended with calculated liquid water, indicating a seasonally-dependent processing of organic aerosol in Philadelphia's urban environment. Due to the inorganic dominant winter aerosol, liquid water much higher (2.65 μg/m3) in winter than in summer (1.54 μg/m3). Diurnally varying concentrations of background gas phase species (CH4, CO2) were higher in winter and varied less as a result of boundary layer conditions; ozone was also higher in background in winter than summer. Winter stagnation events with low windspeed showed large buildup of trace gases CH4, CO, CO2, and NO. Traffic related aerosol was also elevated with black carbon and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) plumes of each at 3-5 times higher than the winter the average value for each. Winter ratios of HOA to black carbon were significantly higher in the winter than the summer due to lower

  9. Total down to work for Chtokman's gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyre, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the exploitation contract signed with Gazprom, Total group, partner of the project with StatoilHydro, has started the feasibility study for the huge Chtokman gas field in Russia (Barents sea). A definitive investment decision should be given within less a year. The pre-project phase started in summer 2008 but nothing has been decided yet. Russia has two big projects in competition: Chtokman and Kharasavey in Yamal province. Considering the extreme climate conditions and the technical challenges, Russia will need the experience of foreign partners. (J.S.)

  10. THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE CLIMATE DATA RECORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitte, Steven; Nevens, Stijn [Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-10

    We present the composite measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) as measured by an ensemble of space instruments. The measurements of the individual instruments are put on a common absolute scale, and their quality is assessed by intercomparison. The composite time series is the average of all available measurements. From 1984 April to the present the TSI shows a variation in phase with the 11 yr solar cycle and no significant changes of the quiet-Sun level in between the three covered solar minima.

  11. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  12. Diurnal and seasonal variability in size-dependent atmospheric deposition fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Staebler, Ralf; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric gaseous and size-segregated particle samples were collected from urban Guangzhou at the heights of 100 and 150 m above the ground in daytime and at night in August and December 2010, and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particulate PAHs were more abundant at night than in daytime, and significantly higher in winter than in summer. The observed vertical, diurnal, and seasonal variability in the occurrences of PAH were attributed to varying meteorological conditions and atmospheric boundary layers. More than 60% of the particulate PAHs were contained in particles in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic diameter (Dp) in the range of 0.1-1.8 μm. Different mass transfer velocities by volatilization and condensation are considered the main causes for the different particle size distributions among individual PAHs, while combustion at different temperatures and atmospheric transport were probable causes of the observed seasonal variation in the size distribution of PAHs. Based on the modeled size-dependent dry deposition velocities, daily mean dry deposition fluxes of particulate PAHs ranged from 604 to 1190 ng m-2 d-1, with PAHs in coarse particles (Dp > 1.8 μm) accounting for 55-95% of the total fluxes. In addition, gaseous PAHs were estimated to contribute 0.6-3.1% to the total dry deposition fluxes if a conservative dry deposition velocity for gaseous species (2 × 10-4 m s-1) were used. Finally, disequilibrium phase partitioning, meteorological conditions and atmospheric transport were regarded as the main reasons for the variances in dry deposition velocities of individual PAHs.

  13. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  14. Fructan dynamics in the underground organs of Chresta exsucca (Asteraceae, a dry season flowering species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic seasonality has an influence on the phenology of native Cerrado plants. Herbs and subshrubs tend to flower in the rainy season, although some species of these habits flower in the dry season. Reserve carbohydrates, stored in the underground organs, are used to support phases of high energy-demand, but also may protect plants from damage during periods of environmental limitation. In this study we evaluated variation in fructan levels in the underground organs of field-grown plants of Chresta exsucca among different phenological phases. Chresta exsucca flowers in the dry season and possesses a diffuse underground system, which stores inulin-type fructans. Resprouting was continual during the sampling period. Oligosaccharide content was always higher than polysaccharide content, except during senescence, the only phase with an oligosaccharide: polysaccharide ratio < 1. Fructan accumulation occurred during vegetative growth until flowering. Fructan mobilization was prominent during resprouting until the beginning of vegetative growth. Fructans stored in the underground organs of C. exsucca serve to fulfill the energetic demands of development and maintenance of this complex structure. In this way, fructans are essential to the persistence of this species in the environment of the Cerrado by ensuring reproduction in harsh conditions, such as drought.

  15. The Role of Stream Water Carbon Dynamics and Export in the Carbon Balance of a Tropical Seasonal Rainforest, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Sha, Li-Qing; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Dai, Kai-Jie

    2013-01-01

    A two-year study (2009 ∼ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha−1 yr−1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest. PMID:23437195

  16. The role of stream water carbon dynamics and export in the carbon balance of a tropical seasonal rainforest, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available A two-year study (2009 ~ 2010 was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN, southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC and dissolved inorganic C (DIC were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC and organic C (POC were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC and dissolved organic C (DOC were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT, only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha(-1 yr(-1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest.

  17. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  18. Influence of harvest season on antioxidant activity and constituents of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liancai; Liu, Xi; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu

    2013-11-27

    To select rabbiteye blueberry leaves from an appropriate harvest season to develop functional foods, this paper studied the bioactive secondary metabolites and the antioxidant capacity of rabbiteye blueberry leaves from May, September, and November. The results showed the leaves from May had the highest content of total flavonoids (114.21 mg/g) and the leaves from November had the highest content of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (425.24 and 243.29 mg/g, respectively). It was further found that blueberry leaves from different seasons have similar bioactive constituents, but their contents are obviously different by HPLC. The rabbiteye blueberry leaves from November had the highest antioxidant capacity, which was well correlated with their highest proanthocyanidin content. The results clarify that the blueberry leaves from different seasons have different contents of bioactive secondary metabolites and different antioxidant activities, which implied that leaves from November should be selected first for utilization in functional foods.

  19. Seasonal cycles of pelagic production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan

    Comprehensive seasonal cycles of production and consumption in the pelagial require the ocean to be partitioned. This can be done rationally at two levels: into four primary ecological domains (three oceanic and one coastal), or about fifty biogeochemical provinces. The domains differ in their characteristic seasonal cycles of stability, nutrient supply and illumination, while provinces are defined by ocean currents, fronts, topography and recurrent features in the sea surface chlorophyll field. For each of these compartments, seasonal cycles of photic depth, primary production and accumulation (or loss) of algal biomass were obtained from the climatological CZCS chlorophyll field and other data and these, together with mixed layer depths, rendered characteristic seasonal cycles of production and consumption, which can be grouped into eight models: i - polar irradiance-mediated production peak; ii - nutrient-limited spring production peak; iii - winter-spring production with nutrient limitation; iv - small amplitude response to trade wind seasonality; v - large amplitude response to monsoon reversal; vi - canonical spring-fall blooms of mid-latitude continental shelves; vii - topography-forced summer production; viii - intermittent production at coastal divergences. For higher latitudes, these models suggest that the observed late-summer ‘blooms’ result not from a renewal of primary production rate, but from a relaxation of grazing pressure; in mid-latitudes, the observed ‘winter’ bloom represents chlorophyll accumulation at a season when loss terms are apparently smaller than during the period of peak primary production rate which occurs later, in spring. Where an episodic seasonal increase in rate of primary production occurs, as in the Arabian Sea, algal biomass accumulation may brief, lasting only until consumption is fully re-established. Only in the low latitude oligotrophic ocean are production and consumption perennially and closely coupled.

  20. Seasonal effect and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Lim, Chee Hou; Amil, Norhaniza; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Dominick, Doreena; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Sahani, Mazrura; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) captured in a semi-urban area in Malaysia during different seasons, and to assess their health risks. PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume air sampler on quartz filter paper at a flow rate of 1 m3 min-1 for 24 h. PAHs on the filter paper were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) using an ultrasonic centrifuge solid-phase extraction method and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results showed that the range of PAHs concentrations in the study period was between 0.21 and 12.08 ng m-3. The concentrations of PAHs were higher during the south-west monsoon (0.21-12.08 ng m-3) compared to the north-east monsoon (0.68-3.80 ng m-3). The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (≥5 ring) are significantly prominent (>70%) compared to the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (≤4 ring) in PM2.5. The Spearman correlation indicates that the LMW and HMW PAHs correlate strongly among themselves. The diagnostic ratios (DRs) of I[c]P/I[c]P + BgP and B[a]P/B[g]P suggest that the HMW PAHs originated from fuel combustion sources. The source apportionment analysis of PAHs was resolved using DRs-positive matrix factorization (PMF)-multiple linear regression (MLR). The main sources identified were (a) gasoline combustion (65%), (b) diesel and heavy oil combustion (19%) and (c) natural gas and coal burning (15%). The health risk evaluation, by means of the lifetime lung cancer risk (LLCR), showed no potential carcinogenic risk from the airborne BaPeq (which represents total PAHs at the present study area in Malaysia). The seasonal LLCR showed that the carcinogenic risk of total PAHs were two fold higher during south-westerly monsoon compared to north-easterly monsoon.

  1. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  2. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  3. Seasonal variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and gas exchange threshold in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Metin; Korkmaz Eryılmaz, Selcen; Aydoğan, Sami

    2018-01-01

    In order to ensure that athletes achieve their highest performance levels during competitive seasons, monitoring their long-term performance data is crucial for understanding the impact of ongoing training programs and evaluating training strategies. The present study was thus designed to investigate the variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), and gas exchange threshold values of cross-country skiers across training phases throughout a season. In total, 15 athletes who participate in international cross-country ski competitions voluntarily took part in this study. The athletes underwent incremental treadmill running tests at 3 different time points over a period of 1 year. The first measurements were obtained in July, during the first preparation period; the second measurements were obtained in October, during the second preparation period; and the third measurements were obtained in February, during the competition period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), as well as VO 2max values and gas exchange threshold, measured using V-slope method during the incremental running tests, were assessed at all 3 time points. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20 package software. Significant differences between the measurements were assessed using Friedman's twoway variance analysis with a post hoc option. The athletes' body weights and BMI measurements at the third point were significantly lower compared with the results of the second measurement ( p exchange threshold, running speed at the gas exchange threshold, VO 2max , amount of oxygen consumed at gas exchange threshold level (VO 2GET ), maximal heart rate (HR max ), and heart rate at gas exchange threshold level (HR GET ) values did not significantly differ between the measurement time points ( p >0.05). VO 2max and gas exchange threshold values recorded during the third measurements, the timing of which coincided with the competitive season of the cross-country skiers

  4. Evaluating greater sage-grouse seasonal space use relative to leks: Implications for surface use designations in sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anthropogenic structures, especially those related to energy resources, in sagebrush ecosystems is an important concern among developers, conservationists, and land managers in relation to greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations. Sage-grouse are dependent on sagebrush ecosystems to meet their seasonal life-phase requirements, and research indicates that anthropogenic structures can adversely affect sage-grouse populations. Land management agencies have attempted to reduce the negative effects of anthropogenic development by assigning surface use (SU) designations, such as no surface occupancy, to areas around leks (breeding grounds). However, rationale for the size of these areas is often challenged. To help inform this issue, we used a spatial analysis of sage-grouse utilization distributions (UDs) to quantify seasonal (spring, summer and fall, winter) sage-grouse space use in relation to leks. We sampled UDs from 193 sage-grouse (11,878 telemetry locations) across 4 subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS, bordering California and Nevada) during 2003–2009. We quantified the volume of each UD (vUD) within a range of areas that varied in size and were centered on leks, up to a distance of 30 km from leks. We also quantified the percentage of nests within those areas. We then estimated the diminishing gains of vUD as area increased and produced continuous response curves that allow for flexibility in land management decisions. We found nearly 90% of the total vUD (all seasons combined) was contained within 5 km of leks, and we identified variation in vUD for a given distance related to season and migratory status. Five kilometers also represented the 95th percentile of the distribution of nesting distances. Because diminishing gains of vUD was not substantial until distances exceeded 8 km, managers should consider the theoretical optimal distances for SU designation

  5. Seasonal dynamics of atmospheric and river inputs of black carbon, and impacts on biogeochemical cycles in Halong Bay, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Mari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of black carbon (BC, a product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and biomass, are high in the Asia-Pacific region, yet input pathways and rates to the ocean are not well constrained. Atmospheric and riverine inputs of BC in Halong Bay (Vietnam, a hotspot of atmospheric BC, were studied at monthly intervals during one year. Climate in Halong Bay is governed by the monsoon regime, characterized by a northeast winter monsoon (dry season and southeast summer monsoon (wet season. During the dry season, atmospheric BC concentrations averaged twice those observed during the wet season. In the sea surface microlayer (SML and underlying water (ULW, concentrations of particulate BC (PBC averaged 539 and 11 μmol C L–1, respectively. Dissolved BC (DBC concentrations averaged 2.6 μmol C L–1 in both the SML and ULW. Seasonal variations indicated that PBC concentration in the SML was controlled by atmospheric deposition during the dry season, while riverine inputs controlled both PBC and DBC concentrations in ULW during the wet season. Spatiotemporal variations of PBC and DBC during the wet season suggest that river runoff was efficient in transporting PBC that had accumulated on land during the dry season, and in mobilizing and transporting DBC to the ocean. The annual river flux of PBC was about 3.8 times higher than that of DBC. The monsoon regime controls BC input to Halong Bay by favoring dry deposition of BC originating from the north during the dry season, and wet deposition and river runoff during the wet season. High PBC concentrations seem to enhance the transfer of organic carbon from dissolved to particulate phase by adsorbing dissolved organic carbon and stimulating aggregation. Such processes may impact the availability and biogeochemical cycling of other dissolved substances, including nutrients, for the coastal marine ecosystem.

  6. Seasonal trends in nesting leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) serum proteins further verify capital breeding hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Page-Karjian, Annie; Merrill, Anita; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Serum protein concentrations provide insight into the nutritional and immune status of organisms. It has been suggested that some marine turtles are capital breeders that fast during the nesting season. In this study, we documented serum proteins in neophyte and remigrant nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). This allowed us to establish trends across the nesting season to determine whether these physiological parameters indicate if leatherbacks forage or fast while on nesting grounds. Using the biuret method and agarose gel electrophoresis, total serum protein (median = 5.0 g/dl) and protein fractions were quantified and include pre-albumin (median = 0.0 g/dl), albumin (median = 1.81 g/dl), α1-globulin (median = 0.90 g/dl), α2-globulin (median = 0.74 g/dl), total α-globulin (median = 1.64 g/dl), β-globulin (median = 0.56 g/dl), γ-globulin (median = 0.81 g/dl) and total globulin (median = 3.12 g/dl). The albumin:globulin ratio (median = 0.59) was also calculated. Confidence intervals (90%) were used to establish reference intervals. Total protein, albumin and total globulin concentrations declined in successive nesting events. Protein fractions declined at less significant rates or remained relatively constant during the nesting season. Here, we show that leatherbacks are most likely fasting during the nesting season. A minimal threshold of total serum protein concentrations of around 3.5–4.5 g/dl may physiologically signal the end of the season's nesting for individual leatherbacks. The results presented here lend further insight into the interaction between reproduction, fasting and energy reserves and will potentially improve the conservation and management of this imperiled species. PMID:27293623

  7. Diversity and Seasonal Dynamics of Actinobacteria Populations in Four Lakes in Northeastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Martin; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity and seasonal dynamics of freshwater Actinobacteria populations in four limnologically different lakes of the Mecklenburg-Brandenburg Lake District (northeastern Germany) were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the seasonal abundances and dynamics of total Actinobacteria (probe HGC69a) and the three actinobacterial subclusters acI, acI-A, and acI-B (probes AcI-852, AcI-840-1, and AcI-840-2). Seasonal means of total Actinobacteria abundances in the epilimnia of the lakes varied from 13 to 36%, with maximum values of 30 to 58%, of all DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole)-stained cells. Around 80% of total Actinobacteria belonged to the acI cluster. The two subclusters acI-A and acI-B accounted for 60 to 91% of the acI cluster and showed seasonal means of 49% (acI-B) and 23% (acI-A) in relation to the acI cluster. Total Actinobacteria and members of the clusters acI and acI-B showed distinct seasonal changes in their absolute abundances, with maxima in late spring and fall/winter. In eight clone libraries constructed from the lakes, a total of 76 actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified from a total of 177 clones. The majority of the Actinobacteria sequences belonged to the acI and acIV cluster. Several new clusters and subclusters were found (acSTL, scB1-4, and acIVA-D). The majority of all obtained 16S rRNA gene sequences are distinct from those of already-cultured freshwater Actinobacteria. PMID:16672495

  8. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  9. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Christine Preston

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.

  10. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  11. On the reliability of seasonal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheimer, A.; Palmer, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: how good are seasonal forecasts on a scale of 1–5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that ‘goodness’ should be assessed first and foremost in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts; reliable inputs are essential for any forecast-based decision-making. We propose that a ‘5’ should be reserved for systems that are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as one of the world-leading operational institutes producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of ‘goodness’ rankings, depending on region and variable (with summer forecasts of rainfall over Northern Europe performing exceptionally poorly) is found. Finally, we discuss the prospects of reaching ‘5’ across all regions and variables in 30 years time. PMID:24789559

  12. Deformation analysis with Total Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation analysis is one of the main research fields in geodesy. Deformation analysis process comprises measurement and analysis phases. Measurements can be collected using several techniques. The output of the evaluation of the measurements is mainly point positions. In the deformation analysis phase, the coordinate changes in the point positions are investigated. Several models or approaches can be employed for the analysis. One approach is based on a Helmert or similarity coordinate transformation where the displacements and the respective covariance matrix are transformed into a unique datum. Traditionally a Least Squares (LS technique is used for the transformation procedure. Another approach that could be introduced as an alternative methodology is the Total Least Squares (TLS that is considerably a new approach in geodetic applications. In this study, in order to determine point displacements, 3-D coordinate transformations based on the Helmert transformation model were carried out individually by the Least Squares (LS and the Total Least Squares (TLS, respectively. The data used in this study was collected by GPS technique in a landslide area located nearby Istanbul. The results obtained from these two approaches have been compared.

  13. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  14. Phase field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.; Clarno, K.; Tonks, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phase-field method and its application to microstructure evolution in reactor fuel and clad are discussed. The examples highlight the capability of the phase-field method to capture evolution processes that are influenced by both thermal and elastic stress fields that are caused by microstructural changes in the solid-state. The challenges that need to be overcome before the technique can become predictive and material-specific are discussed. (authors)

  15. Nonbreeding-Season Drivers of Population Dynamics in Seasonal Migrants: Conservation Parallels Across Taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For seasonal migrants, logistical constraints have often limited conservation efforts to improving survival and reproduction during the breeding season only. Yet, mounting empirical evidence suggests that events occurring throughout the migratory life cycle can critically alter the demography of many migrant species. Herein, we build upon recent syntheses of avian migration research to review the role of non-breeding seasons in determining the population dynamics and fitness of diverse migratory taxa, including salmonid fishes, marine mammals, ungulates, sea turtles, butterflies, and numerous bird groups. We discuss several similarities across these varied migrants: (i non-breeding survivorship tends to be a strong driver of population growth; (ii non-breeding events can affect fitness in subsequent seasons through seasonal interactions at individual- and population-levels; (iii broad-scale climatic influences often alter non-breeding resources and migration timing, and may amplify population impacts through covariation among seasonal vital rates; and (iv changes to both stationary and migratory non-breeding habitats can have important consequences for abundance and population trends. Finally, we draw on these patterns to recommend that future conservation research for seasonal migrants will benefit from: (1 more explicit recognition of the important parallels among taxonomically diverse migratory animals; (2 an expanded research perspective focused on quantification of all seasonal vital rates and their interactions; and (3 the development of detailed population projection models that account for complexity and uncertainty in migrant population dynamics.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of positively selected genes in seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species.

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    Yuhuan Meng

    Full Text Available Some mammals breed throughout the year, while others breed only at certain times of year. These differences in reproductive behavior can be explained by evolution. We identified positively-selected genes in two sets of species with different degrees of relatedness including seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species, using branch-site models. After stringent filtering by sum of pairs scoring, we revealed that more genes underwent positive selection in seasonal compared with non-seasonal breeding species. Positively-selected genes were verified by cDNA mapping of the positive sites with the corresponding cDNA sequences. The design of the evolutionary analysis can effectively lower the false-positive rate and thus identify valid positive genes. Validated, positively-selected genes, including CGA, DNAH1, INVS, and CD151, were related to reproductive behaviors such as spermatogenesis and cell proliferation in non-seasonal breeding species. Genes in seasonal breeding species, including THRAP3, TH1L, and CMTM6, may be related to the evolution of sperm and the circadian rhythm system. Identification of these positively-selected genes might help to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and non-seasonal reproductive behaviors.

  17. Seasonal timing in a warming world : Plasticity of seasonal timing of growth and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal environments the timing of various biological processes is crucial for growth, survival and reproductive success of an individual. Nowadays, rapid large-scale climate change is altering species’ seasonal timing (phenology) in many eco¬systems. In this thesis Lucia Salis focuses on the

  18. Seasonal affective disorder and non-seasonal affective disorders : Results from the NESDA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthorst, Wim H; Roest, Annelieke M; Bos, Elisabeth H; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolen, Willem A; de Jonge, Peter

    BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is considered to be a subtype of depression. AIMS: To compare the clinical picture of SAD to non-seasonal affective disorders (non-SADs). METHOD: Diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) were established

  19. Seasonal influenza activity for 2005-2006 season seems to be ending in most European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, W.J.; Meijer, A.; Falcao, J.M.; Jong, J.C. de; Kyncl, J.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Meuwissen, L.E.; Nicoll, A.; Velden, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    During the 2005-2006 season, seasonal influenza epidemics started late in countries across Europe. Clinical influenza activity has only reached moderate levels and has mainly been associated with influenza B viruses. There has been co-circulation of influenza A and B viruses in many countries, and

  20. Seasonal changes in water metabolism of Sudan desert sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hadi, H.M.; Hassan, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)