WorldWideScience

Sample records for total sample consisted

  1. A Consistent System for Coding Laboratory Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, John C.

    1996-07-01

    A formal laboratory coding system is presented to keep track of laboratory samples. Preliminary useful information regarding the sample (origin and history) is gained without consulting a research notebook. Since this system uses and retains the same research notebook page number for each new experiment (reaction), finding and distinguishing products (samples) of the same or different reactions becomes an easy task. Using this system multiple products generated from a single reaction can be identified and classified in a uniform fashion. Samples can be stored and filed according to stage and degree of purification, e.g. crude reaction mixtures, recrystallized samples, chromatographed or distilled products.

  2. Validation of consistency of Mendelian sampling variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrisevä, A-M; Fikse, W F; Mäntysaari, E A; Jakobsen, J; Aamand, G P; Dürr, J; Lidauer, M H

    2018-03-01

    Experiences from international sire evaluation indicate that the multiple-trait across-country evaluation method is sensitive to changes in genetic variance over time. Top bulls from birth year classes with inflated genetic variance will benefit, hampering reliable ranking of bulls. However, none of the methods available today enable countries to validate their national evaluation models for heterogeneity of genetic variance. We describe a new validation method to fill this gap comprising the following steps: estimating within-year genetic variances using Mendelian sampling and its prediction error variance, fitting a weighted linear regression between the estimates and the years under study, identifying possible outliers, and defining a 95% empirical confidence interval for a possible trend in the estimates. We tested the specificity and sensitivity of the proposed validation method with simulated data using a real data structure. Moderate (M) and small (S) size populations were simulated under 3 scenarios: a control with homogeneous variance and 2 scenarios with yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 and 10%, respectively. Results showed that the new method was able to estimate genetic variance accurately enough to detect bias in genetic variance. Under the control scenario, the trend in genetic variance was practically zero in setting M. Testing cows with an average birth year class size of more than 43,000 in setting M showed that tolerance values are needed for both the trend and the outlier tests to detect only cases with a practical effect in larger data sets. Regardless of the magnitude (yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 or 10%) of the generated trend, it deviated statistically significantly from zero in all data replicates for both cows and bulls in setting M. In setting S with a mean of 27 bulls in a year class, the sampling error and thus the probability of a false-positive result clearly increased. Still, overall estimated genetic

  3. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  4. CONSISTENCY UNDER SAMPLING OF EXPONENTIAL RANDOM GRAPH MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Rinaldo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling , or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focusing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM's expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general results about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consistency of maximum likelihood estimation in ERGMs, and discuss some possible constructive responses.

  5. Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one...... as in infant formulae. The calculated mean maximum intakes of the individual compounds from the total diet samples were below 10% of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF), and the spread in individual intakes was considerable. DEHP was the plasticizer determined most...

  6. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  7. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  8. AAS determination of total mercury content in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalova, M.; Zemberyova, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods for determination of total mercury content in environmental samples soils, and sediments, were compared. Dissolution procedure of soils, sediments, and biological material under elevated pressure followed by determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry using a MHS-1 system and direct total mercury determination without any chemical pretreatment from soil samples using a Trace Mercury Analyzer TMA-254 were compared. TMA-254 was also applied for the determination of mercury in various further standard reference materials. Good agreement with certified values of environmental reference materials was obtained. (authors)

  9. Random Sampling of Correlated Parameters – a Consistent Solution for Unfavourable Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, G., E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trkov, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kodeli, I.A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo, Coronado, CA 92118-3073 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Two methods for random sampling according to a multivariate lognormal distribution – the correlated sampling method and the method of transformation of correlation coefficients – are briefly presented. The methods are mathematically exact and enable consistent sampling of correlated inherently positive parameters with given information on the first two distribution moments. Furthermore, a weighted sampling method to accelerate the convergence of parameters with extremely large relative uncertainties is described. However, the method is efficient only for a limited number of correlated parameters.

  10. Determination of nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in vegetable samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Kanti Deb

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Yellow diazonium cation formed by reaction of nitrite with 6-amino-1-naphthol-3-sulphonic acid is coupled with β-naphthol in strong alkaline medium to yield a pink coloured azo dye. The azo-dyes shows absorption maximum at 510 nm with molar absorptivity of 2.5 ×104 M-1 cm-1. The dye product obeys Beer's law (correlation coefficient = 0.997, in terms of nitrite concentration, up to 2.7 μg NO2 mL-1. The above colour reaction system has been applied successfully for the determination of nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in vegetable samples. Unreduced samples give direct measure for nitrite whilst reduction of samples by copperized-cadmium column gives total nitrogen content and their difference shows nitrate content in the samples. Variety of vegetables have been tested for their N-content (NO2-/NO3-/total-N with % RSD ranging between 1.5 to 2.5 % for nitrite determination. The effects of foreign ions in the determination of the nitrite, nitrate, and total nitrogen have been studied. Statistical comparison of the results with those of reported method shows good agreement and indicates no significant difference in precision.

  11. Total Decomposition of Environmental Radionuclide Samples with a Microwave Oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon Garcia, Bernd Kahn

    1998-01-01

    Closed-vessel microwave assisted acid decomposition was investigated as an alternative to traditional methods of sample dissolution/decomposition. This technique, used in analytical chemistry, has some potential advantages over other procedures. It requires less reagents, it is faster, and it has the potential of achieving total dissolution because of higher temperatures and pressures

  12. Differences in sampling techniques on total post-mortem tryptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, R; Garland, J; Kesha, K; Elstub, H; Cala, A D; Ahn, Y; Stables, S; Palmiere, C

    2017-11-20

    The measurement of mast cell tryptase is commonly used to support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. In the post-mortem setting, the literature recommends sampling from peripheral blood sources (femoral blood) but does not specify the exact sampling technique. Sampling techniques vary between pathologists, and it is unclear whether different sampling techniques have any impact on post-mortem tryptase levels. The aim of this study is to compare the difference in femoral total post-mortem tryptase levels between two sampling techniques. A 6-month retrospective study comparing femoral total post-mortem tryptase levels between (1) aspirating femoral vessels with a needle and syringe prior to evisceration and (2) femoral vein cut down during evisceration. Twenty cases were identified, with three cases excluded from analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (paired t test, p sampling methods. The clinical significance of this finding and what factors may contribute to it are unclear. When requesting post-mortem tryptase, the pathologist should consider documenting the exact blood collection site and method used for collection. In addition, blood samples acquired by different techniques should not be mixed together and should be analyzed separately if possible.

  13. Secondary electron emission and self-consistent charge transport in semi-insulating samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitting, H.-J. [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 3, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Touzin, M. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-08-15

    Electron beam induced self-consistent charge transport and secondary electron emission (SEE) in insulators are described by means of an electron-hole flight-drift model (FDM) now extended by a certain intrinsic conductivity (c) and are implemented by an iterative computer simulation. Ballistic secondary electrons (SE) and holes, their attenuation to drifting charge carriers, and their recombination, trapping, and field- and temperature-dependent detrapping are included. As a main result the time dependent ''true'' secondary electron emission rate {delta}(t) released from the target material and based on ballistic electrons and the spatial distributions of currents j(x,t), charges {rho}(x,t), field F(x,t), and potential V(x,t) are obtained where V{sub 0} = V(0,t) presents the surface potential. The intrinsic electronic conductivity limits the charging process and leads to a conduction sample current to the support. In that case the steady-state total SE yield will be fixed below the unit: i.e., {sigma} {eta} + {delta} < 1.

  14. Total energy calculation of perovskite, BaTiO3, by self-consistent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rgy, lattice constant, density of states, band structure etc using self-consistent tight binding method. ... share the paraelectric simple-cubic perovskite structure .... of neighbouring ions. In order to find the ground state, we solve the variation problem, minimizing Etot with respect to the coefficients, .*,λµ ic. The final equation is.

  15. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  16. Range-efficient consistent sampling and locality-sensitive hashing for polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is a fundamental technique for similarity search and similarity estimation in high-dimensional spaces. The basic idea is that similar objects should produce hash collisions with probability significantly larger than objects with low similarity. We consider LSH for...... or union of a set of preprocessed polygons. Curiously, our consistent sampling method uses transformation to a geometric problem....

  17. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  18. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  19. Determination of total organic phosphorus in samples of mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some observations on the estimation of organic phosphorus in mineral soils are reported. The fact is emphasized that the accuracy of all the methods available is relatively poor. Usually, there are no reasons to pay attention to differences less than about 20 ppm. of organic P. Analyses performed on 345 samples of Finnish mineral soils by the extraction method of MEHTA et. al. (10 and by a simple procedure adopted by the author (successive extractions with 4 N H2SO4 and 0.5 N NaOH at room temperature in the ratio of 1 to 100 gave, on the average, equal results. It seemed to be likely that the MEHTA method removed the organic phosphorus more completely than did the less vigorous method, but in the former the partial hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds tends to be higher than in the latter. An attempt was made to find out whether the differences between the respective values for organic phosphorus obtained by an ignition method and the simple extraction method could be connected with any characteristics of the soil. No correlation or only a low correlation coefficient could be calculated between the difference in the results of these two methods and e. g. the pH-value, the content of clay, organic carbon, aluminium and iron soluble in Tamm’s acid oxalate, the indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity, or the »Fe-bound» inorganic phosphorus, respectively. The absolute difference tended to increase with an increase in the content of organic phosphorus. For the 250 samples of surface soils analyzed, the ignition method gave values which were, on the average, about 50 ppm. higher than the results obtained by the extraction procedure. The corresponding difference for the 120 samples from deeper layers was about 20 ppm of organic P. The author recommends, for the present, the determination of the total soil organic phosphorus as an average of the results obtained by the ignition method and the extraction method.

  20. Reliability and consistency of a validated sun exposure questionnaire in a population-based Danish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B; Olsen, A; Bentzen, J

    2018-06-01

    An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer. The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low.

  1. A general framework for thermodynamically consistent parameterization and efficient sampling of enzymatic reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Saa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic models provide the means to understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of enzymes upon different perturbations. Despite their obvious advantages, classical parameterizations require large amounts of data to fit their parameters. Particularly, enzymes displaying complex reaction and regulatory (allosteric mechanisms require a great number of parameters and are therefore often represented by approximate formulae, thereby facilitating the fitting but ignoring many real kinetic behaviours. Here, we show that full exploration of the plausible kinetic space for any enzyme can be achieved using sampling strategies provided a thermodynamically feasible parameterization is used. To this end, we developed a General Reaction Assembly and Sampling Platform (GRASP capable of consistently parameterizing and sampling accurate kinetic models using minimal reference data. The former integrates the generalized MWC model and the elementary reaction formalism. By formulating the appropriate thermodynamic constraints, our framework enables parameterization of any oligomeric enzyme kinetics without sacrificing complexity or using simplifying assumptions. This thermodynamically safe parameterization relies on the definition of a reference state upon which feasible parameter sets can be efficiently sampled. Uniform sampling of the kinetics space enabled dissecting enzyme catalysis and revealing the impact of thermodynamics on reaction kinetics. Our analysis distinguished three reaction elasticity regions for common biochemical reactions: a steep linear region (0> ΔGr >-2 kJ/mol, a transition region (-2> ΔGr >-20 kJ/mol and a constant elasticity region (ΔGr <-20 kJ/mol. We also applied this framework to model more complex kinetic behaviours such as the monomeric cooperativity of the mammalian glucokinase and the ultrasensitive response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. In both cases, our approach described appropriately not only

  2. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Volker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2 is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution similar to that found in 2005 by Lecavalier for the original GARS. Though the three factors appeared to be reasonably consistent with the intended constructs of the three GARS-2 subscales, the analysis indicated that more than a third of the GARS-2 items were assigned to the wrong subscale. Internal consistency estimates met or exceeded standards for screening and were generally higher than those in previous studies. Screening sensitivity was .65 and specificity was .81 for the Autism Index using a cut score of 85. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for instrument revision.

  3. Reliability and consistency of a validated sun exposure questionnaire in a population-based Danish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Køster

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high.The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior.Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer.The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low. Keywords: Questionnaire, Validation, Reliability, Skin cancer, Prevention, Ultraviolet radiation

  4. The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for δ18O and δ15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean δ18O values were within 0.5‰ of the δ18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the δ15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean δ15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean δ18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean δ15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the δ15N and δ18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in δ15N and δ18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic

  5. Multielement analysis of aerosol samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis with totally reflecting sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, P.; Knoechel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosole samples on filter support were analyzed using the X-ray flourescence analytical method (Mo excitation) with totally reflecting sample carrier (TXFA). Wet decomposition of the sample material with HNO 3 in an enclosed system and subsequent sample preparation by evaporating an aliquot of the solution on the sample carrier yields detection limits up to 0.3 ng/cm 2 . The reproducibilities of the measurements of the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb lie between 5 and 25%. Similar detection limits and reproducibilities are obtained, when low-temperature oxygen plasma is employed for the direct ashing of the homogenously covered filter on the sample carrier. For the systematic loss of elements both methods were investigated with radiotracers as well as with inactive techniques. A comparison of the results with those obtained by NAA, AAS and PIXE shows good agreement in most cases. For the bromine determination and the fast coverage of the main elements a possibility for measuring the filter membrane has been indicated, which neglects the ashing step. The corresponding detection limits are up to 3 ng/cm 2 . (orig.) [de

  6. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  7. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of en- vironmental concerns. ... The amounts of uranium in four fertilizer samples of Hungarian origin were determined by ... TXRF determination of uranium from phosphate fertilizers of Hungarian origin and the preliminary results ...

  8. Consistent Estimation of Continuous-Time Signals from Nonlinear Transformations of Noisy Samples,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-10

    t, then hn is given by (5) (with W = n) and represents the Szasz operator. Theorem 3.0, while guaranteeing mean-square consistency of the estimate Sw...t), provides no bounds on the rate of convergence. We shall derive such bounds for linear systems hW corresponding to the class of generalized Szasz ...operators [6] (see below) and to the Bernstein operator. While the Szasz operator (5) can be generated as in Proposition 3.0, the class of generalized

  9. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  10. Analysis of bioethanol samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a total sample consumption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2016-10-01

    Bioethanol real samples have been directly analyzed through ICP-MS by means of the so called High Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS). Because bioethanol samples may contain water, experiments have been carried out in order to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the ICP-MS response. The ethanol content studied went from 0 to 50%, because higher alcohol concentrations led to carbon deposits on the ICP-MS interface. The spectrometer default spray chamber (double pass) equipped with a glass concentric pneumatic micronebulizer has been taken as the reference system. Two flow regimes have been evaluated: continuous sample aspiration at 25 μL min- 1 and 5 μL air-segmented sample injection. hTISIS temperature has been shown to be critical, in fact ICP-MS sensitivity increased with this variable up to 100-200 °C depending on the solution tested. Higher chamber temperatures led to either a drop in signal or a plateau. Compared with the reference system, the hTISIS improved the sensitivities by a factor included within the 4 to 8 range while average detection limits were 6 times lower for the latter device. Regarding the influence of the ethanol concentration on sensitivity, it has been observed that an increase in the temperature was not enough to eliminate the interferences. It was also necessary to modify the torch position with respect to the ICP-MS interface to overcome them. This fact was likely due to the different extent of ion plasma radial diffusion encountered as a function of the matrix when working at high chamber temperatures. When the torch was moved 1 mm plasma down axis, ethanolic and aqueous solutions provided statistically equal sensitivities. A preconcentration procedure has been applied in order to validate the methodology. It has been found that, under optimum conditions from the point of view of matrix effects, recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100%. Furthermore, analytical concentrations for real

  11. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan S. Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform "shots," which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest...

  12. TruSeq Stranded mRNA and Total RNA Sample Preparation Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total RNA-Seq enabled by ribosomal RNA (rRNA) reduction is compatible with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples, which contain potentially critical biological information. The family of TruSeq Stranded Total RNA sample preparation kits provides a unique combination of unmatched data quality for both mRNA and whole-transcriptome analyses, robust interrogation of both standard and low-quality samples and workflows compatible with a wide range of study designs.

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied to biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, S.M.; Matsumoto, E.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Lopes, R.T.; Perez, C.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Costa, R.S.S.; Tavares do Carmo, M.G.; Saunders, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence has been applied for trace elements in water and aqueous solutions, environmental samples and biological materials after sample preparation and to surface analysis of silicon wafers. The present paper shows some results of applications for rainwater, atmospheric particulate material, colostrum and nuclear samples. (author)

  14. An approach based on HPLC-fingerprint and chemometrics to quality consistency evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. commercial samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Viapiana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of commercial samples of chamomile obtained from different manufacturers. A similarity analysis was performed to assess the similarity/dissimilarity of chamomile samples where values varied from 0.868 to 0.990 what indicating that samples from different manufacturers were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic and four flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin and keampferol was performed to interpret the quality consistency. In quantitative analysis, the nine individual phenolic compounds showed good regression (r > 0.9975. Inter- and intra-day precisions for all analysed compounds expressed as relative standard deviation (CV ranged from 0.05% to 3.12%. Since flavonoids and other polyphenols are commonly recognised as natural antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of chamomile samples was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition, and multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA were applied to distinguish chamomile samples. Results shown in the study indicate high similarity of chamomile samples among them, widely spread in the market and commonly used by people as infusions or teas, as well as that there were no statistically significant

  15. An Approach Based on HPLC-Fingerprint and Chemometrics to Quality Consistency Evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. Commercial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Konieczynski, Pawel; Wesolowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of commercial samples of chamomile obtained from different manufacturers. A similarity analysis was performed to assess the similarity/dissimilarity of chamomile samples where values varied from 0.868 to 0.990 what indicating that samples from different manufacturers were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic) and four flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin and keampferol) was performed to interpret the quality consistency. In quantitative analysis, the nine individual phenolic compounds showed good regression (r > 0.9975). Inter- and intra-day precisions for all analyzed compounds expressed as relative standard deviation (CV) ranged from 0.05% to 3.12%. Since flavonoids and other polyphenols are commonly recognized as natural antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of chamomile samples was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition, and multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA) were applied to distinguish chamomile samples. Results shown in the study indicate high similarity of chamomile samples among them, widely spread in the market and commonly used by people as infusions or teas, as well as that there were no statistically significant differences among

  16. Quantification of total aluminium concentrations in food samples at trace levels by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Braja B.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Total aluminium contents in various food samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) methods. A total of 16 rice samples, collected from the field, were analyzed by INAA using reactor neutrons from Dhruva reactor. Whereas a total 17 spices collected from market, were analyzed by both INAA and PIGE methods in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Aluminium concentration values were found to be in the range of 19-845 mg kg -1 for spices and 15-104 mg kg -1 for rice samples. The methods were validated by analyzing standard reference materials (SRMs) form NIST. (author)

  17. Open focused microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid total and mercury species determination in environmental solid samples

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, C. M.; Garraud, H.; Amouroux, D.; Donard, O. F. X.; de Diego, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple microwave-assisted leaching/ digestion procedures for total and mercury species determination in sediment samples and biomaterials. An open focused microwave system allowed the sample preparation time to be dramatically reduced to only 24 min when a power of 40-80 W was applied. Quantitative leaching of methylmercury from sediments by HNO3 solution and complete dissolution of biomaterials by an alkaline solution, such as 25% TMAH solution, were obtained. Met...

  18. An Approach Based on HPLC-Fingerprint and Chemometrics to Quality Consistency Evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. Commercial Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Konieczynski, Pawel; Wesolowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as th...

  19. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  20. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  1. VLE measurements using a static cell vapor phase manual sampling method accompanied with an empirical data consistency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Joerg; Kosuge, Hitoshi; Schmelzer, Juergen P.; Kato, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a new, simple static cell vapor phase manual sampling method (SCVMS) for VLE (x, y, T) measurement. • The method is applied to non-azeotropic, asymmetric and two-liquid phase forming azeotropic binaries. • The method is approved by a data consistency test, i.e., a plot of the polarity exclusion factor vs. pressure. • The consistency test reveals that with the new SCVMS method accurate VLE near ambient temperature can be measured. • Moreover, the consistency test approves that the effect of air in the SCVMS system is negligible. - Abstract: A new static cell vapor phase manual sampling (SCVMS) method is used for the simple measurement of constant temperature x, y (vapor + liquid) equilibria (VLE). The method was applied to the VLE measurements of the (methanol + water) binary at T/K = (283.2, 298.2, 308.2 and 322.9), asymmetric (acetone + 1-butanol) binary at T/K = (283.2, 295.2, 308.2 and 324.2) and two-liquid phase forming azeotropic (water + 1-butanol) binary at T/K = (283.2 and 298.2). The accuracy of the experimental data was approved by a data consistency test, that is, an empirical plot of the polarity exclusion factor, β, vs. the system pressure, P. The SCVMS data are accurate, because the VLE data converge to the same lnβ vs. lnP straight line determined from conventional distillation-still method and a headspace gas chromatography method

  2. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  3. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  4. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  5. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  6. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; Arauz, Luciana Juncioni de; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and rep...

  7. Direct analysis of biological samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue M, Marco P.; Hernandez-Caraballo, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is well suited for the direct analysis of biological samples due to the low matrix interferences and simultaneous multi-element nature. Nevertheless, biological organic samples are frequently analysed after digestion procedures. The direct determination of analytes requires shorter analysis time, low reactive consumption and simplifies the whole analysis process. On the other hand, the biological/clinical samples are often available in minimal amounts and routine studies require the analysis of large number of samples. To overcome the difficulties associated with the analysis of organic samples, particularly of solid ones, different procedures of sample preparation and calibration to approach the direct analysis have been evaluated: (1) slurry sampling, (2) Compton peak standardization, (3) in situ microwave digestion, (4) in situ chemical modification and (5) direct analysis with internal standardization. Examples of analytical methods developed by our research group are discussed. Some of them have not been previously published, illustrating alternative strategies for coping with various problems that may be encountered in the direct analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

  8. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  9. Total CMB analysis of streaker aerosol samples by PIXE, PIGE, beta- and optical-absorption analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multielemental analyses of aerosol samples are widely used in air pollution receptor modelling. Specifically, the chemical mass balance (CMB) model has become a powerful tool in urban air quality studies. Input data required for the CMB includes not only the traditional X-ray fluorescence (and hence PIXE) detected elements, but also total mass, organic and inorganic carbon, and other light elements including Mg, Na and F. The circular streaker sampler, in combination with PIXE analysis, has developed into a powerful tool for obtaining time-resolved, multielemental aerosol data. However, application in CMB modelling has been limited by the absence of total mass and complementary light element data. This study reports on progress in using techniques complementary to PIXE to obtain additional data from circular streaker samples, maintaining the nondestructive, instrumental approach inherent in PIXE: Beta-gauging using a 147 Pm source for total mass; optical absorption for inorganic carbon; and PIGE to measure the lighter elements. (orig.)

  10. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-01-01

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S and GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S and GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more

  12. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  13. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Sangita [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Maind, S.D. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sanjukta A. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, N. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 muL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}, mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1sigma) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  14. Study on the relation between uranium content and total phosphorus in some sudanese phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Mohammed, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work uranium content and total phosphorus were determined in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Spectrophotometry technique was used for this purpose. Uranium analysis is based on the use of nitrogen (V) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (Vi) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was eluted from the resin with 1 M hydrochloric acid. In the elute, uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of absorbance of the yellow uranium (Vi)-8-hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 400 nm. The total phosphorus was measured as (P 2 O 5 %) by treatment of the total liquor with ammonium molybdate solution. The absorbance of the blue complex was measured at λ 880 nm. The results show that a limited relation is existed between uranium content and total phosphorus in phosphate samples from kurun area, which contain 58.8 ppm uranium in average, where there are no relation is existed in phosphate samples from uro area, which contain 200 ppm uranium in average. (Author)

  15. Study on the relation between uranium content and total phosphorus in some sudanese phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work uranium content and total phosphorous were determined in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba mountains in sudan. Spectrophotometry technique was used for this purpose. Uranium analysis is based on the use of nitrogen (V) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (VI) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion-exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was eluted from the resin with 1 M hydrochloric acid. In the elute, uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of the absorbance of the yellow uranium (VI) - 8- hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 400 nm. The total phosphorus was measured as (P 2 O 5 %) by treatment of the leach liquor with ammonium molybdate solution. The absorbance of the blue complex was measured at λ 880 nm. The results show that a limited relation is existed between uranium content and total phosphorus in phosphate samples from Kurun area, which contain 58.8 ppm uranium in average, where there are no relation is existed in phosphate samples samples from Uro area, which contain 200 ppm uranium in average

  16. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  17. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  18. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartrell, M.J.; Craun, J.C.; Podrebarac, D.S.; Gunderson, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated into a number of food groups, each of which is analyzed as a composite. This report summarizes the results for adult Total Diet samples collected in 20 cities between October 1979 and September 1980. The average concentration, range of concentrations, and calculated average daily intake of each chemical found are presented by food group. The average daily intakes of the chemicals are similar to those found in the several preceding years and are within acceptable limits. The results for samples collected during the same period that represent the diets of infants and toddlers are reported separately

  19. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-01-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  20. The analysis of Th in the Korean total diet sample by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kang, Sang Hoon; Park, Kwang Won

    1999-01-01

    In order to estimate the degree of intake of 232 Th through daily diet, a korean total diet sample was collected and made after the investigation of the amount of consumption of daily diet which is dependent on the ages of 20's to 50's. For Th analysis, the RNAA method was applied and NIST SRM 1575, Pine Needle was used as quality control materials. The result of the SRM analysis was compared with a certified value. The relative error was 5%. The determination of the Th in the korean total diet sample was carried out under the same analytical condition and procedure with SRM. As a result of the korean total diet sample, the concentration of Th was in 3.4 ± 0.2 ppb and the amount of daily intake of Th by the diet is found to be 0.67 g per day. Radioactivity by Th intake was estimated to be about 2.7 mBq per person per day and annual dose equivalent was revealed as 0.73 μSv per person

  1. Analysis of biological slurry samples by total x-ray fluorescence after in situ microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue-Meru, M.P.; Capote, T.; Greaves, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological slurry samples were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) after an in situ microwave digestion procedure on the quartz reflector. This method lead to the removal of the matrix by the digestion and permits the enrichment of the analites by using sample amounts higher than those normally used in TXRF for the thin layer requirement since the organic matrix is removed. In consequence, the pre-concentration of sample is performed and the detection capability is increased by a quasi direct method. The samples analyzed were the international IAEA blood standard, the SRM bovine liver 1577-a standard and fresh onion tissues. Slurries were prepared in three ways: a.- weighing a sample amount on the reflector and adding suprapure nitric acid and internal standard followed by microwave digestion, b.-weighing a sample amount and water with an appropriate concentration of the internal standard in an Eppendorf vial, taking then an aliquot to the quartz reflector for microwave digestion with suprapure nitric acid, c.- weighing a sample amount of fresh tissue, homogenising with high speed homegenator to obtain a slurry sample which can be diluted in an ependorf vial with water an the internal standard. Then an aliquot is taken to the reflector for microwave digestion with suprapure nitric acid. Further details of sample preparation procedures will be discussed during presentation. The analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer using the Kalpha lines of the Ag and Mo tubes. The elements Ca, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Mn, Rb, Br, Sr were determined. The effect of the preparation procedure was evaluated by the accuracy and precision of the results for each element and the percent of recovery. (author)

  2. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  3. [Hygienic evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of snow samples from Magnitogorsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legostaeva, T B; Ingel', F I; Antipanova, N A; Iurchenko, V V; Iuretseva, N A; Kotliar, N N

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives the results of 4-year monitoring of the total mutagenic activity of snow samples from different Magnitogork areas in a test for induction of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) in the gametes of Drosophila melanogaster. An association was first found between the rate of DLM and the content of some chemical compounds in the ambient air and snow samples; moreover all the substances present in the samples, which had found genotoxic effects, showed a positive correlation with the rate of DLM. Furthermore, direct correlations were first established between the rate of DLM and the air pollution index and morbidity rates in 5-7-year-old children residing in the areas under study. The findings allow the test for induction of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) in the gametes of Drosophila melanogaster to be recommended due to its unique informative and prognostic value for monitoring ambient air pollution and for extensive use in the risk assessment system.

  4. Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2012-07-01

    Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2).

  5. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in biological samples by photochemical vapor generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Mariana A.; Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Sturgeon, Ralph E. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) based on photochemical reduction by exposure to UV radiation is described for the determination of methylmercury and total mercury in biological samples. Two approaches were investigated: (a) tissues were digested in either formic acid or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), and total mercury was determined following reduction of both species by exposure of the solution to UV irradiation; (b) tissues were solubilized in TMAH, diluted to a final concentration of 0.125% m/v TMAH by addition of 10% v/v acetic acid and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was selectively quantitated, or the initial digests were diluted to 0.125% m/v TMAH by addition of deionized water, adjusted to pH 0.3 by addition of HCl and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was selectively quantitated. For each case, the optimum conditions for photochemical vapor generation (photo-CVG) were investigated. The photochemical reduction efficiency was estimated to be {proportional_to}95% by comparing the response with traditional SnCl{sub 2} chemical reduction. The method was validated by analysis of several biological Certified Reference Materials, DORM-1, DORM-2, DOLT-2 and DOLT-3, using calibration against aqueous solutions of Hg{sup 2+}; results showed good agreement with the certified values for total and methylmercury in all cases. Limits of detection of 6 ng/g for total mercury using formic acid, 8 ng/g for total mercury and 10 ng/g for methylmercury using TMAH were obtained. The proposed methodology is sensitive, simple and inexpensive, and promotes ''green'' chemistry. The potential for application to other sample types and analytes is evident. (orig.)

  6. Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Catherine; Davis, Daniel; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale ocean observing programs such as the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) today, must face the problem of designing an adequate sampling strategy. For ocean chemical variables, the goals and observing technologies are quite different from ocean physical variables (temperature, salinity, pressure). We have recently acquired data on the ocean CO2 properties on WOCE cruises P16c and P17c that are sufficiently dense to test for sampling redundancy. We use linear and quadratic interpolation methods on the sampled field to investigate what is the minimum number of samples required to define the deep ocean total inorganic carbon (TCO2) field within the limits of experimental accuracy (+/- 4 micromol/kg). Within the limits of current measurements, these lines were oversampled in the deep ocean. Should the precision of the measurement be improved, then a denser sampling pattern may be desirable in the future. This approach rationalizes the efficient use of resources for field work and for estimating gridded (TCO2) fields needed to constrain geochemical models.

  7. Artificial Neural Network for Total Laboratory Automation to Improve the Management of Sample Dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Diluting a sample to obtain a measure within the analytical range is a common task in clinical laboratories. However, for urgent samples, it can cause delays in test reporting, which can put patients' safety at risk. The aim of this work is to show a simple artificial neural network that can be used to make it unnecessary to predilute a sample using the information available through the laboratory information system. Particularly, the Multilayer Perceptron neural network built on a data set of 16,106 cardiac troponin I test records produced a correct inference rate of 100% for samples not requiring predilution and 86.2% for those requiring predilution. With respect to the inference reliability, the most relevant inputs were the presence of a cardiac event or surgery and the result of the previous assay. Therefore, such an artificial neural network can be easily implemented into a total automation framework to sensibly reduce the turnaround time of critical orders delayed by the operation required to retrieve, dilute, and retest the sample.

  8. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Colleen M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.G.; Meznarich, H.K.; Olsen, J.R.; Ross, G.A.; Stauffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  10. Determination of the total concentration and speciation of metal ions in river, estuarine and seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Pesavento, Maria

    2008-12-01

    Different natural water samples were investigated to determine the total concentration and the distribution of species for Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and U(VI). The proposed method, named resin titration (RT), was developed in our laboratory to investigate the distribution of species for metal ions in complex matrices. It is a competition method, in which a complexing resin competes with natural ligands present in the sample to combine with the metal ions. In the present paper, river, estuarine and seawater samples, collected during a cruise in Adriatic Sea, were investigated. For each sample, two RTs were performed, using different complexing resins: the iminodiacetic Chelex 100 and the carboxylic Amberlite CG50. In this way, it was possible to detect different class of ligands. Satisfactory results have been obtained and are commented on critically. They were summarized by principal component analysis (PCA) and the correlations with physicochemical parameters allowed one to follow the evolution of the metals along the considered transect. It should be pointed out that, according to our findings, the ligands responsible for metal ions complexation are not the major components of the water system, since they form considerably weaker complexes.

  11. Allogenic blood transfusion following total hip arthroplasty: results from the nationwide inpatient sample, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Anas; Small, Travis; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-09-17

    The large-scale utilization of allogenic blood transfusion and its associated outcomes have been described in critically ill patients and those undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the trends in utilization and outcomes of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the United States from 2000 to 2009. An observational cohort of 2,087,423 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from 2000 to 2009 was identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes 99.03 and 99.04 were used to identify patients who received allogenic blood products during their hospital stay. Risk factors for allogenic transfusions were identified with use of multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching to estimate the adjusted association between transfusion and surgical outcomes. The rate of allogenic blood transfusion increased from 11.8% in 2000 to 19.0% in 2009. Patient-related risk factors for receiving an allogenic blood transfusion include an older age, female sex, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Hospital-related risk factors include rural location, smaller size, and non-academic status. After adjusting for confounders, allogenic blood transfusion was associated with a longer hospital stay (0.58 ± 0.02 day; p conservation methods. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  12. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  13. Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Gallic Acid: Application in Estimation of Total Polyphenols in Plant Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikh-Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified electrode was prepared by modification of the carbon paste electrode (CPE with graphene nano-sheets. The fabricated modified electrode exhibited an electrocatalytic activity toward gallic acid (GA oxidation because of good conductivity, low electron transfer resistance and catalytic effect. The graphene modified CPE had a lower overvoltage and enhanced electrical current respect to the bare CPE for the oxidation of GA. The oxidation potential of GA decreased more than 210 mV by the modified electrode. The modified electrode responded to the GA in the concentration range of 3.0 × 10-5-1.5 × 10-4 M with high sensitivity by the technique of differential pulse voltammetry. Also, detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 M was obtained by this modified electrode for GA. This electrode was used for the successful determination of GA in plant samples. Therefore, the content of total polyphenols in plant samples can be determined by the proposed modified electrode based on the concentration of GA in the sample.

  14. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the

  15. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g -1 (Rb), respectively. (author)

  16. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [ Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g{sup -1} (Rb), respectively. (author)

  17. Two-Sample Two-Stage Least Squares (TSTSLS estimates of earnings mobility: how consistent are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jerrim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academics and policymakers have shown great interest in cross-national comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. However, producing consistent and comparable estimates of earnings mobility is not a trivial task. In most countries researchers are unable to observe earnings information for two generations. They are thus forced to rely upon imputed data from different surveys instead. This paper builds upon previous work by considering the consistency of the intergenerational correlation (ρ as well as the elasticity (β, how this changes when using a range of different instrumental (imputer variables, and highlighting an important but infrequently discussed measurement issue. Our key finding is that, while TSTSLS estimates of β and ρ are both likely to be inconsistent, the magnitude of this problem is much greater for the former than it is for the latter. We conclude by offering advice on estimating earnings mobility using this methodology.

  18. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...

  19. The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire v2.0 Showed Consistent Factor Structure Across Six Working Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, F.I.; Bultmann, U.; Amick III, B.C.; Arends, I.; Dorland, P.A.; Flach, P.A.; Klink, J.J.L van der; Ven H.A., van de; Bjørner, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire v2.0 (WRFQ) is an outcome measure linking a persons’ health to the ability to meet work demands in the twenty-first century. We aimed to examine the construct validity of the WRFQ in a heterogeneous set of working samples in the Netherlands with

  20. An historically consistent and broadly applicable MRV system based on LiDAR sampling and Landsat time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Cohen; H. Andersen; S. Healey; G. Moisen; T. Schroeder; C. Woodall; G. Domke; Z. Yang; S. Stehman; R. Kennedy; C. Woodcock; Z. Zhu; J. Vogelmann; D. Steinwand; C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    The authors are developing a REDD+ MRV system that tests different biomass estimation frameworks and components. Design-based inference from a costly fi eld plot network was compared to sampling with LiDAR strips and a smaller set of plots in combination with Landsat for disturbance monitoring. Biomass estimation uncertainties associated with these different data sets...

  1. The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire v2.0 Showed Consistent Factor Structure Across Six Working Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abma, Femke I.; Bültmann, Ute; Amick, Benjamin C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire v2.0 (WRFQ) is an outcome measure linking a persons’ health to the ability to meet work demands in the twenty-first century. We aimed to examine the construct validity of the WRFQ in a heterogeneous set of working samples in the Netherlands...

  2. Analysis of low Z elements in various environmental samples with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, H.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ovari, M.; Zaray, Gy.

    2006-01-01

    Recently there is a growing interest in low Z elements such as carbon, oxygen up to sulphur and phosphorus in biological specimen. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is a suitable technique demanding only very small amounts of sample. On the other side, the detection of low Z elements is a critical point of this analytical technique. Besides other effects, self absorption may occur in the samples, because of the low energy of the fluorescence radiation. The calibration curves might be not linear any longer. To investigate this issue water samples and samples from human cerebrospinal fluid were used to examine absorption effects. The linearity of calibration curves in dependence of sample mass was investigated to verify the validity of the thin film approximation. The special requirements to the experimental setup for low Z energy dispersive fluorescence analysis were met by using the Atominstitute's TXRF vacuum chamber. This spectrometer is equipped with a Cr-anode X-ray tube, a multilayer monochromator and a SiLi detector with 30 mm 2 active area and with an ultrathin entrance window. Other object on this study are biofilms, living on all subaqueous surfaces, consisting of bacteria, algae and fungi embedded in their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many trace elements from the water are bound in the biofilm. Thus, the biofilm is a useful indicator for polluting elements. For biomonitoring purposes not only the polluting elements but also the formation and growth rate of the biofilm are important. Biofilms were directly grown on TXRF reflectors. Their major elements and C-masses correlated to the cultivation time were investigated. These measured masses were related to the area seen by the detector, which was experimentally determined. Homogeneity of the biofilms was checked by measuring various sample positions on the reflectors

  3. Analysis of low Z elements in various environmental samples with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefler, H. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Ovari, M. [Eoetvoes University, Institute of Chemistry, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany P. stny 1/a. (Hungary); Zaray, Gy. [Eoetvoes University, Institute of Chemistry, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany P. stny 1/a. (Hungary)

    2006-11-15

    Recently there is a growing interest in low Z elements such as carbon, oxygen up to sulphur and phosphorus in biological specimen. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is a suitable technique demanding only very small amounts of sample. On the other side, the detection of low Z elements is a critical point of this analytical technique. Besides other effects, self absorption may occur in the samples, because of the low energy of the fluorescence radiation. The calibration curves might be not linear any longer. To investigate this issue water samples and samples from human cerebrospinal fluid were used to examine absorption effects. The linearity of calibration curves in dependence of sample mass was investigated to verify the validity of the thin film approximation. The special requirements to the experimental setup for low Z energy dispersive fluorescence analysis were met by using the Atominstitute's TXRF vacuum chamber. This spectrometer is equipped with a Cr-anode X-ray tube, a multilayer monochromator and a SiLi detector with 30 mm{sup 2} active area and with an ultrathin entrance window. Other object on this study are biofilms, living on all subaqueous surfaces, consisting of bacteria, algae and fungi embedded in their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many trace elements from the water are bound in the biofilm. Thus, the biofilm is a useful indicator for polluting elements. For biomonitoring purposes not only the polluting elements but also the formation and growth rate of the biofilm are important. Biofilms were directly grown on TXRF reflectors. Their major elements and C-masses correlated to the cultivation time were investigated. These measured masses were related to the area seen by the detector, which was experimentally determined. Homogeneity of the biofilms was checked by measuring various sample positions on the reflectors.

  4. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditz, Achim; Greimel, Felix; Auer, Patrick; Zeman, Florian; Göttermann, Antje; Grifka, Joachim; Meissner, Winfried; von Kunow, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking. All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA). Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project "Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management" (QUIPS). A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward. From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0) on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2). Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0), whereas patient satisfaction significantly increased (mean 9.8, ±0.4; p benchmarking a standardized pain management concept. But regular benchmarking, implementation of feedback mechanisms, and staff education made the pain management concept even more successful. Multidisciplinary teamwork and flexibility in adapting processes seem to be highly important for successful pain management.

  5. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Felix Greimel,1 Patrick Auer,2 Florian Zeman,3 Antje Göttermann,4 Joachim Grifka,1 Winfried Meissner,4 Frederik von Kunow1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, 2Clinic for anesthesia, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 3Centre for Clinical Studies, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Background: The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking.Methods: All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA. Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS. A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward.Results: From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0 on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2. Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0, whereas patient satisfaction

  6. Sample preparation for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using resist pattern technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K.; Yomogita, N.; Konyuba, Y.

    2018-06-01

    A circular resist pattern layer with a diameter of 9 mm was prepared on a glass substrate (26 mm × 76 mm; 1.5 mm thick) for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. The parallel cross pattern was designed with a wall thickness of 10 μm, an interval of 20 μm, and a height of 1.4 or 0.8 μm. This additional resist layer did not significantly increase background intensity on the XRF peaks in TXRF spectra. Dotted residue was obtained from a standard solution (10 μL) containing Ti, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Ga, each at a final concentration of 10 ppm, on a normal glass substrate with a silicone coating layer. The height of the residue was more than 100 μm, where self-absorption in the large residue affected TXRF quantification (intensity relative standard deviation (RSD): 12-20%). In contrast, from a droplet composed of a small volume of solution dropped and cast on the resist pattern structure, the obtained residue was not completely film but a film-like residue with a thickness less than 1 μm, where self-absorption was not a serious problem. In the end, this sample preparation was demonstrated to improve TXRF quantification (intensity RSD: 2-4%).

  7. Protein-stabilized fluorescent nanocrystals consisting of a gold core and a silver shell for detecting the total amount of cysteine and homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Rijun; Wang, Yanfeng; Sun, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple and sensitive method for the determination of the total amount of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (hCys), [Cys plus hCys], by exploiting the effect of Cys and hCys on the photoluminescence of human serum albumin-stabilized gold-core silver-shell nanocrystals (NCs). If Cys (or hCys) are added to these NCs, Cys (or hCys) will be adsorbed on the surface due to ligand exchange with human serum albumin, and this results in the quenching of the luminescence of the NCs. The addition of mixtures of Cys and hCys in different molar ratios also induces a decrease in luminescence whose intensity is linearly related to the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in the range from 0.1 – 5.0 μM, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9953 and a detection limit of 15 nM. The method is highly selective and sensitive over other α-amino acids, water-soluble thiols, and biomolecules. It has been successfully applied to the determination of the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in spiked solutions of biomolecules and in real biological samples (author)

  8. Comparison of conventional and total reflection excitation geometry for fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy on droplet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments in fluorescence mode have been performed in total reflection excitation geometry and conventional 45 deg. /45 deg. excitation/detection geometry for comparison. The experimental results have shown that XAFS measurements are feasible under normal total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) conditions, i.e. on droplet samples, with excitation in grazing incidence and using a TXRF experimental chamber. The application of the total reflection excitation geometry for XAFS measurements increases the sensitivity compared to the conventional geometry leading to lower accessible concentration ranges. However, XAFS under total reflection excitation condition fails for highly concentrated samples because of the self-absorption effect

  9. 40 CFR 1065.595 - PM sample post-conditioning and total weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minutes before weighing. Note that 400 µg on sample media (e.g., filters) is an approximate net mass of 0... the procedures in § 1065.590(f) through (i) to determine post-test mass of the sample media (e.g., filters). (g) Subtract each buoyancy-corrected tare mass of the sample medium (e.g., filter) from its...

  10. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo [Centro Universitario da Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB), (SP) (Brazil); Yamazaki, Ione Makiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO{sub 3} (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 {mu}L of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm{sup 2} area) together with 5 {mu}L of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95{+-}0.19) {mu}g.L{sup -1} to (25.60{+-}3.3) {mu}g.L{sup -1}. These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  11. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo; Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    2011-01-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO 3 (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm 2 area) together with 5 μL of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95±0.19) μg.L -1 to (25.60±3.3) μg.L -1 . These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  12. Determination of total and methylmercury compounds in the IAEA human hair intercomparison samples - Experience of the IAEA-MEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, M.; Liang, L.; Mandic, V.

    1995-01-01

    The programme of this CRP is focused on the analyses of human hair samples. There are only two human hair samples certified for total mercury, and no RMs for methylmercury compounds is available. One of the main objectives of this CRP is to produce, through the IAEA AQCS Programme, a human hair intercomparison material for quality assurance requirements in population monitoring programmes for total and methylmercury exposure. Through the reporting period, MESL has introduced a new method for simultaneous determination of total and methylmercury in biological samples. As the laboratory has close collaboration with the CRP's Reference Laboratory in Ljubljana, Slovenia, it has also been actively involved in the quality assurance component of this CRP. This report represents a summary on the results for total and methylmercury in two intercomparison samples, IAEA-085 and IAEA-086 using newly developed method

  13. Model-based estimation of finite population total in stratified sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented in this paper concerns the estimation of finite population total under model – based framework. Nonparametric regression approach as a method of estimating finite population total is explored. The asymptotic properties of the estimators based on nonparametric regression are also developed under ...

  14. PET quantification with a histogram derived total activity metric: Superior quantitative consistency compared to total lesion glycolysis with absolute or relative SUV thresholds in phantoms and lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Irene A.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Apte, Aditya; Beattie, Bradley J.; Humm, John L.; Gonen, Mithat; Larson, Steven M.; Ross Schmidtlein, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The increasing use of molecular imaging probes as biomarkers in oncology emphasizes the need for robust and stable methods for quantifying tracer uptake in PET imaging. The primary motivation for this research was to find an accurate method to quantify the total tumor uptake. Therefore we developed a histogram-based method to calculate the background subtracted lesion (BSL) activity and validated BSL by comparing the quantitative consistency with the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in phantom and patient studies. Methods: A thorax phantom and a PET-ACR quality assurance phantom were scanned with increasing FDG concentrations. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed over each chamber. TLG was calculated with a fixed threshold at SUV 2.5 (TLG 2.5 ) and a relative threshold at 42% of SUV max (TLG 42% ). The histogram for each VOI was built and BSL was calculated. Comparison with the total injected FDG activity (TIA) was performed using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and the slope (a). Fifty consecutive patients with FDG-avid lung tumors were selected under an IRB waiver. TLG 42% , TLG 2.5 and BSL were compared to the reference standard calculating CCC and the slope. Results: In both phantoms, the CCC for lesions with a TIA ≤ 50 ml*SUV between TIA and BSL was higher and the slope closer to 1 (CCC = 0.933, a = 1.189), than for TLG 42% (CCC = 0.350, a = 0.731) or TLG 2.5 (CCC = 0.761, a = 0.727). In 50 lung lesions BSL had a slope closer to 1 compared to the reference activity than TLG 42% (a = 1.084 vs 0.618 – for high activity lesions) and also closer to 1 than TLG 2.5 (a = 1.117 vs 0.548 – for low activity lesions). Conclusion: The histogram based BSL correlated better with TIA in both phantom studies than TLG 2.5 or TLG 42% . Also in lung tumors, the BSL activity is overall more accurate in quantifying the lesion activity compared to the two most commonly applied TLG quantification methods

  15. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively

  16. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A

    2002-01-01

    Traditional peat sample preparation methods such as drying at high temperatures and milling may be unsuitable for Hg concentration determination in peats due to the possible presence of volatile Hg species, which could be lost during drying. Here, the effects of sample preparation and natural.......12 and 8.52 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively). Fertilising the peat slightly increased Hg loss (3.08 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in NPK-fertilised peat compared to 0.28 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in unfertilised peat, when averaged over all temperatures used). Homogenising samples by grinding in a machine also caused a loss of Hg....... A comparison of two Hg profiles from an Arctic peat core, measured in frozen samples and in air-dried samples, revealed that no Hg losses occurred upon air-drying. A comparison of Hg concentrations in several plant species that make up peat, showed that some species (Pinus mugo, Sphagnum recurvum...

  17. Determination of total concentration of chemically labeled metabolites as a means of metabolome sample normalization and sample loading optimization in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2012-12-18

    For mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, it is important to use the same amount of starting materials from each sample to compare the metabolome changes in two or more comparative samples. Unfortunately, for biological samples, the total amount or concentration of metabolites is difficult to determine. In this work, we report a general approach of determining the total concentration of metabolites based on the use of chemical labeling to attach a UV absorbent to the metabolites to be analyzed, followed by rapid step-gradient liquid chromatography (LC) UV detection of the labeled metabolites. It is shown that quantification of the total labeled analytes in a biological sample facilitates the preparation of an appropriate amount of starting materials for MS analysis as well as the optimization of the sample loading amount to a mass spectrometer for achieving optimal detectability. As an example, dansylation chemistry was used to label the amine- and phenol-containing metabolites in human urine samples. LC-UV quantification of the labeled metabolites could be optimally performed at the detection wavelength of 338 nm. A calibration curve established from the analysis of a mixture of 17 labeled amino acid standards was found to have the same slope as that from the analysis of the labeled urinary metabolites, suggesting that the labeled amino acid standard calibration curve could be used to determine the total concentration of the labeled urinary metabolites. A workflow incorporating this LC-UV metabolite quantification strategy was then developed in which all individual urine samples were first labeled with (12)C-dansylation and the concentration of each sample was determined by LC-UV. The volumes of urine samples taken for producing the pooled urine standard were adjusted to ensure an equal amount of labeled urine metabolites from each sample was used for the pooling. The pooled urine standard was then labeled with (13)C-dansylation. Equal amounts of the (12)C

  18. Multilevel systematic sampling to estimate total fruit number for yield forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, Felipe Aravena; Tellez, Camilla Potin

    2012-01-01

    procedure for unbiased estimation of fruit number for yield forecasts. In the Spring of 2009 we estimated the total number of fruit in several rows of each of 14 commercial fruit orchards growing apple (11 groves), kiwifruit (two groves), and table grapes (one grove) in central Chile. Survey times were 10...

  19. Effect of finite sample dimensions and total scatter acceptance angle on the gamma ray buildup factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Charanjeet; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous variation of gamma ray buildup factors with absorber thickness (up to 6.5 mfp) and total scatter acceptance angle (which is the sum of incidence and exit beam divergence) in the media of high volume flyash concrete and water was studied experimentally using a point isotropic 137 Cs source

  20. Determination of total alpha and beta activities on vegetable samples by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Regina Apolinaria; Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos; Bakker, Alexandre Pereira; Vavassori, Giullia

    2011-01-01

    Gross alpha and beta analyses are screening techniques used for environmental radioactivity monitoring. The present study proposes to determine the gross alpha and beta activities in vegetable samples by using LSC - liquid scintillation spectrometry. The procedure was applied to vegetable foods. After ashing vegetable samples in a muffle furnace, 100 mg of ash were added to gel mixture of scintillation cocktails, Water - Instagel - Ultima Gold AB (6:10:4) ml, in polyethylene vial. Am-241 standard solution and a KCl (K-40) solution were used to determine the counting configuration, alpha/beta efficiencies and spillover

  1. Porous Silicon Antibody Microarrays for Quantitative Analysis: Measurement of Free and Total PSA in Clinical Plasma Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Axel; Malm, Johan; Marko-Varga, György; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The antibody microarrays have become widespread, but their use for quantitative analyses in clinical samples has not yet been established. We investigated an immunoassay based on nanoporous silicon antibody microarrays for quantification of total prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in 80 clinical plasma samples, and provide quantitative data from a duplex microarray assay that simultaneously quantifies free and total PSA in plasma. To further develop the assay the porous silicon chips was placed into a standard 96-well microtiter plate for higher throughput analysis. The samples analyzed by this quantitative microarray were 80 plasma samples obtained from men undergoing clinical PSA testing (dynamic range: 0.14-44ng/ml, LOD: 0.14ng/ml). The second dataset, measuring free PSA (dynamic range: 0.40-74.9ng/ml, LOD: 0.47ng/ml) and total PSA (dynamic range: 0.87-295ng/ml, LOD: 0.76ng/ml), was also obtained from the clinical routine. The reference for the quantification was a commercially available assay, the ProStatus PSA Free/Total DELFIA. In an analysis of 80 plasma samples the microarray platform performs well across the range of total PSA levels. This assay might have the potential to substitute for the large-scale microtiter plate format in diagnostic applications. The duplex assay paves the way for a future quantitative multiplex assay, which analyses several prostate cancer biomarkers simultaneously. PMID:22921878

  2. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  3. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6–4.3%), repeatability (4–9%), reproducibility (9–11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as

  4. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  5. Reliability of attitude and knowledge items and behavioral consistency in the validated sun exposure questionnaire in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2018-01-01

    in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability......An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed...... questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly...

  6. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes; Determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of {sup 210}Po for alphas and {sup 90}Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90

  7. Spatial distribution and trends of total mercury in waters of the Great Lakes and connecting channels using an improved sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, A.; Hill, B.; Klawunn, P.; Waltho, J.; Backus, S.; McCrea, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Environment Canada recently developed a clean method suitable for sampling trace levels of metals in surface waters. The results of sampling for total mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes between 2003 and 2009 give a unique basin-wide perspective of concentrations of this important contaminant and represent improved knowledge of mercury in the region. Results indicate that concentrations of total mercury in the offshore regions of the lakes were within a relatively narrow range from about 0.3 to 0.8 ng/L. The highest concentrations were observed in the western basin of Lake Erie and concentrations then declined towards the east. Compared to the offshore, higher levels were observed at some nearshore locations, particularly in lakes Erie and Ontario. The longer-term temporal record of mercury in Niagara River suspended sediments indicates an approximate 30% decrease in equivalent water concentrations since 1986. - Highlights: ► Basin-wide concentrations of total mercury in Great Lakes surface waters are provided for the first time. ► A clean sampling method is described, stressing isolation of the sample from extraneous sources of contamination. ► Sub-ng/L concentrations of total mercury are observed in most Great Lakes offshore areas. ► Concentrations in the western basin of Lake Erie are consistently the highest observed in the basin. ► The longer-term record of mercury in Niagara River suspended sediments indicates an approximate 30% decrease since 1986. - A new, clean sampling method for metals is described and basin-wide measurements of total mercury are provided for Great Lakes surface waters for the first time.

  8. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6-4.3%), repeatability (4-9%), reproducibility (9-11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as straightforward

  9. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  10. Background estimation in short-wave region during determination of total sample composition by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, V.A.; Kordyukov, S.V.; Petrov, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Method of background estimation in short-wave spectral region during determination of total sample composition by X-ray fluorescence method is described. 13 types of different rocks with considerable variations of base composition and Zr, Nb, Th, U content below 7x10 -3 % are investigated. The suggested method of background accounting provides for a less statistical error of the background estimation than direct isolated measurement and reliability of its determination in a short-wave region independent on the sample base. Possibilities of suggested method for artificial mixtures conforming by the content of main component to technological concemtrates - niobium, zirconium, tantalum are estimated

  11. Hair MDMA samples are consistent with reported ecstasy use: findings from a study investigating effects of ecstasy on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, A B; Owen, L; Gates, J; Rodgers, J; Buchanan, T; Ling, J; Heffernan, T; Swan, P; Stough, C; Parrott, A C

    2011-01-01

    Our group has conducted several Internet investigations into the biobehavioural effects of self-reported recreational use of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or Ecstasy) and other psychosocial drugs. Here we report a new study examining the relationship between self-reported Ecstasy use and traces of MDMA found in hair samples. In a laboratory setting, 49 undergraduate volunteers performed an Internet-based assessment which included mood scales and the University of East London Drug Use Questionnaire, which asks for history and current drug use. They also provided a hair sample for determination of exposure to MDMA over the previous month. Self-report of Ecstasy use and presence in hair samples were consistent (p happiness and higher self-reported stress. Self-reported Ecstasy use, but not presence in hair, was also associated with decreased tension. Different psychoactive drugs can influence long-term mood and cognition in complex and dynamically interactive ways. Here we have shown a good correspondence between self-report and objective assessment of exposure to MDMA. These data suggest that the Internet has potentially high utility as a useful medium to complement traditional laboratory studies into the sequelae of recreational drug use. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Descriptive display of total alpha, energetics, TOC, oxlate as TOC, and H2O sample data from Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMPSON, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1999, staff at Lockheed Makn Hanford Company (LMHC) were asked to make a presentation to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the safety of the waste tanks at the Hanford Site and the necessity for further tank sampling. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a statistical analysis of available tank data to help determine whether additional sampling would in fact be required. The analytes examined were total alpha, energetics, total organic carbon (TOC), oxalate as TOC and moisture. These analytes serve as indicators of the stability of tank contents; if any of them fall above or below certain values, further investigation is warranted (Dukelow et al. 1995). PNNL performed an analysis of the data collected on these safety screening analytes with respect to empirical distributions and the established Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (SS DQO) thresholds and Basis for Interim Operations (BIO) limits. Both univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Summary statistics and graphical representations of the data were generated

  13. Electrochemical sensing of total antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content in wine samples using amperometry online-coupled with microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Petr; Bancirova, Martina; Halouzka, Vladimir; Lojek, Antonin; Ciz, Milan; Denev, Petko; Cibicek, Norbert; Vacek, Jan; Vostalova, Jitka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Hrbac, Jan

    2012-08-15

    This work describes the method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and/or total content of phenolics (TCP) analysis in wines using microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection using a carbon microfiber working electrode. The system was tested on 10 selected wine samples, and the results were compared with total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and chemiluminescent determination of total antioxidant capacity (CL-TAC) methods using Trolox and catechin as standards. Microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection gives similar results to the widely used cyclic voltammetry methodology and closely correlates with ORAC and TRAP. The problem of electrode fouling is overcome by the introduction of an electrochemical cleaning step (1-2 min at the potential of 0 V vs Ag/AgCl). Such a procedure is sufficient to fully regenerate the electrode response for both red and white wine samples as well as catechin/Trolox standards. The appropriate size of microdialysis probes enables easy automation of the electrochemical TAC/TCP measurement using 96-well microtitration plates.

  14. Determination of total and inorganic mercury in fish samples with on-line oxidation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lijun; Gan Wuer; Su Qingde

    2006-01-01

    An atomic fluorescence spectrometry system for determination of total and inorganic mercury with electromagnetic induction-assisted heating on-line oxidation has been developed. Potassium peroxodisulphate was used as the oxidizing agent to decompose organomercury compounds. Depending on the temperature selected, inorganic or total mercury could be determined with the same manifold. Special accent was put on the study of the parameters influencing the on-line digestion efficiency. The tolerance to the interference of coexisting ions was carefully examined in this system. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (3σ) were evaluated to be 2.9 ng l -1 for inorganic mercury and 2.6 ng l -1 for total mercury, respectively. The relative standard deviations for 10 replicate determinations of 1.0 μg l -1 Hg were 2.4 and 3.2% for inorganic mercury and total mercury, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of total and inorganic mercury in fish samples

  15. A nanocomposite consisting of graphene oxide and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of flavonoids from tea, wine and urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianrong; Xiao, Deli; Peng, Jun; Wang, Cuixia; Zhang, Chan; He, Jia; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We describe a single-step solvothermal method for the preparation of nanocomposites consisting of graphene oxide and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (GO/Fe 3 O 4 ). This material is shown to be useful as a magnetic sorbent for the extraction of flavonoids from green tea, red wine, and urine samples. The nanocomposite is taking advantage of the high surface area of GO and the magnetic phase separation feature of the magnetic sorbent. The nanocomposite is recyclable and was applied to the extraction of flavonoids prior to their determination by HPLC. The effects of amount of surfactant, pH value of the sample solution, extraction time, and desorption condition on the extraction efficiency, and the regeneration conditions were optimized. The limits of detection for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol range from 0.2 to 0.5 ng∙ mL −1 in urine, from 3.0 to 6.0 ng∙mL −1 in green tea, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng∙mL −1 in red wine. The recoveries are between 82.0 and 101.4 %, with relative standard deviations of <9.3 %. (author)

  16. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  17. CHANG-ES. IX. Radio scale heights and scale lengths of a consistent sample of 13 spiral galaxies seen edge-on and their correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wiegert, Theresa; Miskolczi, Arpad; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Beck, Rainer; Li, Jiang-Tao; Heald, George; Müller, Peter; Stein, Yelena; Rand, Richard J.; Heesen, Volker; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Vargas, Carlos J.; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric J.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution. Methods: We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands. Results: The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density. Conclusions: The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.

  18. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  19. Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Haydn [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. De Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas, Baruta (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Marco Parra, Lue-Meru, E-mail: luemerumarco@yahoo.e [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Dpto. Quimica y Suelos, Decanato de Agronomia, Tarabana, Cabudare, Edo.Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Greaves, Eduardo D. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. De Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas, Baruta (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-K{alpha} and Co-K{alpha} lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 {mu}gL{sup -1}. The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

  20. Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Haydn; Marco Parra, Lue-Meru; Bennun, Leonardo; Greaves, Eduardo D.

    2010-01-01

    The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-Kα and Co-Kα lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 μgL -1 . The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

  1. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Mirna, E-mail: msigrist@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH{sub 3} generation using 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.6 {mu}g L{sup -1} for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 {mu}L sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h{sup -1}. The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species

  2. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH 3 generation using 3.5 mol L -1 HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH 4 in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , HCO 3 - on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C 6 H 8 O 6 solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 μL sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h -1 . The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species separation was performed through the employ of a serial connection of membrane filters and

  3. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  4. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  5. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  6. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and yeast samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesh, N.A., E-mail: nikita.kulesh@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Novoselova, I.P. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Safronov, A.P. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsen 106, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Beketov, I.V.; Samatov, O.M. [Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsen 106, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of the Basque Country UPV-EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Morozova, M. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Denisova, T.P. [Irkutsk State University, Karl Marks 1, 664003 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, total reflection x-ray fluorescent (TXRF) spectrometry was applied for the evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and biological samples containing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles obtained by the laser target evaporation technique. Suspensions of maghemite nanoparticles of different concentrations were used to estimate the limitation of the method for the evaluation of nanoparticle concentration in the range of 1–5000 ppm in absence of organic matrix. Samples of single-cell yeasts grown in the nutrient media containing maghemite nanoparticles were used to study the nanoparticle absorption mechanism. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of applicability of TXRF for quantitative analysis in a wide range of iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations for biological samples and ferrofluids with a simple established protocol of specimen preparation. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids and yeasts samples were analysed by TXRF spectroscopy. • Simple protocol for iron quantification by means of TXRF was proposed. • Results were combined with magnetic, structural, and morphological characterization. • Preliminary conclusion on nanoparticles uptake mechanism was made.

  7. Glycan characterization of the NIST RM monoclonal antibody using a total analytical solution: From sample preparation to data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Mark; Alley, William R; McManus, Ciara A; Yu, Ying Qing; Hallinan, Sinead; Gebler, John; Rudd, Pauline M

    Glycosylation is an important attribute of biopharmaceutical products to monitor from development through production. However, glycosylation analysis has traditionally been a time-consuming process with long sample preparation protocols and manual interpretation of the data. To address the challenges associated with glycan analysis, we developed a streamlined analytical solution that covers the entire process from sample preparation to data analysis. In this communication, we describe the complete analytical solution that begins with a simplified and fast N-linked glycan sample preparation protocol that can be completed in less than 1 hr. The sample preparation includes labelling with RapiFluor-MS tag to improve both fluorescence (FLR) and mass spectral (MS) sensitivities. Following HILIC-UPLC/FLR/MS analyses, the data are processed and a library search based on glucose units has been included to expedite the task of structural assignment. We then applied this total analytical solution to characterize the glycosylation of the NIST Reference Material mAb 8761. For this glycoprotein, we confidently identified 35 N-linked glycans and all three major classes, high mannose, complex, and hybrid, were present. The majority of the glycans were neutral and fucosylated; glycans featuring N-glycolylneuraminic acid and those with two galactoses connected via an α1,3-linkage were also identified.

  8. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesh, N.A.; Novoselova, I.P.; Safronov, A.P.; Beketov, I.V.; Samatov, O.M.; Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Morozova, M.; Denisova, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, total reflection x-ray fluorescent (TXRF) spectrometry was applied for the evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and biological samples containing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles obtained by the laser target evaporation technique. Suspensions of maghemite nanoparticles of different concentrations were used to estimate the limitation of the method for the evaluation of nanoparticle concentration in the range of 1–5000 ppm in absence of organic matrix. Samples of single-cell yeasts grown in the nutrient media containing maghemite nanoparticles were used to study the nanoparticle absorption mechanism. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of applicability of TXRF for quantitative analysis in a wide range of iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations for biological samples and ferrofluids with a simple established protocol of specimen preparation. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids and yeasts samples were analysed by TXRF spectroscopy. • Simple protocol for iron quantification by means of TXRF was proposed. • Results were combined with magnetic, structural, and morphological characterization. • Preliminary conclusion on nanoparticles uptake mechanism was made.

  9. Assessing total nitrogen in surface-water samples--precision and bias of analytical and computational methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Patton, Charles J.; Mueller, David K.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of total-nitrogen (TN) concentrations is an important component of many surface-water-quality programs. However, three widely used methods for the determination of total nitrogen—(1) derived from the alkaline-persulfate digestion of whole-water samples (TN-A); (2) calculated as the sum of total Kjeldahl nitrogen and dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (TN-K); and (3) calculated as the sum of dissolved nitrogen and particulate nitrogen (TN-C)—all include inherent limitations. A digestion process is intended to convert multiple species of nitrogen that are present in the sample into one measureable species, but this process may introduce bias. TN-A results can be negatively biased in the presence of suspended sediment, and TN-K data can be positively biased in the presence of elevated nitrate because some nitrate is reduced to ammonia and is therefore counted twice in the computation of total nitrogen. Furthermore, TN-C may not be subject to bias but is comparatively imprecise. In this study, the effects of suspended-sediment and nitrate concentrations on the performance of these TN methods were assessed using synthetic samples developed in a laboratory as well as a series of stream samples. A 2007 laboratory experiment measured TN-A and TN-K in nutrient-fortified solutions that had been mixed with varying amounts of sediment-reference materials. This experiment identified a connection between suspended sediment and negative bias in TN-A and detected positive bias in TN-K in the presence of elevated nitrate. A 2009–10 synoptic-field study used samples from 77 stream-sampling sites to confirm that these biases were present in the field samples and evaluated the precision and bias of TN methods. The precision of TN-C and TN-K depended on the precision and relative amounts of the TN-component species used in their respective TN computations. Particulate nitrogen had an average variability (as determined by the relative standard deviation) of 13

  10. Distribution of Total Depressive Symptoms Scores and Each Depressive Symptom Item in a Sample of Japanese Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Furukaw, Toshiaki A

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.

  11. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  12. Total and non-seasalt sulfate and chloride measured in bulk precipitation samples from the Kilauea Volcano area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Six-month cumulative precipitation samples provide estimates of bulk deposition of sulfate and chloride for the southeast part of the Island of Hawaii during four time periods: August 1991 to February 1992, February 1992 to September 1992, March 1993 to September 1993, and September 1993 to February 1994. Total estimated bulk deposition rates for sulfate ranged from 0.12 to 24 grams per square meter per 180 days, and non-seasalt sulfate deposition ranged from 0.06 to 24 grams per square meter per 180 days. Patterns of non-seasalt sulfate deposition were generally related to prevailing wind directions and the proximity of the collection site to large sources of sulfur gases, namely Kilauea Volcano's summit and East Rift Zone eruption. Total chloride deposition from bulk precipitation samples ranged from 0.01 to 17 grams per square meter per 180 days. Chloride appeared to be predominantly from oceanic sources, as non- seasalt chloride deposition was near zero for most sites.

  13. Trace element analysis of mineral and tap water samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangala, M.J.; Korir, K.A.; Maina, D.M.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Results of trace element analysis by TXRF of tap water and various brands of bottled mineral water samples which are representative of local and imported brands sold in Nairobi are reported. The variation in elemental concentrations in water samples analyzed were as follows: potassium (K) 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml; calcium (Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml; titanium (Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l; manganese (Mn) 8 to 670 μg/l; iron (Fe) 31 to 540 μg/l; copper (Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l; zinc (Zn) 8 to 4730 μg/l; bromine (Br) 9 to 248 μg/l; rubidium (Rb) 10 to 40 μg/l and strontium (Sr) 10 to 1000 μg/l. Local mineral water samples contain higher levels of trace elements; manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) as compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three component loading factors clusters for: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca); titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), bromine (Br), and zinc (Zn); zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and potassium (K) respectively. The percentage of total variance explained by the components was 31.4, 27.3, and 14.8 respectively. In this study, we also found that a limited spread of 5-6 mm for a 10 μl sample was achieved when the quartz sample carrier was dried in a low pressure (300 mbar) oven at 70 o C for 10 hours. (author)

  14. On-line technique for preparingand measuring stable carbon isotopeof total dissolved inorganic carbonin water samples ( d13CTDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inguaggiato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast and completely automated procedure is proposed for the preparation and determination of d13C of total inorganic carbon dissolved in water ( d13CTDIC. This method is based on the acidification of water samples transforming the whole dissolved inorganic carbon species into CO2. Water samples are directly injected by syringe into 5.9 ml vials with screw caps which have a pierciable rubber septum. An Analytical Precision «Carbonate Prep System» was used both to flush pure helium into the vials and to automatically dispense a fixed amount of H3PO4. Full-equilibrium conditions between produced CO2 and water are reached at a temperature of 70°C (± 0.1°C in less than 24 h. Carbon isotope ratios (13C/ 12C were measured on an AP 2003 continuous flow mass spectrometer, connected on-line with the injection system. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed method was tested both on aqueous standard solutions prepared using Na2CO3 with d13C=-10.78 per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.08, n = 11, and at five different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 mmol/l and on more than thirty natural samples. Mean d13CTDIC on standard solution samples is ?10.89 < per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.18, n = 50, thus revealing both a good analytical precision and reproducibility. A comparison between average d13CTDIC values on a quadruplicate set of natural samples and those obtained following the chemical and physical stripping method highlights a good agreement between the two analytical methods.

  15. Total arsenic in selected food samples from Argentina: Estimation of their contribution to inorganic arsenic dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Hilbe, Nandi; Brusa, Lucila; Campagnoli, Darío; Beldoménico, Horacio

    2016-11-01

    An optimized flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (FI-HGAAS) method was used to determine total arsenic in selected food samples (beef, chicken, fish, milk, cheese, egg, rice, rice-based products, wheat flour, corn flour, oats, breakfast cereals, legumes and potatoes) and to estimate their contributions to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values obtained were 6μgkg(-)(1) and 18μgkg(-)(1), respectively. The mean recovery range obtained for all food at a fortification level of 200μgkg(-)(1) was 85-110%. Accuracy was evaluated using dogfish liver certified reference material (DOLT-3 NRC) for trace metals. The highest total arsenic concentrations (in μgkg(-)(1)) were found in fish (152-439), rice (87-316) and rice-based products (52-201). The contribution to inorganic arsenic (i-As) intake was calculated from the mean i-As content of each food (calculated by applying conversion factors to total arsenic data) and the mean consumption per day. The primary contributors to inorganic arsenic intake were wheat flour, including its proportion in wheat flour-based products (breads, pasta and cookies), followed by rice; both foods account for close to 53% and 17% of the intake, respectively. The i-As dietary intake, estimated as 10.7μgday(-)(1), was significantly lower than that from drinking water in vast regions of Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberger, Martin A.; Hoeltig, Michael; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1 wt.% and by adjusting the pH at 4. For the optimization of the concentration of boron nitride in the slurries the net line intensities and the signal to background ratios were determined for the trace elements Ca and Ti as well as for the internal standard element Ga in the case of concentrations of boron nitride ranging from 1 to 30 mg mL -1 . As a compromise with respect to high net line intensities and high signal to background ratios, concentrations of 5 mg mL -1 of boron nitride were found suitable and were used for all further measurements. The limits of detection of SlS-TXRF for the boron nitride powders were found to range from 0.062 to 1.6 μg g -1 for Cu and Ca, respectively. Herewith, they are higher than those obtained in solid sampling and slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SoS-GFAAS, SlS-GFAAS) as well as those of solid sampling electrothermal evaporation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SoS-ETV-ICP-OES). For Ca and Fe as well as for Cu and Fe, however, they were found to be lower than for GFAAS and for ICP-OES subsequent to wet chemical digestion, respectively. The universal applicability of SlS-TXRF to the analysis of samples with a wide variety of matrices could be demonstrated by the analysis of certified reference materials such as SiC, Al 2 O 3 , powdered bovine liver and borate ore with a single calibration. The correlation coefficients of the plots for the values found for Ca, Fe and Ti by SlS-TXRF in the boron nitride powders as well as in the before mentioned samples versus the reference values for the respective samples over a

  17. Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amberger, Martin A.; Hoeltig, Michael [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.d [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1 wt.% and by adjusting the pH at 4. For the optimization of the concentration of boron nitride in the slurries the net line intensities and the signal to background ratios were determined for the trace elements Ca and Ti as well as for the internal standard element Ga in the case of concentrations of boron nitride ranging from 1 to 30 mg mL{sup -1}. As a compromise with respect to high net line intensities and high signal to background ratios, concentrations of 5 mg mL{sup -1} of boron nitride were found suitable and were used for all further measurements. The limits of detection of SlS-TXRF for the boron nitride powders were found to range from 0.062 to 1.6 mug g{sup -1} for Cu and Ca, respectively. Herewith, they are higher than those obtained in solid sampling and slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SoS-GFAAS, SlS-GFAAS) as well as those of solid sampling electrothermal evaporation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SoS-ETV-ICP-OES). For Ca and Fe as well as for Cu and Fe, however, they were found to be lower than for GFAAS and for ICP-OES subsequent to wet chemical digestion, respectively. The universal applicability of SlS-TXRF to the analysis of samples with a wide variety of matrices could be demonstrated by the analysis of certified reference materials such as SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, powdered bovine liver and borate ore with a single calibration. The correlation coefficients of the plots for the values found for Ca, Fe and Ti by SlS-TXRF in the boron nitride powders as well as in the before mentioned samples versus the reference values for the respective

  18. Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, G.; Fittschen, U. E. A.; Achard, M. E. S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X.; Meyer-Klaucke, W.

    2008-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

  19. Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenreuther, G. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Achard, M.E.S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfram@embl-hamburg.de

    2008-12-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

  20. Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L -1 . Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

  1. Determination of total sulfur in agricultural samples by high-resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Alex; Raposo, Jorge L; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Gomes Neto, José A

    2011-03-23

    The usefulness of molecular absorption was investigated for the determination of total sulfur (S) in agricultural samples by high-resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The lines for CS at 257.595, 257.958, and 258.056 nm and for SH at 323.658, 324.064, and 327.990 nm were evaluated. Figures of merit, such as linear dynamic range, sensitivity, linear correlation, characteristic concentration, limit of detection, and precision, were established. For selected CS lines, wavelength-integrated absorbance equivalent to 3 pixels, analytical curves in the 100-2500 mg L(-1) (257.595 nm), 250-2000 mg L(-1) (257.958 nm), and 250-5000 mg L(-1) (258.056 nm) ranges with a linear correlation coefficient better than 0.9980 were obtained. Results were in agreement at a 95% confidence level (paired t test) with those obtained by gravimetry. Recoveries of S in fungicide and fertilizer samples were within the 84-109% range, and the relative standard deviation (n=12) was typically <5%.

  2. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  3. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  4. Measuring the level of public understanding of total solar eclipse from the mass media: Palembang as sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati, F. G.; Ekawanti, N.; Luthfiandari; Premadi, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    The Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on the 9th March 2016 received a huge attention from the mass media. Some of them intensively write articles about it even months before the TSE day. As we know media plays strategic role not only in raising public awareness but also interest. The aim of this project is to study the relation between the number of accesses to the media information and how well public learned the information delivered by the media. We prepared questionnaire consisting of seven semi-multiple choices on how public got information about TSE. We gave them choices of what they had heard to measure their basic understanding of TSE. Furthermore we add two “wrong” choices in the last questions to identify less serious respondents. We analyze 60 respondents of Palembang who visited Ampera bridge area. Our result shows no correlation between the number of information access and the level of understanding about TSE. We also found that local media did not provide the scientific content of TSE as well as the national media.

  5. Evaluation of Total Nitrite Pattern Visualization as an Improved Method for Gunshot Residue Detection and its Application to Casework Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jason; Upton, Colin; Springer, Elyah

    2018-04-23

    Visualization of nitrite residues is essential in gunshot distance determination. Current protocols for the detection of nitrites include, among other tests, the Modified Griess Test (MGT). This method is limited as nitrite residues are unstable in the environment and limited to partially burned gunpowder. Previous research demonstrated the ability of alkaline hydrolysis to convert nitrates to nitrites, allowing visualization of unburned gunpowder particles using the MGT. This is referred to as Total Nitrite Pattern Visualization (TNV). TNV techniques were modified and a study conducted to streamline the procedure outlined in the literature to maximize the efficacy of the TNV in casework, while reducing the required time from 1 h to 5 min, and enhancing effectiveness on blood-soiled samples. The TNV method was found to provide significant improvement in the ability to detect significant nitrite residues, without sacrificing efficiency, that would allow for the determination of the muzzle-to-target distance. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Geophysical validation and long-term consistency between GOME-2/MetOp-A total ozone column and measurements from the sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and OMI/Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Koukouli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the consistency of five years of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2/Metop-A [GOME-2] total ozone columns and the long-term total ozone satellite monitoring database already in existence through an extensive inter-comparison and validation exercise using as reference Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements. The behaviour of the GOME-2 measurements is being weighed against that of GOME (1995–2011, Ozone Monitoring Experiment [OMI] (since 2004 and the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY [SCIAMACHY] (since 2002 total ozone column products. Over the background truth of the ground-based measurements, the total ozone columns are inter-evaluated using a suite of established validation techniques; the GOME-2 time series follow the same patterns as those observed by the other satellite sensors. In particular, on average, GOME-2 data underestimate GOME data by about 0.80%, and underestimate SCIAMACHY data by 0.37% with no seasonal dependence of the differences between GOME-2, GOME and SCIAMACHY. The latter is expected since the three datasets are based on similar DOAS algorithms. This underestimation of GOME-2 is within the uncertainty of the reference data used in the comparisons. Compared to the OMI sensor, on average GOME-2 data underestimate OMI_DOAS (collection 3 data by 1.28%, without any significant seasonal dependence of the differences between them. The lack of seasonality might be expected since both the GOME data processor [GDP] 4.4 and OMI_DOAS are DOAS-type algorithms and both consider the variability of the stratospheric temperatures in their retrievals. Compared to the OMI_TOMS (collection 3 data, no bias was found. We hence conclude that the GOME-2 total ozone columns are well suitable to continue the long-term global total ozone record with the accuracy needed for climate monitoring studies.

  7. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  8. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  9. The influence of the self-absorption on the measure of the total alpha activity in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Gonzalez, J.A.; De Pablo, A.

    1981-01-01

    The self-absorption is an important difficulty in measuring α-activities in river water samples. A semiempirical equation for calculating the self-absorption versus sample thickness has been obtained. This equation is valid for the regular saline residues in spanish rivers and for thicknesses lower than 2 mg x cm -2 . This figure sets a limit for the amount of water to be evaporated from the sample. (author)

  10. EPA Method 3135.2I: Cyanide, Total and Amenable in Aqueous and Solid Samples Automated Colorimetric With Manual Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, water and wipe samples for detection and measurement of cyanide amendable to chlorination using acid digestion and spectrophotometry.

  11. Consistency of genetic inheritance mode and heritability patterns of triglyceride vs. high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in two Taiwanese family samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chi-Yu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C is considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Genetic components were important in controlling the variation in western countries. But the mode of inheritance and family aggregation patterns were still unknown among Asian-Pacific countries. This study, based on families recruited from community and hospital, is aimed to investigate the mode of inheritance, heritability and shared environmental factors in controlling TG/HDL-C. Results Two populations, one from community-based families (n = 988, 894 parent-offspring and 453 sibling pairs and the other from hospital-based families (n = 1313, 76 parent-offspring and 52 sibling pairs were sampled. The population in hospital-based families had higher mean age values than community-based families (54.7 vs. 34.0. Logarithmic transformed TG/ HDL-C values, after adjusted by age, gender and body mass index, were for genetic analyses. Significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were also found in both samples. The parent-offspring correlation coefficient was higher in the hospital-based families than in the community-based families. Genetic heritability was higher in community-based families (0.338 ± 0.114, p = 0.002, but the common shared environmental factor was higher in hospital-based families (0.203 ± 0.042, p Conclusion Variations of TG/HDL-C in the normal ranges were likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including environmental and genetic components. Higher genetic factors were proved in younger community-based families than in older hospital-based families.

  12. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p haylage. There was a significantly (p haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  13. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated determination of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aqueous samples: RSIL lab codes 1851 and 1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Kinga M.; Doctor, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab codes 1851 and 1852 are to determine the total carbon mass and the ratio of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, lab code 1851) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC, lab code 1852) in aqueous samples. The analysis procedure is automated according to a method that utilizes a total carbon analyzer as a peripheral sample preparation device for analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas by a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The carbon analyzer produces CO2 and determines the carbon mass in parts per million (ppm) of DIC and DOC in each sample separately, and the CF-IRMS determines the carbon isotope ratio of the produced CO2. This configuration provides a fully automated analysis of total carbon mass and δ13C with no operator intervention, additional sample preparation, or other manual analysis. To determine the DIC, the carbon analyzer transfers a specified sample volume to a heated (70 °C) reaction vessel with a preprogrammed volume of 10% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), which allows the carbonate and bicarbonate species in the sample to dissociate to CO2. The CO2 from the reacted sample is subsequently purged with a flow of helium gas that sweeps the CO2 through an infrared CO2 detector and quantifies the CO2. The CO2 is then carried through a high-temperature (650 °C) scrubber reactor, a series of water traps, and ultimately to the inlet of the mass spectrometer. For the analysis of total dissolved organic carbon, the carbon analyzer performs a second step on the sample in the heated reaction vessel during which a preprogrammed volume of sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) is added, and the hydroxyl radicals oxidize the organics to CO2. Samples containing 2 ppm to 30,000 ppm of carbon are analyzed. The precision of the carbon isotope analysis is within 0.3 per mill for DIC, and within 0.5 per mill for DOC.

  15. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi 41-1, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uehara, Hiromitsu; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 21-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Nimura, Tomoyuki [AVC Co., Ltd., Inada 1450-6, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0061 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.

  16. Determination of total selenium and Se-77 in isotopically enriched human samples by ICP-dynamic reaction cell-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Bügel, Susanne H.

    2003-01-01

    and the digested faecal samples were diluted using an aqueous diluent containing 0.5% Triton X-100, 2% nitric acid and 3% methanol. Selenium was detected as Se-76, Se-77 and Se-80 by ICP- DRC- MS. Selenium originating from the natural isotope abundance yeast and other selenium sources from the diet was determined...

  17. Extension of the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method: third-order expansion of the density functional theory total energy and introduction of a modified effective coulomb interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yu, Haibo; York, Darrin; Cui, Qiang; Elstner, Marcus

    2007-10-25

    The standard self-consistent-charge density-functional-tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method (Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7260) is derived by a second-order expansion of the density functional theory total energy expression, followed by an approximation of the charge density fluctuations by charge monopoles and an effective damped Coulomb interaction between the atomic net charges. The central assumptions behind this effective charge-charge interaction are the inverse relation of atomic size and chemical hardness and the use of a fixed chemical hardness parameter independent of the atomic charge state. While these approximations seem to be unproblematic for many covalently bound systems, they are quantitatively insufficient for hydrogen-bonding interactions and (anionic) molecules with localized net charges. Here, we present an extension of the SCC-DFTB method to incorporate third-order terms in the charge density fluctuations, leading to chemical hardness parameters that are dependent on the atomic charge state and a modification of the Coulomb scaling to improve the electrostatic treatment within the second-order terms. These modifications lead to a significant improvement in the description of hydrogen-bonding interactions and proton affinities of biologically relevant molecules.

  18. Determination of the total amount of organically bound chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gether, J; Lunde, G [Central Institute for Industrial Research, Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, E [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-07-01

    The determination of chlorine, bromine and iodine present as non-polar, hydrophobic hydrocarbons in environmental samples is reported. The organohalogen compounds are seprated from water into an organic phase by on-site liquid-liquid extraction, and form biological material by procedures based on lipid phase extraction and codistillation. After removal of inorganic halides by washing with water and concentration of the sample by evaporation of the solvent, the resulting extracts are analyzed for their chlorine, bromine and iodine contents by instrumental neutron activation analysus. Strict attention is paid to the possibility of contamination in every step of the procedure. Background values in routine analysis are approximately 100-200 ng of chlorine, <5 ng of bromine and <3 ng of iodine.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Sample Treatment in a Fully Automated Flow-Based Instrument: Oxidation of Reduced Technetium Species in the Analysis of Total Technetium-99 in Caustic Aged Nuclear Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2004-01-01

    An automated flow-based instrument for microwave-assisted treatment of liquid samples has been developed and characterized. The instrument utilizes a flow-through reaction vessel design that facilitates the addition of multiple reagents during sample treatment, removal of the gaseous reaction products, and enables quantitative removal of liquids from the reaction vessel for carryover-free operations. Matrix modification and speciation control chemistries that are required for the radiochemical determination of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste samples have been investigated. A rapid and quantitative oxidation procedure using peroxydisulfate in acidic solution was developed to convert reduced technetium species to pertechnetate in samples with high content of reducing organics. The effectiveness of the automated sample treatment procedures has been validated in the radiochemical analysis of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste matrixes from the Hanford site

  20. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura , Piracicaba, SP; Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  1. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  2. Matrix effect on the detection limit and accuracy in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjou, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of matrix contents on the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was experimentally investigated using a set of multielement standard solutions (500 ng/mL of each element) in variable concentrations of NH 4 NO 3 . It was found that high matrix concentration, i.e. 0.1-10% NH 4 NO 3 , had a strong effect on the detection limits for all investigated elements, whereas no effect was observed at lower matrix concentration, i.e. 0-0.1% NH 4 NO 3 . The effect of soil and blood sample masses on the detection limit was also studied. The results showed decreasing the detection limit (in concentration unit, μg/g) with increasing the sample mass. However, the detection limit increased (in mass unit, ng) with increasing sample mass. The optimal blood sample mass of ca. 200 μg was sufficient to improve the detection limit of Se determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The capability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze different kinds of samples was discussed with respect to the accuracy and detection limits based on certified and reference materials. Direct analysis of unknown water samples from several sources was also presented in this work

  3. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water; Control de calidad en la precision del indice de actividad beta total en diferentes matrices de muestras de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-07-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  5. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  6. Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, Based on Statistics of Retrieved Rain Rates and Simple Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-based systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error based on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some modeling work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM based on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.

  7. A novel solid phase extraction procedure on Amberlite XAD-1180 for speciation of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and total chromium in environmental and pharmaceutical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narin, Ibrahim; Kars, Ayse; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Due to the toxicity of chromium, species depend on their chemical properties and bioavailabilities, speciation of chromium is very important in environmental samples. A speciation procedure for chromium(III), chromium(VI) and total chromium in environmental samples is presented in this work, prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of chromium. The procedure is based on the adsorption of Cr(III)-diphenylcarbazone complex on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin. After oxidation of Cr(III), the developed solid phase extraction system was applied to determinate the total chromium. Cr(III) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr content and the Cr(VI) content. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of Cr(VI) on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was found to be 75. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for Cr(VI) and total chromium were 7.7 and 8.6 μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory results for the analysis of total chromium in the stream sediment (GBW7310) certified reference material for the validation of the presented method was obtained. The procedure was applied to food, water and pharmaceutical samples successfully

  8. Evaluation the total exposure of soil sample in Adaya site and the obtain risk assessments for the worker by Res Rad code program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, A. M.; Khadim, A. A. N.; Ibrahim, Z. H.; Ali, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluation the total exposure to the worker in Adaya site risk assessment by using Res Rad code program. The study including 5 areas soil sample calculate in the site and analysis it by High Pure Germaniums (Hg) system made (CANBERRA) company. The soil sample simulation by (Res Rad) code program by inter the radioactive isotope concentration and the specification of the contamination zone area, depth and the cover depth of it. The total exposure of same sample was about 9 mSv/year and the (Heast 2001 Morbidity, FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.045 state every 100 worker in the year. There are simple different between Heast 2001 Morbidity and FGR13 Morbidity according to the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) use it. The (FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.041 state every 100 worker in the year. (Author)

  9. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  10. An efficient sampling approach for variance-based sensitivity analysis based on the law of total variance in the successive intervals without overlapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Wanying; Lu, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Xian

    2018-06-01

    To efficiently execute the variance-based global sensitivity analysis, the law of total variance in the successive intervals without overlapping is proved at first, on which an efficient space-partition sampling-based approach is subsequently proposed in this paper. Through partitioning the sample points of output into different subsets according to different inputs, the proposed approach can efficiently evaluate all the main effects concurrently by one group of sample points. In addition, there is no need for optimizing the partition scheme in the proposed approach. The maximum length of subintervals is decreased by increasing the number of sample points of model input variables in the proposed approach, which guarantees the convergence condition of the space-partition approach well. Furthermore, a new interpretation on the thought of partition is illuminated from the perspective of the variance ratio function. Finally, three test examples and one engineering application are employed to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.

  11. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  12. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Method Performance of Total Mercury (Hg) Testing in the Biological Samples by Using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (CV-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna TS; Samin

    2007-01-01

    Method performance (validation) of total mercury (Hg) testing in the biological samples by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) has been done. The objective of this research is to know the method performance of CV-AAS as one of points for the accreditation testing of laboratory according IS0/IEC 17025-2005. The method performance covering limit of detection (LOD), accuracy, precision and bias. As a standard material used SRM Oyster Tissue 15660 from Winopal Forshung Germany, whereas the biological samples were human hair. In principle of mercury testing for solid samples using CV-AAS is dissolving this sample and standard with 10 mL HNO 3 supra pure into a closed quartz tube and heating at 150 °C for 4 hours. The concentration of mercury in each samples was determined at the condition of operation were stirring time (T 1 ) 70 seconds, delay time (T 2 ) 15 seconds, heating time (T 3 ) 13 seconds and cooling time (T 4 ) of 25 seconds. Mercury ion in samples are reduced with SnCl 2 10 % in H 2 SO 4 20 %, and then the vapour of mercury from reduction is passed in NaOH 20 % solution and aquatridest. The result of method performance were: limit of detection (LOD) = 0.085 ng, accuracy 99.70 %, precision (RSD) = 1.64 % and bias = 0.30 %. From the validation result showed that the content of mercury total was in the range of certified values. The total mercury content (Hg) in human hair were varied from 406.93 - 699.07 ppb. (author)

  14. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Strug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  15. Simplified sample treatment for the determination of total concentrations and chemical fractionation forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Pawel; Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2014-11-15

    A simpler, and faster than wet digestion, sample treatment was proposed prior to determination of total concentrations for selected macro- (Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn) in soluble coffees by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were dissolved in water and acidified with HNO3. Precision was in the range 1-4% and accuracy was better than 2.5%. The method was used in analysis of 18 soluble coffees available on the Polish market. Chemical fractionation patterns for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees, as consumed, using a two-column solid-phase extraction method, determined Ca, Mg and Mn were present predominantly as cations (80-93% of total content). This suggests these elements are likely to be highly bioaccessible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Total sulfur determination in gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after direct sample introduction as detergent emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Padua Oliveira, Eliane; Batista de Carvalho, Maria de Fatima; Almeida Bezerra, Marcos; Soares Freire, Aline

    2008-01-01

    Herein, we present the development of a procedure for the determination of total sulfur in petroleum-derived products (gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel) employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For this procedure, samples were prepared as emulsions that were made using concentrated nitric acid, Triton X-100, sample, and ultra pure water in proportions of 5/10/7/78% (v/v), respectively. Sample volumes were weighed because of the density differences, and oxygen was added to the sheat gas entrance of the ICP OES in order to decrease carbon deposition in the torch and to minimize background effects. A Doehlert design was applied as an experimental matrix to investigate the flow ratios of argon (sheat and plasma gas) and oxygen in relation to the signal-to-background ratio. A comparative study among the slopes of the analytical curves built in aqueous media, surfactant/HNO 3 , and by spike addition for several sample emulsions indicates that a unique solution of surfactant in acidic media can be employed to perform the external calibration for analysis of the emulsions. The developed procedure allows for the determination of the total sulfur content in petroleum derivatives with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.72 and 2.4 μg g -1 , respectively. Precision values, expressed as the relative standard deviations (% RSD, n = 10) for 12 and 400 μg g -1 , were 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied toward the determination of total sulfur in samples of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel commercialized in the city of Niteroi/RJ, Brazil. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of the total sulfur in three different standard reference materials (SRM): NIST 2723a (sulfur in diesel fuel oil), NIST 1616b (sulfur in kerosene), and NIST 2298 (sulfur in gasoline). The data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to these types of samples

  17. Efficient isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in swipe samples by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Onodera, Takashi; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    A new particle recovery method and a sensitive screening method were developed for subsequent isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in safeguards swipe samples. The particles in the swipe sample were recovered onto a carrier by means of vacuum suction-impact collection method. When grease coating was applied to the carrier, the recovery efficiency was improved to 48±9%, which is superior to that of conventionally-used ultrasoneration method. Prior to isotope ratio analysis with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) was applied to screen the sample for the presence of uranium particles. By the use of Si carriers in TXRF analysis, the detection limit of 22 pg was achieved for uranium. By combining these methods with SIMS, the isotope ratios of 235 U/ 238 U for individual uranium particles were efficiently determined. (author)

  18. Studies and developments for the analysis of products of nuclear reprocessing plants with the help of the X-ray fluorescence analysis on totally reflecting sample holders (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, H.; Eggers, I.; Gibau, F.; Haarich, M.; Hastenteufel, S.; Haurand, M.; Knoechel, A.; Salow, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies with inactive and active simulates of products of nuclear reprocessing plants show the suitability of the X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Totally Reflecting Sample Holders (TXRF), to detect the available elements simultaneously by direct measurements of specially prepared thin samples. High dilution enables in the most cases, to avoid working in hot cells and to carry out the analysis in glove boxes. The analysis of uranium products and great amounts of matrix elements containing solutions like LAW and MAW demands the separation of the matrix elements before TXRF measurement. Procedures for this task have been developed. The potential of the new analytical procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of two samples of highly diluted high active wastes. (orig.) With 65 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  19. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  20. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  1. The Development of Low-Level Measurement Capabilities for Total and Isotopic Uranium in Environmental Samples at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Whitaker, Michael; Hayes, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    In June 1998, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began a program to assess environmental sampling and analysis capabilities at laboratories in Argentina and Brazil. The program began with staff training conducted in South America and the United States by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Both laboratories are participating members of DOE's Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) that support IAEA's environmental sampling program. During the initial planning meeting, representatives from ABACC and all the participating analytical laboratories supporting ABACC were briefed on how the first exercise would be managed and on key aspects necessary to analyze low-level environmental samples for uranium. Subsequent to this training, a laboratory evaluation exercise (Exercise 1) was conducted using standard swipe samples prepared for this exercise by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results of Exercise 1 determined that sample contamination was a major factor in the analysis, and a thorough review of laboratory procedures was required to reduce the level of contamination to acceptable levels. Following modification of sample preparation procedures, the laboratories performed Exercise 2, an analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, Peach Leaves. The results of Exercise 2 demonstrated that several laboratories were capable of accurately determining the total uranium and uranium isotopic distribution in the peach leaves. To build on these successes, Exercise 3 was performed using a series of standard swipe samples prepared by the IAEA and distributed to laboratories supporting ABACC and to PNNL and ORNL. The results of Exercise 3 demonstrate that ABACC now has support laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil, which are capable of

  2. Total inorganic arsenic detection in real water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a gold-coated diamond thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Swain, Greg M

    2007-06-12

    An accurate method for total inorganic arsenic determination in real water samples was developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and a Au-coated boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode. Keys to the method are the use of a conducting diamond platform and solid phase extraction for sample preparation. In the method, the As(III) present in the sample is first detected by DPASV. The As(V) present is then reduced to As(III) by reaction with Na2SO3 and this is followed by a second detection of As(III) by DPASV. Interfering metal ions (e.g., Cu(II)) that cause decreased electrode response sensitivity for arsenic in real samples are removed by solid phase extraction as part of the sample preparation. For example, Cu(II) caused a 30% decrease in the As stripping peak current at a solution concentration ratio of 3:1 (Cu(II)/As(III)). This loss was mitigated by passage of the solution through a Chelex 100 cation exchange resin. After passage, only a 5% As stripping current response loss was seen. The effect of organic matter on the Au-coated diamond electrode response for As(III) was also evaluated. Humic acid at a 5 ppm concentration caused only a 9% decrease in the As stripping peak charge for Au-coated diamond. By comparison, a 50% response decrease was observed for Au foil. Clearly, the chemical properties of the diamond surface in the vicinity of the metal deposits inhibit molecular adsorption on at least some of the Au surface. The method provided reproducible and accurate results for total inorganic arsenic in two contaminated water samples provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The total inorganic As concentration in the two samples, quantified by the standard addition method, was 23.2+/-2.9 ppb for UV plant influent water and 16.4+/-0.9 ppb for Well 119 water (n=4). These values differed from the specified concentrations by less than 4%.

  3. Total inorganic arsenic detection in real water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a gold-coated diamond thin-film electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yang; Swain, Greg M.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate method for total inorganic arsenic determination in real water samples was developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and a Au-coated boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode. Keys to the method are the use of a conducting diamond platform and solid phase extraction for sample preparation. In the method, the As(III) present in the sample is first detected by DPASV. The As(V) present is then reduced to As(III) by reaction with Na 2 SO 3 and this is followed by a second detection of As(III) by DPASV. Interfering metal ions (e.g., Cu(II)) that cause decreased electrode response sensitivity for arsenic in real samples are removed by solid phase extraction as part of the sample preparation. For example, Cu(II) caused a 30% decrease in the As stripping peak current at a solution concentration ratio of 3:1 (Cu(II)/As(III)). This loss was mitigated by passage of the solution through a Chelex 100 cation exchange resin. After passage, only a 5% As stripping current response loss was seen. The effect of organic matter on the Au-coated diamond electrode response for As(III) was also evaluated. Humic acid at a 5 ppm concentration caused only a 9% decrease in the As stripping peak charge for Au-coated diamond. By comparison, a 50% response decrease was observed for Au foil. Clearly, the chemical properties of the diamond surface in the vicinity of the metal deposits inhibit molecular adsorption on at least some of the Au surface. The method provided reproducible and accurate results for total inorganic arsenic in two contaminated water samples provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The total inorganic As concentration in the two samples, quantified by the standard addition method, was 23.2 ± 2.9 ppb for UV plant influent water and 16.4 ± 0.9 ppb for Well 119 water (n = 4). These values differed from the specified concentrations by less than 4%

  4. Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and ultrasound extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Marco, L.M.; Arroyo, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Rivas, R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical characterization of onion cultivar samples is an important tool for the enhancement of their productivity due to the fact that chemical composition is closed related to the quality of the products. A new sample preparation procedure for elemental characterization is proposed, involving the acid extraction of the analytes from crude samples by means of an ultrasonic bath, avoiding the required digestion of samples in vegetable tissue analysis. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the elements Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The procedure was compared with the wet ashing and dry ashing procedures for all the elements using multivariate analysis and the Scheffe test. The technique of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was employed for comparison purposes and accuracy evaluation of the proposed analysis method. A good agreement between the two techniques was found when using the dry ashing and ultrasound leaching procedures. The levels of each element found for representative samples of two onion cultivars (Yellow Granex PRR 502 and 438 Granex) were also compared by the same method. Levels of K, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the 438 Granex cultivar, while levels of Ca, Fe and Cu were significantly higher in the Yellow Granex PRR 502 cultivar

  5. Water contents of samples from the Nevada Test Site: total, free (natural state to 1050C), and more tightly bonded (105 to 7000C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1981-05-01

    To help confirm correct functioning of an epithermal neutron sonde, we measured tightly bonded water content of selected Nevada Test Site (NTS) drill holes. Tuff and alluvium samples were dried overnight at 105 0 C. The samples were then heated for 45 min in a split tube furnace at 700 0 C. The water that came off due to this heating was collected and the amount recorded. The error in this procedure is +- 0.59 wt %. Total water can be calculated for samples from analyses of free and tightly bonded water contents. The maximum error in this calculation is equivalent to the error in determining the more tightly bonded water. Average total water content values have been assigned to geologic units. These values, in weight fraction, are alluvium 0.14 +- .05 and tuff 0.19 +- .04. Further division of the tuff gives values of Rainier Mesa 0.15 +- .01, Paintbrush 0.18 +- .03, Tunnel Beds 0.20 +- .04, and Grouse Canyon 0.29 +- .02. Statistically significant differences occur between the tuff and alluvium. Within the tuffs, these differences also occur between Grouse Canyon, Rainier Mesa, and Paintbrush/Tunnel Beds. Paintbrush and Tunnel Beds cannot be distinguished by this method

  6. Label-Free Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteomes Using the Multienzyme Digestion-Filter Aided Sample Preparation (MED-FASP) and "Total Protein Approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R

    2017-01-01

    Determination of proteome composition and measuring of changes in protein titers provide important information with a substantial value for studying mitochondria.This chapter describes a workflow for the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial proteome with a focus on sample preparation and quantitative analysis of the data. The workflow involves the multienzyme digestion-filter aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) protocol enabling efficient extraction of proteins and high rate of protein-to-peptide conversion. Consecutive protein digestion with Lys C and trypsin enables generation of peptide fractions with minimal overlap, largely increases the number of identified proteins, and extends their sequence coverage. Abundances of proteins identified by multiple peptides can be assessed by the "Total Protein Approach."

  7. Chemometrics methods for the investigation of methylmercury and total mercury contamination in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawei, Wang; Lina, Liang; Jianbo, Shi; Guibin, Jiang

    2005-06-01

    The development and application of chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation analysis for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mecury (HgT) in gastropod and bivalve species collected from eight coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea are described. HgT is directly determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), while MeHg is measured by a laboratory established high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry system (HPLC-AFS). One-way ANOVA and cluster analysis indicated that the bioaccumulation of Rap to accumulate Hg was significantly (P<0.05) different from other mollusks. Correlation analysis shows that there is linear relationship between MeHg and HgT in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea, while in mollusks samples collected from Hongqiao market in Beijing City, there is not any linear relationship.

  8. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  9. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100 mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL-1 with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL-1 were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  10. The Portuguese language version of social phobia and Anxiety Inventory: analysis of items and internal consistency in a Brazilian sample of 1,014 undergraduate students Versão para o português do Inventário de Fobia Social e Ansiedade: análise de itens e consistência interna numa amostra de 1.014 estudantes universitários brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Picon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Theoretical and empirical analysis of items and internal consistency of the Portuguese-language version of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-Portuguese. METHODS: Social phobia experts conducted a 45-item content analysis of the SPAI-Portuguese administered to a sample of 1,014 university students. Item discrimination was evaluated by Student's t test; interitem, mean and item-to-total correlations, by Pearson coefficient; reliability was estimated by Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: There was 100% agreement among experts concerning the 45 items. On the SPAI-Portuguese 43 items were discriminative (p OBJETIVO: Análise teórica e empírica dos itens e da consistência interna da versão em português do Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-Português e subescalas. MÉTODOS: Peritos em fobia social conduziram análise de conteúdo dos 45 itens do SPAI-Português, administrado a 1.014 estudantes universitários. A discriminação dos itens foi avaliada por teste t de Student; correlações interitens, médias e item/total por coeficientes de Pearson; fidedignidade pelo alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: Concordância plena entre os peritos para os 45 itens. SPAI-Português com 43 itens discriminativos (p < 0,05. Alguns itens, entre as subescalas, apresentaram coeficientes abaixo de 0,2. As médias das correlações interitens foram: 0,41 na subescala fobia social; 0,32 na subescala agorafobia; e 0,32 no SPAI-Português. As correlações item/total foram maiores do que 0,3 (p < 0,001. Alfas de Cronbach foram: 0,95 no SPAI-Português; 0,96 na subescala de fobia social; 0,85 na subescala de agorafobia. CONCLUSÃO: O conteúdo dos itens foi relacionado aos constructos subjacentes (agorafobia e fobia social, com discriminabilidade de 43 itens do SPAI-Português. As correlações médias interitens e alfas revelaram consistência interna de SPAI-Português e subescalas, além de multidimensionalidade das mesmas. Nenhum item foi suprimido

  11. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with digital image colorimetric analysis for detection of total iron in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Guorong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Shengguo

    2017-09-01

    A simple and low cost assay for total iron in various samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with digital scanning image analysis was proposed. Orthogonal experiment design was utilized to optimize the amount of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, O-phenanthroline concentration and buffer pH. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.047-1.0μgmL -1 (R 2 >0.99) of iron. The limit of detection (LOD) for iron was 14.1μgL -1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 46.5μgL -1 . The relative standard deviations for seven replicate determinations of 0.5μgmL -1 of iron was 3.75%. The method was successfully applied for analysis of total iron in water and food samples without using any spectral instrument and it could have a potential industrial impact in developing fast and portable devices to analyze the iron content in water and certain foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  13. Following changes in total number of mesophilic bacteria and torry meter readings in samples of fresh trout packaged in modified atmosphere and vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, food must be healthy, subjected to minimal processing, and attractively packaged, as the expectations of consumers are ever higher. Consumers are highly sensitive to the use of additives in the food industry. There is a constant demand for fresh food that does not contain any unnecessarily added chemicals. In order to prevent spoilage of food items, an efficient and intelligent concept for preserving freshness has been developed - packaging in a modified atmosphere. Changes in a certain composition of the atmosphere within the packaging have resulted in a longer shelf life and a satisfactory quality of the food articles. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known and has been applied in practice in the food processing industry for more than one century. The objective of these investigations was to determine the growth of the total number of mesophilic bacteria in the meat of trout packaged in a vacuum and a modified atmosphere and torry meter reading results due to changes in the dielectric characteristics of the skin that take place during the period of storage of the fresh fish. California trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with an average weight of 293 g was used for the experimental part of the investigations. Four groups of fish samples were set up for the research. The first three groups of samples were packaged in a modified atmosphere with a different ratio of gases: Group I - 60%CO2+40%N2; Group II - 40%CO2+60%N2; Group III - 90%CO2+10%N2. Group IV comprised samples packaged in a vacuum. Investigations were carried out on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The total number of mesophilic bacteria in the examined samples was determined according to the method ISO 4833. Measurements of changes in the dielectric characteristics of the fish skin were performed using a torry meter apparatus (The Torry Fish Freshness Meter. The results have shown that packaging of fresh trout in a modified atmosphere (60% CO2 + 40% N2 and 40% CO2 + 60% N2

  14. A sensitive method for determining total vanadium in water samples using colorimetric-solid-phase extraction-fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filik, Hayati; Yanaz, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    A selective colorimetric-solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) method for the determination of total vanadium in water samples was developed. This method introduced a new variation of C-SPE. The colour reaction is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) ternary complex formed with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in the presence hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this technique, the target analytes in samples are extracted onto solid matrix loaded with a colorimetric reagent and then quantified directly on the adsorbent surface by using a miniature fiber optic reflectance spectrometer. The measurements were carried out at a wavelength of 589.4 nm since it yielded the largest divergence different in reflectance spectra before and after reaction with the vanadium. The overall time required for the C-SPE procedure was ∼20 min. The amount of concentrated V is then determined in a few seconds by using miniature reflectance spectrometer. At the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was constructed, revealing a linear range of 0.05-0.52 mg L -1 and a detection limit as low as 0.01 mg L -1 while the RSD lower than 2.8%. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a certified reference water samples (TMDA) were analysed and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water, seawater samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 98-102%.

  15. Multielement analysis of environmental samples by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence sprectrometry, neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.

    1986-01-01

    In environmental research and protection trace elements have to be determined over a wide range of atomic number, down to very low concentrations, and in quite different matrices. This challenge requires the availability of complementary analytical methods characterized by a high detection power and few sources of systematic errors. Besides, the capacity of multielement detection is often desired since it facilitates the talking of many problems in which numerous trace elements are of direct concern. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, in principle fulfill these requirements quite well. However, each method has its domain, and the application to certain sample species may be less promising. Under this aspect, the paper summarizes some recent developments and investigations, including intercomparisons as far as possible. Various matrices are considered : rainwater and airborne particulates, soil samples, river sediments and suspended particulate matter, river water filtrates, ozean water, and organic matrices. Capabilities and limitations are discussed. Sample preparation techniques are described if they are new or essential for achieving the results given. (orig.) [de

  16. Quantitative determination of iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel in electronic waste samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaseer, A. S.; Musbah, A. S; Ammar, M. M. G.; Salah, M. A.; Aisha, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with microwave assisted extraction technique was used for the analysis of twenty electronic waste samples. The analysis was limited to the printed circuit boards of electronic devices. Iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel were quantitatively determined in the samples. The samples were carefully milled to fine powder and 50mg was digested by acid using microwave digestion procedure. The digested samples solution was spread together with gallium as internal standard on the reflection disk and analyzed. The results showed that the cassette recorder boards contain the highest concentration of iron, lead and nickel. The average concentrations of these metals were 78, 73 and 71g/Kg respectively. Computer boards contained the highest copper average concentration 39g/Kg. the highest chromium average concentration 3.6 g/Kg was in mobile phone boards. Measurements were made using PicoTAX portable x-ray device. the instrument was used for quantitative multi-element analysis. An air cooled x-ray tube (40KV, 1 mA) with Mo target and Be window was used as x-ray source. The optics of the device was a multilayer Ni/C, 17.5 keV, 80% reflectivity provides analysis of elements from Si to Zr (K series) and Rh to U (L series). A Si PIN-diode detector (7mm"2, 195eV) was used for the elements detection. In this study heavy metals average concentration in electronic circuit boards in the in the order of iron (35.25g/kg), copper (21.14g/Kg), lead (16.59g/Kg), nickel (16.01g/Kg) and chromium (1.07g/Kg).(author)

  17. Particle size distribution and total solids suspension in samples monitoring of capturing water for optimization of water injection filtration system; Monitoramento da quantidade de particulas e do total de solidos em suspensao em amostras de agua de captacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhao, Adriano Gorga; Seno, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alice [3M do Brasil, Sumare, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is a wide variation in the amount of particulate material in sea water by a great number of reasons. The most well-known contaminant is the organic material derived from seaweed or fish spawning causing seasonally sensitive variations in the water quality treated and injected for enhance oil recovery. This paper presents the results of one year the water monitoring form water sampled at 30 meters deep in the Roncador field, which is located 125 km from the coast with a depth of 1290 meters. It was observed the water seasonal variation with peaks in summer and winter. The monitoring was done through particle counting and distribution analysis and total solids in suspension. It was noted that even in peak with largest amount of particles and greater quantity of solid in suspension the particles had remained concentrated in the range bellow 25 {mu}m. For that reason the life of final filter elements may vary and pre-filters are many times ineffective and sometimes even bypassed due to frequent clogging and not to do the protecting job of the final filter. (author)

  18. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  19. Chemometrics methods for the investigation of methylmercury and total mercury contamination in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yawei; Liang Lina; Shi Jianbo; Jiang Guibin

    2005-01-01

    The development and application of chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation analysis for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (HgT) in gastropod and bivalve species collected from eight coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea are described. HgT is directly determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), while MeHg is measured by a laboratory established high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry system (HPLC-AFS). One-way ANOVA and cluster analysis indicated that the bioaccumulation of Rap to accumulate Hg was significantly (P<0.05) different from other mollusks. Correlation analysis shows that there is linear relationship between MeHg and HgT in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea, while in mollusks samples collected from Hongqiao market in Beijing City, there is not any linear relationship. - Rapana venosa might be used as a potential biomonitor for Hg pollution in the Bohai Sea, China

  20. Speciation of Mn(II), Mn(VII) and total manganese in water and food samples by coprecipitation-atomic absorption spectrometry combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    A speciation procedure based on the coprecipitation of manganese(II) with zirconium(IV) hydroxide has been developed for the investigation of levels of manganese species. The determination of manganese levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Total manganese was determined after the reduction of Mn(VII) to Mn(II) by ascorbic acid. The analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc., were investigated for the quantitative recoveries of manganese(II). The effects of matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries for manganese(II) were in the range of 95-98%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 50. The detection limit for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n = 21) was 0.75 μg L -1 for Mn(II). The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 7%. The validation of the presented procedure was performed by analysis of certified reference material having different matrices, NIST SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and NIST SRM 1568a (Rice Flour). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples.

  1. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  2. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and consequences of public support for policies.

  3. Feasibility, internal consistency and covariates of TICS-m (telephone interview for cognitive status-modified) in a population-based sample: findings from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Me; Emeny, Rt; Bickel, H; Linkohr, B; Ladwig, Kh

    2013-09-01

    Test the feasibility of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) as a screening tool to detect cognitive impairment in a population-based sample of older subjects. Data were collected from 3,578 participants, age 65-94 years, of the KORA-Age study. We used analysis of covariance to test for significant sex, age and educational differences in raw TICS-m scores. Internal consistency was analysed by assessing Cronbach's alpha. Correction for education years was undertaken, and participants were divided in three subgroups following validated cut-offs. Finally, a logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of sex on cognition subgroups. Internal consistency of the TICS-m was 0.78. Study participants needed approximately 5.4 min to complete the interview. Lower raw TICS-m scores were associated with male sex, older age and lower education (all p education years, 2,851 (79%) had a non-impaired cognitive status (score >31). Male sex was independently associated with having a score equal to or below 27 and 31 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, respectively). The TICS-m is a feasible questionnaire for community-dwelling older adults with normal cognitive function or moderate cognitive impairment. Lower cognitive performance was associated with being a man, being older, and having fewer years of formal education. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dose optimization with first-order total-variation minimization for dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hojin; Li Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Goldstein, Thomas; Boyd, Stephen; Candes, Emmanuel; Xing Lei [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ehwa University, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States); Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5304 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: A new treatment scheme coined as dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT) has recently been proposed to bridge the gap between IMRT and VMAT. By increasing the angular sampling of radiation beams while eliminating dispensable segments of the incident fields, DASSIM-RT is capable of providing improved conformity in dose distributions while maintaining high delivery efficiency. The fact that DASSIM-RT utilizes a large number of incident beams represents a major computational challenge for the clinical applications of this powerful treatment scheme. The purpose of this work is to provide a practical solution to the DASSIM-RT inverse planning problem. Methods: The inverse planning problem is formulated as a fluence-map optimization problem with total-variation (TV) minimization. A newly released L1-solver, template for first-order conic solver (TFOCS), was adopted in this work. TFOCS achieves faster convergence with less memory usage as compared with conventional quadratic programming (QP) for the TV form through the effective use of conic forms, dual-variable updates, and optimal first-order approaches. As such, it is tailored to specifically address the computational challenges of large-scale optimization in DASSIM-RT inverse planning. Two clinical cases (a prostate and a head and neck case) are used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed planning technique. DASSIM-RT plans with 15 and 30 beams are compared with conventional IMRT plans with 7 beams in terms of plan quality and delivery efficiency, which are quantified by conformation number (CN), the total number of segments and modulation index, respectively. For optimization efficiency, the QP-based approach was compared with the proposed algorithm for the DASSIM-RT plans with 15 beams for both cases. Results: Plan quality improves with an increasing number of incident beams, while the total number of segments is maintained to be about the

  5. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  6. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  7. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  8. Total- and monomethyl-mercury and major ions in coastal California fog water: Results from two years of sampling on land and at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Weiss-Penzias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine fog water samples were collected over two summers (2014–2015 with active strand collectors (CASCC at eight coastal sites from Humboldt to Monterey counties in California, USA, and on four ocean cruises along the California coastline in order to investigate mercury (Hg cycling at the ocean-atmosphere-land interface. The mean concentration of monomethylmercury (MMHg in fog water across terrestrial sites for both years was 1.6 ± 1.9 ng L-1 (<0.01–10.4 ng L-1, N = 149, which corresponds to 5.7% (2.0–10.8% of total Hg (HgT in fog. Rain water samples from three sites had mean MMHg concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.12 ng L-1 (N = 5 corresponding to 1.4% of HgT. Fog water samples collected at sea had MMHg concentrations of 0.08 ± 0.15 ng L-1 (N = 14 corresponding to 0.4% of HgT. Significantly higher MMHg concentrations in fog were observed at terrestrial sites next to the ocean relative to a site 40 kilometers inland, and the mean difference was 1.6 ng L-1. Using a rate constant for photo-demethylation of MMHg of -0.022 h-1 based on previous demethylation experiments and a coastal-inland fog transport time of 12 hours, a mean difference of only 0.5 ng L-1 of MMHg was predicted between coastal and inland sites, indicating other unknown source and/or sink pathways are important for MMHg in fog. Fog water deposition to a standard passive 1.00 m2 fog collector at six terrestrial sites averaged 0.10 ± 0.07 L m-2 d-1, which was ∼2% of typical rainwater deposition in this area. Mean air-surface fog water fluxes of MMHg and HgT were then calculated to be 34 ± 40 ng m-2 y-1 and 546 ± 581 ng m-2 y-1, respectively. These correspond to 33% and 13% of the rain fluxes, respectively.

  9. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  10. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  11. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  12. Risk of venous thromboembolism after total hip and knee replacement in older adults with comorbidity and co-occurring comorbidities in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Jeffrey N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism is a common, fatal, and costly injury which complicates major surgery in older adults. The American College of Chest Physicians recommends high potency prophylaxis regimens for individuals undergoing total hip or knee replacement (THR or TKR, but surgeons are reluctant to prescribe them due to fear of excess bleeding. Identifying a high risk cohort such as older adults with comorbidities and co-occurring comorbidities who might benefit most from high potency prophylaxis would improve how we currently perform preoperative assessment. Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified older adults who underwent THR or TKR in the U.S. between 2003 and 2006. Our outcome was VTE, including any pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombosis. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the effects of comorbidities on VTE occurrence. Comorbidities under consideration included coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, diabetes, and cerebrovascular disease. We also examined the impact of co-occurring comorbidities on VTE rates. Results CHF increased odds of VTE in both the THR cohort (OR = 3.08 95% CI 2.05-4.65 and TKR cohort (OR = 2.47 95% CI 1.95-3.14. COPD led to a 50% increase in odds in the TKR cohort (OR = 1.49 95% CI 1.31-1.70. The data did not support synergistic effect of co-occurring comorbidities with respect to VTE occurrence. Conclusions Older adults with CHF undergoing THR or TKR and with COPD undergoing TKR are at increased risk of VTE. If confirmed in other datasets, these older adults may benefit from higher potency prophylaxis.

  13. Use of X-ray fluorescence with energy dispersion, and the total reflexions in the analysis of environmental samples; Uso da fluorescencia de raios X com dispersao de energia e da reflexao total na analise de amostras ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simabuco, Silvana Moreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This communication reports the present status of the research on the use of wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and radioisotopic excitation for quantitative analysis of environmental samples. Simultaneous instrumental determination of various element concentration have been performed, particularly Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Zr and Nb existent in soils with different textures. Also, quantitative analysis has been performed on sediment samples, based on the fundamental parameters for quantification of Z >= 13 elements, and the coherent and incoherent scattered excitation radiation for quantification of the matrix (Z < 13) light fraction 16 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  15. Laboratory testing of rock and salt samples for determination of specific gravity and total porosity of the Zeeck No. 1 well (PD-7), Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report contains the specific gravity and total porosity determinations for rock and salt samples from Zeeck No. 1 Well of the Permian Basin. The laboratory test samples were measured for water content, apparent specific gravity, specific gravity of solids, total porosity and effective porosity. Specimen descriptions including specimen number, formation/group, and lithologic description as well as typical data sheets are included in the appendices. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  16. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  17. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  19. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z d = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z s = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r -γ ' ), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ * = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff , γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M * ,R eff with the evolution of the R eff -M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work

  20. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  1. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  2. FACE Analysis as a Fast and Reliable Methodology to Monitor the Sulfation and Total Amount of Chondroitin Sulfate in Biological Samples of Clinical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Karousou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs due to their hydrophilic character and high anionic charge densities play important roles in various (pathophysiological processes. The identification and quantification of GAGs in biological samples and tissues could be useful prognostic and diagnostic tools in pathological conditions. Despite the noteworthy progress in the development of sensitive and accurate methodologies for the determination of GAGs, there is a significant lack in methodologies regarding sample preparation and reliable fast analysis methods enabling the simultaneous analysis of several biological samples. In this report, developed protocols for the isolation of GAGs in biological samples were applied to analyze various sulfated chondroitin sulfate- and hyaluronan-derived disaccharides using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE. Applications to biologic samples of clinical importance include blood serum, lens capsule tissue and urine. The sample preparation protocol followed by FACE analysis allows quantification with an optimal linearity over the concentration range 1.0–220.0 µg/mL, affording a limit of quantitation of 50 ng of disaccharides. Validation of FACE results was performed by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography techniques.

  3. Importance of salt in the production matrix of the efficiency curve for the determination of the total alpha activity in water samples; Importancia de la matriz salina en la fabricacion de la curva de eficiencia para la determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of total alpha activity by the evaporation method allows obtaining, from a quick and inexpensive technique, the order of magnitude of the total activity of all alpha emitters present in a sample of water. This study shows that the detection efficiency curve varies significantly depending on the sodium salt is used to manufacture calibration and/or reference radionuclide used. (Author)

  4. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Cristina

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC) 3 ) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing 197 Hg and 203 Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of 75 Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of 203 Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury levels obtained in this

  5. Value of a simple technique for the measurement of total renal function and each kidney functions without requiring blood or urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, A.; Chachati, A.; Godon, J.P.; Rigo, P.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of renal uptake of 99m Tc DTPA and of 131 I Hippuran (as a percentage of the administred dose) at a time interval 1-3 minutes after tracer injection, is a rapid, accurate method for the measurement of total renal function and each kidney functions. Its clinical validity has been confirmed [fr

  6. The role of eating frequency on total energy intake and diet quality in a low-income, racially diverse sample of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E Whitney; Jacques, Paul F; Dallal, Gerard E; Sacheck, Jennifer; Must, Aviva

    2015-02-01

    The relationship of meal and snacking patterns with overall dietary intake and relative weight in children is unclear. The current study was done to examine how eating, snack and meal frequencies relate to total energy intake and diet quality. The cross-sectional associations of eating, meal and snack frequencies with total energy intake and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), were examined in separate multivariable mixed models. Differences were examined between elementary school-age participants (9-11 years) and adolescents (12-15 years). Two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls were collected from children attending four schools in the greater Boston area, MA, USA. One hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren, aged 9-15 years. Overall, 82% of participants consumed three daily meals. Eating, meal and snack frequencies were statistically significantly and positively associated with total energy intake. Each additional reported meal and snack was associated with an 18·5% and a 9·4% increase in total energy intake, respectively (Pquality differed by age category. In elementary school-age participants, total eating occasions and snacks increased HEI-2005 score. In adolescents, each additional meal increased HEI-2005 score by 5·40 points (P=0·01), whereas each additional snack decreased HEI-2005 score by 2·73 points (P=0·006). Findings suggest that snacking increases energy intake in schoolchildren. Snacking is associated with better diet quality in elementary school-age children and lower diet quality in adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of snacking in excess weight gain in children and adolescents.

  7. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Figueiredo, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations...... of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota....... The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities...

  8. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae: 17. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activity of total sterols obtained from frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    . The extracts from June to October months showed antibacterial activity while the samples from November to January and May did not show any activity over the test bacteria Proteus vulgaris a gram-negative organism which has shown high sensitivity towards...

  9. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  10. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  13. Extraction of Total DNA and RNA from Marine Filter Samples and Generation of a cDNA as Universal Template for Marker Gene Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dominik; Wemheuer, Franziska; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in marine ecosystem processes. Although the number of studies targeting marker genes such as the 16S rRNA gene has been increased in the last few years, the vast majority of marine diversity is rather unexplored. Moreover, most studies focused on the entire bacterial community and thus disregarded active microbial community players. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from marine water samples and for the generation of cDNA from the isolated RNA which can be used as a universal template in various marker gene studies.

  14. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  15. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P.

    2004-01-01

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4±1.7 μg g -1 and 184.6±26.9 μg g -1 from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels

  16. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4{+-}1.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 184.6{+-}26.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels.

  17. Determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples by flow injection-cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium borohydride as the sole reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Segade, Susana; Tyson, Julian F.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, fast, precise and accurate method to determine inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples was developed. The optimized flow-injection mercury system permitted the separate determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. Inorganic mercury was selectively determined after reduction with 10 -4 % w/v sodium borohydride, while total mercury was determined after reduction with 0.75% w/v sodium borohydride. The calibration graphs were linear up to 30 ng ml -1 . The detection limits of the method based on three times the standard deviation of the blank were 24 and 3.9 ng l -1 for total mercury and inorganic mercury determination, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 mercury standard. As a means of checking method performance, deionized water and pond water samples were spiked with methylmercury and inorganic mercury; quantitative recovery for total mercury and inorganic mercury was obtained. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing alkaline and acid extracts of five biological and sediment reference materials. Microwave-assisted extraction procedures resulted in higher concentrations of recovered mercury species, lower matrix interference with mercury determination and less time involved in sample treatment than conventional extraction procedures. The standard addition method was only needed for calibration when biological samples were analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 1.2-19 and 6.6-18 ng g -1 in biological and sediment samples for inorganic mercury and total mercury determination, respectively

  18. A study of total measurement error in tomographic gamma scanning to assay nuclear material with emphasis on a bias issue for low-activity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Field experience with the tomographic gamma scanner to assay nuclear material suggests that the analysis techniques can significantly impact the assay uncertainty. For example, currently implemented image reconstruction methods exhibit a positive bias for low-activity samples. Preliminary studies indicate that bias reduction could be achieved at the expense of increased random error variance. In this paper, the authors examine three possible bias sources: (1) measurement error in the estimated transmission matrix, (2) the positivity constraint on the estimated mass of nuclear material, and (3) improper treatment of the measurement error structure. The authors present results from many small-scale simulation studies to examine this bias/variance tradeoff for a few image reconstruction methods in the presence of the three possible bias sources

  19. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of total mercury in urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal applied to a variety of products and processes, representing a risk to the health of occupationally or accidentally exposed subjects. Dental amalgam is a restorative material composed of metallic mercury, which use has been widely debated in the last decades. Due to the dubiety of the studies concerning dental amalgam, many efforts concerning this issue have been conducted. The Tropical Medicine Foundation (Tocantins, Brazil) has recently initiated a study to evaluate the environmental and occupational levels of exposure to mercury in dentistry attendants at public consulting rooms in the city of Araguaina (TO). In collaboration with this study, the laboratory of analysis at IPEN's Chemistry and Environment Center is undertaking the analysis of mercury levels in exposed subjects' urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. This analysis requires the definition of a methodology capable of generating reliable results. Such methodology can only be implemented after a rigorous validation procedure. As part of this work, a series of tests were conducted in order to confirm the suitability of the selected methodology and to assert that the laboratory addresses all requirements needed for a successful implementation of the methodology. The following parameters were considered in order to test the method's performance: detection and quantitation limits, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The assays were carried out with certified reference material, which assures the traceability of the results. Taking into account the estimated parameters, the method can be considered suitable for the afore mentioned purpose. The mercury concentration found for the reference material was of (95,12 +- 11,70)mug.L -1 with a recovery rate of 97%. The method was also applied to 39 urine samples, six of which (15%) showing urinary mercury levels above the normal limit of 10μg.L -1 . The obtained results fall into a

  20. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  1. Heritability, assortative mating and gender differences in violent crime: results from a total population sample using twin, adoption, and sibling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Pawitan, Yudi; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Research addressing genetic and environmental determinants to antisocial behaviour suggests substantial variability across studies. Likewise, evidence for etiologic gender differences is mixed, and estimates might be biased due to assortative mating. We used longitudinal Swedish total population registers to estimate the heritability of objectively measured violent offending (convictions) in classic twin (N = 36,877 pairs), adoptee-parent (N = 5,068 pairs), adoptee-sibling (N = 10,610 pairs), and sibling designs (N = 1,521,066 pairs). Type and degree of assortative mating were calculated from comparisons between spouses of siblings and half-siblings, and across consecutive spouses. Heritability estimates for the liability of violent offending agreed with previously reported heritability for self-reported antisocial behaviour. While the sibling model yielded estimates similar to the twin model (A ≈ 55%, C ≈ 13%), adoptee-models appeared to underestimate familial effects (A ≈ 20-30%, C ≈ 0%). Assortative mating was moderate to strong (r (spouse) = 0.4), appeared to result from both phenotypic assortment and social homogamy, but had only minor effect on variance components. Finally, we found significant gender differences in the etiology of violent crime.

  2. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  3. Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Andrew W.; McAulay, Edith A.J.; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David; Lynch, Thomas P.; Lancaster, J. Steven; Wright, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High efficiency thermal vaporiser designed and used for on-line reaction monitoring. • Concentration profiles of all reactants and products obtained from mass spectra. • By-product formed from the presence of an impurity detected by MS but not MIR. • Mass spectrometry can detect trace and bulk components unlike molecular spectrometry. - Abstract: A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150 mL flask and a 1 L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0 mL min −1 , respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40 °C and 20 °C, respectively, at the 1 L scale. Reactions in the 1 L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2 min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate

  4. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  5. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  6. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  7. Hepatitis B virus DNA quantification with the three-in-one (3io) method allows accurate single-step differentiation of total HBV DNA and cccDNA in biopsy-size liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Andrzej; Tien Sy, Bui; Zacher, Behrend Johan; Rogalska-Taranta, Magdalena; Manns, Michael Peter; Bock, Claus Thomas; Wursthorn, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates via reverse transcription converting its partially double stranded genome into the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The long-lasting cccDNA serves as a replication intermediate in the nuclei of hepatocytes. It is an excellent, though evasive, parameter for monitoring the course of liver disease and treatment efficiency. To develop and test a new approach for HBV DNA quantification in serum and small-size liver samples. The p3io plasmid contains an HBV fragment and human β-actin gene (hACTB) as a standard. Respective TaqMan probes were labeled with different fluorescent dyes. A triplex real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of total HBV DNA, cccDNA and hACTB could be established. Three-in-one method allows simultaneous analysis of 3 targets with a lower limit of quantification of 48 copies per 20 μl PCR reaction and a wide range of linearity (R(2)>0.99, pDNA samples from HBV infected patients. Total HBV DNA and cccDNA could be quantified in 32 and 22 of 33 FFPE preserved liver specimens, respectively. Total HBV DNA concentrations quantified by the 3io method remained comparable with Cobas TaqMan HBV Test v2.0. The three-in-one protocol allows the single step quantification of viral DNA in samples from different sources. Therefore lower sample input, faster data acquisition, a lowered error and significantly lower costs are the advantages of the method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Total Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 2007

    2007-01-01

    For 25 years, "American School & University" has been publishing a special issue dedicated to the best in education design. Although design has changed dramatically over the years, one will find that the jury criteria for award-winning projects has remained consistent. The first jury was looking for technical innovation, and 1986's…

  9. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  11. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  12. Consistency in color parameters of a commonly used shade guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkandi, Esam

    2010-01-01

    The use of shade guides to assess the color of natural teeth subjectively remains one of the most common means for dental shade assessment. Any variation in the color parameters of the different shade guides may lead to significant clinical implications. Particularly, since the communication between the clinic and the dental laboratory is based on using the shade guide designation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of the L∗a∗b∗ color parameters of a sample of a commonly used shade guide. The color parameters of a total of 100 VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide (VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany(were measured using a X-Rite ColorEye 7000A Spectrophotometer (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA). Each shade guide consists of 16 tabs with different designations. Each shade tab was measured five times and the average values were calculated. The ΔE between the average L∗a∗b∗ value for each shade tab and the average of the 100 shade tabs of the same designation was calculated. Using the Student t-test analysis, no significant differences were found among the measured sample. There is a high consistency level in terms of color parameters of the measured VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide sample tested.

  13. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  14. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  15. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  16. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  17. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  18. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  19. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  20. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  1. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  2. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  3. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  4. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  5. A new vapor generation system for mercury species based on the UV irradiation of mercaptoethanol used in the determination of total and methyl mercury in environmental and biological samples by atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yanmin; Qiu, Jianhua; Yang, Limin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Xiamen (China); Wang, Qiuquan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Xiamen (China); Xiamen University, State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen (China)

    2007-06-15

    A new vapor generation system for mercury (Hg) species based on the irradiation of mercaptoethanol (ME) with UV was developed to provide an effective sample introduction unit for atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Preliminary investigations of the mechanism of this novel vapor generation system were based on GC-MS and FT-IR studies. Under optimum conditions, the limits of determination for inorganic divalence mercury and methyl mercury were 60 and 50 pg mL{sup -1}, respectively. Certified reference materials (BCR 463 tuna fish and BCR 580 estuarine sediment) were used to validate this new method, and the results agreed well with certified values. This new system provides an attractive alternative method of chemical vapor generation (CVG) of mercury species compared to other developed CVG systems (for example, the traditional KBH{sub 4}/NaOH-acid system). To our knowledge, this is the first systematic report on UV/ME-based Hg species vapor generation and the determination of total and methyl Hg in environmental and biological samples using UV/ME-AFS. (orig.)

  6. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  7. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  8. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  9. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  10. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  11. The Evaluation of Teachers' Job Performance Based on Total Quality Management (TQM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi, Nayereh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate teachers' job performance based on total quality management (TQM) model. This was a descriptive survey study. The target population consisted of all primary school teachers in Karaj (N = 2917). Using Cochran formula and simple random sampling, 340 participants were selected as sample. A total quality management…

  12. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  13. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  14. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  15. Consistency Analysis of Nearest Subspace Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Nearest subspace classifier (NSS) finds an estimation of the underlying subspace within each class and assigns data points to the class that corresponds to its nearest subspace. This paper mainly studies how well NSS can be generalized to new samples. It is proved that NSS is strongly consistent under certain assumptions. For completeness, NSS is evaluated through experiments on various simulated and real data sets, in comparison with some other linear model based classifiers. It is also ...

  16. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil; Aplicacao do metodo de ativacao neutronica a determinacao do mercurio total e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de solo e sedimento da Serra do Navio e Bacia do Rio Vila Nova, Amapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cristina

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC){sub 3}) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing {sup 197}Hg and {sup 203}Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of {sup 75}Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of {sup 203}Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury

  17. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  18. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  19. Changes in pectins and product consistency during the concentration of tomato juice to paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthon, Gordon E; Diaz, Jerome V; Barrett, Diane M

    2008-08-27

    Concentrating tomato juice to paste during the tomato season allows for preservation and long-term storage, but subsequent dilution for formulation of value-added products is known to result in a loss of consistency. To understand the reasons for this, samples of unconcentrated juice, processing intermediates, and concentrated paste were collected from an industrial processing plant during normal commercial production. All samples were diluted with water to 5 degrees Brix and then analyzed for consistency and pectin content. Whole juice consistency, measured with a Bostwick consistometer, decreased through the course of juice concentration, with the largest change occurring early in the process, as the juice was concentrated from 5 to 10 degrees Brix. This decrease in consistency occurred during the production of paste from both hot- and cold-break juices. The change in Bostwick value was correlated with a decrease in the precipitate weight ratio. The loss of consistency during commercial processing was not the direct result of water removal because a sample of this same 5 degrees Brix juice could be concentrated 2-fold in a vacuum oven and then diluted back to 5 degrees Brix with no change in consistency or precipitate ratio. Total pectin content did not change as the juice was concentrated to paste, but the proportion of the total pectin that was water soluble increased. The greatest increases in pectin solubility occurred during the hot break and late in the process where the evaporator temperature was the highest.

  20. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  1. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable....

  2. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  3. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    self-consistency condition derives a risk-factor decomposition in the multi-factor case which is identical to the principal component analysis (PCA), thus providing a direct link between model-driven and data-driven constructions of risk factors. This correspondence shows that PCA will therefore suffer from the same limitations as the CAPM and its multi-factor generalization, namely lack of out-of-sample explanatory power and predictability. In the multi-period context, the self-consistency conditions force the betas to be time-dependent with specific constraints.

  4. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  5. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  6. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship HI'IALAKAI and NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2012-03-02 to 2014-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0131502)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data from samples collected and analyzed for total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). From these constituents,...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow...

  10. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  11. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraiva, Fabio Petersen; Costa, Patricia Grativol; Inomata, Daniela Lumi; Melo, Carlos Sergio Nascimento; Helal Junior, John; Nakashima, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. Introduction: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. Methods: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group) and with diffuse macular edema (case group). Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. Results: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. Discussion: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema. (author)

  12. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva, Fabio Petersen; Costa, Patricia Grativol; Inomata, Daniela Lumi; Melo, Carlos Sergio Nascimento; Helal Junior, John; Nakashima, Yoshitaka [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Oftalmologia]. E-mail: fabiopetersen@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Objectives: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. Introduction: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. Methods: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group) and with diffuse macular edema (case group). Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. Results: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. Discussion: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema. (author)

  13. Recovery of deuterium from H-D gas mixture by thermal diffusion in a multi-concentric-tube column device of fixed total sum of column heights with transverse sampling streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the increment in the number of concentric-tube thermal diffusion columns on the recovery of deuterium from H 2 -HD-D 2 system with fixed total sum of column heights, has been investigated. The equations for predicting the degrees of separation in single-column, double-column and triple-column devices have been derived. Considerable improvement in recovery can be achieved if a multi-column device with larger number of column is employed, instead of a single-column device with column height equal to the same total sum of column heights, especially for the case of higher flow-rate operation and larger total sum of column heights.

  14. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.INTRODUÇÃO: O primeiro levantamento sobre cisticercose humana e identificação dos fatores de risco associados à transmissão, foram realizados em Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Oitocentos e setenta e sete voluntários de regiões periurbana e rural foram entrevistados e forneceram informações demográficas e condições sanitárias e de sa

  15. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  16. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  17. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  18. Neutron total cross section measurements on 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, R.F.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron total cross section measurements were performed on a sample of 249 Cf (5.65 mg total weight) with the ORELA as a source of pulsed neutrons. The sample, the inverse thickness of which was 1542 barns/atom, consisted of 85.3% 249 Cf and 14.4% 249 Bk, and was cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. Analyses were also made of data from a thin sample (l/n = 17430) of 65% 249 Cf in the region of the large fission resonance at 0.7 eV. Fifty-five resonances in 249 Cf were observed and analyzed over the energy range 0.1 eV to 90 eV by use of an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained were used to determine the level spacing and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Thermal total cross section measurements were also performed. 5 figures, 3 tables

  19. ANL small-sample calorimeter system design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-07-01

    The Small-Sample Calorimetric System is a portable instrument designed to measure the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of plutonium-containing fuels. The small-sample calorimeter is capable of measuring samples producing power up to 32 milliwatts at a rate of one sample every 20 min. The instrument is contained in two packages: a data-acquisition module consisting of a microprocessor with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, and a measurement module consisting of the calorimeter and a sample preheater. The total weight of the system is 18 kg

  20. Using the Perceptron Algorithm to Find Consistent Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, M.; Shawe-Taylor, J.

    1993-01-01

    The perceptron learning algorithm yields quite naturally an algorithm for finding a linearly separable boolean function consistent with a sample of such a function. Using the idea of a specifying sample, we give a simple proof that this algorithm is not efficient, in general.

  1. Consistency between GRUAN sondes, LBLRTM and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Calbet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiosonde soundings from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN data record are shown to be consistent with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI-measured radiances via LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model in the part of the spectrum that is mostly affected by water vapour absorption in the upper troposphere (from 700 hPa up. This result is key for climate data records, since GRUAN, IASI and LBLRTM constitute reference measurements or a reference radiative transfer model in each of their fields. This is specially the case for night-time radiosonde measurements. Although the sample size is small (16 cases, daytime GRUAN radiosonde measurements seem to have a small dry bias of 2.5 % in absolute terms of relative humidity, located mainly in the upper troposphere, with respect to LBLRTM and IASI. Full metrological closure is not yet possible and will not be until collocation uncertainties are better characterized and a full uncertainty covariance matrix is clarified for GRUAN.

  2. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  3. Total and inorganic arsenic in foods of the first Hong Kong total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wai-cheung; Lam, Chi-ho; Chan, Benny Tsz-pun

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that occurs in different inorganic and organic forms, which are found in the environment from both natural occurrence and anthropogenic activity. The inorganic forms of As (iAs) are more toxic as compared with the organic As, but so far most of the occurrence data in food collected in the framework of official food control are still reported as total As without differentiating the various As species. In this paper, total As and iAs contents of 600 total diet study (TDS) samples, subdivided into 15 different food groups, were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP/MS) and hydride generation (HG) ICP/MS respectively. The method detection limits for both total As and iAs were 3 μg As kg(-1). As the samples were prepared for TDS, food items were purchased directly from the market or prepared as for normal consumption, i.e. table ready, in the manner most representative of and consistent with cultural habits in Hong Kong as far as practicable. The highest total As and iAs content were found in 'fish, seafood and their products' and 'vegetables and their products' respectively. Besides, this paper also presents the ratios of iAs and total As content in different ready-to-eat food items. The highest ratio of iAs to total As was found in 'vegetables and their products'. It is likely that iAs in vegetables maintained its status even after cooking.

  4. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  5. Analysis of aberrant methylation on promoter sequences of tumor suppressor genes and total DNA in sputum samples: a promising tool for early detection of COPD and lung cancer in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Leda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a disorder associated to cigarette smoke and lung cancer (LC. Since epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs are clearly important in the development of LC. In this study, we hypothesize that tobacco smokers are susceptible for methylation in the promoter region of TSGs in airway epithelial cells when compared with non-smoker subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of detection of genes promoter methylation in sputum specimens, as a complementary tool to identify LC biomarkers among smokers with early COPD. Methods We determined the amount of DNA in induced sputum from patients with COPD (n = 23, LC (n = 26, as well as in healthy subjects (CTR (n = 33, using a commercial kit for DNA purification, followed by absorbance measurement at 260 nm. The frequency of CDKN2A, CDH1 and MGMT promoter methylation in the same groups was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP. The Fisher’s exact test was employed to compare frequency of results between different groups. Results DNA concentration was 7.4 and 5.8 times higher in LC and COPD compared to the (CTR (p  Conclusions We provide evidence that aberrant methylation of TSGs in samples of induced sputum is a useful tool for early diagnostic of lung diseases (LC and COPD in smoker subjects. Virtual slides The abstract MUST finish with the following text: Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1127865005664160

  6. A longitudinal study of quality of life and functional status in total hip and total knee replacement patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzuk, Lynda L; McMillan, Diana E; Bohm, Eric R

    2015-05-01

    Primary total hip and primary total knee surgeries are commonly performed to improve patients' quality of life and functional status. This longitudinal retrospective study (N = 851) examined self-reported quality of life and functional status over the preoperative and postoperative periods: 12 months prior to surgery, one month prior to surgery and 12 months following surgery. A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the changes in quality of life and functional status over the sampling period. Patients in the convenience sample reported improvements in quality of life and functional status utilizing the SF-12 and Oxford Hip and Oxford Knee, although differences were noted by procedure and gender. Total hip patients tended to demonstrate greater improvement than total knee patients and males reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life as well as functional status when compared to females. Of particular note was that mental health scores were consistently lower in both total hip and total knee replacement patients across the perioperative period and up to one year postoperative. This study identifies an opportunity for health care providers to proactively address the mental health of total hip and total knee replacement patients throughout their joint replacement trajectory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingru; Wang Chenlian; Wang Weihua

    1989-01-01

    The method of preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring was described. The equipments consist of an air and honey supply system, a quartz combustor with CM-type monolithic combustion catalyst and a condensation system. In the equipments, honey sample was converted into cooling water by the distilling, cracking and carbonizing procedures for tritium counting. The recovery ratio is 99.0 ± 4.5 percent for tritiated water and 96.0 ± 2.0 for tritiated organic compounds. It is a feasible preparing method for the total tritium monitoring in honey sample

  8. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of total mercury in urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS); Validacao de metodologia analitica para determinacao de mercurio total em amostras de urina para espectrometria de absorcao atomica com geracao de vapor frio (CV-AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz

    2009-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal applied to a variety of products and processes, representing a risk to the health of occupationally or accidentally exposed subjects. Dental amalgam is a restorative material composed of metallic mercury, which use has been widely debated in the last decades. Due to the dubiety of the studies concerning dental amalgam, many efforts concerning this issue have been conducted. The Tropical Medicine Foundation (Tocantins, Brazil) has recently initiated a study to evaluate the environmental and occupational levels of exposure to mercury in dentistry attendants at public consulting rooms in the city of Araguaina (TO). In collaboration with this study, the laboratory of analysis at IPEN's Chemistry and Environment Center is undertaking the analysis of mercury levels in exposed subjects' urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. This analysis requires the definition of a methodology capable of generating reliable results. Such methodology can only be implemented after a rigorous validation procedure. As part of this work, a series of tests were conducted in order to confirm the suitability of the selected methodology and to assert that the laboratory addresses all requirements needed for a successful implementation of the methodology. The following parameters were considered in order to test the method's performance: detection and quantitation limits, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The assays were carried out with certified reference material, which assures the traceability of the results. Taking into account the estimated parameters, the method can be considered suitable for the afore mentioned purpose. The mercury concentration found for the reference material was of (95,12 +- 11,70)mug.L{sup -1} with a recovery rate of 97%. The method was also applied to 39 urine samples, six of which (15%) showing urinary mercury levels above the normal limit of 10{mu}g.L{sup -1}. The obtained results fall

  9. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of total mercury in urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS); Validacao de metodologia analitica para determinacao de mercurio total em amostras de urina por espectrometria de absorcao atomica com geracao de vapor frio (CV-AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz

    2009-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal applied to a variety of products and processes, representing a risk to the health of occupationally or accidentally exposed subjects. Dental amalgam is a restorative material composed of metallic mercury, which use has been widely debated in the last decades. Due to the dubiety of the studies concerning dental amalgam, many efforts concerning this issue have been conducted. The Tropical Medicine Foundation (Tocantins, Brazil) has recently initiated a study to evaluate the environmental and occupational levels of exposure to mercury in dentistry attendants at public consulting rooms in the city of Araguaina (TO). In collaboration with this study, the laboratory of analysis at IPEN's Chemistry and Environment Center is undertaking the analysis of mercury levels in exposed subjects' urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. This analysis requires the definition of a methodology capable of generating reliable results. Such methodology can only be implemented after a rigorous validation procedure. As part of this work, a series of tests were conducted in order to confirm the suitability of the selected methodology and to assert that the laboratory addresses all requirements needed for a successful implementation of the methodology. The following parameters were considered in order to test the method’s performance: detection and quantitation limits, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The assays were carried out with certified reference material, which assures the traceability of the results. Taking into account the estimated parameters, the method can be considered suitable for the afore mentioned purpose. The mercury concentration found for the reference material was of (95,12 ± 11,70)μg.L{sup -1} with a recovery rate of 97%. The method was also applied to 39 urine samples, six of which (15%) showing urinary mercury levels above the normal limit of 10μg.L{sup −1}. The obtained

  10. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of total mercury in urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS); Validacao de metodologia analitica para determinacao de mercurio total em amostras de urina para espectrometria de absorcao atomica com geracao de vapor frio (CV-AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz

    2009-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal applied to a variety of products and processes, representing a risk to the health of occupationally or accidentally exposed subjects. Dental amalgam is a restorative material composed of metallic mercury, which use has been widely debated in the last decades. Due to the dubiety of the studies concerning dental amalgam, many efforts concerning this issue have been conducted. The Tropical Medicine Foundation (Tocantins, Brazil) has recently initiated a study to evaluate the environmental and occupational levels of exposure to mercury in dentistry attendants at public consulting rooms in the city of Araguaina (TO). In collaboration with this study, the laboratory of analysis at IPEN's Chemistry and Environment Center is undertaking the analysis of mercury levels in exposed subjects' urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. This analysis requires the definition of a methodology capable of generating reliable results. Such methodology can only be implemented after a rigorous validation procedure. As part of this work, a series of tests were conducted in order to confirm the suitability of the selected methodology and to assert that the laboratory addresses all requirements needed for a successful implementation of the methodology. The following parameters were considered in order to test the method's performance: detection and quantitation limits, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The assays were carried out with certified reference material, which assures the traceability of the results. Taking into account the estimated parameters, the method can be considered suitable for the afore mentioned purpose. The mercury concentration found for the reference material was of (95,12 +- 11,70)mug.L{sup -1} with a recovery rate of 97%. The method was also applied to 39 urine samples, six of which (15%) showing urinary mercury levels above the normal limit of 10{mu}g.L{sup -1}. The

  11. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  12. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  13. Consistency Check for the Bin Packing Constraint Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien; Schaus, Pierre; Deville, Yves

    The bin packing problem (BP) consists in finding the minimum number of bins necessary to pack a set of items so that the total size of the items in each bin does not exceed the bin capacity C. The bin capacity is common for all the bins.

  14. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premachandra, Bhartur

    1975-09-04

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured.

  15. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premachandra, Bhartur.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured [fr

  16. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  17. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  18. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  19. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  20. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  5. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  6. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  7. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  8. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  9. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uranium is reported to be present in phosphate fertilizers. The recovery of uranium from the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of environmental concerns. For both these activities suitable method of uranium determinations at trace levels in these fertilizers are required.

  10. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  11. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  12. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  13. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  14. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  15. Content validation: clarity/relevance, reliability and internal consistency of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method. The method known as internal consistency was applied to the total sample, which consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads to the contents of the Phase 1 (3-6 months) and 61 mother-infant dyads to the contents of Phase 2 (7 to 12 months). The data were collected through the analysis of mother-infant interaction based on filming of dyads and application of the parameters to be validated according to the child's age. Data were organized in a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for statistical analysis. The judgments of clarity/relevance indicated no modifications to be made in the instruments. The reliability test showed an almost perfect agreement between judges (0.8 ≤ Kappa ≥ 1.0); only the item 2 of Phase 1 showed substantial agreement (0.6 ≤ Kappa ≥ 0.79). The internal consistency for Phase 1 had alpha = 0.84, and Phase 2, alpha = 0.74. This demonstrates the reliability of the instruments. The results suggest adequacy as to content validity of the instruments created for both age groups, demonstrating the relevance of the content of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

  16. Impact of technology scaling in SOI back-channel total dose tolerance. A 2-D numerical study using a self-consistent oxide code; Effet du facteur d'echelle sur la tolerance en dose de rayonnement dans le cas du courant de fuite arriere des transistors MOS/SOI. Une etude d'un oxyde utilise un code auto coherent en deux dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leray, J.L.; Paillet, Ph.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel DRIF, 91 (France); Tavernier, C.; Belhaddad, K. [ISE Integrated System Engineering AG (Switzerland); Penzin, O. [ISE Integrated System Engineering Inc., San Jose (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A new 2-D and 3-D self-consistent code has been developed and is applied to understanding the charge trapping in SOI buried oxide causing back-channel MOS leakage in SOI transistors. Clear indications on scaling trends are obtained with respect to supply voltage and oxide thickness. (authors)

  17. Kenyan female sex workers' use of female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception: do they use condoms less consistently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-01-01

    A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  19. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uku Vainik

    Full Text Available A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied.A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation.Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption.Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  20. Self-consistent electronic-structure calculations for interface geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.C.; Gonis, A.; MacLaren, J.M.; Zhang, X.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for computing self-consistent electronic structures and total energies of planar defects, such as interfaces, which are embedded in an otherwise perfect crystal. As in the Layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker approach, the solid is treated as a set of coupled layers of atoms, using Bloch's theorem to take advantage of the two-dimensional periodicity of the individual layers. The layers are coupled using the techniques of the Real-Space Multiple-Scattering Theory, avoiding artificial slab or supercell boundary conditions. A total-energy calculation on a Cu crystal, which has been split apart at a (111) plane, is used to illustrate the method

  1. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  2. Towards thermodynamical consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru

  3. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  4. Toward a consistent RHA-RPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the RPA based on a relativistic Hartree approximation description for nuclear ground states. This model includes contributions from the negative energy sea at the 1-loop level. They emphasize consistency between the treatment of the ground state and the RPA. This consistency is important in the description of low-lying collective levels but less important for the longitudinal (e, e') quasi-elastic response. They also study the effect of imposing a 3-momentum cutoff on negative energy sea contributions. A cutoff of twice the nucleon mass improves agreement with observed spin orbit splittings in nuclei compared to the standard infinite cutoff results, an effect traceable to the fact that imposing the cutoff reduces m*/m. The cutoff is much less important than consistency in the description of low-lying collective levels. The cutoff model provides excellent agreement with quasi-elastic (e, e') data

  5. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  6. Financial model calibration using consistency hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a technique for forcing the calibration of a financial model to produce valid parameters. The technique is based on learning from hints. It converts simple curve fitting into genuine calibration, where broad conclusions can be inferred from parameter values. The technique augments the error function of curve fitting with consistency hint error functions based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. We introduce an efficient EM-type optimization algorithm tailored to this technique. We also introduce other consistency hints, and balance their weights using canonical errors. We calibrate the correlated multifactor Vasicek model of interest rates, and apply it successfully to Japanese Yen swaps market and US dollar yield market.

  7. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  8. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  9. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  10. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation lexicons often contain pronunciation variants. This can create two problems: It can be difficult to define these variants in an internally consistent way and it can also be difficult to extract generalised grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets...

  11. Image recognition and consistency of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image. Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize. Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  12. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  13. Guided color consistency optimization for image mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renping; Xia, Menghan; Yao, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of color consistency correction for sequential images with diverse color characteristics. Existing algorithms try to adjust all images to minimize color differences among images under a unified energy framework, however, the results are prone to presenting a consistent but unnatural appearance when the color difference between images is large and diverse. In our approach, this problem is addressed effectively by providing a guided initial solution for the global consistency optimization, which avoids converging to a meaningless integrated solution. First of all, to obtain the reliable intensity correspondences in overlapping regions between image pairs, we creatively propose the histogram extreme point matching algorithm which is robust to image geometrical misalignment to some extents. In the absence of the extra reference information, the guided initial solution is learned from the major tone of the original images by searching some image subset as the reference, whose color characteristics will be transferred to the others via the paths of graph analysis. Thus, the final results via global adjustment will take on a consistent color similar to the appearance of the reference image subset. Several groups of convincing experiments on both the synthetic dataset and the challenging real ones sufficiently demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve as good or even better results compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

  14. Consistent application of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in the US Department of Energy, General Design Criteria (DOE 6430.1A), and the Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subject to Natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL-15910) provide a consistent and well defined approach to determine the natural phenomena hazards loads for US Department of Energy site facilities. The guidelines for the application of loads combinations and allowables criteria are not as well defined and are more flexible in interpretation. This flexibility in the interpretation of load combinations can lead to conflict between the designer and overseer. The establishment of an efficient set of acceptable design criteria, based on US Department of Energy guidelines, provides a consistent baseline for analysis, design, and review. Additionally, the proposed method should not limit the design and analytical innovation necessary to analyze or qualify the unique structure. This paper investigates the consistent application of load combinations, analytical methods, and load allowables and suggests a reference path consistent with the US Department of Energy guidelines

  15. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  16. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  17. Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent stochastic models of metocean design parameters and their directional dependencies are essential for reliability assessment of offshore structures. In this paper a stochastic model for the annual maximum values of the significant wave height, and the associated wind velocity, current...

  18. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  19. Dynamic phonon exchange requires consistent dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.W.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Heiss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that states with undersirable properties (such as ghosts, states with complex eigenenergies and states with unrestricted normalization) emerge from two-body calculations using dynamic effective interactions if one is not careful in introducing single-particle self-energy insertions in a consistent manner

  20. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  1. Consistency of the postulates of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.; Nicola, M.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated

  2. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  3. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  4. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  5. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  6. Influence of physical and chemical properties of HTSXT-FTIR samples on the quality of prediction models developed to determine absolute concentrations of total proteins, carbohydrates and triglycerides: a preliminary study on the determination of their absolute concentrations in fresh microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano León, Esteban; Coat, Rémy; Moutel, Benjamin; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Gonçalves, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Absolute concentrations of total macromolecules (triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates) in microorganisms can be rapidly measured by FTIR spectroscopy, but caution is needed to avoid non-specific experimental bias. Here, we assess the limits within which this approach can be used on model solutions of macromolecules of interest. We used the Bruker HTSXT-FTIR system. Our results show that the solid deposits obtained after the sampling procedure present physical and chemical properties that influence the quality of the absolute concentration prediction models (univariate and multivariate). The accuracy of the models was degraded by a factor of 2 or 3 outside the recommended concentration interval of 0.5-35 µg spot(-1). Change occurred notably in the sample hydrogen bond network, which could, however, be controlled using an internal probe (pseudohalide anion). We also demonstrate that for aqueous solutions, accurate prediction of total carbohydrate quantities (in glucose equivalent) could not be made unless a constant amount of protein was added to the model solution (BSA). The results of the prediction model for more complex solutions, here with two components: glucose and BSA, were very encouraging, suggesting that this FTIR approach could be used as a rapid quantification method for mixtures of molecules of interest, provided the limits of use of the HTSXT-FTIR method are precisely known and respected. This last finding opens the way to direct quantification of total molecules of interest in more complex matrices.

  7. Domain Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection Based on Prediction Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li-ping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is an active area of research in computer vision. It remains a quite challenging problem in many applications where many factors cause a mismatch between source dataset used to train the pedestrian detector and samples in the target scene. In this paper, we propose a novel domain adaptation model for merging plentiful source domain samples with scared target domain samples to create a scene-specific pedestrian detector that performs as well as rich target domain simples are present. Our approach combines the boosting-based learning algorithm with an entropy-based transferability, which is derived from the prediction consistency with the source classifications, to selectively choose the samples showing positive transferability in source domains to the target domain. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the detection rate, especially with the insufficient labeled data in target scene.

  8. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  9. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  10. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  11. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  12. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  13. A consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, Roland

    1990-01-01

    Some mostly recent theoretical and mathematical advances can be linked together to yield a new consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics. It relies upon a unique and universal interpretative rule of a logical character which is based upon Griffiths consistent history. Some new results in semi-classical physics allow classical physics to be derived from this rule, including its logical aspects, and to prove accordingly the existence of determinism within the quantum framework. Together with decoherence, this can be used to retrieve the existence of facts, despite the probabilistic character of the theory. Measurement theory can then be made entirely deductive. It is accordingly found that wave packet reduction is a logical property, whereas one can always choose to avoid using it. The practical consequences of this interpretation are most often in agreement with the Copenhagen formulation but they can be proved never to give rise to any logical inconsistency or paradox. (author)

  14. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  15. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve......Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  16. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  17. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  18. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain......Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non...

  19. Self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hideo; Kammuri, Tetsuo; Kishimoto, Teruo.

    1993-09-01

    The field coupling method is extended to a system with a velocity dependent mean potential. By means of this method, we can derive the effective interactions which are consistent with the mean potential. The self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions are applied to the microscopic analysis of the structures of giant dipole resonances (GDR) of 148,154 Sm, of the first excited 2 + states of Sn isotopes and of the first excited 3 - states of Mo isotopes. It is clarified that the interactions play crucial roles in describing the splitting of the resonant structure of GDR peaks, in restoring the energy weighted sum rule values, and in reducing B (Eλ) values. (author)

  20. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, Susan E.; Thurman, Lindsey L.; Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monito...

  1. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  2. Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David A; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler–DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent-histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce versus a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite ‘past’ or ‘future’ scalar ‘time’, in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models. (paper)

  3. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

  4. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  5. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...... to be inconsistent. Our method restores consistency of the nonparametric bootstrap by altering the shape of the criterion function defining the estimator whose distribution we seek to approximate. This modification leads to a generic and easy-to-implement resampling method for inference that is conceptually distinct...... from other available distributional approximations based on some form of modified bootstrap. We offer simulation evidence showcasing the performance of our inference method in finite samples. An extension of our methodology to general M-estimation problems is also discussed....

  6. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  7. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  8. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  9. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  10. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  11. Do Health Systems Have Consistent Performance Across Locations and Is Consistency Associated With Higher Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Daniel J; Christianson, Jon B; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Finch, Michael D

    This study addresses whether health systems have consistent diabetes care performance across their ambulatory clinics and whether increasing consistency is associated with improvements in clinic performance. Study data included 2007 to 2013 diabetes care intermediate outcome measures for 661 ambulatory clinics in Minnesota and bordering states. Health systems provided more consistent performance, as measured by the standard deviation of performance for clinics in a system, relative to propensity score-matched proxy systems created for comparison purposes. No evidence was found that improvements in consistency were associated with higher clinic performance. The combination of high performance and consistent care is likely to enhance a health system's brand reputation, allowing it to better mitigate the financial risks of consumers seeking care outside the organization. These results suggest that larger health systems are most likely to deliver the combination of consistent and high-performance care. Future research should explore the mechanisms that drive consistent care within health systems.

  12. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  16. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  17. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body's past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  18. Self-consistent Modeling of Elastic Anisotropy in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Wenk, H.; Matthies, S.; Vasin, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elastic anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks has increasingly received attention because of significance for prospecting of petroleum deposits, as well as seals in the context of nuclear waste and CO2 sequestration. The orientation of component minerals and pores/fractures is a critical factor that influences elastic anisotropy. In this study, we investigate lattice and shape preferred orientation (LPO and SPO) of three shales from the North Sea in UK, the Qusaiba Formation in Saudi Arabia, and the Officer Basin in Australia (referred to as N1, Qu3, and L1905, respectively) to calculate elastic properties and compare them with experimental results. Synchrotron hard X-ray diffraction and microtomography experiments were performed to quantify LPO, weight proportions, and three-dimensional SPO of constituent minerals and pores. Our preliminary results show that the degree of LPO and total amount of clays are highest in Qu3 (3.3-6.5 m.r.d and 74vol%), moderately high in N1 (2.4-5.6 m.r.d. and 70vol%), and lowest in L1905 (2.3-2.5 m.r.d. and 42vol%). In addition, porosity in Qu3 is as low as 2% while it is up to 6% in L1605 and 8% in N1, respectively. Based on this information and single crystal elastic properties of mineral components, we apply a self-consistent averaging method to calculate macroscopic elastic properties and corresponding seismic velocities for different shales. The elastic model is then compared with measured acoustic velocities on the same samples. The P-wave velocities measured from Qu3 (4.1-5.3 km/s, 26.3%Ani.) are faster than those obtained from L1905 (3.9-4.7 km/s, 18.6%Ani.) and N1 (3.6-4.3 km/s, 17.7%Ani.). By making adjustments for pore structure (aspect ratio) and single crystal elastic properties of clay minerals, a good agreement between our calculation and the ultrasonic measurement is obtained.

  19. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  20. A method for consistent precision radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, J.

    1985-01-01

    Using a meticulous setup procedure in which repeated portal films were taken before each treatment until satisfactory portal verifications were obtained, a high degree of precision in patient positioning was achieved. A fluctuation from treatment to treatment, over 11 treatments, of less than +-0.10 cm (S.D.) for anatomical points inside the treatment field was obtained. This, however, only applies to specific anatomical points selected for this positioning procedure and does not apply to all points within the portal. We have generalized this procedure and have suggested a means by which any target volume can be consistently positioned which may approach this degree of precision. (orig.)

  1. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  2. Two consistent calculations of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory is reformulated as a pure Yang-Mills theory in a six-dimensional space, the Higgs field being interpreted as gauge potentials in the additional dimensions. Viewed in this way, the condition that the Higgs field transforms as a U(1) representation of charge one is equivalent to requiring a value of 30 0 C for the Weinberg angle. A second consistent determination comes from the idea borrowed from monopole theory that the electromagnetic field is in the direction of the Higgs field. (Author)

  3. Consistent Alignment of World Embedding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-02

    propose a solution that aligns variations of the same model (or different models) in a joint low-dimensional la- tent space leveraging carefully...representations of linguistic enti- ties, most often referred to as embeddings. This includes techniques that rely on matrix factoriza- tion (Levy & Goldberg ...higher, the variation is much higher as well. As we increase the size of the neighborhood, or improve the quality of our sample by only picking the most

  4. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  5. Sample Applications of the Second Generation Intact Stability Criteria – Robustness and Consistency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøter, Carsten; Lützen, Marie; Erichsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , if needed, a direct numerical simulation. The present paper summarizes results testing the vulnerability levels in these news tability criteria. The calculations are carried out for 17 ships using the full matrix of operational draughts, trims and GM values. Each failure mode criterion is examined...

  6. Consistent associations between measures of psychological stress and CMV antibody levels in a large occupational sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rector, J.L.; Dowd, J.B.; Loerbroks, A.; Burns, V.E.; Moss, P.A.; Jarczok, M.N.; Stalder, T.; Hoffman, K.; Fischer, J.E.; Bosch, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that has been implicated in biological aging and impaired health. Evidence, largely accrued from small-scale studies involving select populations, suggests that stress may promote non-clinical reactivation of this virus. However, absent is evidence from larger

  7. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics

  8. Self-consistent model of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the large-spatial-distance, zero--three-momentum, limit of QCD is developed from the hypothesis that there is an infrared singularity. Single quarks and gluons do not propagate because they have infinite energy after renormalization. The Hamiltonian formulation of the path integral is used to quantize QCD with physical, nonpropagating fields. Perturbation theory in the infrared limit is simplified by the absence of self-energy insertions and by the suppression of large classes of diagrams due to vanishing propagators. Remaining terms in the perturbation series are resummed to produce a set of nonlinear, renormalizable integral equations which fix both the confining interaction and the physical propagators. Solutions demonstrate the self-consistency of the concepts of an infrared singularity and nonpropagating fields. The Wilson loop is calculated to provide a general proof of confinement. Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark pairs and for two gluons have finite-energy solutions in the color-singlet channel. The choice of gauge is addressed in detail. Large classes of corrections to the model are discussed and shown to support self-consistency

  9. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  10. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  11. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  12. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  13. A Study on Primary and Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Greenhouse Effect (Erzurum Sampling)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what level of primary and secondary school students' misconceptions related to greenhouse effect is. Study group consists of totally 280 students attended to totally 8 primary and secondary schools (4 primary school, 4 secondary school) which were determined with convenient sampling method from center of…

  14. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  16. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  17. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  18. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  19. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2011-01-01

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  20. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  1. A consistent thermodynamic database for cement minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Claret, F.; Burnol, A.; Marty, N.; Gaboreau, S.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Giffault, E.; Bourbon, X.

    2010-01-01

    work - the formation enthalpy and the Cp(T) function are taken from the literature or estimated - finally, the Log K(T) function is calculated, based on the selected dataset and it is compared to experimental data gathered at different temperatures. Each experimental point is extracted from solution compositions by using PHREEQC with a selection of aqueous complexes, consistent with the Thermochimie database. The selection was tested namely by drawing activity diagrams, allowing to assess phases relations. An example of such a diagram, drawn in the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -H 2 O system is displayed. It can be seen that low pH concrete alteration proceeds essentially in decreasing the C/S ratio in C-S-H phases to the point where C-S-H are no longer stable and replaced by zeolite, then clay minerals. This evolution corresponds to a decrease in silica activity, which is consistent with the pH decrease, as silica concentration depends essentially on pH. Some rather consistent phase relations have been obtained for the SO 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CaO-CO 2 -H 2 O system. Addition of iron III enlarges the AFm-SO 4 stability field to the low temperature domain, whereas it decreases the pH domain where ettringite is stable. On the other hand, the stability field of katoite remains largely ambiguous, namely with respect to a hydro-garnet/grossular solid solution. With respect to other databases this work was made in consistency with a larger mineral selection, so that it can be used for modelling works in the cement clay interaction context

  2. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  3. Self-consistent modelling of ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.; Hedin, J.; Johnson, T.; Laxaaback, M.; Tennfors, E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of ICRH is often sensitive to the shape of the high energy part of the distribution functions of the resonating species. This requires self-consistent calculations of the distribution functions and the wave-field. In addition to the wave-particle interactions and Coulomb collisions the effects of the finite orbit width and the RF-induced spatial transport are found to be important. The inward drift dominates in general even for a symmetric toroidal wave spectrum in the centre of the plasma. An inward drift does not necessarily produce a more peaked heating profile. On the contrary, for low concentrations of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas it can even give rise to broader profiles. (author)

  4. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  5. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  6. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  7. Thermodynamically consistent model calibration in chemical kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of biochemical reaction systems are constrained by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, which impose well-defined relationships among the reaction rate constants characterizing these systems. Constructing biochemical reaction systems from experimental observations often leads to parameter values that do not satisfy the necessary thermodynamic constraints. This can result in models that are not physically realizable and may lead to inaccurate, or even erroneous, descriptions of cellular function. Results We introduce a thermodynamically consistent model calibration (TCMC method that can be effectively used to provide thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of an open biochemical reaction system. The proposed method formulates the model calibration problem as a constrained optimization problem that takes thermodynamic constraints (and, if desired, additional non-thermodynamic constraints into account. By calculating thermodynamically feasible values for the kinetic parameters of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling cascade, we demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative significance of imposing thermodynamic constraints on these parameters and the effectiveness of our method for accomplishing this important task. MATLAB software, using the Systems Biology Toolbox 2.1, can be accessed from http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS lab/software.html. An SBML file containing the thermodynamically feasible EGF/ERK signaling cascade model can be found in the BioModels database. Conclusions TCMC is a simple and flexible method for obtaining physically plausible values for the kinetic parameters of open biochemical reaction systems. It can be effectively used to recalculate a thermodynamically consistent set of parameter values for existing thermodynamically infeasible biochemical reaction models of cellular function as well as to estimate thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of new

  8. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  9. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  10. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  11. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  12. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  13. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  15. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  16. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  17. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  18. Consistency relation for the Lorentz invariant single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we compute the sizes of equilateral and orthogonal shape bispectrum for the general Lorentz invariant single-field inflation. The stability of field theory implies a non-negative square of sound speed which leads to a consistency relation between the sizes of orthogonal and equilateral shape bispectrum, namely f NL orth. ≤ −0.054f NL equil. . In particular, for the single-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation, the consistency relation becomes f NL orth. = 0.070f NL equil. ≤ 0. These consistency relations are also valid in the mixed scenario where the quantum fluctuations of some other light scalar fields contribute to a part of total curvature perturbation on the super-horizon scale and may generate a local form bispectrum. A distinguishing prediction of the mixed scenario is τ NL loc. > ((6/5)f NL loc. ) 2 . Comparing these consistency relations to WMAP 7yr data, there is still a big room for the Lorentz invariant inflation, but DBI inflation has been disfavored at more than 68% CL

  19. Systematic sampling for suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - Because of high costs or complex logistics, scientific populations cannot be measured entirely and must be sampled. Accepted scientific practice holds that sample selection be based on statistical principles to assure objectivity when estimating totals and variances. Probability sampling--obtaining samples with known probabilities--is the only method that...

  20. Consistency test of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, M.; Raczka, R.

    1997-01-01

    If the 'Higgs mass' is not the physical mass of a real particle but rather an effective ultraviolet cutoff then a process energy dependence of this cutoff must be admitted. Precision data from at least two energy scale experimental points are necessary to test this hypothesis. The first set of precision data is provided by the Z-boson peak experiments. We argue that the second set can be given by 10-20 GeV e + e - colliders. We pay attention to the special role of tau polarization experiments that can be sensitive to the 'Higgs mass' for a sample of ∼ 10 8 produced tau pairs. We argue that such a study may be regarded as a negative selfconsistency test of the Standard Model and of most of its extensions

  1. Self-consistent calculation of 208Pb spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chik, V.V.; Pyatov, N.I.; Fayans, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The self-consistent model with exact accounting for one-particle continuum is applied to calculate all discrete particle-hole natural parity states with 2 208 Pb nucleus (up to the neutron emission threshold, 7.4 MeV). Contributions to the energy-weighted sum rules S(EL) of the first collective levels and total contributions of all discrete levels are evaluated. Most strongly the collectivization is manifested for octupole states. With multipolarity growth L contributions of discrete levels are sharply reduced. The results are compared with other models and the experimental data obtained in (e, e'), (p, p') reactions and other data [ru

  2. Poisson solvers for self-consistent multi-particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, J; Paret, S

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent multi-particle simulation plays an important role in studying beam-beam effects and space charge effects in high-intensity beams. The Poisson equation has to be solved at each time-step based on the particle density distribution in the multi-particle simulation. In this paper, we review a number of numerical methods that can be used to solve the Poisson equation efficiently. The computational complexity of those numerical methods will be O(N log(N)) or O(N) instead of O(N2), where N is the total number of grid points used to solve the Poisson equation

  3. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  4. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  5. [Consistent Declarative Memory with Depressive Symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho de Oliveira, Silvia; Flórez, Ruth Natalia Suárez; Caballero, Diego Andrés Vásquez

    2012-12-01

    Some studies have suggested that potentiated remembrance of negative events on people with depressive disorders seems to be an important factor in the etiology, course and maintenance of depression. Evaluate the emotional memory in people with and without depressive symptomatology by means of an audio-visual test. 73 university students were evaluated, male and female, between 18 and 40 years old, distributed in two groups: with depressive symptomatology (32) and without depressive symptomatology (40), using the Scale from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D, English Abbreviation) and a cutting point of 20. There were not meaningful differences between free and voluntary recalls, with and without depressive symptomatology, in spite of the fact that both groups had granted a higher emotional value to the audio-visual test and that they had associated it with emotional sadness. People with depressive symptomatology did not exhibit the effect of mnemonic potentiation generally associated to the content of the emotional version of the test; therefore, the hypothesis of emotional consistency was not validated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Self consistent field theory of virus assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyu; Orland, Henri; Zandi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    The ground state dominance approximation (GSDA) has been extensively used to study the assembly of viral shells. In this work we employ the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) to investigate the adsorption of RNA onto positively charged spherical viral shells and examine the conditions when GSDA does not apply and SCFT has to be used to obtain a reliable solution. We find that there are two regimes in which GSDA does work. First, when the genomic RNA length is long enough compared to the capsid radius, and second, when the interaction between the genome and capsid is so strong that the genome is basically localized next to the wall. We find that for the case in which RNA is more or less distributed uniformly in the shell, regardless of the length of RNA, GSDA is not a good approximation. We observe that as the polymer-shell interaction becomes stronger, the energy gap between the ground state and first excited state increases and thus GSDA becomes a better approximation. We also present our results corresponding to the genome persistence length obtained through the tangent-tangent correlation length and show that it is zero in case of GSDA but is equal to the inverse of the energy gap when using SCFT.

  7. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  9. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  10. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  11. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  12. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  13. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  14. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  15. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  17. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  18. Self-consistent field with pseudowavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, L.

    1976-01-01

    A computational method is given in which the energy of an atom is computed by using pseudowavefunctions only. The method centers on a model energy expression E/sub M/ which is similar to the Hartree--Fock energy expression, but contains only pseudowavefunctions. A theorem is proved according to which the Hartree--Fock orbitals can be transformed by a linear transformation into a set of uniquely defined pseudowavefunctions which have the property that, when substituted into E/sub M/, this quantity will closely approximate the Hartree--Fock energy E/sub F/. The new method is then formulated by identifying the total energy of an atom with the minimum of E/sub M/. Application of the energy minimum principle leads to a set of equations for the pseudowavefunctions which are similar to but simpler than the Hartree--Fock equations. These equations contain pseudopotentials for which explicit expressions are derived. The possibility of replacing these pseudopotentials by simpler model potentials is discussed, and the criteria for the selection of the model potential are outlined

  19. Merging By Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed-Nacer Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Merging mechanism is an essential operation for version control systems. When each member of collaborative development works on an individual copy of the project, software merging allows to reconcile modifications made concurrently as well as managing software change through branching. The collaborative system is in charge to propose a merge result that includes user’s modifications. Theusers now have to check and adapt this result. The adaptation should be as effort-less as possible, otherwise, the users may get frustrated and will quit the collaboration. This paper aims to reduce the conflicts during the collaboration and im prove the productivity. It has three objectives: study the users’ behavior during the collaboration, evaluate the quality of textual merging results produced by specific algorithms and propose a solution to improve the r esult quality produced by the default merge tool of distributed version control systems. Through a study of eight open-source repositories totaling more than 3 million lines of code, we observe the behavior of the concurrent modifications during t he merge p rocedure. We i dentified when th e ex isting merge techniques under-perform, and we propose solutions to improve the quality of the merge. We finally compare with the traditional merge tool through a large corpus of collaborative editing.

  20. Probability Machines: Consistent Probability Estimation Using Nonparametric Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J. D.; Kruppa, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Malley, K. G.; Ziegler, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. Objectives The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Methods Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Results Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Conclusions Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications. PMID:21915433

  1. Supramolecular Complex Antioxidant Consisting of Vitamins C, E and Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, I. V.; Kuzema, P. O.; Stavinskaya, O. N.; Kazakova, O. A.

    Samples with varied amount of surface trimethylsilyl groups were obtained via gas-phase chemical modification of silica nanoparticles. The biocompatibility tests conducted in erythrocyte suspension have shown that hydrophobization of silica decreases its damaging effect to the cells. Being wettable in aqueous media, partially silylated silicas have higher affinity to hydrophobic bioactive molecules in comparison with the initial silica. Novel antioxidant consisting of vitamins C and E and silica with 40% of surface trimethylsilyl groups was formulated. It was found that supramolecular complexes are formed on the silica surface due to the affinity of water- and fat-soluble antioxidants to hydrophilic silanol and hydrophobic trimethylsilyl groups, respectively. Test reactions (total phenolic index determination, DPPH test) and in vitro studies (spectral analysis of erythrocyte suspensions undergoing UV irradiation) revealed the correlation between antioxidant activity of the complex antioxidant and the vitamins’ content. The antioxidant remained active during long-term storage under standard conditions.

  2. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion

  3. The Consistency Between Clinical and Electrophysiological Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra E. Okuyucu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the impact of electrophysiological tests in the clinical management and diagnosis of patients, and to evaluate the consistency between referring clinical diagnoses and electrophysiological diagnoses. METHODS: The study included 957 patients referred to the electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory from different clinics with different clinical diagnoses in 2008. Demographic data, referring clinical diagnoses, the clinics where the requests wanted, and diagnoses after ENMG testing were recorded and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: In all, 957 patients [644 (67.3% female and 313 (32.7% male] were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 45.40 ± 14.54 years. ENMG requests were made by different specialists; 578 (60.4% patients were referred by neurologists, 122 (12.8% by orthopedics, 140 (14.6% by neurosurgeons, and 117 (12.2% by physical treatment and rehabilitation departments. According to the results of ENMG testing, 513 (53.6% patients’ referrals were related to their referral diagnosis, whereas 397 (41.5% patients had normal ENMG test results, and 47 (4.9% patients had a diagnosis that differed from the referring diagnosis. Among the relation between the referral diagnosis and electrophysiological diagnosis according to the clinics where the requests were made, there was no statistical difference (p= 0.794, but there were statistically significant differences between the support of different clinical diagnoses, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy-plexopathy, entrapment neuropathy, and myopathy based on ENMG test results (p< 0.001. CONCLUSION: ENMG is a frequently used neurological examination. As such, referrals for ENMG can be made to either support the referring diagnosis or to exclude other diagnoses. This may explain the inconsistency between clinical referring diagnoses and diagnoses following ENMG

  4. Self-consistent meson mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, L.A.P.

    1982-01-01

    A dual-topological-unitarization (or dual-fragmentation) approach to the calculation of hadron masses is presented, in which the effect of planar ''sea''-quark loops is taken into account from the beginning. Using techniques based on analyticity and generalized ladder-graph dynamics, we first derive the approximate ''generic'' Regge-trajectory formula α(t) = max (S 1 +S 2 , S 3 +S 4 )-(1/2) +2alpha-circumflex'[s/sub a/ +(1/2)(t-summationm/sub i/ 2 )] for any given hadronic process 1+2→3+4, where S/sub i/ and m/sub i/ are the spins and masses of i = 1,2,3,4, and √s/sub a/ is the effective mass of the lowest nonvanishing contribution (a) exchanged in the crossed channel. By requiring a minimization of secondary (background, etc.) contributions to a, and demanding simultaneous consistency for entire sets of such processes, we are then able to calculate the masses of all the lowest pseudoscalar and vector qq-bar states with q = u,d,s and the Regge trajectories on which they lie. By making certain additional assumptions we are also able to do this with q = u,d,c and q = u,d,b. Our only arbitrary parameters are m/sub rho/, m/sub K/*, m/sub psi/, and m/sub Upsilon/, one of which merely serves to fix the energy scale. In contrast to many other approaches, a small m/sub π/ 2 /m/sub rho/ 2 ratio arises quite naturally in the present scheme

  5. Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Daniele; Cano, Eduardo; Baldini, Gianmarco

    2018-05-16

    In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour. In this respect, the ST regulation specifies a test procedure to detect motion conflicts originating from inconsistencies between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and odometry data. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of the speed verification procedure specified by the ST regulation. Several hours of data were collected using three vehicles and considering light urban and highway environments. The vehicles were equipped with an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) data reader and a GPS/Galileo receiver. The tests prescribed by the regulation were implemented with specific focus on synchronization aspects. The experimental analysis also considered aspects such as the impact of tunnels and the presence of data gaps. The analysis shows that the metrics selected for the tests are resilient to data gaps, latencies between GNSS and odometry data and simplistic manipulations such as data scaling. The new ST forces an attacker to falsify data from both sensors at the same time and in a coherent way. This makes more difficult the implementation of frauds in comparison to the current version of the DT.

  6. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  7. SIMPLE ESTIMATOR AND CONSISTENT STRONGLY OF STABLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira E. Guevara Otiniano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable distributions are extensively used to analyze earnings of financial assets, such as exchange rates and stock prices assets. In this paper we propose a simple and strongly consistent estimator for the scale parameter of a symmetric stable L´evy distribution. The advantage of this estimator is that your computational time is minimum thus it can be used to initialize intensive computational procedure such as maximum likelihood. With random samples of sized n we tested the efficacy of these estimators by Monte Carlo method. We also included applications for three data sets.

  8. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  9. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  10. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  11. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  12. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  13. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  15. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  17. A New Heteroskedastic Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator using Deviance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Aftab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a new heteroskedastic consistent covariance matrix estimator, HC6, based on deviance measure. We have studied and compared the finite sample behavior of the new test and compared it with other this kind of estimators, HC1, HC3 and HC4m, which are used in case of leverage observations. Simulation study is conducted to study the effect of various levels of heteroskedasticity on the size and power of quasi-t test with HC estimators. Results show that the test statistic based on our new suggested estimator has better asymptotic approximation and less size distortion as compared to other estimators for small sample sizes when high level ofheteroskedasticity is present in data.

  18. A New Bias Corrected Version of Heteroscedasticity Consistent Covariance Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of heteroscedasticity, different available flavours of the heteroscedasticity consistent covariance estimator (HCCME are used. However, the available literature shows that these estimators can be considerably biased in small samples. Cribari–Neto et al. (2000 introduce a bias adjustment mechanism and give the modified White estimator that becomes almost bias-free even in small samples. Extending these results, Cribari-Neto and Galvão (2003 present a similar bias adjustment mechanism that can be applied to a wide class of HCCMEs’. In the present article, we follow the same mechanism as proposed by Cribari-Neto and Galvão to give bias-correction version of HCCME but we use adaptive HCCME rather than the conventional HCCME. The Monte Carlo study is used to evaluate the performance of our proposed estimators.

  19. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  20. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  1. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. STEIN, Alison M. BELL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1: 45–52, 2012].

  2. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura R. STEIN; Alison M. BELL

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior.For example,individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics.A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior.In sticklebacks,fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fimess.In this study,we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior.We recorded visits to nest,total time fanning,and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch,and then allowed the males to breed again.Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the fast clutch,and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch.We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch:for example,total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching,then decreased to approximately zero.Despite these temporal changes,males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass.Moreover,individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time.Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels.Altogether,these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1):45-52,2012].

  3. Changing trends in total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Goudie, Ewan; Robinson, Cal; Walmsley, Phil; Brenkel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  This study evaluates a possible change in the demographics and surgical practice observed in a large cohort of patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR). Patients and methods:  We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data on two groups of consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR. Group one consisted of patients who underwent surgery between 1994 and 1998. Group two consisted of patients who had surgery between 2009 and 2012. Results:  The me...

  4. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  5. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  6. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  7. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  9. [Consistency and Reliability of MDK Expertise Examining the Encoding in the German DRG System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, T; Lehr, F; Blum, B; van Essen, J

    2015-09-01

    Hospital inpatient stays are reimbursed on the basis of German diagnosis-related groups (G-DRG). The G-DRG classification system is based on complex coding guidelines. The Medical Review Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds (MDK) examines the encoding by hospitals and delivers individual expertises on behalf of the German statutory health insurance companies in cases in which irregularities are suspected. A study was conducted on the inter-rater reliability of the MDK expertises regarding the scope of the assessment. A representative sample of 212 MDK expertises was taken from a selected pool of 1 392 MDK expertises in May 2013. This representative sample underwent a double-examination by 2 independent MDK experts using a special software based on the 3MTM G-DRG Grouper 2013 of 3M Medica, Germany. The following items encoded by the hospitals were examined: DRG, principal diagnosis, secondary diagnoses, procedures and additional payments. It was analysed whether the results of MDK expertises were consistent, reliable and correct. 202 expertises were eligible for evaluation, containing a total of 254 questions regarding one or more of the 5 items encoded by hospitals. The double-examination by 2 independent MDK experts showed matching results in 187 questions (73.6%) meaning they had been examined consistently and correctly. 59 questions (23.2%) did not show matching results, nevertheless they had been examined correctly regarding the scope of the assessment. None of the principal diagnoses was significantly affected by inconsistent or wrong judgment. A representative sample of MDK expertises examining the DRG encoding by hospitals showed a very high percentage of correct examination by the MDK experts. Identical MDK expertises cannot be achieved in all cases due to the scope of the assessment. Further improvement and simplification of codes and coding guidelines are required to reduce the scope of assessment with regard to correct DRG encoding and its

  10. Evaluating the Consistency of the FNA Test in Pathologically Proven Nodules of Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khazaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA is a selective diagnostic technique for the evaluation of non-toxic thyroid nodules. Thyroid FNA results are either undiagnosed or suspicious and indeterminate in 20-30% of cases. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the consistency of the FNA test in pathologically proven nodules of thyroidectomy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on a total of 73 candidates for thyroidectomy who had been admitted to Imam Ali Hospital. A census sampling method has been used in this study. The FNA samples and pathology samples were evaluated and the consistency of the FNA test in pathologically proven nodules were compared. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. The mean age of the patients was 40.1 ± 12.9 years. 23.3% of the participants were male and 76.7% of them were female. The malignancy rate in the pathology was 65.8% (48 cases and 53.4% (39 cases in the FNA. Of the 48 positive cases, the FNA pathology diagnosed 35 cases (72.9% as positive and 13 cases (27.1% as negative. Of the 25 negative cases, the FNA pathology diagnosed 21 cases (84% as negative and 4 cases (16% as positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of FNA in malignancy diagnosis were 72.92, 84, 89.74, and 61.76%, respectively. The results show that FNA does not have a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignancy, but has good specificity and the use of other diagnostic methods before the operation of thyroid nodules seems necessary.

  11. Sample pretretment in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    2003-01-01

    : Sample preparation → DNA amplification → DNA analysis. The overall goal of the project is integration of as many as possible of these steps. This thesis covers mainly pretreatment in a microchip. Some methods for sample pretreatment have been tested. Most conventional is fluorescence activated cell sort......When a sample, e.g. from a patient, is processed using conventional methods, the sample must be transported to the laboratory where it is analyzed, after which the results is sent back. By integrating the separate steps of the analysis in a micro total analysis system (μTAS), results can...... be obtained fast and better. Preferably with all the processes from sample to signal moved to the bedside of the patient. Of course there is still much to learn and study in the process of miniaturization. DNA analysis is one process subject to integration. There are roughly three steps in a DNA analysis...

  12. Consistency of variables in PCS and JASTRO great area database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Tomohiro; Teshima, Teruki; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) reflects the data for the major areas in Japan, the consistency of variables in the PCS and in the major area database of the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) were compared. Patients with esophageal or uterine cervical cancer were sampled from the PCS and JASTRO databases. From the JASTRO database, 147 patients with esophageal cancer and 95 patients with uterine cervical cancer were selected according to the eligibility criteria for the PCS. From the PCS, 455 esophageal and 432 uterine cervical cancer patients were surveyed. Six items for esophageal cancer and five items for uterine cervical cancer were selected for a comparative analysis of PCS and JASTRO databases. Esophageal cancer: Age (p=.0777), combination of radiation and surgery (p=.2136), and energy of the external beam (p=.6400) were consistent for PCS and JASTRO. However, the dose of the external beam for the non-surgery group showed inconsistency (p=.0467). Uterine cervical cancer: Age (p=.6301) and clinical stage (p=.8555) were consistent for the two sets of data. However, the energy of the external beam (p<.0001), dose rate of brachytherapy (p<.0001), and brachytherapy utilization by clinical stage (p<.0001) showed inconsistencies. It appears possible that the JASTRO major area database could not account for all patients' backgrounds and factors and that both surveys might have an imbalance in the stratification of institutions including differences in equipment and staffing patterns. (author)

  13. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  14. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  16. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  17. Drone Transport of Chemistry and Hematology Samples Over Long Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Hernandez, James; Snozek, Christine L H; Wyatt, Ryan G; Douglas, Matthew; Amini, Richard; Street, Jeff

    2017-11-02

    We addressed the stability of biological samples in prolonged drone flights by obtaining paired chemistry and hematology samples from 21 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event-84 samples total. Half of the samples were held stationary, while the other samples were flown for 3 hours (258 km) in a custom active cooling box mounted on the drone. After the flight, 19 chemistry and hematology tests were performed. Seventeen analytes had small or no bias, but glucose and potassium in flown samples showed an 8% and 6.2% bias, respectively. The flown samples (mean, 24.8°C) were a mean of 2.5°C cooler than the stationary samples (mean, 27.3°C) during transportation to the flight field as well as during the flight. The changes in glucose and potassium are consistent with the magnitude and duration of the temperature difference between the flown and stationary samples. Long drone flights of biological samples are feasible but require stringent environmental controls to ensure consistent results. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Jenis Sample: Keuntungan dan Kerugiannya

    OpenAIRE

    Suprapto, Agus

    1994-01-01

    Sample is a part of a population that are used in a study for purposes of making estimation about the nature of the total population that is obtained with sampling technic. Sampling technic is more adventagous than cencus because it can reduce cost, time, and it can gather deeper information and more accurate data. It is useful to distinguish two major types of sampling technics. First, Prob bility sampling i.e. simple random sampling. Second, Non Probability sampling i.e. systematic sam­plin...

  19. Self-consistent equilibria in cylindrical reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Surdo, C.; Paccagnella, R.; Guo, S.

    1995-03-01

    The object of this work is to study the self-consistent magnetofluidstatic equilibria of a 2-region (plasma + gas) reversed-field pinch (RFP) in cylindrical approximation (namely, with vanishing inverse aspect ratio). Differently from what happens in a tokamak, in a RFP a significant part of the plasma current is driven by a dynamo electric field (DEF), in its turn mainly due to plasma turbulence. So, it is worked out a reasonable mathematical model of the above self-consistent equilibria under the following main points it has been: a) to the lowest order, and according to a standard ansatz, the turbulent DEF say ε t , is expressed as a homogeneous transform of the magnetic field B of degree 1, ε t =(α) (B), with α≡a given 2-nd rank tensor, homogeneous of degree 0 in B and generally depending on the plasma state; b) ε t does not explicitly appear in the plasma energy balance, as it were produced by a Maxwell demon able of extract the corresponding Joule power from the plasma. In particular, it is showed that, if both α and the resistivity tensor η are isotropic and constant, the magnetic field is force-free with abnormality equal to αη 0 /η, in the limit of vanishing β; that is, the well-known J.B. Taylor'result is recovered, in this particular conditions, starting from ideas quite different from the usual ones (minimization of total magnetic energy under constrained total elicity). Finally, the general problem is solved numerically under circular (besides cylindrical) symmetry, for simplicity neglecting the existence of gas region (i.e., assuming the plasma in direct contact with the external wall)

  20. Quality of life and deglutition after total laryngectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Oliveira, Jabson Herber Profiro de; Régis, Renata Milena Freitas Lima; Lima, Leilane Maria de; Araújo, Ana Maria Bezerra de; Balata, Patrícia Maria Mendes; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Total laryngectomy creates deglutition disorders and causes a decrease in quality of life Aim: To describe the impact of swallowing and quality of life of patients after total laryngectomy. Method: A case series study. Patients completed a Swallowing and Quality of Life questionnaire composed of 44 questions assessing 11 domains related to quality of life (burden, eating duration, eating desire, frequency of symptoms, food selection, communication, fear, mental health, social functioning, sleep, and fatigue). The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability. Results: The sample comprised 15 patients who underwent total laryngectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Of these, 66.7% classified their health as good and 73% reported no restrictions on food consistency. The domains “communication” and “fear” represented severe impact and “eating duration” represented moderate impact on quality of life. The items with lower scores were: longer time to eat than others (domain “eating duration”), cough and cough to remove the liquid or food of the mouth when they are stopped (domain “symptom frequency”), difficulties in understanding (domain “communication”) and fear of choking and having pneumonia (domain “fear”). Conclusion: After total laryngectomy, patients report that swallowing issues have moderate to severe impact in “communication,” “fear,” and “eating duration” domains. PMID:25991974