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Sample records for total ribonucleic acid

  1. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Huang, C. L.; Vonk, L. A.; Lu, Z. F.; Bank, R. A.; Helder, M. N.; Doulabi, B. Zandieh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend

  2. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend

  3. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  4. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  5. Composition of ribonucleic acid from various parts of spider oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDSTROM, J E

    1960-09-01

    Microphoretic purine-pyrimidine analyses of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) in nucleoli, nucleoplasm, cytoplasm, and yolk nuclei of spider oocytes have been carried out. The material necessary for the analyses was isolated by micromanipulation. Determinations of the amounts of RNA in the different parts of the cell were also performed. No differences between the composition of RNA in the nucleolus and the cytoplasm could be disclosed. Nucleoplasmic RNA was, on the other hand, distinctly different from that in the nucleolus and in the cytoplasm. The difference lies in the content of adenine, which is highest in nucleoplasmic RNA. The few analyses carried out on yolk nuclei showed their RNA to be variable in composition with a tendency to high purine values. The cytoplasm contains about 99 per cent of the total RNA in these cells, the nucleoplasm about 1 per cent, and the nucleolus not more than 0.3 per cent, although the highest concentrations are found in these latter structures. When considered in the light of other recent findings the results are compatible with the view that nucleolar RNA is the precursor of cytoplasmic RNA.

  6. Separation of Transfer Ribonucleic Acids by Reverse Phase Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A. D.; Novelli, G. David; Stulberg, M. P.

    1965-10-01

    Numerous experimental techniques for the separation of transfer ribonucleic acids have been successful in preparing partially purified fractions of several specific t-RNAs. Many of the existing methods have depended upon the differential solubility of specific t-RNAs in complex two-phase systems (1-6) and the separation was achieved by means of counter-current extraction techniques. Column chromatography experiments using cellulose exchangers, (7,8) methylated albumin (9,10) or with solvent phases supported on inert material (11-13) have also shown partial separation of specific t-RNAs. Paper chromatographic procedures have produced partial resolutions of t-RNA.14 Methods involving chemical treatment of specific t-RNAs have been reported (15-19).

  7. Interferon Action on Parental Semliki Forest Virus Ribonucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert M.; Fantes, Karl H.; Levy, Hilton B.; Carter, William B.

    1967-01-01

    Actinomycin D-treated chick fibroblasts were infected with purified 32P-labeled Semliki forest virus, and ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted after 1 or 2 hr. Within 1 hr, viral RNA forms sedimenting in sucrose gradients at 42S, 30S, and 16S were present. The 42S form corresponded to the RNA of the virion. The 16S form appeared to be a double-stranded template for the formation of new viral RNA, since nascent RNA was associated with it and the molecule could be heat-denatured and subsequently reannealed by slow cooling. Interferon treatment before infection, or puromycin (50 μg/ml) or cycloheximide (200 μg/ml) added at the time of virus infection, had no effect on the formation of the 30S RNA but inhibited the production of the 16S form. Several findings made it unlikely that these results were due to breakdown of parental RNA and reincorporation of 32P into progeny structures. The results suggested that the mechanism of interferon action involves inhibition of protein synthesis by parental viral RNA, since a specific viral RNA polymerase had previously been demonstrated to be necessary for production of 16S RNA. No protein synthesis appears necessary for formation of 30S RNA from parental virus RNA. PMID:5621488

  8. Effect of Thymine Starvation on Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzati, Denise

    1966-01-01

    Luzzati, Denise (Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris, France). Effect of thymine starvation on messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1435–1446. 1966.—During the course of thymine starvation, the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA, the rapidly labeled fraction of the RNA which decays in the presence of dinitrophenol or which hybridizes with deoxyribonucleic acid) decreases exponentially, in parallel with the viability of the thymine-starved bacteria. The ability of cell-free extracts of starved bacteria to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates into RNA was determined; it was found to be inferior to that of extracts from control cells. The analysis of the properties of cell-free extracts of starved cells shows that their decreased RNA polymerase activity is the consequence of a modification of their deoxyribonucleic acid, the ability of which to serve as a template for RNA polymerase decreases during starvation. PMID:5332402

  9. Histochemical alternations in the Nissl bodies and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the spinal, gangalion neurones of gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Tohamy A.; Roushdy, Hamed M.; Raid, Nahed A.; Al-Zahaby, Al-Ahmady S.; Sanad, Samia M.

    1984-01-01

    Four groups of adult male albino rats were subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at the exposure levels of 200, 400, 600 and 1000 rads and the spinal ganglia were dissected out after different intervals of 3 hr., 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 30 days. Nissl bodies and ribonucleic acid were demonstrated histochemically. Gamma irradiation may cause a decrease in RNA synthesis which was reflected in a reduced amount of Nissl substance visible in toluidine blue stained you thick sections of spinal ganglion of gamma irradiated rats and in the total amount of cytoplasmic RNA in pyronin-methyl green stained sections compared with control animals

  10. Carbon magnetic resonance spectroscopy on carbon-13-labeled uracil in 5S ribonucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamill, W.D.; Grant, D.M.; Cooper, R.B.; Harmon, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the 13 C-enriched C-4 uridine carbons in 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid of Salmonella typhimurium, strain JL-1055, was obtained. The most striking feature of the 5S RNA spectrum was the large number of well-resolved lines in the uridine band covering a chemical shift range of approximately 3.6 ppM. This data was used to obtain information on the secondary structure. The number of uridines involved in secondary interactions is estimated to be at least 75% and may be as high as 95%

  11. The ribonucleic acid content of some mammalian erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helion Povoa Jr.

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA was determined in red blood cells of man and other mammals. Our report is based on 41 determinations. Red blood cells of rat showed the highest values in comparison with the blood cells of guinea pig, rabbit, horse and sheep which showed the lowest values, and man with intermediate ones. The method used was a combination of Schimidt and Thanhauser and Schneider extractions with the final reactions of pentose with the orcinol reagent colorimetrically measured.O ácido ribonucleico foi dosado em hemátias de mamíferos, num total de 41 casos. Valores altos foram encontrados em hemátias de ratos em comparação com os de cobaia, coelho, cavalo e carneiro. Hemátias humanas apresentaram valores intermediários. Usou-se um método, combinando-se as extrações de Schmidt, Thanhauser e Schneider com a reação final da pentose com o orcinol, lendo-se a côr verde num fotocolorímetro, em 650 milimicra.

  12. Striking similarities are exhibited by two small Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acids and the adenovirus-associated ribonucleic acids VAI and VAII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.D.; Gottlieb, E.; Lerner, M.R.; Steitz, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the region of the Epstein-Barr virus genome that specified two small ribonucleic acids (RNAs), EBER 1 and EBER 2, has been determined. Both of these RNAs are encoded by the right-hand 1,000 base pairs of the EcoRI J fragment of EBV deoxyribonucleic acid. EBER 1 is 166 (167) nucleotides long and EBER 2 is 172 +- 1 nucleotides long; the heterogeneity resides at the 3' termini. The EBER genes are separated by 161 base pairs and are transcribed from the same deoxyribonucleic acid strand. In vitro, both EBER genes can be transcribed by RNA polymerase III; sequences homologous to previously identified RNA polymerase III intragenic transcription control regions are present. Striking similarities are therefore apparent both between the EBERs and the two adenovirus-associated RNAs, VAI and VAII, and between the regions of the two viral genomes that specify these small RNAs. We have shown that VAII RNA as well as VAI RNA and the EBERs exist in ribonucleoprotein complexes which are precipitable by anti-La antibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Finally the authors have demonstrated that the binding of protein(s) from uninfected cells confers antigenicity on each of the four virus-encoded small RNAs.

  13. SIMS of transfer ribonucleic acid molecules encapsulated between free-standing graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S; Geng, Sheng; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Kim, Hansoo; Schweikert, Emile A

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the authors used cluster-secondary ion mass spectrometry method to investigate the preserved transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) encapsulated between two free-standing graphene sheets. Single impacts of 50 keV C60 (2+) projectiles generated the emission of tRNA fragment ions in the transmission direction for mass selection and detection in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is extremely unstable and prone to rapid enzymatic degradation by ribonucleases. Employing graphene to isolate RNA from the environment, the authors prevent the aforementioned process. Encapsulation was achieved by drop casting a solution of tRNA, prepared using deuterated water, onto one graphene sheet and covering it with another. The event-by-event bombardment/detection mode allowed us to use colocalization analysis method to characterize the tRNA and its immediate environment. The authors found that upon drying, tRNA agglomerated into nanostructures ∼60 nm in diameter via formation and subsequent drying of aqua cells. The tRNA nanoagglomerates had a density of ∼42 structures per μm(2) with coverage of ∼12% of the surface area. In addition, trace amounts of water remained mostly around the tRNA nanoagglomerates, probably in the form of hydration.

  14. Short communication Isolation of total ribonucleic acid from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leyland

    2016-12-19

    Dec 19, 2016 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2017, 47 (No. 1) ... plasma membrane integrity (PMI), normal apical ridges (NAR) .... contributed to the analysis of the RNA samples and CSP assisted in the revision of the manuscript.

  15. Dual pathways for ribonucleic acid turnover in WI-38 but not in I-cell human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameshima, M.; Liebhaber, S.A.; Schlessinger, D.

    1981-01-01

    The turnover rates of /sup 3/H-labeled 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA), 28S ribsomal RNA, transfer RNA, and total cytoplasmic RNA were very similar in growing WI-38 diploid fibroblasts. The rate of turnover was at least twofold greater when cell growth stopped due to cell confluence, /sup 3/H irradiation, or treatment with 20 mM NaN/sub 3/ or 2 mM NaF. In contrast, the rate of total /sup 3/H-protein turnover was the same in growing and nongrowing cells. Both RNA and protein turnovers were accelerated at least twofold in WI-38 cells deprived of serum, and this increase in turnover was inhibited by NH/sub 4/Cl. These results are consistent with two pathways for RNA turnover, oe of them being nonlysosomal and the other being lyosome mediated (NH/sub 4/Cl sensitive), as has been suggested for protein turnover. Also consistent with the notion of two pathways for RNA turnover were findings with I-cells, which are deficient for many lysosomal enzymes, and in which all RNA turnover were nonlysosomal (NH/sub 4/Cl resistant)

  16. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  17. Micro-ribonucleic acid-binding site variants of type 2 diabetes candidate loci predispose to gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Wei; Ma, Liangkun; Ping, Fan; Liu, Juntao; Wu, Xueyan; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xi; Nie, Min

    2018-01-20

    Emerging evidence has suggested that the genetic background of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was analogous to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the genetic studies for GDM were limited. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to extensively explore the influence of micro-ribonucleic acid-binding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci on GDM susceptibility in Chinese. A total of 839 GDM patients and 900 controls were enrolled. Six micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs were selected from 30 type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci and genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The minor allele of three SNPs, PAX4 rs712699 (OR 1.366, 95% confidence interval 1.021-1.828, P = 0.036), KCNB1 rs1051295 (OR 1.579, 95% confidence interval 1.172-2.128, P = 0.003) and MFN2 rs1042842 (OR 1.398, 95% confidence interval 1.050-1.862, P = 0.022) were identified to significantly confer higher a risk of GDM in the additive model. The association between rs1051295 and increased fasting plasma glucose (b = 0.006, P = 0.008), 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.058, P = 0.025) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (b = 0.065, P = 0.017) was also shown. Rs1042842 was correlated with higher 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.056, P = 0.028). However, no significant correlation between the other included SNPs (LPIN1 rs1050800, VPS26A rs1802295 and NLRP3 rs10802502) and GDM susceptibility were observed. The present findings showed that micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci were also associated with GDM susceptibility, which further highlighted the similar genetic basis underlying GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences in Bacteroides and Fusobacterium: evolutionary relationships within these genera and among eubacteria in general

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, H.; De Baere, R.; Shah, H. N.; Gharbia, S. E.; Fox, G. E.; Michalik, J.; Van de Peer, Y.; De Wachter, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences were determined for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides capillosus, Bacteroides veroralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Anaerorhabdus furcosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Fusobacterium varium. A dendrogram constructed by a clustering algorithm from these sequences, which were aligned with all other hitherto known eubacterial 5S rRNA sequences, showed differences as well as similarities with respect to results derived from 16S rRNA analyses. In the 5S rRNA dendrogram, Bacteroides clustered together with Cytophaga and Fusobacterium, as in 16S rRNA analyses. Intraphylum relationships deduced from 5S rRNAs suggested that Bacteroides is specifically related to Cytophaga rather than to Fusobacterium, as was suggested by 16S rRNA analyses. Previous taxonomic considerations concerning the genus Bacteroides, based on biochemical and physiological data, were confirmed by the 5S rRNA sequence analysis.

  19. Physiological and biochemical studies on the function of 5-methyluridine in the transfer ribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, G R; Neidhardt, F C

    1975-10-01

    Matched pairs of transductant strains differing by the presence of absence of 5-methyluridine (ribothymidine) (m5U) in their transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) were used to study the function of this modified nucleoside in Escherichia coli. Ordinary measurements of growth rate in different media revealed no effect of the loss of m5U in tRNA. A gene located close to trmA (the structural cistron for the methyltransferase that produces m5U in tRNA), however, was found to reduce the growth rates significantly, depending on the medium and the temperature of cultivation. Measurement of codon recognition, macromolecular composition, tRNA binding to the ribosome, and the rate of protein chain elongation in vivo indicated no disadvantage caused by the lack of m5U. The regulation of ilv and his operons seemed also to be unaffected by the absence of m5U in the tRNA. In a mixed population experiment, however, cells possessing m5U in their tRNA seemed to have a distinct advantage over cells lacking this modified nucleoside. This experiment provides the first indication of the overall value of m5U in tRNA.

  20. Synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica and from the central nervous system of Mus musculus contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huinan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS of Mus musculus (mouse contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤50 nucleotides (Scientific Reports, 5:1–14(14918 Li et al. (2015 [1]. Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively. We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.

  1. Determination of 35S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-01-01

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to [ 35 S]methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of 35 S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine. The use of [ 35 S]methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of 35 S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed

  2. Determination of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

    1981-11-15

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to (/sup 35/S)methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine. The use of (/sup 35/S)methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of /sup 35/S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed.

  3. Mixed-mode chromatographic matrices for the resolution of transfer ribonucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Mclaughlin, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modification of approximately 65% of the amine groups of an aminopropylsilyl bonded-phase silica high-performance liquid chromatographic anion exchanger (APS-Hypersil) with organic acids containing n-alkyl moieties of different chain lengths, results in mixed mode chromatographic matrices of varying

  4. [1,10]Phenanthroline based cyanine dyes as fluorescent probes for ribonucleic acids in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalska, Vladyslava; Kuperman, Marina; Varzatskii, Oleg; Kryvorotenko, Dmytro; Kinski, Elisa; Schikora, Margot; Janko, Christina; Alexiou, Christoph; Yarmoluk, Sergiy; Mokhir, Andriy

    2017-12-01

    A series of monomethine, trimethine- and styrylcyanine dyes based on a [1,10]phenanthroline moiety was synthesized, characterized and investigated as potential fluorescent probes for nucleic acids in cell free settings and in cells. The dyes were found to be weakly fluorescent in the unbound state, whereas upon the binding to dsDNA or RNA their emission intensity raised up to 50 times (for monomethine benzothiazole derivative FT1 complexed with RNA). The strongest fluorescence intensity in assemblies with dsDNA and RNA was observed for the trimethine benzothiazole derivative FT4. The quantum yield of FT4 fluorescence in its complex with dsDNA was found to be 1.5% and the binding constant (K b) was estimated to be 7.9 × 104 M-1 that is a typical value for intercalating molecules. The FT4 dye was found to be cell membrane permeable. It stains RNA rich components—the nucleoli and most probably the cytoplasmic RNA. FT4 bound to RNAs delivers a very strong fluorescence signal, which makes this easily accessible dye a potentially useful alternative to known RNA stains, e.g. expensive SYTO® 83. The advantage of FT4 is its easy synthetic access including no chromatographic purification steps, which will be reflected in its substantially lower price.

  5. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta

    OpenAIRE

    Naghshineh, Elham; Khorvash, Elahe; Kamali, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to comparison between cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in women with placenta accreta. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta underwent color Doppler and assessment of cell-free placental mRNA. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for measurement of cell-free placental m...

  6. Binding site of ribosomal proteins on prokaryotic 5S ribonucleic acids: a study with ribonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1982-01-01

    The binding sites of ribosomal proteins L18 and L25 on 5S RNA from Escherichia coli were probed with ribonucleases A, T1, and T2 and a double helix specific cobra venom endonuclease. The results for the protein-RNA complexes, which were compared with those for the free RNA [Douthwaite, S...... stearothermophilus 5S RNA. Several protein-induced changes in the RNA structures were identified; some are possibly allosteric in nature. The two prokaryotic 5S RNAs were also incubated with total 50S subunit proteins from E. coli and B. stearothermophilus ribosomes. Homologous and heterologous reconstitution....... stearothermophilus 5S RNA, which may have been due to a third ribosomal protein L5....

  7. SHIFT IN HUMAN ROTAVIRUS DISTRIBUTION IN BELO HORIZONTE, BRAZIL DETECTED BY RIBONUCLEIC ACID ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millan Scarabeli Alves Coelho da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus has been considered the main agent of infectious diarrhea especially among younger children. We addressed the prevalence of rotavirus-associated diarrhea and the diversity of circulating electropherotypes by immunochromatography and RNA electrophoresis. Stool samples were taken from 391 children (267 with diarrhea from the lower socioeconomic stratum who sought treatment in the Hospital Infantil João Paulo II/Belo Horizonte, during 2005 and 2006. Rotavirus was detected in 79/20.2% of subjects, 64/24.0% with diarrhea and 15/12.1% with no diarrhea. The virus was strongly associated with diarrhea (p = 0.003. A total of 76/19.4% and 69/17.6% rotavirus-positive children were identified by immunochromatography and electrophoresis, respectively. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea was more frequently detected in dry months (p < 0.001 and almost exclusively in children aged up to three years. Long profile strains prevailed (54/78.3% but a shift toward short electropherotype was identified. Despite the decrease seen in 2006, rotavirus infection is still very common in our area. Although viral RNA electrophoresis is useful as a typing method, it should not be used exclusively in the diagnosis of rotavirus infection. We confirmed a shift from long to short profile strains, as already described for other South American countries.

  8. New insights into the molecular mechanism of Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction (BE3) concerning antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-05-24

    One of the relatively new and promising strategies of cancer treatment is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural or synthetic compounds to block, inhibit or reverse carcinogenesis. A valuable and still untapped source of chemopreventive compounds seems to be edible mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes. Boletus edulis biopolymers extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography showed antiproliferative activity in colon cancer cells, but only fraction BE3, mostly composed of ribonucleic acids, was able to inhibit DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells. The present work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction and in this sense flow cytometry and western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis in HT-29 cells. We found that the antiproliferative ability of fraction BE3 observed in HT-29 cells was associated with the modulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, p21 and p27) leading to cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the BE3 fraction showed effective silencing of the signal transduction in an MAPK/Erk pathway in HT-29 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines. Thus, the previously and currently obtained results indicate that the BE3 fraction from Boletus edulis has great potential and needs to be further exploited through animal and clinical studies in order to develop a new efficient and safe therapeutic strategy for people who have been threatened by or suffered from colon cancer.

  9. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Elham; Khorvash, Elahe; Kamali, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparison between cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in women with placenta accreta. In this cross-sectional study, 50 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta underwent color Doppler and assessment of cell-free placental mRNA. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for measurement of cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma. Based on the findings at cesarean delivery and histological examination, patients were divided into two groups of women with and without placenta accrete. To compare of the mean of mRNA levels between the two groups we used independent t-test and to compare of the mean of age and gestational age at sonography we used Mann-Whitney test. For determination of sensitivity and specificity and the cut-off point of mRNA levels we used the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 50 women with a mean age of 30.24 ± 4.905 years entered the study and 12 (24%) patients were diagnosed with placenta accreta. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Doppler ultrasound were 83.3%, 78.9%, 56% and 94%, respectively. Results of our study showed if we consider a cut-off point equal to 3.325, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.917 and 0.789, respectively and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of mRNA with were cut-off point of 3.325 were 91.7%, 78.9%, 57.9% and 96.8%, respectively. Cell-free mRNA is an acceptable, easy made, functional test with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV more than Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis and prediction of incidence of placenta accrete and we recommend the use of cell-free mRNA test for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

  10. Isolation of total ribonucleic acid from fresh and frozen-thawed boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RNA) from raw fresh semen and frozen-thawed boar semen, using a protocol comprising the conventional TRIzol assay and a membrane-based technique, the PureLink RNA mini kit. Bioanalyzer profile revealed that the sperm RNA size ...

  11. Synaptic vesicles contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs) including transfer RNA fragments (trfRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2015-10-08

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are neuronal presynaptic organelles that load and release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have found that synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), primarily the 5' ends of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) termed tRNA fragments (trfRNAs). To test the evolutionary conservation of SV sRNAs we examined isolated SVs from the mouse central nervous system (CNS). We found abundant levels of sRNAs in mouse SVs, including trfRNAs and micro RNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. This discovery suggests that, in addition to inducing changes in local dendritic excitability through the release of neurotransmitters, SVs may, through the release of specific trfRNAs and miRNAs, directly regulate local protein synthesis. We believe these findings have broad implications for the study of chemical synaptic transmission.

  12. 16S Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Bloodstream Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guoming; Fu, Zhuqing; Hu, Liren; Wang, Yueying; Zhao, Zuguo; Yang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the accuracy of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in the diagnosis of bloodstream infections through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A computerized literature search was conducted to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic value of 16S rRNA gene PCR test for bloodstream infections. Study quality was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for each study. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was used to summarize overall test performance. Statistical analysis was performed in Meta-DiSc 1.4 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. Twenty-eight studies were included in our meta-analysis. Using random-effect model analysis, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, and DOR were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85-0.89), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.93-0.95), 12.65 (95% CI, 8.04-19.90), 0.14 (95% CI, 0.08-0.24), and 116.76 (95% CI, 52.02-262.05), respectively. The SROC curve indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9690 and the maximum joint sensitivity and specificity (Q*) was 0.9183. In addition, heterogeneity was statistically significant but was not caused by the threshold effect. Existing data suggest that 16S rRNA gene PCR test is a practical tool for the rapid screening of sepsis. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the diagnostic value of PCR amplification and DNA microarray hybridization of 16S rRNA gene in the future.

  13. Effect of the mutation (C3435T) at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on expression level of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in duodenal enterocytes of healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Horinouchi, Masanori; Tamura, Takao; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Kasuga, Masato; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-04-01

    The effect of the C3435T mutation at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on the expression levels of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was evaluated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction in 51 biopsy specimens of duodenum obtained from 13 healthy Japanese subjects. The mRNA levels of MDR1 were 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.14, and 1.13 +/- 0.42 (mean value +/- SE) in the subjects with the homozygote of wild-type allele (C/C), compound heterozygote with mutant T allele (C/T), and the homozygote of the mutant allele (T/T), respectively, reasonably explaining the lower digoxin serum concentration after administration of a single oral dose to subjects harboring a mutant T allele. Good correlation (r =.797; P CYP3A4 in the individual biopsy specimens. This finding suggested a lower plasma concentration of the substrates for CYP3A4 in subjects harboring the C3435T mutation of the MDR1 gene.

  14. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  16. Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Smith, Bryan R.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Kaspar, Roger L.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

  17. Micro-ribonucleic acids and extracellular vesicles repertoire in the spent culture media is altered in women undergoing In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Halima, Masood; Häusler, Sebastian; Backes, Christina; Fehlmann, Tobias; Staib, Claudia; Nestel, Sigrun; Nazarenko, Irina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2017-10-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are class of small RNA molecules with major impact on gene regulation. We analyzed the potential of miRNAs secreted from pre-implantation embryos into the embryonic culture media as biomarkers to predict successful pregnancy. Using microarray analysis, we profiled the miRNome of the 56 spent culture media (SCM) after embryos transfer and found a total of 621 miRNAs in the SCM. On average, we detected 163 miRNAs in SCM of samples with failed pregnancies, but only 149 SCM miRNAs of embryos leading to pregnancies. MiR-634 predicted an embryo transfer leading to a positive pregnancy with an accuracy of 71% and a sensitivity of 85%. Among the 621 miRNAs, 102 (16.4%) showed a differential expression between positive and negative outcome of pregnancy with miR-29c-3p as the most significantly differentially expressed miRNA. The number of extracellular vehicles was lower in SCM with positive outcomes (3.8 × 10 9 /mL EVs), as compared to a negative outcome (7.35 × 10 9 /mL EVs) possibly explaining the reduced number of miRNAs in the SCM associated with failed pregnancies. The analysis of the miRNome in the SCM of couples undergoing fertility treatment lays the ground towards development of biomarkers to predict successful pregnancy and towards understanding the role of embryonic miRNAs found in the SCM.

  18. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S F; Harmon, D L; Vanzant, E S; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the absorption of monosaccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In contrast, GLUT2 (gene SLC2A2) transports all of these sugars across basolateral and apical membranes. To compare the distribution patterns and sensitivity with nutritional regulation of these 3 SugT mRNA in beef cattle small intestinal tissue, 18 ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (BW approximately 260 kg) were assigned to water (control), ruminal cornstarch (partially hydrolyzed by alpha-amylase; SH), or abomasal SH infusion treatments (n = 6) and fed an alfalfa-cube-based diet at 1.3 x NE(m) requirement. The SH infusions amounted to 20% of ME intake. After 14- or 16-d of infusion, steers were killed; duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia harvested; and total RNA extracted. The relative amount of SugT mRNA in epithelia was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification methods. Basal expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA in small intestinal epithelia was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by either SH infusion treatment. In contrast, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA content in the ileal epithelium was increased (P content also was increased (P = 0.07) by 64% after ruminal SH infusion. These results demonstrate that the ileum of beef cattle small intestine adapts to an increased luminal supply of glucose by increasing SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA content, whereas increased ruminal SH supply results in duodenal upregulation of SGLT1 mRNA content. These adaptive responses of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA to abomasal or ruminal SH infusion suggest that beef cattle can adapt to increase their carbohydrate assimilation through small intestinal epithelia, assuming

  19. Comparing the effects of tetrabromobisphenol-A, bisphenol A, and their potential replacement alternatives, TBBPA-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) and bisphenol S, on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Melissa; Crump, Doug; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    A market for alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has emerged recently due to the phase out of persistent and inherently toxic BFRs. Several of these replacement compounds have been detected in environmental matrices, including wild birds. A chicken embryonic hepatocyte (CEH) assay was utilized to assess the effects of the BFR, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and its replacement alternative, tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether [TBBPA-DBPE]) on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 1 of its replacement alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS), were also screened for effects. Both TBBPA and BPA decreased CEH viability with calculated median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 40.6 μM and 61.7 μM, respectively. However, the replacement alternatives, TBBPA-DBPE and BPS, did not affect cell viability (up to 300 μM). Effects on mRNA expression were determined using an Avian ToxChip polymerse chain reaction (PCR) array and a real-time (RT)-PCR assay for the estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoproteinII (ApoII) and vitellogenin (Vtg). A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to assess dioxin-like effects. Tetrabromobisphenol-A altered mRNA levels of 4 genes from multiple toxicity pathways and increased luciferase activity in the luciferase reporter gene assay, whereas its alternative, TBBPA-DBPE, only altered 1 gene on the array, Cyp1a4, and increased luciferase activity. At 300 μM, a concentration that decreased cell viability for TBBPA and BPA, the BPA replacement, BPS, altered the greatest number of transcripts, including both ApoII and Vtg. Bisphenol A exposure did not alter any genes on the array but did up-regulate Vtg at 10 μM. Characterization of the potential toxicological and molecular-level effects of these compounds will ideally be useful to chemical regulators tasked with assessing the risk of new and existing chemicals. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  1. Thioacetamide-induced changes in the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Ashraf, Fauzia.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thioacetamide (TAA) on the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse were studied. TAA 1% and 2% solutions were injected intraperitoneally, twice with an interval of 24 hours in two different batches of male mice. In this way one batch received a total dose of 100 mg TAA/Kg body wt. while the other got a total dose of 200 mg TAA/Kg. Both the body as well as kidney weights decrease after TAA treatment. A total dose of 200 mg/Kg is a stronger inhibitor of growth as compared with that of 100 mg/Kg. The nucleic acids content show an increase after the drug treatment. The ribonucleic acid content of kidney increased from an average value of 4.30+0.14 mg/g kidney to 4.60+-0.22 mg/g kidney after 1% TAA treatment. The increase in 2% TAA treated mice is slightly more prominent. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content of kidney are likewise affected. After an initial increase in 1% TAA-treated animals, the DNA content gradually fall down to normal control values. Administration of 2% TAA solution causes an average increase of 21% i.e. from 1.93+-0.19 mg/g kidney wt to 2.26+-0.23 mg/g kidney wt. The size of cell, nucleus and nucleolus also increased after drug treatment, which mainly occurred during the first 24 hours of the post-treatment period

  2. Impact of enteral supplements enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and/or omega-6 fatty acids, arginine and ribonucleic acid compounds on leptin levels and nutritional status in active Crohn's disease treated with prednisolone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Nielsen, Jens Nederby; Grønbaek, Henning

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often develop malnutrition due to disease activity. We aimed to assess the effect of two different enteral supplements of Impact(R) Powder (IP; Novartis, Switzerland) on leptin levels and nutritional status in active CD patients during prednisolone...... treatment and tapering. METHODS: Thirty-one CD patients were randomized to IP Extra (group 1) or IP Standard (group 2). Leptin levels, nutritional, clinical and biochemical markers were studied at inclusion, after 5 and after 9 weeks of the study. RESULTS: Leptin levels, body mass index (BMI) and total...... to improve nutritional status in CD patients....

  3. Impact of enteral supplements enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and/or omega-6 fatty acids, arginine and ribonucleic acid compounds on leptin levels and nutritional status in active Crohn's disease treated with prednisolone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.A.; Nielsen, J.N.; Grønbæk, Henning

    2007-01-01

    treatment and tapering. METHODS: Thirty-one CD patients were randomized to IP Extra (group 1) or IP Standard (group 2). Leptin levels, nutritional, clinical and biochemical markers were studied at inclusion, after 5 and after 9 weeks of the study. RESULTS: Leptin levels, body mass index (BMI) and total......BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often develop malnutrition due to disease activity. We aimed to assess the effect of two different enteral supplements of Impact(R) Powder (IP; Novartis, Switzerland) on leptin levels and nutritional status in active CD patients during prednisolone...... cholesterol increased significantly within both groups at week 5 compared to inclusion. Leptin levels correlated with BMI in both groups at inclusion and in group 2 at week 9. In group 1, triglyceride levels remained unchanged, while levels in group 2 increased significantly at week 5 compared to inclusion...

  4. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize extraction of total triterpene acids from loquat leaf and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant activities. Methods: The independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction time, and solvent ratio, while the dependent variable was content of total triterpene acids. Composite design and response ...

  5. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  6. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  7. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  8. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  9. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, total phenolic compound and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year study at Alexandria University compared ascorbic acid, β-carotene, total phenolic compound, nitrite content and microbiological quality of orange and strawberry fruits grown under organic and conventional management techniques to see if producers concerns are valid. Organically grown oranges and ...

  10. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  11. Oral Tranexamic Acid Reduces Transfusions in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Roger E; Fournier, Christine A; Mattingly, David A; Junghans, Richard P; Talmo, Carl T

    2017-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces intraoperative blood loss and transfusions in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Although numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of intravenous and topical TXA in these patients, few demonstrate the effectiveness and appropriate dosing recommendations of oral formulations. A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate differences in transfusion requirements in patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty with either no TXA (n = 866), a single-dose of oral TXA (n = 157), or both preoperative and postoperative oral TXA (n = 1049). Secondary outcomes included postoperative hemoglobin drop, total units transfused, length of stay, drain output, and cell salvage volume. Transfusion rates decreased from 15.4% in the no-oral tranexamic acid (OTA) group to 9.6% in the single-dose OTA group (P < .001) and 7% in the 2-dose group (P < .001), with no difference in transfusion rates between the single- and 2-dose groups (P = .390). In addition, postoperative hemoglobin drop was reduced from 4.2 g/dL in the no-OTA group to 3.5 g/dL in the single-dose group (P < .01) and to 3.4 g/dL in the 2-dose group (P < .01), without a difference between the single- and 2-dose groups (P = .233). OTA reduces transfusions, with greater ease of administration and improved cost-effectiveness relative to other forms of delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallinger, A.

    2008-11-01

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A

  13. Simultaneous separation of five major ribonucleic acids by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in the presence of electroosmotic flow: application to the rapid screening of 5S rRNA from ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chu; Liao, Ching-Ru; Chung, I-Che; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Po-Ling

    2014-10-17

    RNA integrity is important in RNA studies because poor RNA quality may impact downstream methodologies. This study proposes a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of RNA integrity based on CE-LIF in the presence of electroosmotic flow. The proposed method uses poly(ethylene) oxide (Mavg=4,000,000 Da) as a sieving matrix for total RNA separation. Ethidium bromide (μg mL(-1)) was dissolved in a polymer solution as an interchelating dye for on-column fluorescent labeling. The 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA from the total human RNA extracted from the cells were fully separated using the proposed method. The lowest detectable concentration of total RNA achieved was 100 pg μL(-1) with a 6 min sample injection followed by on-column concentration. In addition, the temperature-induced degradation of total RNA was observed by CE-LIF. The electropherograms revealed more fragmentation of 28S and 18S rRNAs by temperature-induced hydrolysis compared with the 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA. Therefore, the results indicated that RNA degradation should be considered for long-term, high-temperature incubations in RNA-related experiments involving RNA hybridization. The proposed method is furthermore, applied to the determination of 5S rRNA overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells as compared to the cervical cancer cells. Overall, CE-LIF is highly promising for rapid screening of ovarian cancers without tedious pre-amplification steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Methylation of ribonucleic acid by the carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Comparisons of chemical analyses at the nucleoside and base levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, P. D.; Shah, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    1. The following methods for hydrolysis of methyl-14C-labelled RNA, and for chromatographic isolation and determination of the products, were investigated: enzymic digestion to nucleosides at pH6 or 8; alkaline hydrolysis and conversion into nucleosides; hydrolysis by acid to pyrimidine nucleotides and purine bases, or completely to bases; chromatography on Dowex 50 (NH4+ form) at pH6 or 8.9, or on Dowex 50 (H+ form), or on Sephadex G-10. 2. The suitability of the various methods for determination of methylation products was assessed. The principal product, 7-methylguanosine, was unstable under the conditions used for determinations of nucleosides. 3- and 7-Methyladenine and 3- and 7-methylguanine are best determined as bases; 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine can be isolated as either nucleosides or bases; O6-methylguanine is unstable under the acid hydrolysis conditions used and can be determined as the nucleoside; 3-methyluracil was detected, but may be derived from methylation of the ionized form of uracil. 3. Differences between the patterns of methylation of RNA and homopolyribonucleotides by the N-methyl-N-nitroso compounds and dimethyl sulphate were found: the nitroso compounds were able to methylate O-6 of guanine, were relatively more reactive at N-7 of adenine and probably at N-3 of guanine, but less reactive at N-1 of adenine, N-3 of cytosine and probably at N-3 of uridine. They probably reacted more with the ribose–phosphate chain, but no products from this were identified. 4. The possible influences of these differences on biological action of the methylating agents is discussed. Nitroso compounds may differ principally in their ability to induce miscoding in the Watson–Crick sense by reaction at O-6 of guanine. Both types of agent may induce miscoding to a lesser extent through methylation at N-3 of guanine; both can methylate N atoms, presumably preventing Watson–Crick hydrogen-bonding. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea can degrade RNA, possibly

  16. Use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARRA, FRANCESCO; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose different strategies have been developed to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The efficacy of both systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is demonstrated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of systemic, local and combined (systemic + local) administration of TXA in reducing blood loss after TKA. Methods we enrolled all patients submitted to a primary TKA in our department between November 2014 and August 2015. They were divided into three groups corresponding to the method of TXA administration used: intravenous (IV), intra-articular (IA), and a combination of the two. Demographic data, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, were collected. The primary outcome was the maximum hemoglobin loss, while the secondary outcomes were the amount of blood in the drain (cc/hour) and the rate of transfusions; postoperative pain was also assessed. Student’s t-test or a χ2 test was used to evaluate between-group differences, using p<0.05 as the cut-off for statistically significant differences. Results the sample comprised 34 patients: IV, 10 cases; IA, 15 cases, and combined (IV + IA), 9 cases. The average age of the patients was 71.1±6.4 years. No significant differences in the outcome measures were found between the groups, with the exception of a significantly lower maximum hemoglobin loss in the combined versus the IV group (p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in the amount of blood in the drain or the rate of transfusions. Conclusions the data from this preliminary study, as well as data from the literature, confirm that TXA administration is safe and effective in reducing total blood loss in TKA, and no administration protocol seems to be superior to the others. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:28217656

  17. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... the diversity and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population in fresh ..... combining morphological, biochemical and molecular data are important for ..... acid bacteria from fermented maize (Kenkey) and their interactions.

  18. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω3), linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid. (C20:5 ω3) had the highest levels among the PUFAs. ... coronary artery disease, diabetes, hyper-tension and .... factors such as season, the type and amount of feed ..... composition of some Malaysian freswater fish.

  19. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) is the mediator of progesterone's antiapoptotic action in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells as revealed by PGRMC1 small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment and functional analysis of PGRMC1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, John J; Romak, Jonathan; Liu, Xiufang

    2008-02-01

    Progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and its binding partner, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein (PAIRBP1) are thought to form a complex that functions as membrane receptor for P4. The present investigations confirm PGRMC1's role in this membrane receptor complex by demonstrating that depleting PGMRC1 with PGRMC1 small interfering RNA results in a 60% decline in [(3)H]P4 binding and the loss of P4's antiapoptotic action. Studies conducted on partially purified GFP-PGRMC1 fusion protein indicate that [(3)H]P4 specifically binds to PGRMC1 at a single site with an apparent K(d) of about 35 nm. In addition, experiments using various deletion mutations reveal that the entire PGRMC1 molecule is required for maximal [(3)H]P4 binding and P4 responsiveness. Analysis of the binding data also suggests that the P4 binding site is within a segment of PGRMC1 that is composed of the transmembrane domain and the initial segment of the C terminus. Interestingly, PAIRBP1 appears to bind to the C terminus between amino acids 70-130, which is distal to the putative P4 binding site. Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence that PGRMC1 is the P4 binding protein that mediates P4's antiapoptotic action. Moreover, the deletion mutation studies indicate that each domain of PGRMC1 plays an essential role in modulating PGRMC1's capacity to both bind and respond to P4. Additional studies are required to more precisely delineate the role of each PGRMC1 domain in transducing P4's antiapoptotic action.

  20. Tranexamic Acid in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in surgical and anesthetic techniques, total joint arthroplasty (TJA is still associated with substantial blood loss and postoperative anemia (1. A considerable portion of patients with postoperative anemia require blood transfusion, which has been shown to negatively affect the outcome of TJA and predisposes patients to development of surgical site infection and periprosthetic joint infection (2,3.   Various blood conservation strategies have been developed to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing TJA (3. Administration of tranexamic acid (TA is one of the most effective (4. TA is a synthetic lysine derivative drug that binds to plasminogen and prevents the interaction of plasminogen and fibrin, eventually leading to dissolution of fibrin clots (5.   There is level I evidence supporting the need for allogeneic transfusion in primary total hip and total knee arthroplasties, and the efficacy of TA in particular for reducing blood loss (6,7. TA is also effective in reducing the need for blood transfusion in bilateral TJA and revision surgeries (4. Moreover, when TA is used, other blood conservation strategies are rendered unnecessary (4.   The drug can be used intravenously in a weight-based manner (10-20 mg/kg, or administered 1gm intravenously at the start of surgery and 1gm intravenously at the end of surgery, or up to 3 hours after the first dose. TA can also be applied topically to the surgical site to provide hemostasis, or it can be injected intra-articularly (1g in 50 cc saline. Although oral administration of TA (25 mg/kg, maximum 2g, two hours preoperatively has also been reported to be effective, it is not routinely used in TJA patients and intravenous and topical methods are preferred (4.   Despite the proven efficacy of the use of TA in TJA, there are still some concerns about the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE after TA is used. Since VTE following TJA is

  1. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  2. Changes in secondary structure of poliovirus ribonucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koza, J.

    1975-01-01

    Infectious single-stranded RNA isolated from mature purified poliovirus was separated into three fractions by means of chromatography on an ''evaporated'' calcium phosphate column. RNA molecules with a higher degree of secondary structure were detected in two of the fractions as a result of the chromatography. These RNA molecules (1) were resistant to hydrolysis by pancreatic ribonuclease A, (2) retained unchanged the original infectivity for actinomycin D-pretreated cells, (3) were resistant to ultraviolet-light inactivation and (4) were partially resistant to formaldehyde inactivation

  3. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.C.; Boyd, C.K.; Koenigsfeld, A.T.; Okamura, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  4. Separation of transfer ribonucleic acids on polystyrene anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.P.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.

    1976-11-16

    The transfer RNA separation by chromatography on strong-base-polystyrene exchange materials is examined and compared with the widely used reversed-phase chromatography. Results indicate important differences in some transfer RNA (tRNA) elution patterns by the anion-exchange chromatography, as compared with the reversed-phase chromatography. Transfer RNAs containing hydrophobic groups are adsorbed more strongly. The anion exchanger has twice the number of theoretical plates. Single peaks of tRNA/sub 2//sup Glu/ and tRNA/sub 1//sup Phe/ obtained from the reversed-phase column give multiple peaks on polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography. All six leucine tRNAs (Escherichia coli) and differences in tRNA populations synthesized during early and late stages of the dividing lymphocytes from normal human blood can be characterized by the anion-exchange chromatography. Different separation profiles are obtained by two separation systems for tyrosine tRNAs from mouse liver and mouse-plasma-cell tumor. The results indicate that, in contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, strong-base-polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography is capable of separating tRNAs with minor structural differences.

  5. Total Synthesis of Dolatrienoic Acid: A Subunit of Dolastatin 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouné, Sylvie; Niel, Gilles; Busquet, Magali; Eggleston, Ian; Jouin, Patrick

    1997-05-16

    The (7R,15R)- and (7S,15R)-diastereomers of dolatrienoic acid were synthesized using a convergent strategy. Fragment C5-C9 was obtained through enantiodifferentiation of racemic pentane-1,3,5-triol as the key step, fixing the chirality at C7 of fragments 4 and ent-4. The chirality at C15 of the fragment C10-C16 was introduced from L-glutamic acid. Coupling of these two fragments led to the aldehydes (7R,15R)- and (7S,15R)-2 which were homologated by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation to give (7R,15R)- and (7S,15R)-dolatrienoic acids.

  6. The effect of folic acid supplementation on total plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines 90 days of oral supplementation of a liquid supplement, containing folic acid and vitamin B12, on the plasma homocysteine levels in 20 sedentary adult men, aged 20-60 years. Supplier recommended dosage was administered daily. Blood was drawn pre- and post-test for measuring homocysteine, ...

  7. Proportion of root-derived acid phosphomonoesterase in total soil acid phosphomonoesterase in different forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Holík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme acid phosphomonoesterase (APM plays an important role in phosphorus mineralization in different type of terrestrial ecosystems. This enzyme is of great agronomic significance because it hydrolyses organic phosphorus to different forms of inorganic phosphorus which are assimilable by plants. APM may also indicate changes in the quantity and quality of phosphorylated substrates in soil and is a good indicator of its biological state as well as presence of pollutants. APM may be produced by plant roots and soil microorganisms and both of these sources may play different role in phosphorus mineralization in different ecosystems. The aim of this work was determine acid phosphomonoesterase (APM activity location in soil of different forest ecosystems. The APM activity location determination was performed on the basis of root-derived and soil-derived APM and expression of proportion of those root-derived in total soil APM up to 13 cm depth. The results of this preliminary study showed that root-derived APM formed 21–34 % of total soil APM in pine and oak forest.

  8. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Sredović Ivana D.

    2009-01-01

    Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only) with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substance...

  9. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  10. Quantification of free and total sialic acid excretion by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, Maria; Prinsen, Berthil H. C. M. T.; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Abeling, Nicolaas G. G. M.; Dorland, Bert; Berger, Ruud; de Koning, Tom J.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose for measuring urinary free sialic acid (FSA) is to diagnose sialic acid (SA) storage diseases. Elevated amounts of conjugated sialic acid (CSA) are observed in several diseases indicating the need to quantify CSA as well. A LC-MS/MS method for quantification of FSA and total sialic

  11. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  12. Matched cohort study of topical tranexamic acid in cementless primary total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, Javier; Mas Martinez, Jesus; Verdu Román, Carmen; Morales Santias, Manuel; Martínez Gimenez, Enrique; Bustamante Suarez de Puga, David

    2018-03-29

    Tranexamic acid has been shown to be effective in reducing blood loss after total hip replacement. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the effectiveness of topical TXA use to reduce blood loss after primary total hip replacement and to compare these outcomes with those of a matched control group from a similar cohort that did not have received tranexamic acid. This is a prospective matched control study to assess the effect of a 2 g topical tranexamic acid in 50 mL physiological saline solution in total hip replacement. Primary outcomes were hemoglobin and hematocrit drop, and total blood loss. Secondary outcomes were transfusion rates, length of hospital stay, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism events. We could match 100 patients to a control group. There were no statistical significantly differences between the two groups. The hemoglobin and hematocrit postoperative values were significantly higher in topical tranexamic acid group than in control group (P tranexamic acid group and 1163 in control group with significant differences (P = 0.001), which meant 34% reduction in total blood loss. Length of stay was lower in topical tranexamic acid group. The risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary events did not increase. A single dose of 2 g tranexamic acid in 50 mL physiological saline solution topical administration was effective and safe in reducing bleeding in patients undergoing unilateral primary non-cemented total hip replacement compared to a matched control group.

  13. The effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 ...

  14. The effect of CoQ 10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 groups (p ...

  15. Tranexamic acid versus aminocaproic acid for blood management after total knee and total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuliang; Geng, Peishuo; Shi, Longyan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Pengliang

    2018-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid for reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements after total knee and total hip arthroplasty. We conduct electronic searches of Medline (1966-2017.11), PubMed (1966-2017.11), Embase (1980-2017.11), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.11) and the Cochrane Library (1900-2017.11). The primary outcomes, including total blood loss, hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Secondary outcomes include length of hospital stay and postoperative complications such as the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Each outcome is combined and calculated using the statistical software STATA 12.0. Fixed/random effect model is adopted based on the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. A total of 1714 patients are analyzed across three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one non-RCT. The present meta-analysis reveals that TXA is associated with a significantly reduction of total blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin drop compared with EACA. No significant differences are identified in terms of transfusion rates, length of hospital stay, and the incidence of postoperative complications. Although total blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin drop are significant greater in EACA groups, there is no significant difference between TXA and EACA groups in terms of transfusion rates. Based on the current evidence available, higher quality RCTs are still required for further research. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tranexamic Acid Reduced the Percent of Total Blood Volume Lost During Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen E; Butler, Elissa K; Barrack, Tara; Ledonio, Charles T; Forte, Mary L; Cohn, Claudia S; Polly, David W

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel posterior spine fusion is associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces intraoperative blood loss. The goal of this study was to compare the percent of total blood volume lost during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with or without tranexamic acid in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Thirty-six AIS patients underwent PSF in 2011-2014; the last half (n=18) received intraoperative tranexamic acid. We retrieved relevant demographic, hematologic, intraoperative and outcomes information from medical records. The primary outcome was the percent of total blood volume lost, calculated from estimates of intraoperative blood loss (numerator) and estimated total blood volume per patient (denominator, via Nadler's equations). Unadjusted outcomes were compared using standard statistical tests. Tranexamic acid and no-tranexamic acid groups were similar (all p>0.05) in mean age (16.1 vs. 15.2 years), sex (89% vs. 83% female), body mass index (22.2 vs. 20.2 kg/m2), preoperative hemoglobin (13.9 vs. 13.9 g/dl), mean spinal levels fused (10.5 vs. 9.6), osteotomies (1.6 vs. 0.9) and operative duration (6.1 hours, both). The percent of total blood volume lost (TBVL) was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid-treated vs. no-tranexamic acid group (median 8.23% vs. 14.30%, p = 0.032); percent TBVL per level fused was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than without it (1.1% vs. 1.8%, p=0.048). Estimated blood loss (milliliters) was similar across groups. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the percentage of total blood volume lost versus no tranexamic acid in AIS patients who underwent PSF using a standardized blood loss measure.Level of Evidence: 3. Institutional Review Board status: This medical record chart review (minimal risk) study was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

  17. Use of Tranexamic Acid during Total Endoprosthetic Replacement of the Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selivanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the blood-saving activity, efficacy, and safety of tranexamic acid. Subjects and methods. Thirty-seven patients allocated into two groups were enrolled in the study of the efficacy of tranexamic acid as an agent in reducing blood loss during hip joint replacement. Group 2 patients were injected tranexamic acid, 10 mg/kg body weight, 20—30 minutes before and 3 hours after surgery in the same dosage. This resulted in a significant (48.5% reduction in total blood loss (from 1089.6 to 560.8 ml (p<0.05. No tranexamic acid-induced complications were found. The administration of tranexamic acid during total endoprosthetic replacement of the hip joint could reduce blood loss by 35 and 59.4% in the intraoperative and postoperative periods, respectively, and total blood loss by 48.4%. The use of tranexamic acid allows one to refuse transfusion of blood components during total endoprosthetic replacement of the hip joint. Key words: hip joint replacement, blood loss, tranexamic acid.

  18. Effect of tranexamic acid administration on bleeding in primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cortiñas, A B; Quintáns-Vázquez, J M; Gómez-Suárez, F; Murillo, O Simón; Sánchez-López, B R; Pena-Gracía, J M

    To study the efficacy of tranexamic acid to decrease perioperative bleeding in patients who have undergone a total hip arthroplasty operation and to evaluate drug safety. Observational, prospective, controlled and randomized study on the efficacy of tranexamic acid as a method to reduce bleeding in primary hip replacement surgery. We included 134 patients operated during 2014 in our centre, who were divided into 2 groups according to whether or not they had received tranexamic acid. The main study variables were haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, the amount of blood collected from the post-operative drain in the first 12, 24 and 48hours and transfusion requirements. Post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels were statistically higher (Ptranexamic acid. Statistically significant differences (P=.001) were found as to the need for transfusion according to group, more transfusions were performed in the cohort that had not received tranexamic acid: 25.37% compared to 4.48% for the group with tranexamic acid. No adverse events related to administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Administration of tranexamic acid has proved to be an effective and safe method to reduce peri-operative bleeding in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty and avoids allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, tranexamic acid treatment could entail a financial saving for the healthcare system and expose the patient to less risk. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Huiqin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim To develop a method for determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum. Method The samples of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted with ethanol and successively extracted with CHCl3 and 5% NaHCO3,the NaHCO3 layer was acidified to pH 3 with 2 mol/L HCl,the resulting precipitates were dissolved in CHCl3 and evaporated in vacuo then weighed. The total triterpenoid acids were obtained. Result The total triterpenoid acids of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody,spore and mycelium were (8.58±0.25 mg/g,(3.48±0.03 mg/g and (1.75 ±0.09 mg/g respectively. The total triterpenoid acids of pileus and stipe were (12.62±0.22 mg/g and (7.66±0.08 mg/g. The range of total triterpenoid acid content among 10 batches of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody purchased from the market was between 4.34 to 16.39 mg/g. The highest content fro/8/8/88/ m Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body with alcohol - water extracting was (208.70±5.54 mg/g and the lowest content with alkaline solution extracting was (123.07±4.99 mg/g. The composition of total triterpenoid acid from fruitbody,spores and extract of fruitbody analyzed by HPLC were almost the same. This method is reliable for determination of total triterpenoid acid in the fruiting body and its extracts,spore and mycelium from Ganoderma lucidum,which provides an indicator for the quality of Ganoderma lucidum product.

  20. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of proteins was similar in all

  1. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA to TAA was 0.13–0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%–54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  2. Blood Loss and Transfusion After Topical Tranexamic Acid Administration in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    There has been much debate and controversy about the safety and efficacy of the topical use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is less blood loss and lower rates of transfusion after topical tranexamic acid administration in primary TKA. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken. All randomized, controlled trials and prospective cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid during primary TKA were included. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of blood loss results, transfusion rate, and thromboembolic complications. Subgroup analysis was performed when possible. Of 387 studies identified, 16 comprising 1421 patients (1481 knees) were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis. This study indicated that when compared with the control group, topical application of tranexamic acid significantly reduced total drain output (mean difference, -227.20; 95% confidence interval, -347.11 to -107.30; Ptranexamic acid in primary TKA. Furthermore, the currently available evidence does not support an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism due to tranexamic acid administration. Topical tranexamic acid was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements without increasing the prevalence of thromboembolic complications. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Effect of nutrients on total lipid content and fatty acids profile of Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Zarei Darki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of nutrients on the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of Scenedesmus obliquus isolated from the south coast of the Caspian Sea was evaluated. The nutritional compositions of the media impacted the growth rate and biomass of S. obliquus that ranged from 0.175 day-1 to 0.209 day-1and 0.92 gr·l-1 to 1.79 gr·l-1, respectively. The alga grew better in the medium which was characterized by higher levels of sodium and trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Mo, and Co and poor in N and P as compared with the other media. The highest level of the total lipid (32% and the highest values of saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid also were positively correlated with these nutrients. Peaks in polyunsaturated fatty acids (43.7 %, especially α-linolenic acid (28.4% were related to N and P, but its correlation with K and Mg was more evident. The most important factors correlated with high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids were also N and P, followed by K and Mg to a lesser extent. This study demonstrated that the same algal strain may be a source of different amount of fatty acids, depending on the composition of the culture medium.

  4. [Contents mensuration of total alkaloid in Uncaria rhynchophylla by acid dye colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-qing; Luo, Bei-liang

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the method of determination of total alkaloids Uncaria rhynchophylla. The Contents of total Alkaloid were determined by Acid dye Colorimetry. Acid dye color conditions: pH3.6 buffer 5.0 ml, bromocresol green liquid 5.0 ml; chloroform extraction three times, each time was exeracted for 2 minutes, put it aside for at least 5 minutes for the determination of the best method. Rhynchophylline 6.018 microg - 108.324 microg in the linear range, Recoveriys rate was 97.19%, RSD was 1.34% (n = 6). The method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible.

  5. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  7. Commercial laying hen diets formulated according to different recommendations of total and digestible amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Casartelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate different commercial laying hen diets formulated based on recommendations for total and digestible amino acids. One hundred and twenty Lohmann LSL commercial laying hens aged 25 weeks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design involving five replications of six birds in four treatments. Diet formulation on a total amino acid basis followed the recommendations of NRC (1994 and Rostagno et al. (2000, whereas formulation on digestible amino acids basis was according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and Degussa (1997 recommendations. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period, and on the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality parameters (Haugh unit, egg specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness and percentage. Means were compared by orthogonal contrasts. Results on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion and egg specific gravity showed that total amino acid recommendations promoted better bird responses than digestible amino acid recommendations.

  8. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  9. Amino acids analysis by total neutron cross-sections determinations: part V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Rocha, Helio F. da

    2013-01-01

    Total neutron cross-sections of twenty essential and non-essential amino acids to human were determined using crystal spectrometer installed on the Argonauta reactor of IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ) and compared with data generated by parceling and grouping methodologies developed at this institution. For each amino acid was calculated the respective neutron cross-section by molecular structure, conformation and chemistry analysis. The results obtained for eighteen of twenty amino acids confirm the specifications and product formulations indicated by manufactures. These initial results allow to build a neutron cross-sections database as part of quality control of the amino supplied to hospitals for production of nutriments for parenteral or enteral formulations used in critical patients dependent on artificial feed, and for application in future studies of structure and dynamics for more complex molecules, including proteins, enzymes, fatty acids, membranes, organelles and other cell components. (author)

  10. Free Amino Acids in the Blood Plasma of Pigs during Total Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperlovic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Stosic, D. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    From the nutritional point of view it is interesting to establish whether the level of free amino acids in the blood plasma can be used as an indicator of protein anabolism and catabolism. Investigations to date have given no answer to this question. It is known that numerous exogenous and endogenous factors affect protein metabolism. These effects also vary with the level of protein intake and make the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative composition of the free amino acids pool and the total protein metabolism even more complicated. To reduce some of these factors, these investigations were done under the conditions of complete exclusion of exogenous nutrition. Piglets, aged 8-10 weeks, were subjected to total starvation in the course of 28 d. During this period, the body weight, serum protein content, plasma amino acid concentration and plasma urea concentration were followed. During the whole experimental period the body weight decreased, rapidly at the beginning and more slowly towards the end. The mean total body weight loss was 44.6 % of the first day's weight. The serum protein content increased slightly at the beginning of starvation and then, towards the end of the experiment, decreased, reaching a value that was only a little lower than the protein content determined before the onset of starvation. Changes of the quantitative composition.of the free amino acid pool did not follow the changes of the serum protein content. At the beginning of starvation, concentrations of a great number of amino acids increased in accordance with some earlier results. After long periods of starvation, however, differences between individual amino acids become more clear. Concentrations of some amino acids, e.g. lysine, increased continually during the whole period, while concentrations of most of the other amino acids remained for some time at high levels and only in the last week of starvation decreased to the values similar to those observed at the

  11. Sunflower meal in commercial layer diets formulated on total and digestible amino acids basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Casartelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conduced to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal (SBM in commercial layer diets formulated on total or digestible amino acids basis. One hundred forty-four 41-week-old Lohmann LSL layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with three replications of six birds each. Treatments consisted of a combination of four SBM inclusion levels SBM(0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% and feed formulation according two amino acid recommendations (total or digestible. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period. In the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality (Haugh units, specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness, and eggshell percentage. Hens fed on total amino acid recommendation presented the highest values for egg weight. Diets formulated on digestible amino acids basis showed an improvement in eggshell percentage and egg specific gravity. SBM addition in commercial layer diets did not influence performance; however, increasing SBM dietary levels SBM improved eggshell quality.

  12. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a natural 2,3-pyrrolidinedione with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul A. Dhavan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a fungal metabolite with a rare 2,3-pyrrolidinedione nucleus linked to an ureido dipeptide, was designed and carried out. Crucial steps for the strategy include a Dieckmann cyclization to obtain the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione ring and a Wittig olefination to install the polymethylene chain. An oxazolidinone-containing leopolic acid A analogue was also synthesized. The antibacterial activity showed by both compounds suggests that they could be considered as promising candidates for future developments.

  14. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  15. Comparison of intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay N; Spanyer, Jonathon M; Smith, Langan S; Huang, Jiapeng; Yakkanti, Madhusudhan R; Malkani, Arthur L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of topical Tranexamic Acid (TXA) versus Intravenous (IV) Tranexamic Acid for reduction of blood loss following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This prospective randomized study involved 89 patients comparing topical administration of 2.0g TXA, versus IV administration of 10mg/kg. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to patient demographics or perioperative function. The primary outcome measure, perioperative change in hemoglobin level, showed a decrease of 3.06 ± 1.02 in the IV group and 3.42 ± 1.07 in the topical group (P = 0.108). There were no statistical differences between the groups in preoperative hemoglobin level, lowest postoperative hemoglobin level, or total drain output. One patient in the topical group required blood transfusion (P = 0.342). Based on our study, topical Tranexamic Acid has similar efficacy to IV Tranexamic Acid for TKA patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  17. Use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement: effects on perioperative blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volquind, Daniel; Zardo, Remi Antônio; Winkler, Bruno Costamilan; Londero, Bruno Bertagnolli; Zanelatto, Natália; Leichtweis, Gisele Perondi

    2016-01-01

    The use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement surgeries has been the subject of constant study. The strategies to reduce bleeding are aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusion due to the risks involved. In this study we evaluated the use of tranexamic acid in reducing bleeding, need for blood transfusion, and prevalence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis in primary total knee replacement. 62 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were enrolled in the study, from June 2012 to May 2013, and randomized to receive a single dose of 2.5g of intravenous tranexamic acid (Group TA) or saline (Group GP), 5min before opening the pneumatic tourniquet, respectively. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood loss were recorded 24h after surgery. Deep vein thrombosis was investigated during patient's hospitalization and 15 and 30 days after surgery in review visits. There was no demographic difference between groups. Group TA had 13.89% decreased hematocrit (p=0.925) compared to placebo. Group TA had a decrease of 12.28% (p=0.898) in hemoglobin compared to Group GP. Group TA had a mean decrease of 187.35mL in blood loss (25.32%) compared to group GP (p=0.027). The number of blood transfusions was higher in Group GP (p=0.078). Thromboembolic events were not seen in this study. Tranexamic acid reduced postoperative bleeding without promoting thromboembolic events. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  19. Determination of the total acidity in soft drinks using potentiometric sequential injection titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, J Koos F; Mashamba, M Mulalo G; Stefan, R Raluca I

    2002-12-06

    A potentiometric SI titration system for the determination of total acidity in soft drinks is proposed. The concept is based on the aspiration of the acid soft drink sample between two base zones into a holding coil with the volume of the first base zone twice to that of the second one and channelled by flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor. A solution of 0.1 mol l(-1) sodium chloride is used as ionic strength adjustment buffer in the carrier stream. The system has been applied to the analysis of some South African soft drinks having a total acidity level of about 0.2-0.3% (w/v). The method has a sample frequency of 45 samples per h with a linear range of 0.1 and 0.6% (w/v). It is easy to use, fully computerised, and gives the results that are comparable to both automated batch titration and manual titration.

  20. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was

  1. [Studies on hydroxyapatite applicatied in coprecipitate of total salvianolic acids phospholipid complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare total salvianolic acids-phytosome-HA coprecipitate to improve drug dissolution and its micromeritic properties. Firstly, the coprecipitate was prepared by solvent method and in vitro dissolution of tripterine was performed with the salvianolic acid B and danshensu as criteria. At the same time, the micromeritic properties was characterizated, the structure of samples was characterized by TEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR. Results showed that when the ratio of drug to HA was 1:2, it had a better dissolution, the accumulative drug-release percent in vitro at 60 min was over 90%. At the same time, it has good liquidity and low moisture absorption. Its micromeritic properties have improved. It is proved that the drug still existed amorphously by microstructure analysis. The preparation process is simple and feasible, it has practical value.

  2. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

    2010-07-01

    This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  4. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  5. Tranexamic acid for control of blood loss in bilateral total knee replacement in a single stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tranexamic acid (TEA reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, there is not much literature regarding the use of TEA in patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage and the protocols for administration of TEA in such patients are ill-defined. Materials and Methods: We carried out a case control study evaluating the effect of TEA on postoperative hemoglobin (Hb, total drain output, and number of blood units transfused in 52 patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage, and compared it with 56 matched controls who did not receive TEA. Two doses of TEA were administered in doses of 10 mg / kg each (slow intravenous (IV infusion, with the first dose given just before tourniquet release of the first knee and the second dose three hours after the first one. Results: A statistically significant reduction in the total drain output and requirement of allogenic blood transfusion in cases who received TEA, as compared to the controls was observed. The postoperative Hb and Hb at the time of discharge were found to be lower in the control group, and this result was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: TEA administered in patients undergoing single stage bilateral TKA helped reduce total blood loss and decreased allogenic blood transfusion requirements. This might be particularly relevant, where facilities such as autologous reinfusion might not be available.

  6. Tranexamic acid increases early perioperative functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Grosso, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of tranexamic acid (TXA on functional outcomes in the immediate postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We hypothesized that the known benefits of TXA would confer measurable clinical improvements in physical therapy (PT performance, decrease pain, and decrease hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 560 TKA patients, including 280 consecutive patients whose surgery was performed before the initiation of a standardized TXA protocol and the first 280 patients who received TXA after protocol initiation. Outcome measurements included postoperative changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit, LOS, pain scores, destination of discharge, and steps ambulated with PT over 5 sessions. Results: TXA administration resulted in less overall drops in hemoglobin (P < .001 and hematocrit levels (P < .001. Moreover, patients administered TXA ambulated more than their counterparts during every PT session, which was statistically significant during the second (P = .010, third (P = .011, and fourth (P = .024 sessions. On average, the TXA cohort ambulated 20% more per PT session than patients who did not receive TXA (P < .001. TXA administration did not influence pain levels during PT, hospital LOS, or discharge destination in this investigation. Conclusions: It is well known that TXA reduces postoperative anemia, but this study also demonstrates that it confers early perioperative functional benefits for TKA patients. Potential mechanisms for this benefit include reduced rates of postoperative anemia and reduced rates of hemarthroses. Keywords: Tranexamic acid, Total knee arthroplasty, Blood loss, Physical therapy

  7. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  8. Exposure to phthalic acid, phthalate diesters and phthalate monoesters from foodstuffs: UK total diet study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Emma L; Burden, Richard A; Bentayeb, Karim; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Mortimer, David N; Speck, Dennis R; Ticha, Jana; Castle, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment and thus exposure to these compounds can occur in various forms. Foods are one source of such exposure. There are only a limited number of studies that describe the levels of phthalates (diesters, monoesters and phthalic acid) in foods and assess the exposure from this source. In this study the levels of selected phthalate diesters, phthalate monoesters and phthalic acid in total diet study (TDS) samples are determined and the resulting exposure estimated. The methodology for the determination of phthalic acid and nine phthalate monoesters (mono-isopropyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, mono-n-pentyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-n-octyl phthalate and mono-isononyl phthalate) in foods is described. In this method phthalate monoesters and phthalic acid are extracted from the foodstuffs with a mixture of acidified acetonitrile and dichloromethane. The method uses isotope-labelled phthalic acid and phthalate monoester internal standards and is appropriate for quantitative determination in the concentration range of 5-100 µg kg⁻¹. The method was validated in-house and its broad applicability demonstrated by the analysis of high-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-protein foodstuffs as well as combinations of all three major food constituents. The methodology used for 15 major phthalate diesters has been reported elsewhere. Phthalic acid was the most prevalent phthalate, being detected in 17 food groups. The highest concentration measured was di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in fish (789 µg kg⁻¹). Low levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were detected in several of the TDS animal-based food groups and the highest concentrations measured corresponded with the most abundant diesters (di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate). The UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products

  9. Determination of total acidity index in bioethanol by automated potentiometric titration; Determinacao do indice de acidez total em bioetanol por titulacao potenciometrica automatizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Sidney Pereira; Ribeiro, Carla de Matos; Fraga, Isabel Cristina Serta; Goncalves, Mary Ane [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: spsobral@inmetro.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper determines the total acidity index of bioethanol by volumetric titration with potentiometric detection. Also, viewing the optimization of the method, studies are exhibited related to the repeatable, besides the comparison with the colorimetric method with the objective to contribute to the certification of bioethanol reference materials.

  10. Effects of 20 standard amino acids on the growth, total fatty acids production, and γ-linolenic acid yield in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2014-12-01

    Twenty standard amino acids were examined as single nitrogen source on the growth, total fatty acids production, and yield of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) in Mucor circinelloides. Of the amino acids, tyrosine gave the highest biomass and lipid accumulation and thus resulted in a high GLA yield with respective values of 17.8 g/L, 23 % (w/w, dry cell weight, DCW), and 0.81 g/L, which were 36, 25, and 72 % higher than when the fungus was grown with ammonium tartrate. To find out the potential mechanism underlying the increased lipid accumulation of M. circinelloides when grown on tyrosine, the activity of lipogenic enzymes of the fungus during lipid accumulation phase was measured. The enzyme activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and ATP-citrate lyase were up-regulated, while NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase was down-regulated by tyrosine during the lipid accumulation phase of the fungus which suggested that these enzymes may be involved in the increased lipid biosynthesis by tyrosine in this fungus.

  11. Total synthesis of five lipoteichoic acids of Clostridium difficile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogendorf, Wouter Frederik Johan; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of hypervirulent resistant strains have made Clostridium difficile a notorious nosocomial pathogen and has resulted in a renewed interest in preventive strategies, such as vaccines based on (synthetic) cell wall antigens. Recently, the structure of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA......) of this species has been elucidated. Additionally, this LTA was found to induce the formation of protective antibodies against C. difficile in rabbits and mice. The LTA from C. difficile is isolated as a microheterogenous mixture, differing in size and composition, impeding any structure-activity relationship...... studies. To ensure reliable biological results, pure and well-defined synthetic samples are required. In this work the total synthesis of LTAs from C. difficile with defined chain length is described and the initial biological results are presented....

  12. Regulation of ribonucleic acid synthesis by polyamines. Reversal by spermine of inhibition by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) of ribonucleic acid synthesis and histone acetylation in rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarera, C M; Casti, A; Guarnier, C; Moruzzi, G

    1975-10-01

    The relationship between polyamines and RNA synthesis was studied by considering the action of spermine on histone acetylation in perfused heart. In addition, the effect of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), inhibitor of putrescine-activated S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity, on RNA and polyamine specific radioactivity and on acetylation of histone fractions was also investigated in perfused heart. Different concentrations of spermine and/or methylglyoxas bis(guanylhydrazone) were injected into the heart, 15 min after beginning the perfusion. The results demonstrate that spermine stimulates the specific radioactivity of RNA of subcellular fractions. Acetylation of the arginine-rich histone fractions, involved in the regulation of RNA transcription, is enhanced by spermine. The perfusion with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) causes a decrease in the specific radioactivity of polyamines and RNA, and in acetylation of histone fractions. However, spermine is able to reverse the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibition when injected simultaneously. From these results we may assume a possible role for spermine in the regulation of RNA transcription.

  13. The efficacy of topical tranexamic acid in total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shubiao; Wu, Kezhou; Kong, Gengbin; Feng, Weili; Deng, Zhihua; Wang, Hu

    2016-02-16

    Topical tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to be effective in reducing blood loss and the need for transfusion after total knee arthroplasty. However, the effectiveness of topical TXA use in total hip arthroplasty (THA) still remains unclear. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of topical use of TXA following THA. Topical TXA reduces blood loss and transfusion rates without increasing risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients with THA. An electronic literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical Database was performed, to identify studies published before February 2015. All randomized controlled trials and cohort studies evaluating the efficacy of topical TXA during THA were included. Two independent authors identified the eligible studies, assessed their methodological quality, and extracted data. The data were using fixed-effects or random-effects models with (standard) mean differences and risk ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Data were analysed using RevMan 5.3 software. Fourteen studies encompassing 2594 patients met the inclusion criteria for our meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated that when compared with the placebo group, topical use of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss (MD = -297.65 ml, 95 % CI -371.68 ml, 116.08 ml; P level (SMD = -0.66, 95 % CI -0.91, -0.41; P Topical TXA could significantly reduce total blood loss, drainage loss, transfusion rates and decrease haemoglobin level following THA, without increasing risk of venous thromboembolisms.

  14. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  15. Comparative study of topical vs. intravenous tranexamic acid regarding blood loss in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Zekcer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare topical vs. intravenous tranexamic acid (TA in total knee arthroplasty regarding blood loss and transfusion., Methods: Ninety patients were randomized to receive TA intravenously (20 mg/kg in 100 mL of saline; group IV, topically (1.5 g in 50 mL of saline, sprayed over the operated site, before release of the tourniquet; topical group, or intravenous saline (100 mL with anesthesia; control group. The volume of drained blood in 48, h, the amount of transfused blood, and the serum levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after surgery were evaluated., Results: The groups were similar for gender, age, weight, laterality, and preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (p> 0.2. The hemoglobin level dropped in all groups when comparing the preoperative and the 48-h evaluations: the control group decreased 3.8 mg/dL on average, while the IV, group had a decrease of 3.0, and the topical group, of 3.2 (p= 0.019. The difference between the control and IV, groups was confirmed by Bonferroni test (p= 0.020. The difference between the control group and the topical group was not significant (p= 0.130, although there was less reduction in hemoglobin in the topical group; the comparison between the IV, group and the topical group was also not significant (p= 1.000. Conclusion: Using topic and IV, tranexamic acid decreased blood loss and the need for transfusion in total knee arthroplasty. Topical application showed results similar to IV use regarding the need for blood transfusion, but without the possible side effects of IV, administration.

  16. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg -1 dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of electrolyte total dissolved solids (TDS) on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... microbial desalination cells; rRNA, ribosomal ribonucleic acid;. NCBI, national center for biotechnology information. microbial fuel cells (MFC) technology provides a new way to saline wastewater treatment. MFCs are bio-electro- chemical reactors which are different from traditional anaerobic biological ...

  18. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total antioxidant activity (TAA represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change in different phases of C. rubrum ontogenesis under the same photoperiodic treatment. Exposure to continuous irradiation caused an increase of TAA in both C. rubrum plants and collected matured seeds. Gibberellic acid stimulated stem elongation, but did not affect leaf development or the number of matured seeds per plant, regardless of photoperiodic treatment; it induced a decrease of TAA in C. rubrum plants regardless of photoperiodic treatment or the phase of development, while it had no effect on TAA of matured seeds.

  19. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  20. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  1. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  2. Correlation of radiotherapy with serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid in OSCC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Increased quantities of glycoconjugates such as Total Sialic Acid (TSA and Lipid-bound Sialic Acid (LSA have been detected in the plasma and serum of patients with various malignancies, indicating their usefulness in diagnosis or monitoring of the treatment modality. Aims: (1 To estimate and compare the serum TSA and LSA levels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC patients before and after radiotherapy, as also in healthy individuals. (2 To determine the correlation, if any, between Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM staging and levels of TSA and LSA. (3 To determine the use of serum TSA and LSA as biomarkers of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study was designed as a case-control study and was undertaken in a dental college and cancer hospital. Materials and Methods: It was planned to estimate the serum TSA and LSA levels of 20 healthy individuals and of 20 OSCC patients, spectrophotometrically; before starting and one month after completion of radiotherapy. Statistical Analysis: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 10.0 was used. Results: The mean serum TSA and LSA levels in OSCC patients decreased significantly after radiotherapy; however, they were still higher than the levels in the controls. In untreated OSCC patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum TSA levels; but the same was not found between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum LSA levels. In OSCC, the serum TSA and LSA levels had a positive relationship with the TNM stages. These levels decreased significantly after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Serum TSA and LSA can be utilized as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators in OSCC.

  3. Intestinal metaplasia in patients with duodenogastric reflux and high total bile acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinol Jimenez, Felipe; Paniagua Estevez, Manuel; Perez Sanchez, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic and cancerous action of bile acids on gastric mucosa is a very interesting subject within the gastroduodenal diseases due to they are able to alter the membrane, the cellular metabolism, to give rise to a inflammatory process, to increase the proliferation, the cell apoptosis and the DNA damage, that according to its intensity and persistence, favor the appearance of failures and mutations in cell replication. With the discovery and characterization of Helicobacter pylori it is considered that according to its intensity and the time of persistence in gastric mucosa provokes damages with failures and cellular mutations. In this sense, a prospective and descriptive study was conducted in the Institute of Gastroenterology in patients presenting with duodenogastric and high total bile acids to know the association between the intestinal metaplasia and the presence or not of Helicobacter pylori. Metaplasia was present in the 48.7 % of the 39 study patients, that there was a statistically significant association (p< 0.05) in Helicobacter pylori distribution in patients with and without intestinal metaplasia; that patients with duodenogastric reflux, despite of a histological lesion also had a greater frequency of negative results as regards the presence of Helicobacter pylori. In samples with histological diagnosis of severe and atrophic chronic gastritis, 75 %, respectively, had Helicobacter pylori and in consequence, there was a significant association between presence or not of microorganism and the chronic gastritis intensity. Intestinal metaplasia location was higher in antral region (84.3 %) and also with a higher ratio of microorganism positivity. In patients with duodenogastric reflux, presence of Helicobacter pylori don't seems to be associated with intense degrees of intestinal metaplasia, although the microorganism is present in all categories, but when there is not Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia to tend to develop in its less severe

  4. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  5. Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Gallic Acid: Application in Estimation of Total Polyphenols in Plant Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikh-Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified electrode was prepared by modification of the carbon paste electrode (CPE with graphene nano-sheets. The fabricated modified electrode exhibited an electrocatalytic activity toward gallic acid (GA oxidation because of good conductivity, low electron transfer resistance and catalytic effect. The graphene modified CPE had a lower overvoltage and enhanced electrical current respect to the bare CPE for the oxidation of GA. The oxidation potential of GA decreased more than 210 mV by the modified electrode. The modified electrode responded to the GA in the concentration range of 3.0 × 10-5-1.5 × 10-4 M with high sensitivity by the technique of differential pulse voltammetry. Also, detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 M was obtained by this modified electrode for GA. This electrode was used for the successful determination of GA in plant samples. Therefore, the content of total polyphenols in plant samples can be determined by the proposed modified electrode based on the concentration of GA in the sample.

  6. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  7. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  8. High hydrostatic pressure inactivation of total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts in sour Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Feng, Lun; Yi, Junjie; Hua, Cheng; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengfu; Hu, Xiaosong

    2010-08-15

    This study investigated the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts in sour Chinese cabbage (SCC) treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). The pressure level ranged from 200 to 600 MPa and the treatment time were 10-30 min. All samples were stored at 4, 27 and 37 degrees C for 90 days. The pressure level of 200 MPa had no significant impact on these microorganisms. The counts of TAB were significantly reduced by 2.7-4.0 log(10)CFU/g at 400 MPa and 4.2-4.5 log(10)CFU/g at 600 MPa from 6.2 log(10)CFU/g; the counts of LAB were also reduced by 2.4-4.3 log(10)CFU/g at 400 MPa from 7.0 log(10)CFU/g and LAB was completely inactivated at 600 MPa; the counts of yeasts were reduced by 1.5-2.0 log(10)CFU/g at 400 and 600 MPa from 4.2 log(10)CFU/g. Storage temperatures significantly influenced the microbial proliferation in HHP-treated SCC depending on the pressure levels. The surviving TAB and LAB at 400 MPa equaled initial counts after 15-day storage at 27 and 37 degrees C, whereas they were inhibited at 4 degrees C up to 60 days. The surviving TAB at 600 MPa did not grow. Yeasts at 400 and 600 MPa decreased below detectable level after 2 days at all the three storage temperatures. From the microbial safety point of view, the result indicated that HHP at 600 MPa could be used as an alternative preservation method for SCC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety.

  10. Concentration of total protein and degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemella Nur Illahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fasting, the mouth does not work to eat and drink so that the salivary glands become less active so saliva production decreased and there was a change in eating timewhich is relation to the mastication process that impact on changes in the degree of acidity (pH Objectives: To determine the concentration of total protein and the degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting. Materials and Methods: The study was observational analytic design with longitudinal (follow up study conducted in the Hj. Halima Dg. Sikati Dental Hospital inKandea in July 2015, the sampling method was purposive sampling. Population was 35 clinical students at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry Hasanuddin University with a total sample of 16 students who fit the criteria of the study subjects. To calculate the total protein of saliva concentration using Kyltecautoanalyzerand pH meter to measure the acidity of saliva. Data was analyzed was using SPSS version 17.0 (paired t-test, p <0.05. Results: The mean of total protein (% while fasting by 0135% ± 0.026 and the mean total protein (% after breakfasting at 0.179% ± 0.035, while the average degree of acidity (pH during fasting at 7.26 ± 0:24 and the average degree of acidity (pH after breakfasting at 7.66 ± 0.23 with p-value (0.000. Conclusions: An increase in the total protein concentration and acidity (pH after breakfasting.

  11. Modification of Death rate and Disturbances induced in the Levels of serum total Lipids and free fatty acids of irradiated rats by ascorbic acid and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.M.; Saada, H.N.; Osama, Z.S.

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of normal rats with ascorbic acid (10 mg/100 g body weight ) or serotonin (2 mg/100 g body weight) had no harmful effect on the life span. Moreover, the levels of serum total lipids and free fatty acids did not show any significant changes at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection. Administration of ascorbic acid or serotonin to rats at the pre mentioned doses, 15 minutes, before gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy (single dose ) improved the survival time of rats and the hyperlipemic state recorded after radiation exposure

  12. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  13. Determination of total bile acids in serum. A comparison of a radioimmunoassay with an enzymatic-fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkey, B.J.; Marks, V.

    1982-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay kit method for total conjugated bile acids has been compared to an enzymatic fluorimetric method for total serum bile acids. The methods were compared with respect to: precision, cross-reactivity (molar equivalence) of different bile salts, recovery of different bile salts from serum, the reference range for a healthy population, linearity, coefficient of correlation, diagnostic effectiveness, cost and ease of assay. Both assays seemed equally capable of predicting the presence or absence of liver disease. Radioimmunoassay had little advantage over the enzymatic-fluorimetric method. Its relative ease was far outweighed by its greater cost and poorer analytical performance. (Auth.)

  14. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid administration in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Soo; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Lee, Hoon-Nyun; Park, Se-Hwan; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis was designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of intravenous (IV) versus topical administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by evaluating the need for allogenic blood transfusion, incidence of postoperative complications, volume of postoperative blood loss, and change in haemoglobin levels. Studies were included in this meta-analysis to check whether they assessed the allogenic blood transfusion rate, postoperative complications including pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), volume of postoperative blood loss via drainage, estimated blood loss, total blood loss, and change in haemoglobin levels before and after surgery in primary TKA with TXA administered through both the IV and topical routes. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. The proportion of patients requiring allogenic blood transfusion (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 0.63-2.81; n.s.) and the proportion of patients who developed postoperative complications including PTE or DVT (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.41 to 1.77; n.s.) did not significantly differ between the two groups. There was 52.3 mL less blood loss via drainage (95 % CI -50.74 to 185.66 mL; n.s.), 52.1 mL greater estimated blood loss (95 % CI -155.27 to 51.03 mL; n.s.), and 51.4 mL greater total blood loss (95 % CI -208.16 to 105.31 mL; n.s.) in the topical TXA group as compared to the IV TXA group. The two groups were also similar in terms of the change in haemoglobin levels (0.02 g/dL, 95 % CI -0.36 to 0.39 g/dL; n.s.). In primary TKA, there are no significant differences in the transfusion requirement, postoperative complications, blood loss, and change in haemoglobin levels between the IV and topical administration of TXA. In addition, results from subgroup analysis evaluating the effect of the times of TXA administration through the IV route suggested that double IV dose of TXA is more effective than single dose in terms of the

  15. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  16. Do intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections delay total knee replacement in patients with osteoarthritis - A Cox model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarre, Angélique; Amor, Bernard; Bardoulat, Isabelle; Tetafort, Aymeric; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to describe patients treated for knee osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2013 in France and to compare the delay from diagnosis to total knee replacement between patients who received intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and those who did not receive the injections. A second objective was to compare direct medical costs for ambulatory care between treatment groups. Patients were selected from a representative sample of the real world administrative claims database using an algorithm developed by experts from the scientific committee of the study. Data were matched with the medico-administrative database for hospital care. A Cox proportional hazards model was stratified for the treatment group and adjusted for available socio-demographic and medical covariates to compare restricted mean survival times at different time points (1, 3, 5 and 7.5 years) between groups. Costs were expressed in 2013 euros. A total of 14,782 patients were treated for knee osteoarthritis (67% women; mean age = 68 years). Among this population, 1,662 patients had total knee replacement (11.2%). At each time point, restricted mean survival time without total knee replacement was significantly higher (p-valueshyaluronic acid group, from +51 to +217 days at 1 and 7.5 years, respectively. For the year preceding total knee replacement, the means for total direct medical costs were similar between groups, €744 vs €805 for treatment and control groups, respectively, (p-value = 0.104). Intra-articular injections accounted for less than 10% of the total costs. This is the first retrospective longitudinal study involving knee osteoarthritis patients using medico-administrative databases in France. The results support the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid injections in delaying total knee replacement and show that patients treated with hyaluronic acid have similar direct medical costs for ambulatory care compared to patients treated with corticosteroids only.

  17. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  18. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  20. Effect of dietary lignocellulose on ileal and total tract digestibility of fat and fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusławska-Tryk, M; Piotrowska, A; Szymeczko, R; Burlikowska, K

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of a lignocellulose supplemented diet on apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of fat and fatty acids (FA) in broiler chickens. A total of 48 21-day-old male Ross 308 chickens were divided into four treatment groups (n = 12) with six replicates per treatment. From 21 to 42 days of age, the broilers were fed experimental diets varied in the amount of lignocellulose: 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%. Total excreta were gathered during the last 3 days of the feeding trial and digesta was collected from the ileum at 42 days of the bird age. Digestibility was determined by the indicator method. The ether extract content in diet/digesta/excreta was determined by the gravimetric method, and fatty acid methyl esters were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fat digestibility measured to the end of the small intestine and in the whole gastrointestinal tract in birds was high and exceeded 90% and 87% respectively. Addition of lignocellulose (1%) increased (p digestibility but had no significant effect on total tract fat digestion. Absorption of total fatty acids (TFA) as well as myristic (C14:0), palmitoleic (C16:1) and α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids, estimated by both methods, was significantly higher in birds fed the diets supplemented with lignocellulose, especially at a dose of 1%. Total tract absorption of some dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (C20:2, C20:4n-6) was significantly lower from diet supplemented with 0.5% and 0.25% lignocellulose. There was observed a decrease in apparent digestibility of fat and most examined fatty acids, when measured between terminal ileum and total gastrointestinal tract. The results suggest that lignocellulose can affect digestion and FA absorption in broilers but, as the effect of lignocellulose was not studied previously, further investigations are necessary to confirm the results of the present experiment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016

  1. Pearl millet utilization in ccommercial laying hen diets formulated on a total or digestible amino acid basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Filardi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01 and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg or per dozen eggs (p<0.01 compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.

  2. The effect of ethionine on ribonucleic acid synthesis in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, P F

    1975-01-01

    1. By 1h after administration of ethionine to the female rat the appearance of newly synthesized 18SrRNA in the cytoplasm is completely inhibited. This is not caused by inhibition of RNA synthesis, for the synthesis of the large ribosomal precursor RNA (45S) and of tRNA continues. Cleavage of 45S RNA to 32S RNA also occurs, but there was no evidence for the accumulation of mature or immature rRNA in the nucleus. 2. The effect of ethionine on the maturation of rRNA was not mimicked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis [methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)]. 3. Unlike the ethionine-induced inhibition of protein synthesis, this effect was not prevented by concurrent administration of inosine. A similar effect could be induced in HeLa cells by incubation for 1h in a medium lacking methionine. The ATP concentration in these cells was normal. From these two observations it was concluded that the effect of etionine on rRNA maturation is not caused by an ethionine-induced lack of ATP. It is suggested that ethionine, by lowering the hepatic concentration of S-adenosylmethionine, prevents methylation of the ribosomal precursor. The methylation is essential for the correct maturation of the molecule; without methylation complete degradation occurs. PMID:1212195

  3. Secondary structure of prokaryotic 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acids: a study with ribonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A

    1981-01-01

    The structures of 5S ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus were examined by using ribonucleases A, T1, and T2 and a double helix specific cobra venom ribonuclease. By using both 5' and 3'-32P-end labeling methods and selecting for digested but intact 5S RNA molecules...... evidence for three of the helical regions of the Fox and Woese model of 5S RNA [Fox, G. E., & Woese, C. (1975) Nature (London) 256, 505] and support other important structural features which include a nucleotide looped out from a helical region which has been proposed as a recognition site for protein L18....

  4. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and viral ribonucleic acid titers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer worldwide, with associated significant morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 3% of the world population have HCV, and in Nigeria, prevalence rates of between 4.7-20% have been reported ...

  5. Evolution of early life inferred from protein and ribonucleic acid sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayhoff, M. O.; Schwartz, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical structures of ferredoxin, 5S ribosomal RNA, and c-type cytochrome sequences have been employed to construct a phylogenetic tree which connects all major photosynthesizing organisms: the three types of bacteria, blue-green algae, and chloroplasts. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, eukaryotic cytoplasmic components and mitochondria are also included in the phylogenetic tree. Anaerobic nonphotosynthesizing bacteria similar to Clostridium were the earliest organisms, arising more than 3.2 billion years ago. Bacterial photosynthesis evolved nearly 3.0 billion years ago, while oxygen-evolving photosynthesis, originating in the blue-green algal line, came into being about 2.0 billion years ago. The phylogenetic tree supports the symbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotes.

  6. Melanocortin-4 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Kathleen G; Jenny Wu, C-S; Dumont, Laurence M; Wild, J Martin

    2003-12-01

    We determined melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) mRNA ontogeny in the rat using in situ hybridization and a rat MC4-R riboprobe and showed numerous peripheral sites of expression for MC4-R. The developing heart showed MC4-R mRNA expression as early as embryonic day (E) 14. In the lungs of E16-E20 fetuses, the cells surrounding developing bronchi expressed relatively strong in situ signal. Muscles associated with the respiratory system such as diaphragm and intercostal muscle expressed MC4-R mRNA as early as E14. Occipital and tongue muscles, in particular the genioglossus, showed diffuse signal at E15-E20. In the eye, a discrete signal was detected in an outer neuroblastic layer which may correspond to retina or extraocular muscle. Developing limb buds expressed relatively strong signal at E14, whereas skull bone and joint capsules of the paw of the forelimb showed signal at E18-E20. Using RT-PCR and ribonuclease protection assays, we determined that MC4-R mRNA is also expressed in adult rat heart, lung, kidney, and testis. The expression of the MC4-R in cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems supports functional roles for the MC4-R in addition to its roles in appetite, weight control, and regulation of linear growth.

  7. Use of Tranexamic acid is a cost effective method in preventing blood loss during and after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Chaudhry Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Purpose Allogenic blood transfusion in elective orthopaedic surgery is best avoided owing to its associated risks. Total knee replacement often requires blood transfusion, more so when bilateral surgery is performed. Many strategies are currently being employed to reduce the amount of peri-operative allogenic transfusions. Anti-fibrinolytic compounds such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid have been used systemically in perioperative settings with promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing allogenic blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery. Methodology This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on patients undergoing total knee replacement during the time period November 2005 to November 2008. Study population was 99 patients, of which 70 underwent unilateral and 29 bilateral knee replacement. Forty-seven patients with 62 (49.5% knees (group-I had received tranexamic acid (by surgeon preference while the remaining fifty-two patients with 66 (51.5% knees (group-II had did not received any tranexamic acid either pre- or post-operatively. Results The mean drop in the post-operative haemoglobin concentration in Group-II for unilateral and bilateral cases was 1.79 gm/dl and 2.21 gm/dl, with a mean post-operative drainage of 1828 ml (unilateral and 2695 ml (bilateral. In comparison, the mean drop in the post-op haemoglobin in Group-I was 1.49 gm/dl (unilateral and 1.94 gm/dl (bilateral, with a mean drainage of 826 ml (unilateral and 1288 ml (bilateral (p-value Interpretation Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing post-operative drainage and requirement of blood transfusion after knee replacement.

  8. The effect of tranexamic acid on blood coagulation in total hip replacement arthroplasty: rotational thromboelastographic (ROTEM®) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, H S; Shin, H J; Lee, Y J; Kim, J H; Koo, K H; Do, S H

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated changes in rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®) ) parameters and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty, with concomitant infusions of tranexamic acid and of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4. Fifty-five patients were randomly assigned to either the tranexamic acid (n = 29) or the control (n = 26) group. Hydroxyethyl starch was administered in the range of 10-15 ml.kg(-1) during the operation in both groups. In the control group, the clot formation time and maximum clot firmness of APTEM showed significant differences when compared with those of EXTEM at one hour postoperatively, suggestive of fibrinolysis. In the tranexamic acid group, there was no significant difference between each postoperative EXTEM and APTEM parameter. In the tranexamic acid and control group, postoperative blood loss was 308 ml (210-420 [106-745]) and 488 ml (375-620 [170-910], p = 0.002), respectively, and total blood loss was 1168 ml (922-1470 [663-2107]) and 1563 ml (1276-1708 [887-1494], p = 0.003). Haemoglobin concentration was higher in the tranexamic acid group on the second postoperative day (10.5 (9.4-12.1 [7.9-14.0]) vs. 9.6 (8.9-10.5[7.3-16.0]) g.dl(-1) , p = 0.027). In patients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty, postoperative fibrinolysis aggravated by hydroxyethyl starch was attenuated by co-administration of 10 mg.kg(-1) tranexamic acid, which may have led to less postoperative blood loss. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Total fatty acid composition in the characterization and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the main mycorrhizal fungi in orchid roots. Morphological characterization and analysis of conserved sequences of genomic DNA are frequently employed in the identification and study of fungi diversity. However, phytopathogenic Rhizoctonia-like fungi have been reliably and accurately characterized and identified through the examination of the fatty acid composition. To evaluate the efficacy of fatty acid composition in characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi in orchids, three Epulorhiza spp. mycorrhizal fungi from Epidendrum secundum, two unidentified fungi isolated from Epidendrum denticulatum, and a phytopathogenic fungus, Ceratorhiza sp. AGC, were grouped based on the profile of their fatty acids, which was assessed by the Euclidian and Mahalanobis distances and the UPGMA method. Dendrograms distinguished the phytopathogenical isolate of Ceratorhiza sp. AGC from the mycorrhizal fungi studied. The symbionts of E. secundum were grouped into two clades, one containing Epulorhiza sp.1 isolates and the other the Epulorhiza sp.2 isolate. The similarity between the symbionts of E. denticulatum and Epulorhiza spp. fungi suggests that symbionts found in E. denticulatum may be identified as Epulorhiza. These results were corroborated by the analysis of the rDNA ITS region. The dendrogram constructed based on the Mahalanobis distance differentiated the clades most clearly. Fatty acid composition analysis proved to be a useful tool for characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi.

  10. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the total volatile acids content in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Piccini, J.L.; Quaranta, H.O.; Perez, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if there exist some kind of correlation between the evolution of the organoleptic characteristics of control and irradiated strawberry and the measured volatile acids content. Affirmative results would suggest that the V.A. content really corresponds to a quality index of the fruit. (orig./AJ)

  11. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Moshari; Bahman Malek; Mohammadreza Minator-Sajjadi; Maryam Vosoghian; Mastaneh Dahi; Mahshid Ghasemi; Razieh Shekari

    2018-01-01

    AbstractBackground: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion), were compared.Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B) of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (...

  12. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  13. Comparison of gas chromatographic and gravimetric methods for quantization of total fat and fatty acids in foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to determine total fat (TF and fatty acids (FA, including trans fatty acids (TFA, in diverse foodstuffs were evaluated, incorporating gravimetric methods and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID, in accordance with a modified AOAC 996.06 method. Concentrations of TF and FA obtained through these different procedures diverged (p< 0.05 and TFA concentrations varied beyond 20 % of the reference values. The modified AOAC 996.06 method satisfied both accuracy and precision, was fast and employed small amounts of low toxicity solvents. Therefore, the results showed that this methodology is viable to be adopted in Brazil for nutritional labeling purposes.

  14. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  15. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Competition effects in cation binding to humic acid: Conditional affinity spectra for fixed total metal concentration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Calin; Mongin, Sandrine; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Garcés, José Luis; Salvador, José; Puy, Jaume; Cecilia, Joan; Lodeiro, Pablo; Mas, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    Information on the Pb and Cd binding to a purified Aldrich humic acid (HA) is obtained from the influence of different fixed total metal concentrations on the acid-base titrations of this ligand. NICA (Non-Ideal Competitive Adsorption) isotherm has been used for a global quantitative description of the binding, which has then been interpreted by plotting the Conditional Affinity Spectra of the H + binding at fixed total metal concentrations (CAScTM). This new physicochemical tool, here introduced, allows the interpretation of binding results in terms of distributions of proton binding energies. A large increase in the acidity of the phenolic sites as the total metal concentration increases, especially in presence of Pb, is revealed from the shift of the CAScTM towards lower affinities. The variance of the CAScTM distribution, which can be used as a direct measure of the heterogeneity, also shows a significant dependence on the total metal concentration. A discussion of the factors that influence the heterogeneity of the HA under the conditions of each experiment is provided, so that the smoothed pattern exhibited by the titration curves can be justified.

  17. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C during the product shelf-life (20 days was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH·− assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL−1, total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL−1, and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL−1; while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL−1. The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  18. Does tranexamic acid increase the risk of thromboembolism after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasties in Asian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Seo, Dong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    To ascertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and transfusion rate and volumes; increase the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT); and investigate factors associated with DVT in patients undergoing primary bilateral total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) without use of chemical thromboprophylaxis. There were 874 patients (1748 knees) in the control group who did not receive tranexamic acid and 871 patients (1742 knees) in the study group who received tranexamic acid. Mechanical compression device was applied without any chemical thromboprophylaxis. Transfusion rates and volumes were recorded. DVT was diagnosed using both sonogram and venogram at 7 or 8 day post-operatively. Intra- and post-operative blood loss and transfusion volumes were significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group. The prevalence of DVT was 14% (245 of 1748 knees) in the control group and 18% (314 of 1742 knees) in the tranexamic acid group. Pre- and post-operative perfusion lung scans revealed no evidence of PE in any patients in either group. Coagulation or thrombophilic data or molecular genetic testing was not significantly different between the two groups. The use of tranexamic acid reduces the volume of blood transfusion and does not increase the prevalence of DVT or PE in the patients who did not receive routine chemical thromboprophylaxis after primary bilateral simultaneous sequential TKAs in Asian patients.

  19. Simultaneous determination of total arsenic and total selenium in Chinese medicinal herbs by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in tartaric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanfeng; Sun Hanwen; Shen Shigang; Li Liqing; Shi Hongmei

    2005-01-01

    By HG-AFS, a new method was proposed for simultaneous determination of total arsenic and total selenium existed in the Chinese medicinal herbs in tartaric acid medium. The effects of analytical conditions and coexisting ions on the fluorescence signal intensity of analytes were investigated. The proposed method was provided with linear response ranges above 22 μg l -1 for As and 44 μg l -1 for Se, and the detection limits of 0.13 and 0.12 μg l -1 were obtained for As and Se respectively. The recoveries of 93.8-96.1% for As and 95.3-99.1% for Se, and the precision of 1.2-3.8% and 2.4-5.3% (R.S.D., n = 8) respectively, were obtained via simultaneous determined four samples of Chinese medicinal herbs and three certified botanic reference materials successfully. The proposed method has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity and high efficiency

  20. Process Improvement Project Using Tranexamic Acid Is Cost-Effective in Reducing Blood Loss and Transfusions After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Harry A; Lin, Zilan X; Barfield, William R; Wilson, Sylvia H; Robertson, Dawn C; Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2017-08-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with decreased blood loss and transfusion after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to examine both transfusion utilization and the economic impact of a Process Improvement Project implementing TXA for THA and TKA. After standardization of TXA administration in THA and TKA patients, retrospective data were compared from 12 consecutive months before (group A, n = 336 procedures) and after (group B, n = 436 procedures) project initiation. TXA administration increased with project implementation (group A = 3.57%, group B = 86.01%) and was associated with reductions in perioperative hemoglobin decrement (20.2%), patients transfused (45%), and number of units transfused per patient (61.9%). Cost savings were notable per patient ($128) and annually program wide ($55,884) with the primary THA subgroup contributing the most to the savings. No increase in adverse effects was observed. Standardized administration of TXA is an effective and economically favorable blood-reduction strategy for patients undergoing elective THA or TKA. Although reduction in transfusions with TXA may be greater after TKA, the economic and clinical impact of transfusion reduction is more substantial in THA patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Total fatty acid content of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more responsible for ethanol tolerance than the degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Na-Rae; Choi, Wonja

    2011-03-01

    The effect of change in unsaturated fatty acid composition on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing ScOLE1 (∆9 fatty acid desaturase gene of S. cerevisiae), CaFAD2 (∆12 fatty acid desaturase gene of Candida albicans), or CaFAD3 (ω3 fatty acid desaturase gene of C. albicans) was examined. ScOLE1 over-expression increased the total unsaturated fatty acid content and enhanced ethanol tolerance, compared with a control strain. In contrast, overexpression of CaFAD2 and CaFAD3, which led to production of linoleic acid (18:2) and α-linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, neither changed total unsaturated fatty acids nor enhanced ethanol tolerance. The total unsaturated fatty acid content rather than the degree of unsaturation is thus an important factor for ethanol tolerance.

  2. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  3. Do intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections delay total knee replacement in patients with osteoarthritis – A Cox model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Bernard; Bardoulat, Isabelle; Tetafort, Aymeric; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Due to the growing worldwide prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, the optimal management of this issue is critical for reducing its burden. Objectives This study aimed to describe patients treated for knee osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2013 in France and to compare the delay from diagnosis to total knee replacement between patients who received intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and those who did not receive the injections. A second objective was to compare direct medical costs for ambulatory care between treatment groups. Materials and methods Patients were selected from a representative sample of the real world administrative claims database using an algorithm developed by experts from the scientific committee of the study. Data were matched with the medico-administrative database for hospital care. A Cox proportional hazards model was stratified for the treatment group and adjusted for available socio-demographic and medical covariates to compare restricted mean survival times at different time points (1, 3, 5 and 7.5 years) between groups. Costs were expressed in 2013 euros. Results A total of 14,782 patients were treated for knee osteoarthritis (67% women; mean age = 68 years). Among this population, 1,662 patients had total knee replacement (11.2%). At each time point, restricted mean survival time without total knee replacement was significantly higher (p-valueshyaluronic acid group, from +51 to +217 days at 1 and 7.5 years, respectively. For the year preceding total knee replacement, the means for total direct medical costs were similar between groups, €744 vs €805 for treatment and control groups, respectively, (p-value = 0.104). Intra-articular injections accounted for less than 10% of the total costs. Conclusion This is the first retrospective longitudinal study involving knee osteoarthritis patients using medico-administrative databases in France. The results support the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid injections in delaying total knee

  4. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO 4 ). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses

  5. Comparison of topical and intravenous administration of tranexamic acid for blood loss control during total joint replacement: Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi P. Georgiev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many randomised controlled trials and meta-analysis studies have presented the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA without an increase of complications. However, questions still remain about the type of administration, optimal dose and secondary outcomes of TXA in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing information in literature concerning the pharmacological characteristics of TXA, forms, doses, types of application and contraindications for its use. Methods: A literature review containing 63 articles from the PubMed data starting from the first description of tranexamic acid until now was made in trying to present the existing information in a simple and effective way. Results: TXA leads to statistically significant reduction of peri and postoperative bleeding and in that way decreases blood transfusion rates and the infection risk. Topical and intravenous (IV use of TXA revealed similar results, with no increase of deep venous thrombosis. Therefore, topical TXA could be a reasonable alternative in patients with contraindications for IV application of TXA. Conclusions: Blood loss control with TXA, a synthetic analogue of the amino acid lysine, may be an excellent and safe alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of combined IV and topical administration of TXA with regard to diminishing blood loss and reducing hospital stay. The Translational Potential of this Article: This review briefly presents the pharmacological characteristics of TXA, forms, doses, types of application and contraindications for its use with regard to diminishing blood loss and reducing hospital stay for better therapeutic strategies in orthopaedics. Keywords: Arthroplasty, Review, Tranexamic acid

  6. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  7. Highly Convergent Total Synthesis of (+)-Lithospermic Acid via a Late-Stage Intermolecular C–H Olefination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid is reported, which exploits two successive C–H activation reactions as the key steps. Rh-catalyzed carbene C–H insertion reaction using Davies’ catalyst built the dihydrobenzofuran core, and a late-stage intermolecular C–H olefination coupled the olefin unit with the dihydrobenzofuran core to construct the molecule in a highly convergent manner. PMID:21443224

  8. Studies on amino acid absorption and protein metabolism in the rat following total gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Czarnetzki, H.D.; Albert, H.; Schwokowski, C.; Junghans, P.; Jung, K.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1982-01-01

    Rats were gastrectomized according to Graham and Longmire/Guetgemann, resp. 6 to 12 weeks after gastrectomy the animals received a single dose of 15 N-glycine with the food. 15 N excretion has been determined every 12 hours for 5 days. All rats revealed a positive N balance. Urinary excretion of 15 N was significantly less in rats operated according to Graham (missing duodenal passage) than in the controls and those operated according to Longmire. The differences seem to be caused by differently fast absorption, but the disturbances in the amino acid absorption are not aggravating and N balance and protein synthesis are normal

  9. Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels.

  10. Comparison of Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion Methods for ICP-MS Determination of Total Arsenic in Fish Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanthimathi, S.; Aminah Abdullah; Salmijah, S.; Ujang, T.; Nurul, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Fish is one of the most important sources of arsenic exposure in human diet and the Food Safety and Quality Division, Ministry of Health since 2007 has required routine monitoring of total arsenic in sea foods such as fish. This study describes an improved extraction method of total arsenic in fish using microwave assisted acid digestion procedure before being analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The parameters studied were pre-treatment of sample, digestion temperature, time programme and the chemicals (HNO 3 / H 2 O 2 ) used. Arsenic contents in fish samples under these conditions were compared using the standards additions technique. Microwave assisted acid digestion method with a combination of ultrapure concentrated nitric acid (HNO 3 ) to concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at a ratio of 7 mL: 1 mL, run time of 25 min and digestion temperature of 200 degree Celsius with no pre-treatment was found to have recovery of 100.7 % as compared to other digestion procedure where the recovery were 115.5, 111.6 and 101.8 %. Validation using certified reference material (CRM) of fish tissue (DORM-3) showed a recovery of 101.4 ± 2.5 % for total arsenic from the CRM. (author)

  11. Changes in the absorption of bile acids after total colectomy in patients with an ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasmyth, D.G.; Johnston, D.; Williams, N.S.; King, R.F.; Burkinshaw, L.; Brooks, K.

    1989-01-01

    Bile acid absorption was investigated using 75 Se Taurohomocholate (SeHCAT) in controls and patients who had undergone total colectomy with either conventional ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis or adenomatous polyposis. Whole-body retention of SeHCAT after 168 hours was greater in the controls than the patients who had undergone colectomy (P less than .05). Retention of SeHCAT did not differ significantly between patients with an ileostomy and patients with pouch-anal anastomosis, but patients with an ileostomy and ileal resection of more than 20 cm retained less SeHCAT than patients with a pouch-anal anastomosis (P less than .01). Analysis of fecal bile acids from ileostomies and pouches showed that bacterial metabolism of primary conjugated bile acids was greater in patients with a pouch. It was concluded that bile acid absorption was not significantly impaired by construction of a pouch compared with conventional ileostomy, but bacterial metabolism of bile acids was greater in the pouches

  12. Changes in the absorption of bile acids after total colectomy in patients with an ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasmyth, D.G.; Johnston, D.; Williams, N.S.; King, R.F.; Burkinshaw, L.; Brooks, K.

    1989-03-01

    Bile acid absorption was investigated using /sup 75/Se Taurohomocholate (SeHCAT) in controls and patients who had undergone total colectomy with either conventional ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis or adenomatous polyposis. Whole-body retention of SeHCAT after 168 hours was greater in the controls than the patients who had undergone colectomy (P less than .05). Retention of SeHCAT did not differ significantly between patients with an ileostomy and patients with pouch-anal anastomosis, but patients with an ileostomy and ileal resection of more than 20 cm retained less SeHCAT than patients with a pouch-anal anastomosis (P less than .01). Analysis of fecal bile acids from ileostomies and pouches showed that bacterial metabolism of primary conjugated bile acids was greater in patients with a pouch. It was concluded that bile acid absorption was not significantly impaired by construction of a pouch compared with conventional ileostomy, but bacterial metabolism of bile acids was greater in the pouches.

  13. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  14. The effects of intra-articular tranexamic acid given intraoperatively and intravenous tranexamic acid given preoperatively on post surgical bleeding and transfusion rate post total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo N. Triyudanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the advances in the design and fixation of implants in total knee replacement (TKR. the amount of postoperative bleeding is still an important issue that has not been resolved. This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of various tranexamic acid administration.Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study, held from August 2014 to February 2016 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Twenty two patients having TKR were divided into three groups: the control group, the tranexamic acid intra-articular-intraoperative group, and the intravenous preoperative group. Intraoperative bleeding, haemoglobin (Hb level on preoperative to five-day-post-surgery, total drain production, total blood tranfusion needed and the drain removal timing were recorded and compared. Numerical data were analyzed by using parametric and non-parametric test, depended on the normality of the data.Results: The amount of blood transfusion needed in both the intra-articular group (200±SD 100 mL and the intravenous group (238±SD 53 mL were significantly different compared to those in the control group (1,016±SD 308.2 mL (p=0.001. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the amount of blood transfusion needed in the intra-articular group and the intravenous group. Total drain production in the intra-articular group (328±SD 193 mL and intravenous group (391±SD 185 mL was significantly different compared to the control group (652±SD 150 mL (p=0.003. No significant difference between the levels of both preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin, the amount of intraoperative bleeding, and the duration of drain usage.Conclusion: Intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid effectively decreased transfusion volume and drain production in patients undergoing TKR.

  15. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  16. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  17. Relationship between growth and total nucleic acids in juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, fed crude oil contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiao, Y.; Lum, J.L.; Carls, M.G.; Rice, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Total nucleic acids of junvenile pink salmon fed crude oil contaminated food were analyzed to deteremine if nucleic acid measurements can be used to evaluate growth of fish collected at oil spill sites. In general, the nucleic acid concentration (μg per mg dry weight) of salmon fry fed food contaminated with either 0.37 or 2.78 mg crude oil/g food was not significantly affected. However, RNA concentration of fry fed food contaminated with 34.83 mg/g was reduced whereas DNA concentration increased. Results over 8 weeks indicate decreased protein synthesis and cell content but maintenance of cell integrity in these fish. Growth was inversely related to the level of crude oil contamination in the food. The significant correlations between measured growth and RNA/DNA ratios and RNA contents (mg RNA per mm fork length) suggest that nucleic acid measurement can be used to compare growth of fish collected from the field. 23 refs., 4 figs

  18. Contribution of fatty acids released from lipolysis of plasma triglycerides to total plasma fatty acid flux and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, Bas; Voshol, Peter J.; Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    There is controversy over the extent to which fatty acids (FAs) derived from plasma free FAs (FFAs) or from hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides (TGFAs) form communal or separate pools and what the contribution of each FA source is to cellular FA metabolism. Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were

  19. Total DNA of Glycyrrhiza uralensis transformed into Hansenula anomala by ion implantation:Preparing Glycyrrhizic acid in recombined yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiang; Mao Peihong; Lu Jie; Ma Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) is physiologically active. In this study, the total DNA of wild G. uralensis was randomly transformed into Hansenula anomaly by implantation of low-energy Ar + and N + , to produce five recombinant yeast strains relating to biological synthesis of the GA or Glycyrrhetinic acid (GAs). After culturing in liquid medium for 96 h, the resultant GA, 18α-GAs and 18β-Gas were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the corresponding concentrations were 114.49, 0.56, and 0.81 mg·L -1 . After one hundred primers were analyzed with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), the seven different DNA fragments were produced by the N7059 strain of recombined yeasts, and, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verified that one of them came from the genome of G. uralensis, indicating a successful transfer of genetic information by ion implantation. (authors)

  20. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  1. Negative Outcomes of Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds in an Ovine Total Meniscus Replacement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Kohn, Joachim; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to test the efficacy of collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds reinforced with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers in an ovine total meniscus replacement model. Scaffolds were implanted into 9 sheep (n = 1 at 8 weeks, n = 2 at 16 weeks, n = 3 at both 24, 32 weeks) following total medial meniscectomy. From 16 weeks on, explants were characterized by confined compression creep, histological, and biochemical analyses. Articular surfaces were observed macroscopically and damage was ranked histologically using the Mankin score. At sacrifice, three of the nine PLLA scaffolds had completely ruptured, and the intact scaffolds experienced progressive shape changes and severe narrowing in the body region at 16, 24, and 32 weeks. Aggregate compressive modulus and permeability did not improve with time. Histological and biochemical analyses showed significantly less extracellular matrix and less matrix organization compared to native tissue. Osteophytes, bone erosion, and cartilage damage were observed, increasing with time postimplantation. A buildup of lactic acid and/or the rapid loss of scaffold mechanical integrity due to PLLA degradation are probable causes for the joint abnormalities observed in this study. These results are in sharp contrast to those of our previous successful total meniscus replacement studies using polyarylate [p(DTD DD)] fiber-reinforced scaffolds. This suggests that PLLA fiber as produced in this study cannot be used as reinforcement for a meniscus replacement scaffold.

  2. Total folate and unmetabolized folic acid in the breast milk of a cross-section of Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rachael; Robichaud, André; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Folate requirements increase during pregnancy and lactation. It is recommended that women who could become pregnant, are pregnant, or are lactating consume a folic acid (FA)-containing supplement. Objectives: We sought to determine breast-milk total folate and unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) contents and their relation with FA-supplement use and doses in a cohort of Canadian mothers who were enrolled in the MIREC (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals) study. Design: Breast-milk tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyl-THF, 5-formyl-THF, 5,10-methenyl-THF, and UMFA were measured with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( n = 561). Total daily supplemental FA intake was based on self-reported FA-supplement use. Results: UMFA was detectable in the milk of 96.1% of the women. Total daily FA intake from supplements was associated with breast folate concentration and species. Breast-milk total folate was 18% higher ( P 400 μg FA/d ( P ≤ 0.004). 5-Methyl-THF was 19% lower ( P 400 μg FA/d had proportionally lower 5-methyl-THF and higher UMFA than did women who consumed ≤400 μg FA/d. Conclusions: FA-supplement use was associated with modestly higher breast-milk total folate. Detectable breast-milk UMFA was nearly ubiquitous, including in women who did not consume an FA supplement. Breast-milk UMFA was proportionally higher than 5-methyl-THF in women who consumed >400 μg FA/d, thereby suggesting that higher doses exceed the physiologic capacity to metabolize FA and result in the preferential uptake of FA in breast milk. Therefore, FA-supplement doses >400 μg may not be warranted, especially in populations for whom FA fortification is mandatory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Moshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion, were compared.Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (mean age, 64± 6.1 years received 500 mg tranexamic acid 10 minutes before loosening of tourniquet and group B (mean age, 63.5 ± 7.7 years received 500 mg tranexamic acid through IV infusion during 6 hours from the time of tourniquet loosening (total dose of TA, 1 g in both groups. Intraoperative blood loss,postoperative drainage (in 6 and 12 hours, blood transfusion (in 48 hours, and decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin (6 and 12 hours later, were compared between the two groups.Results: The patients in group B had lower intra- and postoperative blood loss in 6 and 12 hours and also had lower decrease in hemoglobin, and their packed cell transfusion rate was significantly lower compared to the group A.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that infusion administration of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty, was more effective in the reduction of perioperative blood loss as well as need for blood transfusion in 48 hours.

  4. Combined application versus topical and intravenous application of tranexamic acid following primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Liang, Yuan; Chen, Pengtao; Fang, Yongchao; He, Jinshan; Wang, Jingcheng

    2017-02-21

    The use of intravenous (IV) or topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in total hip arthroplasty has been proven to be effective and safe in total hip arthroplasty. However, which of these two administration routes is better has not been determined. The combined administration of TXA has been used in total knee arthroplasty with satisfactory results. We hypothesized that combined application of TXA may be the most effective way without increased rate of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolisms (PE) in patients subjected to primary total hip replacement (THA). A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of the combined use of tranexamic acid (TXA) relative to topical or intravenous (IV) use alone for treatment of primary THA. The outcomes included total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, and the incidence rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolisms (PE). We searched electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wanfang Data until September 2016. The references of the included articles were also checked for additional potentially relevant studies. There were no language restrictions for the search. The data of the included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, encompassing a total of 1762 patients. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates were significantly lower for patients that received the combined treatment compared to patients that received either topical or intravenous administration of TXA. No statistical differences were found in the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). The group that received the combined treatment had lower total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates without an

  5. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  6. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Maria; de Koning, Tom J; Lefeber, Dirk; Fleer, André; Prinsen, Berthil H C M T; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was validated. The method utilized a simple sample-preparation procedure of protein precipitation for FSA and acid hydrolysis for TSA. Negative electrospray ionisation was used to monitor the transitions m/z 308.2-->87.0 (SA) and m/z 311.2--> 90.0 ((13)C(3)-SA). Conjugated sialic acid (CSA) was calculated by subtracting FSA from TSA. We established reference intervals for FSA, TSA and CSA in CSF in 217 control subjects. The method has been applied to patients' samples with known differences in SA metabolites like meningitis (n=6), brain tumour (n=2), leukaemia (n=5), and Salla disease (n=1). Limit of detection (LOD) was 0.54 microM for FSA and 0.45 mM for TSA. Intra- and inter-assay variation for FSA (21.8 microM) were 4.8% (n=10) and 10.4% (n=40) respectively. Intra- and inter-assay variation for TSA (35.6 microM) were 9.7% (n=10) and 12.8% (n=40) respectively. Tested patients showed values of TSA above established reference value. The validated method allows sensitive and specific measurement of SA metabolites in CSF and can be applied for clinical diagnoses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  8. Synergistic effects of intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss in revision total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangwei; Wang, Jiaxing; Wang, Qiaojie; Zhang, Xianlong

    2018-04-01

    Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty, and no related prospective randomized clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in revision total knee arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted this work to evaluate the synergistic effects of intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss compared with intra-articular tranexamic acid alone in revision total knee arthroplasty. This prospective, controlled study randomized 96 patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty into two groups: an intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group (48 patients who received 20 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid); and an intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (48 patients who received the same intravenous volume of normal saline and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid). The primary outcome was hemoglobin loss. Secondary outcomes included the volume of drain output, the percentage of patients who received transfusions, the number of units transfused, and thromboembolic events. The baseline data, preoperative hemoglobin, and tourniquet time were similar in both groups. There was significantly less hemoglobin loss in the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group compared with the intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (2.7 ± 0.6 g/dL and 3.7 ± 0.7 g/dL; p tranexamic acid alone group, the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group also had significantly less drain output, fewer patients who received transfusions, and fewer units transfused (all p tranexamic acid alone, combined intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid significantly reduced hemoglobin loss and the need for transfusion without an apparent increase in thromboembolic events in patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. © 2018 AABB.

  9. Analytical applications of condensed phosphoric acid-I Determination of ferrous and total iron in iron ores after decomposition with condensed phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, T; Ishii, H

    1978-06-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of ferrous and total iron in iron ores. Iron ores are dissolved by condensed phosphoric acid (CPA) very rapidly without any tedious and time-consuming manipulations such as elimination of silica and filtration. Under the proposed conditions (amount of sample 100 mg, amount of CPA added 10 g, heating temperature 290 degrees , heating time 30 min), magnetite, limonite and hematite are completely dissolved. The iron content can be determined in the presence of condensed phosphoric acid by titration with dichromate solution, if a slight modification is made. The total iron in iron ores, determined by the present method, is in agreement with that found by the JIS method. The ferrous iron in iron ores can be determined by dissolving the samples with CPA in a nitrogen atmosphere and titrating with dichromate solution. Chelatometric titration of iron after solvent extraction with MIBK from solutions prepared by use of CPA is found to be accurate for samples such as pyrite cinder. The ability of CPA to dissolve various materials has been investigated.

  10. The content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince (Cydonia oblonga mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Miller is an important source of bioactive compounds, especially of polyphenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids also of minerals and vitamins. This compounds exhibit health promoting properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and cardioprotective properties. Quine fruit have a high therapeutic value, can be used as good sources of antioxidants. This study provides some knowledge about content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince fruit samples. Four quince fruit cultivars (Semenáč, Konstantinopler Apfelquitte, Cydora Robusta, Mammut were analysed. The content of the total polyphenols (TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR at 765 nm using spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid (AsA content was determined using standard HPLC gradient method. Antioxidant activity (AA was measures using a compound DPPH˙(2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of (TPC in fresh samples of quince fruit ranged from 661 ±11.60 mg.kg-1 to 1044 ±11.03 mg.kg-1 and content of AsA were in interval from 151 ±0.58 mg.kg-1 to 215 ±0.75 mg.kg-1. The values of antioxidant activity in quince fruit samples were in range from 26.90 ±0.61% to 49.14 ±0.38%. Statistically significant highest content TPC, AsA and AA was recorded in cultivar Konstaninopler Apfelquitte and statistically lowest content was recorded in cultivar Semenáč. The content of TPC, AsA and AA beside the variety may be affected by many factors also climatic conditions and the agrochemical composition of the soil. 

  11. Use of intravenous tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU De-jie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: The effect of tranexamic acid (TA on patients receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA has been reported in many small clinical trials. But single trials are not sufficient enough to clarify the effectiveness and safety of TA. So, we carried out a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of the intravenous use of TA in TKA. Methods: Literatures were retrieved in Cochrane Library, OVID, PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and Wanfang Data. All the related literatures were checked by two independent investigators and only the high quality randomized con-trolled trials were enrolled. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1 to compare the difference of blood loss, transfusion and complications between TA group and con-trol group. Results: There were 353 related literatures and only 22 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. The use of TA in TKA significantly reduced total blood loss by a mean of 435.41 ml (95% CI 300.62-570.21, P<0.01, post-operative blood loss by a mean of 406.69 ml (95% CI 333.16-480.22, P<0.01. TA also significantly lowered the transfu-sion rate (risk difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.21-0.39, P<0.01 and transfusion volume (mean difference 0.95 unit, 95% CI 0.53-1.37, P<0.01. The risks between TA group and control group in developing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embo-lism were not statistically significant. Conclusion: TA is beneficial for patients undergoing TKA, which can significantly reduce total blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion rate, and transfusion volume. Meanwhile TA is recommended to reduce deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following TKA. Key words: Tranexamic acid; Arthroplasty; Knee; Blood loss, surgical; Meta-analysis

  12. Reliable porcine coronary model of chronic total occlusion using copper wire stents and bioabsorbable levo-polylactic acid polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae; Park, Suk Ho; Park, Jong Oh; Shin, Young Min; Shin, Heungsoo; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Schwartz, Robert S; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-12-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains a challenge in interventional cardiology. We investigated the feasibility and reliability of copper wire stents and levo-polylactic acid (l-PLA) as a means of CTO induction in a porcine model. In one group of 20 swine, copper stents were crimped on a 3.0mm angioplasty balloon and inserted into the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). In the other group of 20 swine, l-PLA was wrapped on a guidewire and pushed into the distal LAD with a 3.0mm balloon catheter to induce embolization. Of 20 swine which underwent copper stent implantation, 13 died of stent thrombosis. In the remaining 7 swine, total or near total occlusion with collateral circulation was observed at 5 weeks. Of 20 swine which underwent l-PLA embolization, 4 died of ventricular fibrillation during or shortly after the procedure. Serial histopathologic studies showed complete absorption of the polymer with replacement by fibrotic tissue approximately 4 weeks following the polymer implantation. CTO could be reliably induced in porcine coronary arteries by copper stents and l-PLA. These models may support investigation of new percutaneous devices to facilitate CTO interventions. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intra-articular versus intravenous tranexamic acid application in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bobin; Liu, Guohui; Zhou, Wu; Lv, Huijuan; Liu, Yi; Zha, Kun; Wu, Qipeng; Liu, Jing

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the blood loss and complications of intra-articular (IA) with intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A comprehensive search of studies was conducted to identify related articles in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane central Register of Controlled Trials, springerLink, OVID and the Research published from January 1980 to September 2016. All studies that compared IA TXA with IV TXA application on TKA were included. Main outcomes of the two methods were collected and analyzed by using Review Manager 5.3. There were 16 randomized controlled trials with 1308 cases met the criteria. Compared with IV TXA, IA TXA had similar blood volume of drainage, hidden blood loss, transfusion rate and complications (P > 0.05). IA TXA had lower total blood loss than IV TXA, and there was significant difference (P  0.05) when compared with IA TXA. Both IA TXA and single dose of IV TXA are effective in reducing total blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin drop without increasing complications of DVT or PE. The current meta-analysis suggests that 1.5 g TXA by IA administration or 1 g TXA by IV administration 10 min before tourniquet deflation is effective and safe in patients undergoing TKA.

  14. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  15. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong; Hwang, Young Jung; Chung, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB

  16. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon...

  17. Total and free fatty acids content during the ripening of artisan and industrially manufactured “Chorizo de cebolla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, Inmaculada

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available "Chorizo de cebolla" is a traditional sausage made in the north west of Spain. In four batches manufactured by artisanal methods and 4 manufactured by industrial ones the contents of total and free fatty acids were assessed throughout ripening, taking from every batch samples of the mass before stuffing (0 days and of the sausage after 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of ripening. The profile of total fatty acids of the two types of sausage basically coincide with that found by other authors in pork fat. However, both types of sausage (artisanal and industrial differ significantly (pEl chorizo de cebolla es un embutido tradicional elaborado en el noroeste de España. En cuatro partidas fabricadas por procedimientos artesanales y 4 elaboradas industrialmente se determinó a lo largo de la maduración los contenidos en ácidos grasos totales y libres, tomando en cada partida muestras de masa antes de embutir (0 días y de chorizo a los 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 42 días de maduración. El perfil de ácidos grasos totales de los dos tipos de embutidos coincide básicamente con el encontrado por otros autores en grasa de cerdo. Sin embargo, ambos tipos de chorizo (artesanal e industrial difirieron significativamente (p< 0.05 en el porcentaje de ácidos grasos totales saturados e insaturados. Los chorizos elaborados artesanalmente presentaron porcentajes de ácidos grasos saturados significativamente superiores a los encontrados en los chorizos industriales. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres totales experimentó a lo largo de la maduración un incremento significativo (p< 0.05 desde valores medios de 459 ± 243 mg/100 g de grasa en la masa hasta 3687 ± 1670 mg/100 g de grasa en chorizo de 42 días, en los chorizos artesanales, y desde 560 ± 317 mg/100 g de grasa hasta 5157 ± 3673 mg/100 g en los industriales. Debido a la gran variabilidad entre las diferentes partidas, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los

  18. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Side-by-side comparison of techniques for analyzing organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, W.A.; Richards, J.; Silva, H.; Miller, M.R.; Palino, G.F.; Wall, P.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of this project was to compare the organic acids sampling and analysis methods of Westinghouse and NWT Corporation. Sampling was performed at three sites, chosen to represent units with high, intermediate and low levels of organic contamination. To check the precision of each method, concurrent sampling was employed. To check the accuracy of each method, additions of standard organic solutions were made at one of the sites. Inorganic anions were also analyzed at each site by each contractor. Theoretical values of cation conductivity were calculated from organic and inorganic analytical data and compared to values measured onsite at the time of sampling. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyses were performed to evaluate different instruments and sampling techniques, as well as provide additional information on the relationship between TOC and organic acids concentrations. It was concluded that either of the organic acid sampling/analysis techniques used by the contractors can produce reliable results. TOC samples lose organics content with storage time and should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken; if at all possible, they should be stored in a refrigerated condition. State-of-the art techniques for TOC sampling and analysis can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppB for levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppB; any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Results of anion analyses are quite sensitive to sampling and analytical techniques. Reasonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggests that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  20. The efficacy of intravenous aminocaproic acid in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Jiang; Xu, Bi-Sheng; Bai, Sun-Peng; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Xiang-Yuan

    2018-04-17

    We conducted a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs to assess the efficacy of aminocaproic acid in cases of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Potentially relevant academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966-2017 October 31), PubMed (1966-2017 October 31), EMBASE (1980-2017 October 31), and ScienceDirect (1985-2017 October 31). Secondary sources were identified from the references of the included literature. The pooled data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1. Three RCTs and four non-RCTs met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in total blood loss (mean difference (MD) = - 495.80, 95% CI - 837.29 to - 154.32, P = 0.004), drainage volume (MD = - 249.43, 95% CI - 286.78 to - 212.08, P < 0.00001), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = 0.90, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.02, P < 0.00001), hemoglobin reduction (MD = - 0.75, 95% CI - 0.93 to - 0.57, P < 0.00001), transfusion rates (risk difference (RD) = - 0.17, 95% CI - 0.25 to - 0.09, P < 0.0001), average transfusion units (MD = - 0.28, 95% CI - 0.48 to - 0.09, P = 0.004), and length of hospital stay (MD = - 0.33, 95% CI - 0.43 to - 0.24, P < 0.00001) between the two groups. No significant differences were found regarding deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (RD = - 0.00, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.00, P = 0.36) between the two groups. The present meta-analysis indicated that the application of aminocaproic acid in THA or TKA decreases the total blood loss, drainage volume, transfusion rate, transfusion units per patient, and length of hospital stay and does not increase the risk of DVT.

  1. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  2. A digital image-based method for determining of total acidity in red wines using acid-base titration without indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres, Adamastor Rodrigues; Lyra, Wellington da Silva; de Andrade, Stéfani Iury Evangelista; Andrade, Renato Allan Navarro; da Silva, Edvan Cirino; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Gaião, Edvaldo da Nóbrega

    2011-05-15

    This work proposes the use of digital image-based method for determination of total acidity in red wines by means of acid-base titration without using an external indicator or any pre-treatment of the sample. Digital images present the colour of the emergent radiation which is complementary to the radiation absorbed by anthocyanines present in wines. Anthocyanines change colour depending on the pH of the medium, and from the variation of colour in the images obtained during titration, the end point can be localized with accuracy and precision. RGB-based values were employed to build titration curves, and end points were localized by second derivative curves. The official method recommends potentiometric titration with a NaOH standard solution, and sample dilution until the pH reaches 8.2-8.4. In order to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, titrations of ten red wines were carried out. Results were compared with the reference method, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the results by applying the paired t-test at the 95% confidence level. The proposed method yielded more precise results than the official method. This is due to the trivariate nature of the measurements (RGB), associated with digital images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids of superficial sediments from three contrasted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémare, Antoine; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Anschutz, Pierre; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Deflandre, Bruno; Vétion, Gilles

    2005-04-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA and EHHA) and EHAA/THAA ratios of superficial sediments were assessed during 1997-1999 in three areas (i.e., the Gulf of Lions, the Bay of Biscay, and Central Chile) differing in their primary productivity. In all three areas, and even off Central Chile where a strong El Niño event took place during 1997-1998, spatial changes were always much greater than temporal ones. The factors affecting the spatial distributions of amino acid concentrations differed among areas. In the Gulf of Lions, sediment granulometry was apparently the most important driving force of THAA, EHAA, and EHAA/THAA, and there was no marked difference between stations located on the open slope and those in submarine canyons. Conversely, in the Bay of Biscay, there were clear differences between the stations located off Cap-Breton, on the open slope, and those in the Cap-Ferret canyon; the latter two featuring lower EHAA and THAA but higher EHAA/THAA. This pattern is likely to result from the predominance of different sources of organic matter and especially from the importance of continental inputs to the Cap-Breton canyon. Off Central Chile, amino acid concentrations and ratios were both maximal around 100 m depth, probably reflecting the interaction between the primary productivity gradient and the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) reducing the degradation of sedimentary organics. When comparing the average values collected in the three areas studied, THAA and EHAA were highest in Central Chile, intermediate in the Bay of Biscay and lowest in the Gulf of Lions. EHAA/THAA ratios were also highest in Central Chile but were lowest in the Bay of Biscay. Differences between the Gulf of Lions and the Bay of Biscay could have been affected by sampling design. In Central Chile, the use of labile organic carbon to total organic carbon (C-LOM/TOC) and EHAA/THAA as indices of organic matter lability led to very

  4. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  5. Is intraarticular administration of tranexamic acid better than its intravenous administration in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Pispati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been well-established now that intravenous (IV tranexamic acid (TXA is a potent agent to control postoperative blood loss following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Recently, intraarticular administration of this agent has also shown good efficacy for the same. Aims: Comparison of postoperative blood loss between IV and topical administration of TXA in TKAs. Materials and Design: Eighty-six TKAs on knees were included in this study. Randomization was done so that 40 TKA received 1 g of IV TXA, while 46 had intraarticular administration of 1 g TXA. Subjets and Methods: We compared the postoperative blood loss by calculating the difference in pre- and postop hemoglobin and need for blood transfusion. Functional assessment was done on basis of Western Ontario McMaster Osteo-Arthritis Index (WOMAC scores and complications like postoperative infection, oozing from the wound site and thromboembolic manifestations. Results: Blood loss was significantly less in the intraarticular administration group as compared to the IV injection group. Total blood loss, blood transfusion group, and drain output was also less but the difference was not significant. The functional assessment (WOMAC scores were equivocal and so were the complications including thromboembolic manifestations (two cases each of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and no cases of pulmonary embolism (PE. Conclusion: Intraarticular administration of TXA to prevent postoperative blood loss in TKA is a safe and effective alternative/adjunct to its IV administration.

  6. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  7. Determinants of urea nitrogen production in sepsis. Muscle catabolism, total parenteral nutrition, and hepatic clearance of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Placko, R

    1989-03-01

    The major determinants of urea production were investigated in 26 patients with multiple trauma (300 studies). The body clearances (CLRs) of ten amino acids (AAs) were estimated as a ratio of muscle-released AAs plus total parenteral nutrition-infused AAs to their extracellular pool. While clinically septic trauma (ST) patients without multiple-organ failure syndrome (MOFS) had a higher level of urea nitrogen production (25.6 +/- 13.4 g of N per day) compared with nonseptic trauma (NST) patients (14 +/- 7.5 g of N per day) and with ST patients with MOFS (4.28 +/- 1.5 g of N per day), in all groups urea N production was found to be a function of muscle protein degradation (catabolism), total parenteral nutrition-administered AAs, and the ratio between leucine CLR and tyrosine CLR (L/T) (r2 = .82, P less than .0001). Since tyrosine is cleared almost exclusively by the liver, the L/T ratio may be regarded as an index of hepatic function. The significant differences between urea N production in ST and NST patients lay in an increased positive dependence on muscle catabolism and increased negative correlation with L/T in the ST group. At any L/T ratio, urea N production was increased in ST patients over NST patients, but in ST patients with MOFS, it fell to or below levels of NST patients. These data show that the ST process is associated with enhancement of ureagenesis, due to increased hepatic CLR of both exogenous and endogenous AAs. In sepsis with MOFS, a marked inhibition of urea synthesis occurs, partially explained by a decreased hepatic CLR of non-branched-chain AAs.

  8. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  9. Oral tranexamic acid is equivalent to topical tranexamic acid without drainage in primary total hip arthroplasty: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Yu; Wang, Duan; Meng, Wei-Kun; Wang, Hao-Yang; Pan, Hui; Pei, Fu-Xing; Zhou, Zong-Ke

    2018-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of multiple doses of oral tranexamic acid (TXA) with topical TXA administration in reducing blood loss following total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this double-blinded trial, 117 patients undergoing primary THA were randomized to receive 2 g TXA orally 2 h preoperatively, and two doses of 1 g TXA postoperatively (oral group) or 3 g of TXA topical administration in the operating room (topical group). The primary outcome was a reduction in hemoglobin concentration. Other outcomes-such as blood loss, TXA-related cost (¥), length of hospital stay (days), complications such as pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and infection, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and hip function-were recorded. The mean reduction in hemoglobin level was similar between the oral and topical groups (3.07 g/dL compared with 3.12 g/dL; p = 0.85). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the mean total blood loss between oral and topical administration (863 mL compared with 902 mL; p = 0.62). Three patients received an allogeneic blood transfusion, including one patient in the oral group and two patients in the topical group (p = 0.55). The oral group had a significantly lower TXA-related cost than the topical group: ¥944 and ¥4359, respectively (p = 0.01). No PE, DVT, cardiac infarction or renal failure occurred during the 90-day follow-up. The coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters were similar between the two groups. Oral TXA is equivalent to topical TXA administration in the reduction of blood loss in the setting of primary THA without drainage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  11. Comparison of topical versus intravenous tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled and prospective cohort trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2014-12-01

    There has been much debate and controversy about the optimal regimen of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to undertake a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of topical and intravenous regimen of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken. All randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical and intravenous tranexamic acid during primary total knee arthroplasty were included. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of blood loss, transfusion rate, and thromboembolic complications. Subgroup analysis was performed when possible. Of 328 papers identified, six trials were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis comprising 679 patients (739 knees). We found no statistically significant difference between topical and intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in terms of blood loss, transfusion requirements and thromboembolic complications. Topical tranexamic acid has a similar efficacy to intravenous tranexamic acid in reducing both blood loss and transfusion rate without sacrificing safety in primary total knee arthroplasty. II. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of tranexamic acid in unilateral and bilateral total knee arthroplasty in the South Asian population: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrih, Syed Hamza; Malik, Azeem Tariq; Qureshi, Nada Qaisar; Lakdawala, Riaz Hussain; Rabbani, Muhammad Umar; Ali, Arif; Noordin, Shahryar

    2018-04-01

    Together with evidence of higher bleeding tendencies, the vulnerability of the South-Asian population to anemia secondary to a higher prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and micronutrient deficiencies merits further exploration of the effects of tranexamic acid on this population. Additionally, limited access to self-care facilities and certain sociocultural beliefs and practices may not be conducive to a speedy recovery from surgical complications. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intraoperative administration of tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty when considering the South-Asian population. Medical record files of 355 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (2007-2015) were reviewed to collect data regarding patient characteristics, surgical variables and post-operative complications. Unilateral and Bilateral total knee arthroplasty were studied separately. Analysis was done using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square and Fisher's exact square where appropriate. The threshold for significance was p tranexamic acid caused a significant reduction in estimated blood loss (p-value=0.011), total operative time, calculated blood loss, and hemoglobin change (p-valuetranexamic acid only caused a significant reduction in calculated blood loss (p-value tranexamic acid vs. those who did not, there was a significant increase in length of hospital stay (ptranexamic acid effectively reduces intraoperative blood loss, it does not have an effect on the need for post-operative blood transfusions. The increased length of stay and special care unit admissions associated with tranexamic acid use should be explored further to reveal the complete safety profile of tranexamic acid administration in the South-Asian population during total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tranexamic acid use and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States: retrospective analysis of effectiveness and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeran, Jashvant; Rasul, Rehana; Suzuki, Suzuko; Danninger, Thomas; Mazumdar, Madhu; Opperer, Mathias; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness and safety of perioperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States. Design Retrospective cohort study; multilevel multivariable logistic regression models measured the association between tranexamic acid use in the perioperative period and outcomes. Setting 510 US hospitals from the claims based Premier Perspective database for 2006-12. Participants 872 416 patients who had total hip or knee arthroplasty. Intervention Perioperative intravenous tranexamic acid use by dose categories (none, ≤1000 mg, 2000 mg, and ≥3000 mg). Main outcome measures Allogeneic or autologous transfusion, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis), acute renal failure, and combined complications (thromboembolic complications, acute renal failure, cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality). Results While comparable regarding average age and comorbidity index, patients receiving tranexamic acid (versus those who did not) showed lower rates of allogeneic or autologous transfusion (7.7% v 20.1%), thromboembolic complications (0.6% v 0.8%), acute renal failure (1.2% v 1.6%), and combined complications (1.9% v 2.6%); all Ptranexamic acid dose categories (versus no tranexamic acid use) were associated with significantly (PTranexamic acid was effective in reducing the need for blood transfusions while not increasing the risk of complications, including thromboembolic events and renal failure. Thus our data provide incremental evidence of the potential effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in patients requiring orthopedic surgery. PMID:25116268

  14. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  15. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in primary total hip replacement: A systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Dong, Qiang; Zhang, Yin-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) could reduce perioperative blood loss. The optimal administration routine of TXA remains controversial. The objective of the present systemic review and meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness and safety of various application methods of tranexamic acid in primary THA. Potential relevant literature was identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Grey academic studies were also identified from the references of the included literature. There was no language restriction. The pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two non-RCTs involving 1614 patients met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -30.04, 95% CI: -114.67 to 54.59, P = 0.49), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.68 to 0.10, P = 0.14), transfusion rate (RD = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.5 to -0.00, P = 0.09), length of stay ((MD = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.30 to 0.01, P = 0.07) or operation time ((MD = 1.00, 95% CI: -0.31 to 2.31, P = 0.14) between treatment groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as wound infection (RD = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.04, P = 0.66), myocardial infarction (MI) (RD = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.02, P = 0.61), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.01, P = 0.51) or pulmonary embolism (PE) (RD = RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.01, P = 0.63) between groups. The topical administration of TXA in THA carried similar hemostasis effects compared with intravenous use without an increased risk of thrombotic complications. No other adverse effect was identified. Topical TXA application was a simple, safe, effective and cost-effective adjunct for

  16. ESTIMATION OF pH, TOTAL ACID AND ETHANOL CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALCOHOL-CONTAINING MOUTHWASHES AND ITS EFFECT ON SALIVARY pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi Shaik; Sharath Pocha Reddy; Sameeulla Shaik; Sarah Emerald Sheela Nemalladinne; Dandu Sivasai Prasad Reddy; Kotu Nagavenkata Sai Praveen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of mouthwash has become widespread as a part of routine oral hygiene. Mouthwashes may have deleterious effects on oral tissues because of its low pH, high acid content and use of ethanol as an antiseptic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional experimental study was conducted among 48 undergraduate dental students. Eight commercially available alcohol-containing mouthwashes, which are available in Indian market were selected for which the pH, total acid an...

  17. Effect of cell immobilization on the treatment of olive mill wastewater by a total phenols, acetic acid and formic acid degrading bacterium strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errami, Mohamed

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW is a pure vegetative by-product, containing a high organic and polyphenol content and is resistant to biodegradation. Its disposal lead to major environmental pollution problems in the Mediterranean basin. An aerobic bacterium was isolated from OMW. During three consecutive diluted and supplemented OMW treatment cycles, significant abatement of its phytotoxic substances was observed. In fact, total phenols, acetic and formic acids were reduced between 33 and 64 % when cells of the isolated bacterium were grown free; and between 62 and 78 % when cells of the same isolated bacterium were grown immobilized in a polyurethane sponge. These results suggest that the bacterium culture of the new isolate would decrease the OMW phytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA showed that all the related sequences are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and revealed that the isolated bacterium was characterized as a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.El alpechín (OMW es un residuo puro de la extracción del aceite de oliva, que contiene una elevada carga orgánica y de polifenoles por lo que es resistente a la degradación. Su descarga produce graves problemas de contaminación medioambiental en toda el área mediterránea. Se ha aislado una bacteria anaerobia del OMW, que , durante tres ciclos consecutivos de tratamiento del OMW diluido y suplementado, produjo una disminución significativa de las sustancias fitotóxicas del residuo. De hecho, la concentración en fenoles totales, ácido acético y ácido fórmico se redujeron entre 33 y 64 % cuando las células no estaban inmovilizadas y entre el 62 y 78 % cuando las células bacterianas se inmovilizaron en una esponja de poliuretano. Estos resultados indican que el cultivo de la nueva bacteria aislada puede disminuir la fototoxicidad del alpechín. Análisis filogenético del ribosoma 16S de DNA demostró que todas las secuencias eran miembros de la familia

  18. Changes in total lipids and fatty acid contents in sterilized flies of the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus loew (Diptera; Syrphidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, S.; Hegazy, R.A.; El-Saeadi, A.A.; Abdel-Salam, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The changes in total lipids and fatty acid composition of the 5 day-old adults sterilized as 5,6 and 7 day-old pupae, reared on onion, were determined. Females of E. Amoenus adults contained significantly higher (1.8 folds) total lipid than males. Percent reduction in lipid contents increased by sterilization. The relative abundance of the fatty acids C 16, C 18:1, C 18:2 and C 14 was similar in both sexes. The content of total saturated fatty acid decreased in males sterilized as pupae 5 and 6 day-old, however, different data were observed for those irradiated as 7 day-old pupae. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  20. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  1. Study on the Varying Patterns of Total Phospholipids, Selenium, Phosphorus, Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar, Hydrolyzed Amino Acids in the Velvet Antler of Northeast Sika Deer in Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shu-li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the varying patterns of total phospholipids, selenium, phosphorus, reducing sugar and total sugar, hydrolyzed amino acids in the velvet antler of Northeast sika deer in growth period were evaluated. Eighteen Northeast sika deer were allocated into 6 groups according to the antler shedding time. Results indicated that there was significant difference of the selenium content between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 1 and Group 2 or Group 5 and Group 6. About the phosphorus there was significant difference between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 4 and Group 5 or Group 2 and Group 3 or Group 1 and Group 2. Group 6 had the lowest total Phospholipids content. Both of the reducing sugar and total sugar showed an increasing pattern initially and then decrease gradually.

  2. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (PDHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (PDHA (R 2 =0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Rajavel; Humayun, Mohammad A; Turner, Justine M; Rafii, Mahroukh; Langos, Veronika; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2017-10-01

    Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown. Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI. Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg · kg -1 · d -1 ) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg · kg -1 · d -1 ) with 21 mg · kg -1 · d -1 Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1- 13 C]Phe to 13 CO 2 (F 13 CO 2 ). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F 13 CO 2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F 13 CO 2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites. Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg · kg -1 · d -1 and 7.3 and 10.9 mg · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg · kg -1 · d -1 and 5.8 and 7.3 mg · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant ( P < 0.05) differences. Conclusion: These results suggest that children with CRI have a similar mean and population-safe TSAA to that of healthy children, suggesting adequate Cys synthesis via transsulfuration, but higher minimum Met requirement, suggesting reduced

  4. Combined versus single application of tranexamic acid in total knee and hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Zhang, M M; Jifeng Li, M M; Xiao Wang, M M

    2017-07-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the combined application of both intravenous and topical tranexamic acid versus the single use of either application in patients with total knee and hip arthroplasty. Potentially relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane Library. Patients undergoing primary total knee and hip arthroplasty were included in our studies, with an experimental group that received combined intravenous and topical application of tranexamic acid and a control group that received a single application of tranexamic acid or normal saline. The primary outcomes were total blood loss, hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. The secondary outcomes were length of stay, operation time and tranexamic acid-related adverse effects, such as superficial infection, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Modified Jadad scores were used to assess the quality of the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The data was pooled using RevMan 5.3. After testing for heterogeneity across studies, the data were aggregated using random-effects modeling when appropriate. We have registered the trial at http://www.researchregistry.com. Six RCTs that included 704 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated significant differences existed in the total blood loss (MD = -134.65, 95% CI: -191.66 to -77.64, P tranexamic acid in total knee and hip arthroplasty was associated with significantly reduced total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, drainage volume, and transfusion requirements. Based on the limitations of current meta-analysis, well-designed, high-quality RCTs with long-term follow-up are still required. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Total bile acids in the maternal and fetal compartment in relation to placental ABCG2 expression in preeclamptic pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, Jiska; Veenboer, Geertruda; Boussata, Souad; Keijser, Remco; Kremer, Andreas E.; Elferink, Ronald Oude; van der Post, Joris; Afink, Gijs; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    To investigate total bile acid (TBA) levels in maternal (MB) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) in normotensive, preeclamptic (PE), and PE pregnancies complicated by hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome in the context of ABCG2 placental gene expression levels, a recently

  7. A randomized trial of the effect of low dose epinephrine infusion in addition to tranexamic acid on blood loss during total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Ø.; Grevstad, U.; Mandoe, H.

    2016-01-01

    procedure. Intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA) was administered to all subjects. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss directly measured by drains and weighing swabs. Secondary outcome was total blood loss at 24 h postoperatively calculated using the Gross formula. Results: Of 106 subjects...

  8. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  9. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  10. A Simple Paper-Based Microfluidic Device for the Determination of the Total Amino Acid Content in a Tea Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Wu, Yunying; Xu, Chunxiu; Chen, Zefeng

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was developed to demonstrate a microfluidic device in the analytical chemistry (instrumental analysis) laboratory. Students made the paper-based microfluidic device with a wax pen and a piece of filter paper and used it to determine the total quantity of amino acids in a green tea leaf

  11. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  12. Specificity of the photoreaction of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen with ribonucleic acid. Identificaton of reactive sites in Escherichia coli phenylalanine-accepting transfer ribonucleic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachellerie, J.P.; Hearst, J.E.

    1982-03-16

    In order to test the potential of psoralen photo-addition for the probing of RNA conformation at sequence resolution, the specificity of the reaction of 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) with Escherichia coli tRNA/sup Phe/ was analyzed. The sites of HMT covalent addition have been identified by a combination of analytical techniques involving chemical cleavage of the tRNA/sup Phe/ molecule at the m/sup 7/G site and gel electrophoresis of RNase T/sub 1/ digests together with paper electrophoretic characterization of HMT-modified nucleotides and oligonucleotides. HMT photoaddition shows a very high preference for uracil residues. However, important differences in HMT photoreactivity are observed for various U sites of the tRNA/sup Phe/ molecule. Reactivity of specific bases has been correlated with partial melting of the molecule. Data available so far indicate a strong preference of the photo-reactive probe for a ''loose'' helical conformation as compared with a tight helix, whereas a random coil appears poorly reactive. (JMT)

  13. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) in phosphate fertilizers by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted extraction based on a control acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Helen Cristine; Coelho, Nivia Maria Melo

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was developed for determination of inorganic arsenic (As) in phosphate fertilizer by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables that affect the hydride generation step were optimized, including the reducer, acid, sample flow rate, and concentrations of the acid and reducer. The determination of As(lll) was performed through the simple control of solution pH with a 0.5 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution at pH 4.5, and total As was determined after a pre-reduction reaction with 1.0% (w/v) thiourea. Ultrasound-assisted acid extraction was performed, and the parameters sonication time and acid and Triton X-114 concentrations were optimized using a 23 factorial design and central composite design. LODs for As(lll) and total As were 0.029 and 0.022 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied in the determination of inorganic As in phosphate fertilizer samples.

  14. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Ramirez, Kelsey; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  15. Effects of soaking, germination and fermentation on phytic acid, total and in vitro soluble zinc in brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rice is an important staple food in Asian countries. In rural areas it is also a major source of micronutrients. Unfortunately, the bioavailability of minerals, e.g. zinc from rice, is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytic acid. We investigated the

  16. Stability of antibiotics and amino acids in two synthetic L-amino acid solutions commonly used for total parenteral nutrition in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1978-01-01

    The stability and interaction at 29 degrees C of ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and polymyxin B were examined in a common electrolyte solution, invertose darrow, and in two synthetic l-amino acid solutions, one commercial (vamin with fructose; Vitrum) and the other a neonatal preparation ...

  17. Accurate and reliable quantification of total microalgal fuel potential as fatty acid methyl esters by in situ transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M.L.; Quinn, Matthew; Wychen, Stefanie van; Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process. (orig.)

  18. The influence of total organic carbon (TOC) on the relationship between acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and fish status in Norwegian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Espen; Larssen, Thorjørn; Fjeld, Eirik

    2004-06-29

    Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is the parameter most commonly used as chemical indicator for fish response to acidification. Empirical relationships between fish status of surface waters and ANC have been documented earlier. ANC is commonly calculated as the difference between base cations ([BC]=[Ca2+]+[Mg2+]+[N+]+[K+]) and strong acid anions ([SAA]=[SO4(2)-]+[NO3-]+[Cl-]). This is a very robust calculation of ANC, because none of the parameters incorporated are affected by the partial pressure of CO2, in contrast to the remaining major ions in waters, pH ([H+]), aluminum ([Aln+]), alkalinity ([HCO3-/CO3(2)-]) and organic anions ([An-]). Here we propose a modified ANC calculation where the permanent anionic charge of the organic acids is assumed as a part of the strong acid anions. In many humic lakes, the weak organic acids are the predominant pH-buffering system. Because a significant amount of the weak organic acids have pK-values4.5). This means that they will be permanently present as anions, equal to the strong acid inorganic anions, SO4(2)-, NO3- and Cl-. In the literature, natural organic acids are often described as triprotic acids with a low pK1 value. Assuming a triprotic model, we suggest to add 1/3 of the organic acid charge density to the strong acid anions in the ANC calculation. The suggested organic acid adjusted ANC (ANC(OAA)), is then calculated as follows: ANC(OAA)=[BC]-([SAA]+1/3CD*TOC) where TOC is total organic carbon (mg C L(-1)), and CD=10.2 is charge density of the organic matter (microeq/mg C), based on literature data from Swedish lakes. ANC(OAA) gives significant lower values of ANC in order to achieve equal fish status compared with the traditional ANC calculation. Using ANC(OAA) the humic conditions in lakes are better taken into account. This may also help explain observations of higher ANC needed to have reproducing fish populations in lakes with higher TOC concentrations. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger ribonucleic acids are synthesized in the choroid plexus of the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, M.A.; Brooks, P.J.; Van Wyk, J.J.; Lund, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrating the presence of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors in the brain suggest a role of the IGFs in the central nervous system. IGF-II has been implicated as the predominant IGF in brain of mature animals based on studies of immunoreactive peptide and of IGF-II mRNAs. To obtain information about the sites of synthesis of IGF-II in adult rat brain, a 32 P-labeled 31 base long synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary in sequence to trailer peptide coding sequences in rat IGF-II mRNA (IGF-II 31 mer) was hybridized with coronal sections of fixed rat brain. The IGF-II 31 mer showed specific hybridization with the choroid plexus throughout rat brain, whereas in other brain regions, structures or cells, hybridization was not discernibly above background. These findings suggest that the choroid plexus is a primary site of synthesis of IGF-II, a probable source of IGF-II in cerebrospinal fluid, and a potential source of IGF-II for actions on target cells within the adult rat brain

  1. Mapping hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J; Fishman, S E

    1979-04-01

    The structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase was localized to 53.8 min on the Escherichia coli genome. The gene order in this region was determined to be dapE-purC-upp-purG-(guaA, guaB)-hisS-glyA.

  2. Alterations in polyribosome and messenger ribonucleic acid metabolism and messenger ribonucleoprotein utilization in osmotically stressed plant seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Polyribosome aggregation state in growing tissues of barley and wheat leaf of stems of pea and squash was studied in relation to seedling growth and water status of the growing tissue in plants at various levels of osmotic stress. It was found to be highly correlated with water potential and osmotic potential of the growing tissue and with leaf of stem elongation rate. Stress rapidly reduced polyribosome content and water status in growing tissues of barley leaves; changes were slow and slight in the non-growing leaf blade. Membrane-bound and free polyribosomes were equally sensitive to stress-induced disaggregation. Incorporation of 32 PO 4 3- into ribosomal RNA was rapidly inhibited by stress, but stability of poly(A) + RNA relative to ribosomal RNA was similar in stressed and unstressed tissues, with a half-life of about 12 hours. Stress also caused progressive loss of poly(A) + RNA from these tissues. Quantitation of poly(A) and in vitro messenger template activity in polysome gradient fractions showed a shift of activity from the polysomal region to the region of 20-60 S in stressed plants. Messenger RNA in the 20-60 S region coded for the same peptides as mRNA found in the polysomal fraction. Nonpolysomal and polysome-derived messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNP) were isolated, and characteristic proteins were found associated with either fraction. Polysomal mRNP from stressed or unstressed plants were translated with similar efficiency in a wheat germ cell-free system. It was concluded that no translational inhibitory activity was associated with nonpolysomal mRNP from barley prepared as described

  3. Glucocorticoid control of rat growth hormone gene expression: Effect on cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleic acid production and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, B.J.; Gardner, D.G.; Baxter, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on the production and degradation of rat GH (rGH) cytoplasmic mRNA was studied in cultured rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells. The incorporation of [3H]uridine into both rGH cytoplasmic mRNA and the pyrimidine nucleotide precursor pool was determined in hormone-treated and control cells. From these measurements glucocorticoid effects on absolute production rates of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA were determined and compared to effects on rGH mRNA accumulation. Rat GH mRNA half-life was then calculated based on a first-order decay model. Rat GH mRNA half-life was also directly assayed by: (1) pulse-chase studies and (2) measuring the kinetics of decay of rGH mRNA in cells after transfer from serum-containing to hormone-deficient media. From these independent analyses rGH mRNA half-life estimates ranged from 28-55 h in different experiments. Within individual experiments there was little variability of rGH mRNA decay rates; glucocorticoids were found not to alter the stability of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA. Glucocorticoid induction of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation was accounted for solely on the basis of increased mRNA production

  4. Biosynthesis of a hypermodified nucleotide in Saccharomyces carlsbergensis 17S and HeLa-cell 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R C; Klootwijk, J; Planta, R J; Maden, B E

    1978-01-01

    The biosynthesis of a hypermodified nucleotide, similar to or identical with 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-1-methylpseudouridine monophosphate, present in Saccharomyces carlsbergensis 17S and HeLa-cell 18S rRNA, was investigated with respect to the sequence of reactions required for synthesis and their timing in ribosome maturation. In both yeast and HeLa cells methylation precedes attachment of the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group. In yeast the methylated precursor nucleotide was tentatively characterized as 1-methylpseudouridine. This precursor nucleotide was demonstrated in both 37S and most of the cytoplasmic 18S pre-rRNA (rRNA precursor) molecules. The synthesis of the hypermodified nucleotide is completed just before the final cleavage of 18S pre-rRNA to give 17S rRNA, so that the final addition of the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group is a cytoplasmic event. Comparable experiments with HeLa cells indicated that formation of 1-methylpseudouridine occurs at the level of 45S RNA and addition of the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group occurs in the cytoplasm on newly synthesized 18S RNA.

  5. Genetic and nongenetic determinants of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 messenger ribonucleic acid levels and insulin action in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Poulsen, Pernille; Ling, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    -stimulated expressions of GLUT4 were independently and significantly related to whole-body in vivo insulin action, nonoxidative glucose metabolism, and glucose oxidation. CONCLUSION: We show that skeletal muscle GLUT4 gene expression in twins is significantly and independently related to glucose metabolism...

  6. Mapping hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J; Fishman, S E

    1979-01-01

    The structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase was localized to 53.8 min on the Escherichia coli genome. The gene order in this region was determined to be dapE-purC-upp-purG-(guaA, guaB)-hisS-glyA. PMID:374370

  7. Binding interactions between yeast tRNA ligase and a precursor transfer ribonucleic acid containing two photoreactive uridine analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, N.K.; Hanna, M.M.; Abelson, J.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast tRNA ligase, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is one of the protein components that is involved in the splicing reaction of intron-containing yeast precursor tRNAs. It is an unusual protein because it has three distinct catalytic activities. It functions as a polynucleotide kinase, as a cyclic phosphodiesterase, and as an RNA ligase. We have studied the binding interactions between ligase and precursor tRNAs containing two photoreactive uridine analogues, 4-thiouridine and 5-bromouridine. When irradiated with long ultraviolet light, RNA containing these analogues can form specific covalent bonds with associated proteins. In this paper, we show that 4-thiouridine triphosphate and 5-bromouridine triphosphate were readily incorporated into a precursor tRNA(Phe) that was synthesized, in vitro, with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The analogue-containing precursor tRNAs were authentic substrates for the two splicing enzymes that were tested (endonuclease and ligase), and they formed specific covalent bonds with ligase when they were irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. We have determined the position of three major cross-links and one minor cross-link on precursor tRNA(Phe) that were located within the intron and near the 3' splice site. On the basis of these data, we present a model for the in vivo splicing reaction of yeast precursor tRNAs

  8. Endothelin in human brain and pituitary gland: Presence of immunoreactive endothelin, endothelin messenger ribonucleic acid, and endothelin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Ghatei, M.A.; Jones, P.M.; Murphy, J.K.; Lam, H.C.; O'Halloran, D.J.; Bloom, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of immunoreactive (IR) endothelin, endothelin mRNA, and endothelin receptors in human brain and pituitary gland has been studied by RIA, Northern blot hybridization, and receptor assay. IR endothelin was detected in all five brain regions examined (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus) (6-10 fmol/g wet wt) and spinal cord (22 +/- 6 fmol/g wet wt, n = 7, mean +/- SEM). Higher concentrations of IR endothelin were found in the pituitary gland (147 +/- 30 fmol/g wet wt). Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the IR endothelin in pituitary gland showed a large IR peak in the position of endothelin-3 and a smaller peak in the position of endothelin-1, whereas IR endothelin in the hypothalamus and brain stem was mainly endothelin-1. Endothelin messenger RNA was detected by Northern blot hybridization in the pituitary but not in hypothalamus. The receptor assay showed that 125I-endothelin-1 binding sites were present in large numbers in all five brain regions but were much less abundant in the pituitary gland. Binding capacity and dissociation constant were 5052 +/- 740 fmol/mg protein and 0.045 +/- 0.007 nM in brain stem and 963 +/- 181 fmol/mg protein and 0.034 +/- 0.009 nM in hypothalamus. In the pituitary gland, there were two classes of binding sites for endothelin with dissociation constants of 0.059 +/- 0.002 nM (binding capacity = 418 +/- 63 fmol/mg protein) and 0.652 +/- 0.103 nM (binding capacity = 1717 +/- 200 fmol/mg protein). Endothelin-1, -2 and -3 were almost equipotent in displacing the binding (IC50 approximately 0.04 nM). These findings are in accord with the possibility that endothelin acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neurohormone in man

  9. Development of a Single-Step Subtraction Method for Eukaryotic 18S and 28S Ribonucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J. Archer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of mammalian 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA can decrease the detection sensitivity of bacterial or viral targets in complex host-pathogen mixtures. A method to capture human RNA in a single step was developed and characterized to address this issue. For this purpose, capture probes were covalently attached to magnetic microbeads using a dendrimer linker and the solid phase was tested using rat thymus RNA (mammalian components with Escherichia coli RNA (bacterial target as a model system. Our results indicated that random capture probes demonstrated better performance than specific ones presumably by increasing the number of possible binding sites, and the use of a tetrame-thylammonium-chloride (TMA-Cl- based buffer for the hybridization showed a beneficial effect in the selectivity. The subtraction efficiency determined through real-time RT-PCR revealed capture-efficiencies comparable with commercially available enrichment kits. The performance of the solid phase can be further fine tuned by modifying the annealing time and temperature.

  10. Evidence for ovarian granulosa stem cells: telomerase activity and localization of the telomerase ribonucleic acid component in bovine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavranos, T C; Mathis, J M; Latham, S E; Kalionis, B; Shay, J W; Rodgers, R J

    1999-08-01

    We have previously postulated that granulosa cells of developing follicles arise from a population of stem cells. Stem cells and cancer cells can divide indefinitely partly because they express telomerase. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that repairs the ends of telomeres that otherwise shorten progressively upon each successive cell division. In this study we carried out cell cycle analyses and examined telomerase expression to examine our hypothesis. Preantral (60-100 microm) and small (1 mm) follicles, as well as granulosa cells from medium-sized (3 mm) and large (6-8 mm) follicles, were isolated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of Ki-67, a cell cycle-related protein, were undertaken on follicles of each size (n = 3) by flow cytometry; 12% to 16% of granulosa cells in all follicles were in the S phase, and less than 2% were in the G(2)/M phase. Telomerase activity (n = 3) was highest in the small preantral follicles, declining at the 1-mm stage and even further at the 3-mm stage. In situ hybridization histochemistry was carried out on bovine ovaries, and telomerase RNA was detected in the granulosa cells of growing follicles but not primordial follicles. Two major patterns of staining were observed in the membrana granulosa of antral follicles: staining in the middle and antral layers, and staining in the middle and basal layers. No staining was detected in oocytes. Our results strongly support our hypothesis that granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells.

  11. Profiling of modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acid digestion by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Guérineau, Vincent; Auxilien, Sylvie; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Touboul, David

    2018-02-16

    A method based on supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for the profiling of canonical and modified nucleosides was optimized, and compared to classical reverse-phase liquid chromatography in terms of separation, number of detected modified nucleosides and sensitivity. Limits of detection and quantification were measured using statistical method and quantifications of twelve nucleosides of a tRNA digest from E. coli are in good agreement with previously reported data. Results highlight the complementarity of both separation techniques to cover the largest view of nucleoside modifications for forthcoming epigenetic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...

  14. Kinetic and Modeling Investigation to Provide Design Guidelines for the NREL Dilute-Acid Process Aimed at Total Hydrolysis/Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass: July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Iyer, P.; Xiang, Q.; Hayes, J.

    2004-08-01

    Following up on previous work, subcontractor investigated three aspects of using NREL ''pretreatment'' technology for total hydrolysis (cellulose as well as hemicellulose) of biomass. Whereas historic hydrolysis of biomass used either dilute acid or concentrated acid technology for hydrolysis of both hemicellulose and cellulose, NREL has been pursuing very dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. NREL's countercurrent shrinking-bed reactor design for hemicellulose hydrolysis (pretreatment) has, however, shown promise for total hydrolysis. For the first task, subcontractor developed a mathematical model of the countercurrent shrinking bed reactor operation and, using yellow poplar sawdust as a feedstock, analyzed the effect of: initial solid feeding rate, temperature, acid concentration, acid flow rate, Peclet number (a measure of backmixing in liquid flow), and bed shrinking. For the second task, subcontractor used laboratory trials, with yellow poplar sawdust and 0.07 wt% sulfuric acid at various temperatures, to verify the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose (desired) and decomposition of glucose (undesired) and determine appropriate parameters for use in kinetic models. Unlike cellulose and hemicellulose, lignins, the third major component of biomass, are not carbohydrates that can be broken down into component sugars. They are, however, aromatic complex amorphous phenolic polymers that can likely be converted into low-molecular weight compounds suitable for production of fuels and chemicals. Oxidative degradation is one pathway for such conversion and hydrogen peroxide would be an attractive reagent for this, as it would leave no residuals. For the third task, subcontractor reacted lignin with hydrogen peroxide under various conditions and analyzed the resulting product mix.

  15. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  16. A survey of total hydrocyanic acid content in ready-to-eat cassava-based chips obtained in the Australian market in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, David; Jansson, Edward; Mai, My Chi; Azer, Mounir; Day, Peter; Shadbolt, Craig; Stitt, Victoria; Kiermeier, Andreas; Szabo, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely consumed food in the tropics that naturally contains cyanogenic glycosides (cyanogens, mainly composed of linamarin, acetone cyanohydrin, and hydrocyanic acid). If cassava is not adequately processed to reduce the level of cyanogens prior to consumption, these compounds can lead to the formation of hydrocyanic acid in the gut. Exposure to hydrocyanic acid can cause symptoms ranging from vomiting and abdominal pain to coma and death. In 2008, a survey of ready-to-eat (RTE) cassava-based snack foods was undertaken to determine levels of cyanogens measured as total hydrocyanic acid. This survey was undertaken in response to the New South Wales Food Authority being alerted to the detection of elevated levels of cyanogens in an RTE cassava-based snack food. This survey took 374 samples of RTE cassava chips available in the Australian marketplace. Significant variation in the levels of total hydrocyanic acid were observed in the 317 samples testing positive for cyanogens, with levels ranging from 13 to 165 mg of HCN equivalents per kg (mean value, 64.2 mg of HCN eq/kg for positive samples). The results from this survey serve as a timely warning for manufacturers of RTE cassava chips and other cassava-based snack foods to ensure there is tight control over the levels of cyanogens in the cassava ingredient. Evidence from this survey contributed to an amendment to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which now prescribes a maximum level for hydrocyanic acid in RTE cassava chips of 10 mg of HCN eq/kg, which aligns with the Codex Alimentarius Commission international standard for edible cassava flour.

  17. Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and abscisic acid constituents in the aquatic plants Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Myriophyllum triphyllum Orchard exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaci, Aysel; Sivaci, E Ridvan; Sökmen, Münevver

    2007-07-01

    Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and abscisic acid (ABA) constituents of Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Myriophyllum triphyllum Orchard, cadmium (Cd) aqueous macrophytes, were investigated exposed to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 mg l(-1) Cd concentrations. M. triphyllum exhibited strong antioxidant activity but not M. spicatum before and after exposure. Free radical scavenging activity of M. triphyllum was significantly affected from the Cd concentrations and a significant increase was observed at 6 mgl(-1) Cd concentration. Total phenolic constituent and ABA concentration of M. triphyllum is higher than that of M. spicatum with or without heavy metal exposure (P macrophytes that grown in polluted aqueous ecosystem.

  18. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  19. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...... = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  1. Potent Antioxidative Activity of Lycopene: A Potential Role in Scavenging Hypochlorous Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Pennathur, Subramaniam; Maitra, Dhiman; Byun, Jaeman; Sliskovic, Inga; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, is a proven anti-oxidant that may lower the risk of certain disorders including heart disease and cancer. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an oxidant linked to tissue oxidation in cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory disorders through its ability to modify proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and lipids. Here we show that lycopene can function as a potent scavenger of HOCl at a wide range of concentrations that span various pathophysi...

  2. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interrelationships among seed yield, total protein and amino acid composition of ten quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivars from two different agroecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan A; Konishi, Yotaro; Bruno, Marcela; Valoy, Mariana; Prado, Fernando E

    2012-04-01

    Quinoa is a good source of protein and can be used as a nutritional ingredient in food products. This study analyses how much growing region and/or seasonal climate might affect grain yield and nutritional quality of quinoa seeds. Seeds of ten quinoa cultivars from the Andean highlands (Bolivia/Argentina site) and Argentinean Northwest (Encalilla site) were analysed for seed yield, protein content and amino acid composition. Grain yields of five cultivars growing at Encalilla were higher, and four were lower, compared with data from the Bolivia/Argentina site. Protein contents ranged from 91.5 to 155.3 and from 96.2 to 154.6 g kg(-1) dry mass for Encalilla and Bolivia/Argentina seeds respectively, while essential amino acid concentrations ranged from 179.9 to 357.2 and from 233.7 to 374.5 g kg(-1) protein respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between the content of essential amino acids and protein percentage. It appears that there are clear variations in seed yield, total protein content and amino acid composition among cultivars from the two sites. Essential amino acid composition was more affected than grain yield and protein level. The study revealed that both environmental and climatic factors influence the nutritional composition of quinoa cultivars growing in different agroecological regions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. [Effect of total hypothermia on the fatty acid composition of blood phospholipids of rats and sousliks and light irradiation on chemical processes in lipid extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Kalandarov, A M; Feĭzulaev, B A; Klichkhanov, N K; Krivchenko, A I; Kazennov, A M

    2011-01-01

    Effect of hypothermia on the fatty acid composition of rat and souslik blood phospholipids is studied. Different reaction of these animals to cooling is revealed: in rats no changes were observed in the fatty acid composition of blood phospholipids, whereas in the hibernating there were significant changes in the content of individual fatty acids (FA). The content of monoenic acids in sousliks decreased almost by 50%, while the content of saturated acid (C18) and of polyenic acids C18 : 2omega6 and C20 : 4omega6 rose significantly. Such changes seem to be the mechanism that promotes maintenance of the organism viability under conditions of a decreased level of metabolism, heart rhythm, and body temperature and is evolutionarily acquired. At the same time, the observed changes in the content of individual FA do not lead to sharp changes in such integrative parameters as the total non-saturation of phospholipids, which determines liquid properties of chylomicrons and other lipolipoprotein transport particles of the souslik blood. There are studied absorption spectra of blood lipid extracts of rats and sousliks under effect of light as well as effect of light upon the FA composition of lipid extracts of these animals. The FA composition of lipid extracts has been established to remain practically constant, whereas the character of changes of spectra under action of light indicates the presence in the extracts of oxidation-reduction reactions. The obtained data allow suggesting that in the lipid extract there occurs cooperation both of the phospholipid molecules themselves and of them with other organic molecules, which makes it possible for fatty acids to participate in processes of transport both of electrons and of protons. This novel role of FA as a participant of the electron transfer might probably be extrapolated to chemical reactions (processes) occurring inside the membrane.

  5. Comparison of oral versus intravenous application of tranexamic acid in total knee and hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Kai; Ma, Jian-Xiong; Kuang, Ming-Jie; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Ying; Lu, Bin; Sun, Lei; Ma, Xin-Long

    2017-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) is regarded as one of the most important drugs in reducing blood loss and hemoglobin (Hb) drop after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) by intravenous application has been discussed extensively. Recently, several studies have reported that oral administration has an effect on blood sparing. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety between oral TXA and intravenous TXA (IV-TXA) for blood sparing in total knee and hip arthroplasty. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) about relevant research were searched for by using PubMed (1996-April 2017), Embase (1980-April 2017), and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, April 2017). Five studies that compared oral with IV administration of TXA were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results were collected and analyzed by the software Review Manager 5.3 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Center, The Collaboration, 2014). Five studies containing 3474 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our pooled data analysis indicated that oral TXA was as effective as the IV-TXA in terms of the average Hb drop (P = 0.88), total Hb loss (P = 0.57), total blood loss (P = 0.42), transfusion rate (P = 0.16), complications (P = 0.61), and length of hospital stay (P = 1.00). Compared with the IV-TXA method, oral TXA shows similar blood-sparing efficacy for preventing hemoglobin drop, total hemoglobin loss, and total blood loss following TKA or THA. In addition, no significant differences of transfusion rate, complications, or length of hospital stay were found between the 2 groups. However, because of the limited number of included studies, more studies of high quality are needed to further identify the optimal administration time for oral TXA. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (Pmethods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  8. The effect of a single infusion of zoledronic acid on early implant migration in total hip arthroplasty. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Stihsen, Christoph; Rehak, Peter; Aigner, Reingard; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-02-01

    Aseptic loosening is the most frequent cause of implant failure in total hip arthroplasty. While a direct link between aseptic loosening and periprosthetic bone loss remains elusive, there is plentiful evidence for a close association with early implant migration. The present trial was primarily designed to evaluate whether a single infusion of 4 mg of zoledronic acid prevented early implant migration in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Fifty patients were consecutively enrolled to receive either zoledronic acid or saline solution after cementless total hip arthroplasty. Radiographs, biochemical parameters of bone turnover, and the Harris hip-rating score were determined preoperatively and at each follow-up examination at seven weeks, six months, one year, and yearly thereafter. The median follow-up period was 2.8 years. We found a significant subsidence of the stem of up to a mean (and standard deviation) of -1.2 +/- 0.6 mm at two years within the control group, and the cups had a mean medialization of 0.6 +/- 1.0 mm and a mean cranialization of 0.6 +/- 0.8 mm (p < 0.001). Treatment with zoledronic acid effectively minimized the migration of the cups in both the transverse and the vertical direction (mean, 0.15 +/- 0.6 mm and 0.06 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively; p < 0.05), while only a trend to decreased subsidence of the stem was detected. Finally, the Harris hip score rapidly increased over time in both treatment groups, although this increase was significantly more pronounced in the zoledronate-treated group than in the control group (analysis of variance, p = 0.008). A single infusion of zoledronic acid shows promise in improving initial fixation of a cementless implant, which may improve the clinical outcome of total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  9. Malaria prevalence defined by microscopy, antigen detection, DNA amplification and total nucleic acid amplification in a malaria-endemic region during the peak malaria transmission season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitumbi, John N; Gerlach, Jay; Afonina, Irina; Anyona, Samuel B; Koros, Joseph N; Siangla, Joram; Ankoudinova, Irina; Singhal, Mitra; Watts, Kate; Polhemus, Mark E; Vermeulen, Nicolaas M; Mahoney, Walt; Steele, Matt; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2011-07-01

    To determine the malaria prevalence by microscopy, antigen detection and nucleic acid detection in a defined subpopulation in a Plasmodium falciparum-endemic region during the peak transmission season. Blood specimens were collected in a cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-10 years (n = 195) presenting with acute fever to two clinics in Western Kenya. All specimens underwent microscopy, HRP2 and aldolase antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), parasite-specific DNA and total nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) by real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Microscopy detected 65/195 cases of malaria infection [95% confidence interval (CI) 52-78]. HRP2 and aldolase EIA had similar sensitivity levels detecting antigen in 65/195 (95% CI, 52-78) and 57/195 (95% CI, 45-70) cases. Discordants in antigen detection vs. microscopy occurred at Detection of total nucleic acid allowed a 3 log lower limit of detection than just DNA detection by real-time PCR in vitro. In clinical specimens, 114/195 (95% CI, 100-127) were qPCR positive (DNA), and 187/195 (95% CI, 179-191) were qRT-PCR positive (DNA plus RNA). The prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection was significantly higher when detecting total nucleic acid than just DNA in this outpatient population during the high transmission season. Defining standards for submicroscopic infection will be important for control programmes, diagnostics development efforts and molecular epidemiology studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango (Mangifera indica L., cv. Tommy Atkin) as affected by infrared heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, D S; Siddiq, M; Roidoung, S; Dolan, K D

    2012-11-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a major tropical fruit that has not been exploited for fresh-cut or minimally processed products on a scale similar to apples, pineapples, or melons. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) treatment on total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut cubes from 'Tommy Atkin' mangoes. Mango cubes were IR treated (5, 10, 15 min) and evaluated at 4-d intervals during 16-d storage at 4 ± 1 °C. Total phenolics, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid content in fresh-cut control mango cubes were 43.33, 1.37, and 15.97 mg/100 g FW, respectively. IR treatments increased total phenolics (59.23 to 71.16 mg/100 g FW) and decreased ascorbic acid (12.14 to 15.38 mg/100 g, FW). Total carotenoids showed a mixed trend (1.13 to 1.66 mg/100 g, FW). The IR treatment showed a significant positive impact on antioxidant properties (μM TE/100 g, FW) of mango cubes, as assayed by ABTS (261.5 compared with 338.0 to 416.4), DPPH (270.5 compared with 289.4 to 360.5), and ORAC (6686 compared with 8450 to 12230). Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity decreased over 16-d storage. However, IR treated samples had consistently higher ABTS, DPPH, and total phenolics during storage. It was demonstrated that IR treatment can be effectively used in improving antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mangoes with minimal effect on the visual appearance. Various methods/treatments are in use for extending the quality of fresh-cut fruits, including mild heat treatment. This study explored the application of infrared (IR) heat for processing fresh-cut mango cubes and evaluated its effect on vitamin C and antioxidant capacity during 16-d storage. This is the first study reporting on the use of IR heat in fresh-cut fruits. IR treatment was shown to be effective in retaining antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango cubes with minimal effect on the visual appearance. © 2012 Institute

  11. Aspidosperma subincanum II. Usefulness of uleine and ribonucleic fragments in the treatment of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Maes

    Full Text Available Aids patients were treated during a year with three different food supplements commercially available: para-pau-aspido (Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae; 2Leid (nucleic acids and cytokines; and Para Immuno (propolis, pollen and royal jelly. All foods, given either alone or in combination, proved useful to all AIDS patients who received the supplements, be these under tri-therapy (Triomine: stavudine, lamivudine, névirapine or left unattended.

  12. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  13. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  14. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  15. Critical load of acid precipitations. Mapping of Italian regions; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, R.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level O method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The results show that the sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions. These areas are in the north-east of Italy, in Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel rapporto vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura, riferita agli ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi critici e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stokholm Environment Institute; a questo metodo semi-quantitativo sono state apportate alcune modifiche per meglio adattarlo alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Dall'analisi dei risultati ottenuti, si evince come la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide. Tali aree sono localizzate nell'Italia nord-orientale, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  16. Mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, C.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level 0 method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions in the north-east Italy, Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel presente relazione vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura riferita ad ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stockholm Environment Institute con alcune modifiche per adattarlo meglio alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Si dimostra che la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide nelle zone del Nord Est, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  17. Side-by-side comparison of analytical techniques; organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions in PWR secondary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, S.A.; Byers, W.A.; Miller, M.R.; Richards, J.; Silva, H.; Palino, G.F.; Wall, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Total Organic Carbon TOC samples should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken and they should be stored in a refrigerated condition, if at all possible. It can be inferred that for TOC levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppb, state-of-the-art sampling and analysis techniques can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppb. Any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Agreement between anion results appeared to improve over the course of the project. Both contractors agree that increased attention and care with sampling and analytical techniques probably accounted for this improvement. Utility personnel can therefore conclude that proper employee training, supervision, and motivation for proper sampling and analysis are critical if accurate anion results are to be obtained. Resonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggest that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  18. Spatio-temporal variations of nitric acid total columns from 9 years of IASI measurements - a driver study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsmans, Gaétane; Wespes, Catherine; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to understand the spatial and temporal variability of HNO3 total columns in terms of explanatory variables. To achieve this, multiple linear regressions are used to fit satellite-derived time series of HNO3 daily averaged total columns. First, an analysis of the IASI 9-year time series (2008-2016) is conducted based on various equivalent latitude bands. The strong and systematic denitrification of the southern polar stratosphere is observed very clearly. It is also possible to distinguish, within the polar vortex, three regions which are differently affected by the denitrification. Three exceptional denitrification episodes in 2011, 2014 and 2016 are also observed in the Northern Hemisphere, due to unusually low arctic temperatures. The time series are then fitted by multivariate regressions to identify what variables are responsible for HNO3 variability in global distributions and time series, and to quantify their respective influence. Out of an ensemble of proxies (annual cycle, solar flux, quasi-biennial oscillation, multivariate ENSO index, Arctic and Antarctic oscillations and volume of polar stratospheric clouds), only the those defined as significant (p value dominance of annual variability in all latitudinal bands, which is related to specific chemistry and dynamics depending on the latitudes. We find that the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) also have a major influence in the polar regions, and that their inclusion in the model improves the correlation coefficients and the residuals. However, there is still a relatively large portion of HNO3 variability that remains unexplained by the model, especially in the intertropical regions, where factors not included in the regression model (such as vegetation fires or lightning) may be at play.

  19. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  20. Improvements in glucose metabolism early after gastric bypass surgery are not explained by increases in total bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) have been suggested as key mediators of the improvements in glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objective: To describe fasting and postprandial state total bile acid (TBA) and FGF19 concentrations before and after...... (T2D) patients and 12 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects participated in the study. Intervention: A 4-hour liquid meal test was performed before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting and postprandial TBA and FGF19 concentrations. Results: Fasting...... TBA concentrations decreased in NGT subjects (P TBA was decreased in NGT subjects 1 week after RYGB (before surgery, 567...

  1. An In Vivo Study of Low-Dose Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application with Prolonged Clamping Drain Method in Total Knee Replacement: Clinical Efficacy and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-ngasoongsong, Paphon; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Wongsak, Siwadol; Uthadorn, Krisorn; Panpikoon, Tanapong; Jittorntam, Paisan; Aryurachai, Katcharin; Angchaisukisiri, Pantap; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Recently, combined intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) injection with clamping drain method showed efficacy for blood loss and transfusion reduction in total knee replacement (TKR). However, until now, none of previous studies revealed the effect of this technique on pharmacokinetics, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. An experimental study was conducted, during 2011-2012, in 30 patients undergoing unilateral TKR. Patients received IA-TXA application and then were allocated into six groups regarding clamping drain duration (2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-hours). Blood and drainage fluid were collected to measure tranexamic acid (TXA) level and related coagulation and fibrinolytic markers. Postoperative complication was followed for one year. There was no significant difference of serum TXA level at 2 hour and 24 hour among groups (p application in TKR with prolonged clamping drain method is a safe and effective blood conservative technique with only minimal systemic absorption and without significant increase in systemic absorption over time.

  2. Rapid determination of free fatty acid content in waste deodorizer distillates using single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saba; Sherazi, Sayed Tufail Hussain; Talpur, Farah N; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A; Kara, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid, economical, and environmentally friendly analytical method was developed for the quantitative assessment of free fatty acids (FFAs) present in deodorizer distillates and crude oils by single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy. Partial least squares was applied for the calibration model based on the peak region of the carbonyl group (C=O) from 1726 to 1664 cm(-1) associated with the FFAs. The proposed method totally avoided the use of organic solvents or costly standards and could be applied easily in the oil processing industry. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparison to a conventional standard American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) titrimetric procedure, which provided good correlation (R = 0.99980), with an SD of +/- 0.05%. Therefore, the proposed method could be used as an alternate to the AOCS titrimetric method for the quantitative determination of FFAs especially in deodorizer distillates.

  3. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  4. Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body. PMID:22394592

  5. Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity of the rumen liquor from australian merino and corriedale sheep, fed on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leydson Formiga Feitosa

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the pH and total titratable acidity from rumen liquor was carried out in Australian Merino and Corriedale sheep fed on pasture, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer, in Botucatu City, São Paulo, Brazil. Ruminal samples were collected using a standard tube, from 103 sheep during the winter period (50 Corriedale and 53 Australian Merino and from 107 sheep in the summer (52 Corriedale and 55 Australian Merino. The results obtained for pH and total titratable acidity in Australian Merino sheep in winter and summer were, respectively 6,69 ± 0,20 and 6,75 ± 0,23, and 26,27 ± 5,02 and 29,24 ± 6.24 units. The results observed in these tests for Corriedale sheep in winter and summer were, respectively, 6,70 ± 0,21 and 6,84 ±0,28, and 27,26 ± 4,82 and 30,40 ± 5,11 units.

  6. Aspect ratio control of Au nanorods via covariation of the total amount of HAuCl{sub 4} and ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Feng, Jinyang [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Zhao, Xiujian, E-mail: opluse@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The AR value decreased as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] increasing. • The UV–vis absorption spectra showed the peak wavelength of TSPR at around 530 nm. • The wavelength of LSPR had a red-shifted effect. - Abstract: Controlling the aspect ratio (AR) of gold nanorods (GNRs) via covariation of the total concentrations of HAuCl{sub 4} ([HAuCl{sub 4}]) and ascorbic acid ([AA]) has been studied. Characteristics of GNRs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometry. TEM results showed that single crystalline GNRs grew along an elongated growth direction of [100]. TEM results also revealed that the quantity of plate shaped and nearly spherical nanoparticles increased as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] decreased. The AR value measured from TEM images decreased from 4.74 to 2.41 as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] was increased from 0.305 to 2.44 mM. The UV–vis absorption spectra of all samples showed that the wavelength of transverse surface plasmon resonance (TSPR) peak appeared at around 530 nm for all samples. The wavelength of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak increased from 640 to 894 nm as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] decreased from 2.44 to 0.305 mM. The wavelength of LSPR peak shows a red-shifted effect except when the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] was 0.122 mM.

  7. Comparative analysis of three different of extraction protocols of total nucleic acids of squash (Cucurbita moschata) for the diagnosis from geminivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Jimenez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The geminivirus constitute an important group of plant pathogens, characterized by an unusual morphology of the viral particle and its DNA. They have a paired icosahedral cover and a small circular genome of DNA simple band that is replicated, by DNA double band, in the nucleus of the infected cell of the plant. Many researchers have focused on the development and optimization of protocols for obtaining DNA or RNA of interest, because of rapid advances in molecular biology during the second half of the XX century and the beginning of XXI century, and to that the extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step mainly of the procedures in this area. The objective is to compare, by means of molecular techniques, the DNA purification in squash from different ways of storage and extraction protocols of total nucleic acids of the plant, in order to improve the quality and amount of genetic matters whereupon the detection and characterization of geminivirus are realised. Three methods were compared: i. Dellaporta and collaborators (1983), ii.- Doyle and Doyle (1990) and iii.- Jose and Usha (2000). The operation of the three methods scaled downward (15 milligrams of leaf tissue) and two ways of storage were evaluated: 1.- tubes with silica gel (SG, a desiccant) and 2.- frozen to -70 degrees Celsius. The method of Jose and Usha (2000) presented technical difficulties that not permitted to scale downward, for which it should work with the purification from a gram of foliar tissue. The integrity of the total DNA was verified superior in the material stored to -70 degrees celsius for all the methods, by means of electrophoresis in gels of agarose, besides that the protocol of Dellaporta et al. (1983) tends to enrich the RNA. The readings were similar for the methods of Dellaporta et al. (1983) and Doyle and Doyle (1993), this was evidenced upon quantifying the total DNA and that is extracted at least a 30% more of DNA from material in the desiccant with respect

  8. Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    In Iran, re-refinery industry has been developed many years ago based on the acid-clay treatment. Acidic sludge with high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is the final products of some facilities. In this study removal of TPH by aerated in-vessel composting was investigated. In order to microorganisms seeding and nutrient providing, urban immature compost was added as an amendment to acidic sludge. The ratios of acidic sludge (AS) to compost were, 1:0 (as control), 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:75 and 1:100 (as dry basis) at a C: N: P ratio of 100:5:1 and 45-65% moisture content for 70 days. The removal efficiency in all reactors was more than 48%. The highest and lowest TPH removal was observed in 1:5 (71.56%) and 1:100 (48.53%) mixing ratios, respectively. The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. Experimental data was fitted second order kinetic model ( R 2  > 0.8006). Degradation of TPH in 1:5 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0038 gmg -1 d -1 ; half-life = 3.08d) was nearly three times faster than 1:100 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0238; half-life = 8.96d). The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. The results of this study revealed in-vessel composting with immature urban compost as the amendment maybe recommended as an effective method for TPH remediation.

  9. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  10. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  11. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014. Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL, estimated total blood loss (ETBL, and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg. Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb level and body mass index (BMI were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p<0.0001 and 0.003, resp.. Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p<0.0001. Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p<0.05 all. Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p=0.0001 and 0.002, resp.. Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL.

  12. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  13. Antiepileptic activity of total triterpenes isolated from Poria cocos is mediated by suppression of aspartic and glutamic acids in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanqiong; Yan, Hua; Jin, Ruirui; Lei, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Triterpenes from Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) have been used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the antiepileptic effects and mechanism are not fully understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the antiepileptic properties of total triterpenes (TTP) from the whole P. cocos. The ethanol extract TTP was identified by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Male ICR mice were gavaged (i.g.) with TTP (5, 20, 80 or 160 mg/kg) or reference drugs twice a day for 7 d. Antiepileptic activities of TTP were evaluated by maximal electroshock (MES)- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Locomotor activity and Rota-rod tests were performed for 60 min and 5 min, respectively. The levels of glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly) in convulsive mice were estimated. The chronic epileptic model of Wistar rats was built to measure expressions of glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABA A in rat brain after TTP treatment. The LC 50 of TTP (i.g.) was above 6 g/kg. TTP (5-160 mg/kg) protected mice against MES- and PTZ-induced convulsions at 65.0% and 62.5%, respectively, but have no effect on rota-rod treadmill; TTP (20-160 mg/kg) significantly reduced the locomotor activities, shortened the onset of pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep; TTP decreased Glu and Asp levels in convulsive mice, but increased the GAD65 and GABA A expressions in chronic epileptic rats at doses usage. TTP extracted from P. cocos possessed potential antiepileptic properties and is a candidate for further antiepileptic drug development.

  14. Lysergic acid amide as chemical marker for the total ergot alkaloids in rye flour - Determination by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2017-07-21

    Ergot alkaloids are generally determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) or mass selective detection, analyzing the individual compounds. However, fast and easy screening methods for the determination of the total ergot alkaloid content are more suitable, since for monitoring only the sum of the alkaloids is relevant. The herein presented screening uses lysergic acid amide (LSA) as chemical marker, formed from ergopeptine alkaloids, and ergometrine for the determination of the total ergot alkaloids in rye with high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). An ammonium acetate buffered extraction step was followed by liquid-liquid partition for clean-up before the ergopeptine alkaloids were selectively transformed to LSA and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD on silica gel with isopropyl acetate/methanol/water/25% ammonium hydroxide solution (80:10:3.8:1.1, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The enhanced native fluorescence of LSA and unaffected ergometrine was used for quantitation without any interfering matrix. Limits of detection and quantitation were 8 and 26μg LSA/kg rye, which enables the determination of the total ergot alkaloids far below the applied quality criterion limit for rye. Close to 100% recoveries for different rye flours at relevant spiking levels were obtained. Thus, reliable results were guaranteed, and the fast and efficient screening for the total ergot alkaloids in rye offers a rapid alternative to the HPLC analysis of the individual compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Storage and stability of biochar-derived carbon and total organic carbon in relation to minerals in an acid forest soil of the Spanish Atlantic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arostegi, Javier; Moragues, Lur; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-06-01

    Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area. We compared plots amended with biochar produced from Miscanthus sp. (C4 type) with control plots (not amended). We separated sand-, silt-, and clay-size fractions in samples collected from 0 to 20-cm depth. In each fraction, we analyzed clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides, total OC and biochar-C. The results showed that 51% of the biochar-C was in fractions fractions (0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm, fractions, as it occurred with the vermiculitic phases and metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides. Biochar also affected to the distribution of total OC among particle-size fractions. Total OC concentration was greater in fractions 2-20μm, 0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm in biochar-amended plots than in control plots. This may be explained by the adsorption of dissolved OC from fraction organic matter already occurred in the first year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of weaning status on lipids of Galician Blond veal: total fatty acids and 18:1 cis and trans isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Esperanza; Moreno, Teresa; Latorre, Alicia; González, Laura; Herradón, Pedro G; Franco, Daniel; Monserrat, Lorenzo

    2010-10-01

    The effect of weaning at different ages (NW=not weaned, W5=5.5 months and W2=2 months) on fatty acids (FA) of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was studied in 36 Galician Blond (GB) calves. Total FA (TFA) were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and 18:1 isomers by a combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC. NW group showed higher (Pconjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and 18:1 trans-11 compared to LT from W5 and W2 calves. W2 calves showed the highest levels of n-6 PUFA (P<0.01), 18:1 trans-10 and 18:1 trans-6/7/8 (P<0.001). Generally, W5 calves had intermediate values for TFA and 18:1 isomers. As the suckling period was longer, GB milk and veal FA profiles became more similar, it seems that muscle FA were partially transmitted by the milk FA intake due to the persistence of the reticular grove closing reflex. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Petroleomics by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry coupled to partial least squares with variable selection methods: prediction of the total acid number of crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luciana A; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Tose, Lílian V; Romão, Wanderson; de Souza, Douglas D; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; de Oliveira, Mirela S L; Dias, Júlio C M; Poppi, Ronei J

    2014-10-07

    Negative-ion mode electrospray ionization, ESI(-), with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was coupled to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression and variable selection methods to estimate the total acid number (TAN) of Brazilian crude oil samples. Generally, ESI(-)-FT-ICR mass spectra present a power of resolution of ca. 500,000 and a mass accuracy less than 1 ppm, producing a data matrix containing over 5700 variables per sample. These variables correspond to heteroatom-containing species detected as deprotonated molecules, [M - H](-) ions, which are identified primarily as naphthenic acids, phenols and carbazole analog species. The TAN values for all samples ranged from 0.06 to 3.61 mg of KOH g(-1). To facilitate the spectral interpretation, three methods of variable selection were studied: variable importance in the projection (VIP), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and elimination of uninformative variables (UVE). The UVE method seems to be more appropriate for selecting important variables, reducing the dimension of the variables to 183 and producing a root mean square error of prediction of 0.32 mg of KOH g(-1). By reducing the size of the data, it was possible to relate the selected variables with their corresponding molecular formulas, thus identifying the main chemical species responsible for the TAN values.

  18. The validation & verification of an LC/MS method for the determination of total docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in canine blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Gerald Patrick; Keegan, Jason D; Wallace, Geoff; Yiannikouris, Alexandros; Moran, Colm Anthony

    2018-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is an omega 3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) that has been shown to play a role in canine growth and physiological integrity and improvements in skin and coat condition. However, potential adverse effects of n-3 FA specifically, impaired cellular immunity has been observed in dogs fed diets with elevated levels of n-3 FA. As such, a safe upper limit (SUL) for total n-3 FAs (DHA and EPA) in dogs has been established. Considering this SUL, sensitive methods detecting DHA in blood serum as a biomarker when conducting n-3 FA supplementation trials involving dogs are required. In this study, an LC-ESI-MS/MS method of DHA detection in dog serum was validated and verified. Recovery of DHA was optimized and parallelism tests were conducted with spiked samples demonstrating that the serum matrix did not interfere with quantitation. The stability of DHA in serum was also investigated, with -80 °C considered suitable when storing samples for up to six months. The method was linear over a calibration range of 1-500 μg/mL and precision and accuracy were found to meet the requirements for validation. This method was verified in an alternative laboratory using a different analytical system and operator, with the results meeting the criteria for verification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. An In Vivo Study of Low-Dose Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application with Prolonged Clamping Drain Method in Total Knee Replacement: Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, combined intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA injection with clamping drain method showed efficacy for blood loss and transfusion reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. However, until now, none of previous studies revealed the effect of this technique on pharmacokinetics, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Materials and Methods. An experimental study was conducted, during 2011-2012, in 30 patients undergoing unilateral TKR. Patients received IA-TXA application and then were allocated into six groups regarding clamping drain duration (2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-hours. Blood and drainage fluid were collected to measure tranexamic acid (TXA level and related coagulation and fibrinolytic markers. Postoperative complication was followed for one year. Results. There was no significant difference of serum TXA level at 2 hour and 24 hour among groups (p<0.05. Serum TXA level at time of clamp release was significantly different among groups with the highest level at 2 hour (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference of TXA level in drainage fluid, postoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and postoperative complications (p<0.05.  Conclusions. Low-dose IA-TXA application in TKR with prolonged clamping drain method is a safe and effective blood conservative technique with only minimal systemic absorption and without significant increase in systemic absorption over time.

  20. Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (pisum sativum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Hussain, F.; Akhtar, M.E.; Gurmani, A.R.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions. (author)

  1. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  2. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  3. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  4. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  5. Effect of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral bone mineral density loss following total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis from randomized controlled trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Gao, Chong; Li, Hui; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Chang; Ran, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficiency of intravenous administration of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-2017.07.31), PubMed (1966-2017.07.31), Embase (1980-2017.07.31), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.07.31) and the Cochrane Library (1966-2017.07.31). Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and publication bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Four studies including 185 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zone 1 (SMD = 0.752, 95% CI: 0.454 to 1.051, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.524, 95% CI: 0.230 to 0.819, P = 0.000), 4 (SMD = 0.400, 95% CI: 0.107 to 0.693, P = 0.008), 6 (SMD = 0.893, 95% CI: 0.588 to 1.198, P = 0.000) and 7 (SMD = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.677 to 1.300, P = 0.000). Intravenous administration of zoledronic acid could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone mineral density loss (Gruen zone 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7) after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. High-quality RCTs with large sample size were still required. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  7. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  8. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  9. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  10. Topical versus intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in primary total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy A. Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid (TA is widely used by orthopedic surgeons to decrease blood loss and the need for transfusion following total hip arthroplasty (THA. Although both intravenous and topical applications are described in the literature, there remains no consensus regarding the optimal regimen, dosage and method of delivery of TA during THA. In addition, concerns still exist regarding the risk of thromboembolic events with intravenous administration. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus intravenous administration of TA in THA. A systemic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE and Google Scholar was undertaken to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing the topical and intravenous administration of TA during THA, in terms of total blood loss, rate of blood transfusion and incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE post-operatively. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of both methods of administration. Of 248 potentially relevant papers, three RCTs comprising (482 were eligible for data extraction and metaanalysis. The results showed a slightly higher amount of blood loss [Mean Difference (MD – 46.37, P=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI – 12.54 to 105.29] and rate of transfusion (Risk Ratio 1.30, P=0.39, 95%CI 0.71 to 2.37 postoperatively in the topical TA group, but both did not reach statistical significance. There were 3 cases (1.2% of DVT/PE in the intravenous group and one case (0.4% in the topical group. Topical TA is an effective and safe method to reduce blood loss and the rate of transfusion following primary THA. It has comparative effectiveness to IV administration with slightly less post-operative thromboembolic complications. Larger and better-designed RCTs are required to establish the optimum dosage and regimen for topical use.

  11. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on fecal short-chain fatty acids and microflora in patients on long-term total enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stéphane M; Girard-Pipau, Fernand; Filippi, Jérôme; Hébuterne, Xavier; Moyse, Dominique; Hinojosa, Gustavo Calle; Pompei, Anne; Rampal, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of Sb on fecal flora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in patients on long-term TEN. METHODS: Ten patients (3 females, 7 males, 59±5.5 years), on TEN for a median of 13 mo (1-125), and 15 healthy volunteers (4 females, 11 males, 32±2.0 years) received Sb (0.5 g bid PO) for 6 d. Two stool samples were taken before, on the last 2 d and 9-10 d after treatment, for SCFA measurement and for culture and bacterial identification. Values (mean±SE) were compared using sign tests and ANOVA. RESULTS: Fecal butyrate levels were lower in patients (10.1±2.9 mmol/kg) than in controls (19.2±2.9, P = 0.02). Treatment with Sb increased total fecal SCFA levels in patients (150.2±27.2vs 107.5?8.2 mmol/kg, P = 0.02) but not in controls (129.0±28.6 vs 113.0±15.2 mmol/kg, NS). At the end of treatment with Sb, patients had higher fecal butyrate (16.0±4.4 vs 10.1 [2.9] mmol/kg, P = 0.004). Total SCFAs remained high 9 d after treatment was discon-tinued. Before the treatment, the anaerobe to aerobe ratio was lower in patients compared to controls (2.4±2.3 vs 69.8±1.8, P = 0.003). There were no significant changes in the fecal flora of TEN patients. CONCLUSION: Sb-induced increase of fecal SCFA concentrations (especially butyrate) may explain the preventive effects of this yeast on TEN-induced diarrhea. PMID:16273644

  12. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  13. Combined intravenous, topical and oral tranexamic acid administration in total knee replacement: Evaluation of safety in patients with previous thromboembolism and effect on hemoglobin level and transfusion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Joris A; Lameijer, Joost R C; Snoeker, Barbara A M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety of combined intravenous, oral and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total knee replacement. We assessed dose-related efficacy on hemoglobin level, transfusion, length of stay and thromboembolic complications. In addition, TXA safety in patients with previous history of thromboembolism >12months ago was monitored specifically. From January 2013 until January 2016, 922 patients were included who received TXA after primary total knee replacement. Patients without TXA administration or with thromboembolic events 10-25mg/kg and >25-50mg/kg. Between the three TXA groups no significant difference was found in thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)), wound leakage and transfusion rate. For patients with DVT or PE in their history >12months ago specifically, no more complications were noted in higher-TXA-dosage groups compared to the low-dosage group. Length of stay was shorter in the highest-TXA-dosage group compared with lower-dosage groups (median two vs three days). With high TXA dose a smaller difference between pre- and postoperative Hb was found: the >25-50mg/kg TXA group had a 0.419mmol/l smaller decrease in postoperative hemoglobin compared to the lowest-dosage group (Ptopical TXA is effective in knee replacement and can safely be given to patients with a thromboembolic history >12months ago. High dosage (>25-50mg/kg) TXA resulted in the smallest decrease in postoperative hemoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  15. Calculation of the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids and the effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile buffers in plasma for use in the strong ion approach to acid-base balance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sheila M; Constable, Peter D

    2003-08-01

    To determine values for the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (Atot) and effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile weak acids (Ka) in plasma of cats. Convenience plasma samples of 5 male and 5 female healthy adult cats. Cats were sedated, and 20 mL of blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Plasma was tonometered at 37 degrees C to systematically vary PCO2 from 8 to 156 mm Hg, thereby altering plasma pH from 6.90 to 7.97. Plasma pH, PCO2, and concentrations of quantitatively important strong cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+), strong anions (Cl-, lactate), and buffer ions (total protein, albumin, and phosphate) were determined. Strong ion difference was estimated from the measured strong ion concentrations and nonlinear regression used to calculate Atot and Ka from the measured pH and PCO2 and estimated strong ion difference. Mean (+/- SD) values were as follows: Atot = 24.3 +/- 4.6 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.35 mmol/g of protein or 0.76 mmol/g of albumin); Ka = 0.67 +/- 0.40 x 10(-7); and the negative logarithm (base 10) of Ka (pKa) = 7.17. At 37 degrees C, pH of 7.35, and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 30 mm Hg, the calculated venous strong ion difference was 30 mEq/L. These results indicate that at a plasma pH of 7.35, a 1 mEq/L decrease in strong ion difference will decrease pH by 0.020, a 1 mm Hg decrease in PCO2 will increase plasma pH by 0.011, and a 1 g/dL decrease in albumin concentration will increase plasma pH by 0.093.

  16. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  17. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Zhao, P F; Yang, Z Y; Long, S F; Wang, H L; Tian, Q Y; Xu, Y T; Xu, X; Zhang, Z H; Piao, X S

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (pdigestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (pdigestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  18. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  19. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  20. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  1. CatB is Critical for Total Catalase Activity and Reduces Bactericidal Effects of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiayan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Shu; Duan, Yabing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2017-02-01

    Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. In this study, we found that PCA significantly upregulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA sensitivity was reduced when X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola were cultured with exogenous catalase. Furthermore, catB deletion mutants of X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola showed dramatically decreased total catalase activity, increased sensitivity to PCA, and reduced virulence in rice. In contrast, deletion mutants of srpA and katG, which also encode catalases, exhibited little change in PCA sensitivity. The results indicate that catB in both X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola encodes a catalase that helps protect the bacteria against PCA-induced stress.

  2. Topical fibrin sealant versus intravenous tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-08-01

    Efficacy and safety of topical application of a fibrin sealant (FS) compared with intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical application of FS or intravenous administration of TXA on blood loss after TKA. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing FS with TXA for TKA patients. The mean difference (MD) of blood loss, hemoglobin value, and odds ratios (ORs) of transfusion requirements and adverse events in FS and TXA groups were pooled throughout the study. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Five studies involving 359 patients were included (181 FS vs. 178 TXA). TXA use had a significantly lower prevalence of blood transfusion (OR = 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67 to 5.90, P = 0.0004) and higher hemoglobin level (MD = -1.23; 95% CI, -2.19 to -0.27, P = 0.01) than FS in the early postoperative period. No significant difference was seen in total blood loss between the two groups (MD = 198.06; 95% CI, -267.45 to 663.57; P = 0.40). There were no significant differences in adverse events, superficial infections, or deep-vein thrombosis among study groups. Our meta-analysis suggests that intravenous administration of TXA for patients undergoing TKA may reduce blood-transfusion requirements and maintain higher hemoglobin levels compared with topical application of FS in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in total calculated blood loss and prevalence of complications between the two groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical analysis of the distribution of isolated particles in totally asymmetric exclusion processes: Application to mRNA translation rate estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao Duc, Khanh; Saleem, Zain H.; Song, Yun S.

    2018-01-01

    The Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP) is a classical stochastic model for describing the transport of interacting particles, such as ribosomes moving along the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) during translation. Although this model has been widely studied in the past, the extent of collision between particles and the average distance between a particle to its nearest neighbor have not been quantified explicitly. We provide here a theoretical analysis of such quantities via the distribution of isolated particles. In the classical form of the model in which each particle occupies only a single site, we obtain an exact analytic solution using the matrix ansatz. We then employ a refined mean-field approach to extend the analysis to a generalized TASEP with particles of an arbitrary size. Our theoretical study has direct applications in mRNA translation and the interpretation of experimental ribosome profiling data. In particular, our analysis of data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests a potential bias against the detection of nearby ribosomes with a gap distance of less than approximately three codons, which leads to some ambiguity in estimating the initiation rate and protein production flux for a substantial fraction of genes. Despite such ambiguity, however, we demonstrate theoretically that the interference rate associated with collisions can be robustly estimated and show that approximately 1% of the translating ribosomes get obstructed.

  4. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  5. The total body mass of fatty acid ethyl esters in skeletal muscles following ethanol exposure greatly exceeds that found in the liver and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Raneem O; Laposata, Michael; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Preedy, Victor R

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle appears to be susceptible to chronic and acute excess alcohol intake, giving rise to alcoholic myopathy, a common disease among alcoholics. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been shown to be toxic to cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that accumulation of FAEE in skeletal muscle could contribute to the development of alcoholic myopathy. Male wistar rats were treated either with 75 mmol ethanol/kg body weight or saline, in the fed state or starved for 1 or 2 days before administration. Rats were thus divided into the following groups: fed-saline (n = 8); fed-ethanol (n = 8); starved 1 day, saline (n = 8); starved 1 day, ethanol (n = 9); starved 2 days, saline (n = 7); and starved 2 days, ethanol (n = 8). At the end of the incubation, skeletal muscles (abdominal and gastrocnemius), liver, and heart were isolated and processed for FAEE isolation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total mass of FAEE in the muscles was much greater than that found in the liver and the heart. In general, the animals that were fasted for 1 day and received ethanol had the highest FAEE levels among the three groups of animals. The major ethyl ester species in all cases were ethyl 16:0, ethyl 18:0, ethyl 18:1 n-9, and ethyl 18:2 n-6. Ethyl 20:4 n-6 and ethyl 22:6 n-3 were also present, except in the fasted 1-day group, where ethyl 22:6 disappeared, though it reappeared in the fasted 2-day group. These findings demonstrate that skeletal muscles contain high levels of FAEE that are synthesized in the body after ethanol exposure. The concentration of FAEE in skeletal muscle in this study was very similar to FAEE concentration in the liver. This differs from previous studies suggesting a low concentration of skeletal muscle FAEE with ethanol exposure.

  6. Amino acid profiles of rumen undegradable protein: a comparison between forages including cereal straws and alfalfa and their respective total mixed rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Jiang, L S; Liu, J X

    2018-06-01

    Optimizing the amino acid (AA) profile of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) can positively affect the amount of milk protein. This study was conducted to improve knowledge regarding the AA profile of rumen undegradable protein from corn stover, rice straw and alfalfa hay as well as the total mixed ratio diets (TMR) based on one of them as forage source [forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 (30% of corn stover (CS), 30% of rice straw (RS), 23% of alfalfa hay (AH) and dry matter basis)]. The other ingredients in the three TMR diets were similar. The RUP of all the forages and diets was estimated by incubation for 16 hr in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated lactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization, which was necessary in determining the AA composition of RUP from feed samples using in situ method. Compared with their original AA composition, the AA pattern of forages and forage-based diets changed drastically after rumen exposure. In addition, the extent of ruminal degradation of analysed AA was not constant among the forages. The greatest individual AA degradability of alfalfa hay and corn stover was Pro, but was His of rice straw. A remarkable difference was observed between microbial attachment corrected and uncorrected AA profiles of RUP, except for alfalfa hay and His in the three forages and TMR diets. The ruminal AA degradability of cereal straws was altered compared with alfalfa hay but not for the TMR diets. In summary, the AA composition of forages and TMR-based diets changed significantly after ruminal exposure, indicating that the original AA profiles of the feed cannot represent its AA composition of RUP. The AA profile of RUP and ruminal AA degradability for corn stover and rice straw contributed to missing information in the field. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Total glucosides of peony attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid/ethanol-induced colitis in rats through adjustment of TH1/TH2 cytokines polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yabing; Zhou, Rui; Zhou, Feng; Cheng, Hong; Xia, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to investigate effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol-induced colitis in rats and to explore potential clinical use of TGP for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped into normal controls, model controls, sulfasalazine (SASP) controls (100 mg/kg/day), and low, medium, and high-dose TGP groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively). 24 h following colonic instillation of TNBS, TGP, and SASP were given by gastric gavage three times a day for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI), colon macroscopic damage index (CMDI), histopathological score (HPS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Levels of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 were measured by ELISA, and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA and protein in colonic tissues was detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Compared with rats in the model controls, TGP (50 or 100 mg/kg/day)-treated rats with TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis showed significant improvements of DAI, CMDI, HPS, and MPO activity. Moreover, administration of TGP (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased the up-regulated levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1β, and expression of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA and protein in colonic tissues, and increased the serum IL-10 and colonic IL-10 mRNA and protein level. And there was no significant difference compared with administration of SASP (P > 0.05). TGP attenuates TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis in rats and its efficacy is similar to SASP, the potential mechanism might be related to the adjustment of Th1/Th2 cytokines polarization by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  8. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  9. A mathematical model of pH, based on the total stoichiometric concentration of acids, bases and ampholytes dissolved in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Mioni, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    In chemistry and in acid-base physiology, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation plays a pivotal role in studying the behaviour of the buffer solutions. However, it seems that the general function to calculate the valence of acids, bases and ampholytes, N = f(pH), at any pH, has only been provided by Kildeberg. This equation can be applied to strong acids and bases, pluriprotic weak acids, bases and ampholytes, with an arbitrary number of acid strength constants, pKA, including water. By differentiating this function with respect to pH, we obtain the general equation for the buffer value. In addition, by integrating the titration curve, TA, proposed by Kildeberg, and calculating its Legendre transform, we obtain the Gibbs free energy of pH (or pOH)-dependent titratable acid. Starting from the law of electroneutrality and applying suitable simplifications, it is possible to calculate the pH of the buffer solutions by numerical methods, available in software packages such as Excel. The concept of buffer capacity has also been clarified by Urbansky, but, at variance with our approach, not in an organic manner. In fact, for each set of monobasic, dibasic, tribasic acids, etc., various equations are presented which independently fit each individual acid-base category. Consequently, with the increase in acid groups (pKA), the equations become more and more difficult, both in practice and in theory. Some examples are proposed to highlight the boundary that exists between acid-base physiology and the thermodynamic concepts of energy, chemical potential, amount of substance and acid resistance.

  10. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M. R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Zock, Peter L; Katan, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to I g chlorogenic acid/d. Objective: We studied

  11. [Exploration on feasibility of introducing bioassay method into quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines by studying on the correlation between antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris and its total phenolic acids content for example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei-Hong; Li, Chun; Xin, Wei-Mei; Lin, Li-Mei; Xia, Bo-Hou; Rong, Li-Xin; Yang, Li-Xin; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate the correlation between the antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris and its total phenolic acids content by measuring the antioxidant activity of different sources and different organs of P. vulgaris and the total contents of protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside and rosmarinic acid in these samples. Using the 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris samples as the research object, DPPH method and HPLC method were used respectively to determine the antioxidant activities and the total contents of the above-mentioned five analytes in P. vulgaris samples. 0.5 mL of 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris reacts with 0.1 mmol•L⁻¹ DPPH ethanol solution for 60 min, then the absorbance of the reaction solution was measured at 517 nm, scavenging rate and IC₅₀ values were calculated by the absorbance and the sample concentration for evaluating the antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis was made on a C₁₈ Epic column, with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase (gradient elution), and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The correlation between the antioxidant capacity of different habitats and different organs of P. vulgaris and the total contents of five kinds of phenolic acids was analyzed by partial least squares method. The reaction dose-response range of 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris with 0.1 mmol•L⁻¹ DPPH ethanol solution was 0.300-1.65 g•L⁻¹. When the quantities of potocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside and rosmarinic acid were respectively in 0.007 84-0.980, 0.011 5-1.44, 0.008 64-1.08, 0.080 0-1.00 and 0.079 8-0.998 μg range, their quantities were in good linear relationship with the corresponding peak areas. The average recovery of 5 components were 97.76%, 96.88%, 100.3%, 102.1%, 104.5%, with RSD of 1.8%, 1.6%, 1.7%, 1.6% and 1.7%, respectively. In a certain range of crude drug quantity, the antioxidant activity

  12. Combination Intravenous and Intra-Articular Tranexamic acid compared with Intravenous Only Administration and No Therapy in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Buntting

    2016-07-01

    This study supports the existing literature and suggests that the use of IV Tranexamic acid alone or in combination with intra-articular dose in TKA may reduce the requirement for transfusion (Level IV evidence. Furthermore, this study suggests that the use of tranexamic acid as a combination of Intravenous and intra-articular administration has no effect on range of motion, or medical complications during hospital stay. Although it was not a statistically significant finding, our study suggested a trend towards a greater reduction in haemoglobin and haematocrit fall in the combination therapy group when compared to IV Tranexamic acid alone

  13. Hyaluronic Acid Injections Are Associated with Delay of Total Knee Replacement Surgery in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Evidence from a Large U.S. Health Claims Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Altman

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA and the medical costs associated with total knee replacement (TKR surgery for end-stage OA motivate a search for agents that can delay OA progression. We test a hypothesis that hyaluronic acid (HA injection is associated with delay of TKR in a dose-dependent manner.We retrospectively evaluated records in an administrative claims database of ~79 million patients, to identify all patients with knee OA who received TKR during a 6-year period. Only patients with continuous plan enrollment from diagnosis until TKR were included, so that complete medical records were available. OA diagnosis was the index event and we evaluated time-to-TKR as a function of the number of HA injections. The database included 182,022 patients with knee OA who had TKR; 50,349 (27.7% of these patients were classified as HA Users, receiving ≥1 courses of HA prior to TKR, while 131,673 patients (72.3% were HA Non-users prior to TKR, receiving no HA. Cox proportional hazards modelling shows that TKR risk decreases as a function of the number of HA injection courses, if patient age, gender, and disease comorbidity are used as background covariates. Multiple HA injections are therefore associated with delay of TKR (all, P < 0.0001. Half of HA Non-users had a TKR by 114 days post-diagnosis of knee OA, whereas half of HA Users had a TKR by 484 days post-diagnosis (χ2 = 19,769; p < 0.0001. Patients who received no HA had a mean time-to-TKR of 0.7 years; with one course of HA, the mean time to TKR was 1.4 years (χ2 = 13,725; p < 0.0001; patients who received ≥5 courses delayed TKR by 3.6 years (χ2 = 19,935; p < 0.0001.HA injection in patients with knee OA is associated with a dose-dependent increase in time-to-TKR.

  14. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  15. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  16. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Evaluation of cost-effective total nucleic acids extraction protocols for cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis; a comparison by PCR amplification of genes associated with drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyamfi Oti K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has made the management of tuberculosis difficult. Also, Mycobacterium species has a peculiar cell wall, made of an impermeable complex structure rich in mycolate, making the lyses of its cell difficult. In order to apply a radio-labelled-probe based detection of mutations in selected genes leading to drug resistance, we concede that the evaluation and modifications of nucleic acid extraction protocols that are less sophisticated and less prone to contamination would be useful in the management of tuberculosis in a resource-constrained setting. Findings The average amount of nucleic acids was determined for different extraction treatments. High temperature treatment only, yielded the lowest amount of nucleic acids, i.e. 15.7 ± 3.2 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with the addition of TE and triton-X100, was 133.7 ± 8.9 μg, while that obtained with the addition of TE only, and TE and SDS were 68.4 ± 22.7 μg and 70.4 ± 20.3 μg respectively. Other treatments yielded 28.8 ± 6.7 μg, 32.5 ± 2.4 μg and 36.9 ± 15.5 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with high temperature treatment in TE, and that obtained by freezing prior to high temperature treatment, successfully amplified for the genes of interest (rpoB, KatG, rrs. Conclusion We strongly recommend the use of 1× TE buffer, and freezing and heating for improved lysis of cultured M. tuberculosis, and therefore, as an effective method for the preparation of M. tuberculosis nucleic acid useful for PCR.

  18. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  19. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  20. Effect of branched chain amino acid enrichment of total parenteral nutrition on nitrogen sparing and clinical outcome of sepsis and trauma: a prospective randomized double blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Meyenfeldt, M. F.; Soeters, P. B.; Vente, J. P.; van Berlo, C. L.; Rouflart, M. M.; de Jong, K. P.; van der Linden, C. J.; Gouma, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Administration of extra branched chain amino acids (BCAA) has been associated with a nitrogen sparing effect in septic and traumatized patients. Whether nitrogen sparing is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality rates is unknown. We therefore undertook a prospective, randomized, double

  1. The effect of lactic acid bacteria included as a probiotic or silage inoculant on in vitro rumen digestibility, total gas and methane production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; Hindrichsen, I.K.; Kinley, R.D.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Milora, N.L.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Through alterations in silage and rumen fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) silage inoculants may affect OM digestibility and methane (CH4) emissions. In order to identify LAB that may have beneficial effects on CH4 emissions and/or OM digestibility in vivo, a series of in vitro gas production

  2. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of long chain free fatty acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DW...

  3. Stability of ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, netilmicin and amikacin in an L-amino acid solution prepared for total parenteral nutrition of newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, K; Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1988-01-01

    The stability of ampicillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime, alone or in combination with either netilmicin or amikacin, was tested by microbiological methods at 29 degrees C (ampicillin, also at 22 degrees C) in an L-amino acid solution specially prepared for newborn infants. In the case of ampicil...

  4. Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration.

  6. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  9. Assessing the acidity and total sugar content of four different commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children and its time-dependent effect on plaque and salivary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Jha; G Radha; R Rekha; S K Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sugared beverages such as cola, packaged juice, are known for cariogenicity their intake leads to the immediate drop in plaque and salivary pH, which can be an etiologic factor for dental caries. Objective: The objective was to assess the endogenous acidity and total sugar content of four commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children in India and its effect on salivary and plaque pH. Materials and Methods: A crossover controlled trial was conducted. 60 randomly ...

  10. Effect of diet containing phytate and phytase on the activity and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of carbohydrase and transporter in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Ru, Y J; Li, F D; Cowieson, A J

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary phytate and phytase on carbohydrase activity and hexose transport was investigated in broiler chickens. Diets containing phytate P (2.2 or 4.4 g/kg) with different phytase dose rates (0, 500, or 1,000 phytase units/kg) were fed to 504 female Cobb chicks for 3 wk. Diets containing high phytate concentrations depressed (P diets containing phytate also decreased (P diets containing increased phytate upregulated (P competence, and phytase can ameliorate these effects for chickens.

  11. REGULATION OF THE RAT OXYTOCIN GENE BY ESTRADIOL - EXAMINATION OF PROMOTER ACTIVITY IN TRANSFECTED CELLS AND OF MESSENGER-RIBONUCLEIC-ACID AND PEPTIDE LEVELS IN THE HYPOTHALAMONEUROHYPOPHYSEAL SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BURBACH, JPH; ADAN, RAH; VANTOL, HHM; VERBEECK, MAE; AXELSON, JF; VANLEEUWEN, FW; BEEKMAN, JM; AB, G

    1990-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays a role in reproduction at the level of the pituitary and mammary glands and uterus. This OT is synthesized in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS). A number of observations have suggested that estrogens regulate the production of OT in the HNS. In this study the effect

  12. Novel UTP derivative with diene-containing spacer arm for Diels-Alder reaction: potential tool for radioactive or fluorescent detection upon its incorporation into ribonucleic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Točík, Zdeněk; Krásný, Libor; Kovačková, Soňa; Rejman, Dominik; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2007), s. 357 ISSN 1535-3508. [International Conference of the European Society for Molecular Imaging /2./. 14.06.2007-15.06.2007, Naples] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : UTP derivative * Diels - Alder reaction * diene * spacer arm Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Xingshentongqiao Decoction Mediates Proliferation, Apoptosis, Orexin-A Receptor and Orexin-B Receptor Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression and Represses Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanli Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocretin (HCRT signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy and can be significantly influenced by Chinese herbal therapy. Our previous study showed that xingshentongqiao decoction (XSTQ is clinically effective for the treatment of narcolepsy. To determine whether XSTQ improves narcolepsy by modulating HCRT signaling, we investigated its effects on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, apoptosis, and HCRT receptor 1/2 (orexin receptor 1 [OX1R] and orexin receptor 2 [OX2R] expression. The signaling pathways involved in these processes were also assessed. Methods: The effects of XSTQ on proliferation and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells were assessed using cell counting kit-8 and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate assays. OX1R and OX2R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway activation was performed to further assess the signaling mechanism of XSTQ. Results: XSTQ reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was accompanied by the upregulation of OX1R and OX2R expression and the reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Conclusions: XSTQ inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. XSTQ also promotes OX1R and OX2R expression. These effects are associated with the repression of the Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. These results define a molecular mechanism for XSTQ in regulating HCRT and MAPK activation, which may explain its ability to treat narcolepsy.

  14. Somatostatin reduces 3H-thymidine incorporation and c-myc, but not thyroglobulin ribonucleic acid levels in human thyroid follicular cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    degli Uberti, E.C.; Hanau, S.; Rossi, R.; Piva, R.; Margutti, A.; Trasforini, G.; Pansini, G.; del Senno, L.

    1991-01-01

    The action of somatostatin (SRIH) on 3 H-thymidine (thy) incorporation and on c-myc and thyroglobulin RNA levels in a suspension of follicles from normal and goitrous human thyroid was examined. SRIH, at 10 - 7 M concentration, inhibited basal thy incorporation (maximally by 4 h lasting for up 24 h), which effect was greater in goiter than in normal thyroid and was also detected in growing adherent epithelial cells. Moreover, in a follicle suspension SRIH prevented TSH-stimulated thy incorporation, both in normal and in goitrous thyroid. Basal expression of c-myc RNA was not affected by SRIH in either tissue, whereas the TSH-stimulated c-myc RNA level was significantly reduced in goiter. No effect of SRIH was observed on basal or TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin RNA levels. SRIH did not alter basal cAMP concentrations in normal or goitrous follicles, but it significantly reduced TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation both in normal thyroid and in goiter. Overall, our data indicate a direct inhibitory action of SRIH on growth, but not on differentiation, of human thyroid, probably by a mechanism not entirely cAMP dependent

  15. The Crc and Hfq proteins of Pseudomonas putida cooperate in catabolite repression and formation of ribonucleic acid complexes with specific target motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; La Rosa, Ruggero; Yuste, Luis; Madhushani, Anjana; Shingler, Victoria; Rojo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Crc protein is a global regulator that has a key role in catabolite repression and optimization of metabolism in Pseudomonads. Crc inhibits gene expression post-transcriptionally, preventing translation of mRNAs bearing an AAnAAnAA motif [the catabolite activity (CA) motif] close to the translation start site. Although Crc was initially believed to bind RNA by itself, this idea was recently challenged by results suggesting that a protein co-purifying with Crc, presumably the Hfq protein, could account for the detected RNA-binding activity. Hfq is an abundant protein that has a central role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Herein, we show that the Pseudomonas putida Hfq protein can recognize the CA motifs of RNAs through its distal face and that Crc facilitates formation of a more stable complex at these targets. Crc was unable to bind RNA in the absence of Hfq. However, pull-down assays showed that Crc and Hfq can form a co-complex with RNA containing a CA motif in vitro. Inactivation of the hfq or the crc gene impaired catabolite repression to a similar extent. We propose that Crc and Hfq cooperate in catabolite repression, probably through forming a stable co-complex with RNAs containing CA motifs to result in inhibition of translation initiation. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Studies on sex-organ development. Changes in chromatin structure during spermatogenesis in maturing rooster testis as demonstrated by the initiation pattern of ribonucleic acid synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, C; Teng, C S

    1978-01-01

    To probe the structural change in the genome of the differentiating germ cell of the maturing rooster testis, the chromatin from nuclei at various stages of differentiation were transcribed with prokaryotic RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli or with eukaryotic RNA polymerase II from wheat germ. The transcription was performed under conditions of blockage of RNA chain reinitiation in vitro with rifampicin or rifampicin AF/013. With the E. coli enzyme, the changes in (1) the titration curve for the enzyme-chromatin interaction, (2) the number of initiation sites, (3) the rate of elongation of RNA chains, and (4) the kinetics of the formation of stable initiation complexes revealed the unmasking of DNA in elongated spermatids and the masking of DNA in spermatozoa. In both cases the stability of the DNA duplex in the initiation region for RNA synthesis greatly increased. In contrast with the E. coli enzyme, the wheat-germ RNA polymerase II was relatively inefficient at transcribing chromatin of elongated spermatids. Such behaviour can be predicted if unmasked double-stranded DNA is present in elongated spermatids. PMID:346018

  17. A comparison of cell-free placental messenger ribonucleic acid and color Doppler ultrasound for the prediction of placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Cell-free mRNA is an acceptable, easy made, functional test with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV more than Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis and prediction of incidence of placenta accrete and we recommend the use of cell-free mRNA test for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

  18. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavolina, J. M.; Evans, G. L.; Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Westerlind, K. C.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    A 14-day orbital spaceflight was performed using ovariectomized Fisher 344 rats to determine the combined effects of estrogen deficiency and near weightlessness on tibia radial bone growth and cancellous bone turnover. Twelve ovariectomized rats with established cancellous osteopenia were flown aboard the space shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Thirty ovariectomized rats were housed on earth as ground controls: 12 in animal enclosure modules, 12 in vivarium cages, and 6 killed the day of launch for baseline measurements. An additional 18 ovary-intact rats were housed in vivarium cages as ground controls: 8 rats were killed as baseline controls and the remaining 10 rats were killed 14 days later. Ovariectomy increased periosteal bone formation at the tibia-fibula synostosis; cancellous bone resorption and formation in the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis; and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the prepro-alpha2(1) subunit of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-beta, and insulin-like growth factor I in the contralateral proximal tibial metaphysis and for the collagen subunit in periosteum pooled from tibiae and femora and decreased cancellous bone area. Compared to ovariectomized weight-bearing rats, the flight group experienced decreases in periosteal bone formation, collagen subunit mRNA levels, and cancellous bone area. The flight rats had a small decrease in the cancellous mineral apposition rate, but no change in the calculated bone formation rate. Also, spaceflight had no effect on cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast perimeters or on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and signaling peptides. On the other hand, spaceflight resulted in an increase in bone resorption, as ascertained from the diminished retention of a preflight fluorochrome label. This latter finding suggests that osteoclast activity was increased. In a follow-up ground-based experiment, unilateral sciatic neurotomy of ovariectomized rats resulted in cancellous bone loss in the unloaded limb in excess of that induced by gonadal hormone deficiency. This additional bone loss was arrested by estrogen replacement. We conclude from these studies that estrogen alters the expression of signaling peptides believed to mediate skeletal adaptation to changes in mechanical usage and likewise modifies the skeletal response to mechanical unloading.

  19. Adaptor protein SH2-B linking receptor-tyrosine kinase and Akt promotes adipocyte differentiation by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Daigo; Sato, Naoichi; Torisu, Takehiro; Mori, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ryoko; Nakamura, Seiji; Takaesu, Giichi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2007-05-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by insulin and IGF-I, which transmit signals by activating their receptor tyrosine kinase. SH2-B is an adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that have been implicated in insulin and IGF-I receptor signaling. In this study, we found a strong link between SH2-B levels and adipogenesis. The fat mass and expression of adipogenic genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) were reduced in white adipose tissue of SH2-B-/- mice. Reduced adipocyte differentiation of SH2-B-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was observed in response to insulin and dexamethasone, whereas retroviral SH2-B overexpression enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. SH2-B overexpression enhanced mRNA level of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells, whereas PPARgamma levels were reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs in response to insulin. SH2-B-mediated up-regulation of PPARgamma mRNA was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, but not by a MAPK kinase inhibitor. Insulin-induced Akt activation and the phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/Foxo1), a negative regulator of PPARgamma transcription, were up-regulated by SH2-B overexpression, but reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs. These data indicate that SH2-B is a key regulator of adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro by regulating the insulin/IGF-I receptor-Akt-Foxo1-PPARgamma pathway.

  20. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  1. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schären, M.; Seyfang, G.M.; Steingass, H.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Hüther, L.; Frahm, J.; Beineke, A.; Soosten, von D.; Meyer, U.; Breves, G.; Dänicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182 ± 24 d in milk, 23.5 ± 3.5 kg of milk/d; mean

  2. Effect of Medications for Gastric Acid-Related Symptoms on Total Motile Sperm Count and Concentration: A Case-Control Study in Men of Subfertile Couples from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Nicole A; Goijen, Hedwig J; Twigt, John M; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; Lindemans, Jan; Dohle, Gert R; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2017-03-01

    Gastric acid-related symptoms are highly prevalent in the general population (21-40%), and more than 11% of individuals use medication for the treatment of these symptoms. The uptake of micronutrients is dependent on the gastrointestinal potential of hydrogen (pH). We hypothesized that medication affecting gastrointestinal pH reduces the availability of B vitamins, thereby deranging one-carbon metabolism and detrimentally affecting spermatogenesis. This explorative nested case-control study in men of subfertile couples investigated associations between medication used for gastric acid-related symptoms and semen parameters. We included 40 men using medication for gastric acid-related symptoms and 843 men not using medication. Semen analyses were performed between 70 days before and 21 days after the visit. The use of medication was associated with a twofold higher risk of a low total motile sperm count [TMSC sperm concentration (β -0.320, p = 0.028). Red blood cell folate was positively associated with TMSC (β 0.257, p = 0.026), sperm count (β 1.679, p = 0.013) and ejaculate volume (β 0.120, p = 0.023), and total homocysteine (tHcy) was negatively associated with sperm count (β -0.077, p = 0.021). Here we delineate associations between the use of medication for gastric acid-related symptoms and poor semen quality in men of subfertile couples. The use of medication for gastric acid-related symptoms is associated with a twofold higher risk of a low TMSC and a decreased sperm concentration. Although these findings warrant further research on causality, the associations between folate, tHcy and semen quality emphasize the importance of preconception counselling in male subfertility.

  3. Determination of the Proportion of Total Soil Extracellular Acid Phosphomonoesterase (E.C. 3.1.3.2 Activity Represented by Roots in the Soil of Different Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Rejsek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a new method for determining the root-derived extracellular acid phosphomonoesterase (EAPM activity fraction within the total EAPM activity of soil. EAPM activity was determined for roots, organic and mineral soil. Samples were collected using paired PVC cylinders, inserted to a depth of 15 cm, within seven selected forest stands. Root-derived EAPM formed between 4 and18% of the total EAPM activity of soil from forests of differing maturity. A new approach, presented in this work, enables separation of root-derived EAPM activity from total soil EAPM. Separation of root-derived EAPM from soil provides a better understanding of its role in P-cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The method presented in this work is a first step towards the separation of root- and microbe-derived EAPM in soils, which are thought to possess different kinetic properties and different sensitivity to environmental change.

  4. Total and free insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit reflect clinical activity in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Lange, Merete Wolder; Pedersen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate, markers of disease activity in acromegaly in relation to perceived disease activity. Thirty-seven consecutively treated, acromegalic patients, classified by clinical symptoms as inactive (n=16), slightly active (n=10) and active (n=11), entered the study. When evaluating......-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with PV(pos) of 0.69 and 0.71 and PV(neg) of 0.91 and 0.92 respectively. We conclude that free IGF-I is more closely related than total IGF-I to perceived disease activity and is as such useful when evaluating previously treated acromegaly for disease activity...

  5. Radiochemical investigations on the decomposition of (mono)methylmercury by means of acid with regard to the determination of total mercury in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, U.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable amounts of mercury in fish muscle tissue are organically bound, i.e. appear as (mono)methylmercury-compounds. In order to make mercury of organic origin available for the determination of total mercury by the 'cold vapour atomic absorption method', a splitting of the carbon-mercury bond by means of suitable chemical treatment must be maintained beforehand. The main subject of this article are investigations with special regard to the behaviour of (mono)methylmercurychloride during different wet digestion methods. The procedures under study involve wet digestion under reflux with HNO 3 , with mixtures of HNO 3 and HClO 4 and HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 , as well as wet digestion with HNO 3 in a closed system (pressure decomposition). The course of the decomposition of (mono)methylmercury dependent on time, temperature and concentration of reagents are discussed in detail. All experiments were controlled by measurement of the radioactivity of Hg-203 which had been added in the chemical form of CH 3 -Hg-Cl. From the analytical results obtained two methods of sample preparation have been derived that permit a reliable determination of total mercury in fish. (orig.) [de

  6. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes......-restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing...... fruit and vegetable intakes (r(s) = 0.86, P flavonoids in morning urine also increased, but the association was weaker (r(s) = 0.59, P

  7. Usefulness of determination of serum levels of total bile acids (TBA) and other five markers of liver fibrosis for diagnosis of chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhenxian; Geng Quanlin; Gong Xiping; Yang Chenbao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of combined determination of serum levels of TBA, PC-III, IV-C, HA, CG and LN in diagnosis of chronic hepatic diseases. Methods: Serum TBA levels were measured with totally automatic enzymatic method and the other five markers with RIA in 118 patients with various types of hepatic diseases as well as in 31 controls. Results: Serum levels of TBA and the other markers were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (p<0.01). Among the various types of diseases, values of the tested markers increased along with the increase of the severity of the disease process. Conclusion: Combined measurements of serum levels of TBA and other five markers were of important value for the diagnosis, treatment and outcome prediction of hepatic fibrosis

  8. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  9. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  10. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities for the assessment of bone fracture healing in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o padrão de variação da atividade sérica da fosfatase alcalina total (tALP, da isoenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina (BALP e da fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato (TRAP, assim como a variação da concentração dos minerais séricos durante o processo de cicatrização de fraturas ósseas no cão. A variação sérica destes marcadores do metabolismo ósseo foi avaliada em nove cães com fraturas diafisárias fechadas de ossos longos, submetidas a tratamento cirúrgico para osteosíntese. Durante o período pós-operatório, sete animais evoluíram no sentido de uma normal união óssea, sendo que dois deles desenvolveram um processo de não união óssea. Foram observados, relativamente à BALP, valores de actividade sérica mais elevados e com diferença estatística (P<0,05 no grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido de uma normal união óssea, comparativamente ao grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido do processo de não união. No grupo de animais que evoluiu para a completa união óssea foram, adicionalmente, observados valores diminuidos (P<0,05 da atividade sérica da TRAP, até ao dia 60 do período pós-operatório seguido de uma elevação estatisticamente significativa após este período. Em conclusão, os biomarcadores do metabolismo ósseo poderão vir a constituir um método auxiliar de diagnóstico na monitorização do processo de cicatrização de fracturas ósseas, possibilitando, a detecção precoce de complicações pós-operatórias.

  11. Relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and total antioxidants in peripheral blood with insomnia after stroke: study protocol for a prospective non-randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Fang Li; Tong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been shown to regulate sleep. The nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants may relate to insomnia in stroke patients. In this prospective single-center non-randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the China Rehabilitation Research Center, we analyzed the relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke. Patients during rehabilitation of stroke were recruited and assigned to the insomnia group or non-insomnia group. Simultaneously, persons without stroke or insomnia served as normal controls. Each group contained 25 cases. The primary outcome was nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants in peripheral blood. The secondary outcomes were Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (Chinese version), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke was analyzed and showed that they were lower in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. The severity of stroke was higher in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the nocturnal concentrations of melatonin and GABA were associated with insomnia after stroke. This trial was regis-tered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03202121.

  12. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em cortes de carne suína Cholesterol, total lipds and fatty acids in cuts of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neura Bragagnolo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A carne suína é um alimento considerado rico em colesterol, lipídios e ácidos graxos saturados. De acordo com a AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, para manter baixos níveis de colesterol sangüíneo, a alimentação deve ser pobre em colesterol e lipídios, principalmente gordura saturada. No presente trabalho foram determinados os teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em lombo, pernil, paleta e toucinho, comercializados em açougues da cidade de Campinas, São Paulo. Foi verificado também o efeito da inclusão da gordura externa nos níveis destes componentes. O teor médio de lipídios totais foi de 3 a 5g/100g nos cortes de carne e 83g/100g no toucinho. O colesterol variou, em média, de 42 a 53mg/100g, sendo menor no lombo e maior no toucinho. Não houve diferença significativa (p³0,05 no nível de colesterol entre lombo com e sem gordura externa. Em todos os cortes e no toucinho, foram identificados trinta e seis (36 ácidos graxos, os principais dos quais foram: 18:1ômega9, 16:0, 18:2ômega6, 18:0, 16:1ômega7 e 18:1ômega7. O total de ácidos graxos saturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados variou de 33 a 41%, 42 a 48% e 11 a 25%, respectivamente.Pork is a food considered to be rich in cholesterol, lipids and saturated fatty acids. According to the American Heart Association, the diet must be low in cholesterol and lipids, especially saturated fat. In the present work, total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were determined in pork loin, fresh ham, pork shoulder and backfat, commercialized in butchery of Campinas City, São Paulo State, Brazil. The mean total lipids was 3 to 5g/100g in the meat cuts and 83g/100g in backfat. Cholesterol varied, on the average, from 42 to 53mg/100g, being lower in pork loin and higher in backfat. No significant difference (p³0,05 in cholesterol content was seen in pork loin with or without external fat. Thirty-six fatty acids were identified in all cuts and the backfat, with

  14. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Formulação de rações para poedeiras com base em aminoácidos totais e digestíveis utilizando diferentes estimativas da composição de aminoácidos em alimentos Diet formulation based on the total and digestible amino acids and different estimates of amino acid ingredient composition, for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire da Silva Filardi

    2006-06-01

    acids and one for total amino acid. Methods for estimation amino acid ingredients composition had effect only on feed conversion and shell thickness. The better results were found by using Brazilian tables for calculating amino acid values of ingredients used in diet formulation. Although, amino acid recommendations affected all performance parameters, they did not affect egg quality. Bird performance was prejudiced by digestible amino acid recommendation. The two digestible amino acid recommendations led to similar performances, which were lower than those reached after following total amino acid recommendation. The worst performance observed in birds fed diets balanced according to digestible amino acid recommendations might be a consequence of nitrogen lacking for synthesis of non essential amino acids, once protein level was reduced (12.5% CP, and also explained by the deficiency in arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine and valine because their requirements were not considered in the diet formulation.

  16. Avoidance of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee with Intra-Articular Implantation of Autologous Activated Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Hyaluronic Acid: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Differential Effects of Growth Factor Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Turajane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this randomized controlled trial, in early osteoarthritis (OA that failed conservative intervention, the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA and WOMAC scores were evaluated, following a combination of arthroscopic microdrilling mesenchymal cell stimulation (MCS and repeated intra-articular (IA autologous activated peripheral blood stem cells (AAPBSCs with growth factor addition (GFA and hyaluronic acid (HA versus IA-HA alone. Leukapheresis-harvested AAPBSCs were administered as three weekly IA injections combined with HA and GFA (platelet-rich plasma [PRP] and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [hG-CSF] and MCS in group 1 and in group 2 but without hG-CSF while group 3 received IA-HA alone. Each group of 20 patients was evaluated at baseline and at 1, 6, and, 12 months. At 12 months, all patients in the AAPBSC groups were surgical intervention free compared to three patients needing TKA in group 3 (p<0.033. Total WOMAC scores showed statistically significant improvements at 6 and 12 months for the AAPBSC groups versus controls. There were no notable adverse events. We have shown avoidance of TKA in the AAPBSC groups at 12 months and potent, early, and sustained symptom alleviation through GFA versus HA alone. Differential effects of hG-CSF were noted with an earlier onset of symptom alleviation throughout.

  17. Avoidance of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee with Intra-Articular Implantation of Autologous Activated Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Hyaluronic Acid: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Differential Effects of Growth Factor Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turajane, Thana; Chaveewanakorn, Ukrit; Fongsarun, Warachaya; Aojanepong, Jongjate

    2017-01-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, in early osteoarthritis (OA) that failed conservative intervention, the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and WOMAC scores were evaluated, following a combination of arthroscopic microdrilling mesenchymal cell stimulation (MCS) and repeated intra-articular (IA) autologous activated peripheral blood stem cells (AAPBSCs) with growth factor addition (GFA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) versus IA-HA alone. Leukapheresis-harvested AAPBSCs were administered as three weekly IA injections combined with HA and GFA (platelet-rich plasma [PRP] and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [hG-CSF]) and MCS in group 1 and in group 2 but without hG-CSF while group 3 received IA-HA alone. Each group of 20 patients was evaluated at baseline and at 1, 6, and, 12 months. At 12 months, all patients in the AAPBSC groups were surgical intervention free compared to three patients needing TKA in group 3 (p < 0.033). Total WOMAC scores showed statistically significant improvements at 6 and 12 months for the AAPBSC groups versus controls. There were no notable adverse events. We have shown avoidance of TKA in the AAPBSC groups at 12 months and potent, early, and sustained symptom alleviation through GFA versus HA alone. Differential effects of hG-CSF were noted with an earlier onset of symptom alleviation throughout. PMID:29056974

  18. Assessing the acidity and total sugar content of four different commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children and its time-dependent effect on plaque and salivary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sugared beverages such as cola, packaged juice, are known for cariogenicity their intake leads to the immediate drop in plaque and salivary pH, which can be an etiologic factor for dental caries. Objective: The objective was to assess the endogenous acidity and total sugar content of four commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children in India and its effect on salivary and plaque pH. Materials and Methods: A crossover controlled trial was conducted. 60 randomly selected school children from school at south Bangalore, who were meeting the inclusion criteria, were asked to refrain from oral hygiene practices for 24 h till the sample collection. Children were divided into four groups and for each group test drink was given. Plaque and salivary sample were collected at the time of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min and were sent for pH estimation. 7 days of washout time was given for each cross-over and 3 such cross-over was done during the study and the drinks were interchanged. Results: Sweet lassi was found to be having maximum total sugar content of and Coca-Cola had the lowest pH 5.3. Milk showed least sugar content and highest pH (6.7. Study showed a significant drop in pH after consumption of all the test drinks (P = 0. 05. Carbonated beverage, that is, Coca-Cola Showed the maximum drop of pH, followed by Pulpy orange in both the plaque as well as saliva. Coca-Cola showed the drop of plaque pH below the critical level, 5.44 (0.134. Conclusion: Sweet lassi showed the maximum inherent total sugar content, lowest inherent pH and maximum fall in plaque and salivary pH, was found with Coca-Cola.

  19. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( digestible AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( digestibility (SID) of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, and quadratically increased ( digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  20. Removal of endocrine disruptors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through wastewater chlorination: the effect of pH, total suspended solids and humic acids and identification of degradation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two groups of emerging pollutants the significance of which rests on their persistent detection in the aquatic environment and their possible adverse effects. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major ways for transporting such chemicals in the aquatic environment. Chlorination is usually the last stage of treatment before wastewater being disposed to the aquatic environment. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of chlorine dose and specific wastewater characteristics (pH, total suspended solids and humic acids) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through chlorination. Another objective of this study is the identification of chlorination by-products of specific EDCs and NSAIDs and their dependence on contact time. Based on the results it is concluded that the effect of chlorine dose and humic acids concentration on the degradation of target compounds during chlorination is minimal. On the contrary, pH is a critical parameter which highly affects process performance. Moreover, it is concluded that not only the free available chlorine species, but also the properties of EDCs and NSAIDs under different pH conditions can affect chlorination process performance. The effect of TSS on the degradation of the target compounds during chlorination is more profound for chemicals with high Kow values and therefore higher affinity to partition to the particulate phase (i.e. nonylphenols, triclosan). Several degradation by-products were identified through chlorination of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and diclofenac. The dependence of these by-products on chlorination contact time is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyanic acid, Phytic acid, total tannin and aflatoxin contents of a Brazilian (Natal multimistura preparation Conteúdos de ácido cianídrico, ácido fítico, tanino total e aflatoxina em uma preparação brasileira (Natal de multimistura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sônia CÂMARA

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of a "multimistura" as food supplement, in nutritional improvement programs for the low-income population in Brazil, represents a low-cost and easy-to-use food preparation alternative, presentig reasonable nutritive value and satisfying local taste preferences. This is based on the fact that the "multimistura" is made up of non-conventional ingredients/foods and of agroindustrial by-products, rich in different nutrients. This paper was designed to determine some toxic and/or antinutritional factors of a "Multimistura" utilized as food supplement in institutional programs to prevent malnutrition by the Department of Welfare and Social Affairs of the City of Natal, RN. The product studied had the following formulation: 30% of wheat bran; 30% of wheat flour; 30% of corn meal; 3% of powder from cassava leaves; 4% of pumpkin seeds powder; and 3% of eggshell powder. The analysis of the main toxic and/or antinutritional factors showed very low concentrations of phytates and tannins and no detectable levels of aflatoxin and cyanic acid.O uso da "multimistura" como suplemento alimentar, em programas de intervenção nutricional para populações brasileiras carentes, vem se apresentando como uma alternativa alimentar de valor nutritivo razoável, baixo custo, preparo rápido e paladar regionalizado. Isto resulta do fato desta ser constituída principalmente de alimentos não convencionais e/ou subprodutos agro-industriais ricos em diferentes nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo dosar alguns fatores tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais de uma "multimistura" utilizada como suplemento alimentar em programas institucionais no combate à desnutrição da Secretaria Municipal de Promoção Social da cidade de Natal. O produto analisado tinha a seguinte formulação: 30% de farelo de trigo; 30% de farinha de trigo; 30% de fubá de milho; 3% de pó de folha de mandioca; 4% de pó de semente de jerimum; 3% de pó de casca de ovo. As an

  2. Helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2013-10-11

    Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) is a novel method for the isothermal in vitro amplification of nucleic acids. The HDA reaction selectively amplifies a target sequence by extension of two oligonucleotide primers. Unlike the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HDA uses a helicase enzyme to separate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands, rather than heat denaturation. This allows DNA amplification without the need for thermal cycling. The helicase used in HDA is a helicase super family II protein obtained from a thermophilic organism, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TteUvrD). This thermostable helicase is capable of unwinding blunt-end nucleic acid substrates at elevated temperatures (60° to 65°C). The HDA reaction can also be coupled with reverse transcription for ribonucleic acid (RNA) amplification. The products of this reaction can be detected during the reaction using fluorescent probes when incubations are conducted in a fluorimeter. Alternatively, products can be detected after amplification using a disposable amplicon containment device that contains an embedded lateral flow strip. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  4. Total synthesis of nepetoidin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total synthesis of nepetoidin B (the 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl ester of 3-(3,4-dihydroxy¬phenyl)-2-propenoic acid) has been achieved in two steps from commercially available 1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one. Tetramethylated nepetoidin B was prepared directly by Baeyer-Villig...

  5. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to ...

  6. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  7. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  8. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  9. Computational Approaches to Nucleic Acid Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Hosna; Aminpour, Maral; Montemagno, Carlo

    2015-10-12

    Recent advances in experimental DNA origami have dramatically expanded the horizon of DNA nanotechnology. Complex 3D suprastructures have been designed and developed using DNA origami with applications in biomaterial science, nanomedicine, nanorobotics, and molecular computation. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) origami has recently been realized as a new approach. Similar to DNA, RNA molecules can be designed to form complex 3D structures through complementary base pairings. RNA origami structures are, however, more compact and more thermodynamically stable due to RNA's non-canonical base pairing and tertiary interactions. With all these advantages, the development of RNA origami lags behind DNA origami by a large gap. Furthermore, although computational methods have proven to be effective in designing DNA and RNA origami structures and in their evaluation, advances in computational nucleic acid origami is even more limited. In this paper, we review major milestones in experimental and computational DNA and RNA origami and present current challenges in these fields. We believe collaboration between experimental nanotechnologists and computer scientists are critical for advancing these new research paradigms.

  10. Effect of Medications for Gastric Acid-Related Symptoms on Total Motile Sperm Count and Concentration: A Case–Control Study in Men of Subfertile Couples from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Otte-Huijgen (Nicole); Goijen, H.J. (Hedwig J.); J.M. Twigt (John); A.G.M.G.J. Mulders (Annemarie); J. Lindemans (Jan); G.R. Dohle (Gert); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Gastric acid-related symptoms are highly prevalent in the general population (21–40%), and more than 11% of individuals use medication for the treatment of these symptoms. The uptake of micronutrients is dependent on the gastrointestinal potential of hydrogen (pH).

  11. Enhanced escape of non-esterified fatty acids from tissue uptake : its role in impaired insulin-induced lowering of total rate of appearance in obesity and Type II diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Aims/hypothesis. To estimate non-esterified fatty acids kinetics in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and obese subjects in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinaemia using non-equlibrium tracer conditions. Methods. We evaluated the effect of

  12. Efeito do ácido tartárico nos valores de potássio, acidez titulável e pH durante a vinificação de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon Effect of tartaric acid upon potassium, total acidity and pH, during the vinification of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2008-11-01

    H values are usually made from grapes with high potassium values and can bring serious problems to the wine. This high potassium comes, usually, from mistakes with the vines management. While the right management has being tried, in the vineyard, and aiming to find a fast solution for the problem inside the winery a pilot scale fermentation was made with Cabernet Sauvignon. The must was submitted to three different treatments with tartaric acid: zero, 1gL-1 and 2gL-1,all in duplicate. The pattern of fermentation was the normal SO2, pectinolitic enzymes and yeasts addition to the musts; skins and seeds were removed from the must after 10 days of fermentation and malolactic fermentation occurred spontaneously. Potassium (by flame spectrometry, total acidity (by titulometry and pH (by pH meter were analyzed in the musts during fermentation and in the wines; skins and lees were digested previously the analysis. Values found, in the wines, for potassium (gL-1, total acidity (g% and pH were respectively: samples from zero tartaric acid 1,98, 0.61, 3,68; from 1gL-1:1,72, 0.70 e 3,63; from 2gL-1:1,41, 0,73 e 3,50. Values found in the skins and lees with the same treatments were, respectively: 24,91 and 69.30, 21,85 and 75.11, 16,20 and 85.38g kg-1 of the Dry Matter. The effect of tartaric acid addition was noted mainly in the lees (69.3, 75.11 and 85.38, in which the potassium found showed a close relationship with the acid added in the must. It should be noted, though, that this addition is just for the moment because the real correction should be made in the vineyard, as it is now.

  13. Total synthesis of mycalamide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Waizumi, Nobuaki; Zhong, H Marlon; Rawal, Viresh H

    2005-05-25

    This communication describes a concise and efficient total synthesis of mycalamide A by the convergent coupling of pederic acid unit with the mycalamine unit. The left-half, (+)-7-benzoylpederic acid, was synthesized from (2R,3R)-3-methylpent-4-en-2-ol in seven steps and 34.6% overall yield through a route that features a one-step Pd(II)-catalyzed tandem Wacker/Heck cyclization reaction to prepare the tetrahydropyran ring system. The right-half, the mycalamine unit, was synthesized in 21 steps and 10.5% overall yield from diethyl d-tartrate. Effective, stereoselective methods were developed for the assembly of the two parts to yield either mycalamide A or C(10)-epi-mycalamide A.

  14. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  15. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  16. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  17. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  18. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  19. Total knee arthroplasty in ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav G. Patel, MBBS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is disorder of tyrosine metabolism due to deficiency of homogentisic oxidase characterized by excretion of homogentisic acid in urine, deposition of oxidized homogensitate pigments in connective tissues and articular cartilages (ochronosis. The result is dark pigmentation and weakening of the tissues resulting in chronic inflammation and osteoarthritis. Management of alkaptonuric ochronic osteoarthritis is usually symptomatic and replacements have comparable outcomes to osteoarthritis in patients without ochronosis. I report a case of a patient with ochronosis of knee treated with total knee replacement and report operative pearls for surgery in this rare disorder.

  20. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  1. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  2. Total Synthesis of Four Stereoisomers of (4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,18E)-14,20-Dihydroxy-4,7,10,12,16,18-docosahexaenoic Acid and Their Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomomi; Urabe, Daisuke; Masuda, Koji; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Inoue, Masayuki

    2015-08-07

    A novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediator, (4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,14S,16Z,18E,20R)-14,20-dihydroxy-4,7,10,12,16,18-docosahexaenoic acid (1aa), and its three C14,C20 stereoisomers (1ab,ba,bb) were synthesized in a convergent fashion. The carbon backbone of the target compounds was assembled from seven simple fragments by employing two Sonogashira coupling and three SN2 alkynylation reactions. The thus constructed four internal alkynes were chemoselectively reduced to the corresponding (Z)-alkenes by applying a newly developed stepwise protocol: (i) hydrogenation of the three alkynes using Lindlar catalyst and (ii) formation of the dicobalt hexacarbonyl complex from the remaining alkyne and subsequent reductive decomplexation. The synthetic preparation of the stereochemically defined four isomers 1aa,ab,ba,bb permitted determination of the absolute structure of the isolated natural product to be 1aa. Biological testing of the four synthetic 14,20-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acids disclosed similar anti-inflammatory activities of the non-natural isomers (1ab,ba,bb) and the natural form (1aa).

  3. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and long R(3) IGF-I differently affect development and messenger ribonucleic acid abundance for IGF-binding proteins and type IIGF receptors in in vitro produced bovine embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Motlík, Jan; Prelle, K.; Stojkovic, M.; Ewald, D.; Arnold, G. J.; Welf, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 142, - (2001), s. 1309-1316 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV524/96/K162; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : Insulin Like Growth Factor * bovine embryos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.971, year: 2001

  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); A.J. Clark (Adrian); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a substantial part of adrenal adenomas and hyperplasias from patients with Cushing's syndrome, cortisol production is controlled by the expression of aberrant hormone receptors on adrenocortical cells. We present in vivo and in vitro data of two patients with a

  5. Changes in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 messenger ribonucleic acid in endothelial cells of the human corpus luteum: a possible role in luteal development and rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, H M; Lunn, S F; Kim, H; Duncan, W C; Rodger, F E; Illingworth, P J; Erickson, G F

    2000-04-01

    In the human menstrual cycle, extensive angiogenesis accompanies luteinization; and the process is physiologically important for corpus luteum (CL) function. During luteolysis, the vasculature collapses, and the endothelial cells die. In a conceptual cycle, the CL persists both functionally and structurally beyond the luteoplacental shift. Although luteal rescue is not associated with increased angiogenesis, endothelial survival is extended. Despite the central role of the luteal vasculature in fertility, the mechanisms regulating its development and demise are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be important effectors of luteal function. Here, we have found that IGFBP-3 messenger RNA is expressed in the endothelium of the human CL and that the levels of message change during luteal development and rescue by human CG. The signal was strong during the early luteal phase, but it showed significant reduction during the mid- and late luteal phases. Interestingly, administration of human CG caused a marked increase in the levels of IGFBP-3 messenger RNA in luteal endothelial cells that was comparable to that observed during the early luteal phase. We conclude that endothelial cell IGFBP-3 expression is a physiological property of the CL of menstruation and pregnancy. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that the regulated expression of endothelial IGFBP-3 may play a role in controlling angiogenesis and cell responses in the human CL by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) ZONA RADIATA AND VITELLOGENIN MESSENGER RIBONUCLEIC ACID (MRNA) LEVELS USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) AFTER IN VIVO TREATMENT WITH 17A-ESTRADIOL AND A-ZEARALENOL. (R826301)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Studies on transfer ribonucleic acids and related compounds. XXXII. Synthesis of ribonucleotides corresponding to residues 1-5 and 6-10 of tRNAfMet from E. coli and their base conversion analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, E; Tanaka, T; Ikehara, M

    1979-01-01

    E. Coli tRNAfMet fragments, C-G-C-G-Gp (bases 1-5), U-G-C-G-Gp (base 1 transition, analog) pG-G-C-G-Gp (base 1 transversion analog) and pG-G-s4U-G-Gp (bases 6-10) were synthesized by triester methods using 2'-O-(o-nitrobenzyl) nucleotides including a 3',5'-bisphosphorylated guanosine derivative. The s4U containing pentanucleotide was derived from the pG-G-C-G-Gp by treatment with liquid hydrogen sulfide. Images PMID:390499

  8. Generation of antisera to mouse insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 to -6: comparison of IGFBP protein and messenger ribonucleic acid localization in the mouse embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Kleffens (Marjolein); C.A.H. Groffen; N.F. Dits (Natasja); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); A.G.P. Schuller (Alwin); S.L. Bradshaw; J.E. Pintar; E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); J.W. van Neck (Han)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is an important regulator of fetal growth and differentiation. IGF bioavailability is modulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). We have generated six different antisera, directed to synthetic peptide fragments of

  9. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  10. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  11. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  12. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  13. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  14. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  15. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  16. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  17. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  18. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  19. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  20. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  2. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  3. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  4. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  5. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  6. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( hulled and hull-less barley in isocaloric diets fed to young pigs. Pigs fed the diet with LPA M955 consumed 31% less P and excreted 78% less fecal P and 30% less fecal Ca than pigs fed the diet with NB + iP that was equal to diet M955 in aP. Therefore, LPA barley, especially M955 with 95% aP, will reduce the use of iP in swine diets, reduce P pollution from swine manure, and support the goal of achieving global P sustainability.

  7. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  8. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  9. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  10. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  11. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  12. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  13. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  14. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  15. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  17. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  18. Structural aspects of catalytic mechanisms of endonucleases and their binding to nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Balaev, V. V.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A., E-mail: alashkov83@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Endonucleases (EC 3.1) are enzymes of the hydrolase class that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids at any region of the polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are widely used both in biotechnological processes and in veterinary medicine as antiviral agents. Medical applications of endonucleases in human cancer therapy hold promise. The results of X-ray diffraction studies of the spatial organization of endonucleases and their complexes and the mechanism of their action are analyzed and generalized. An analysis of the structural studies of this class of enzymes showed that the specific binding of enzymes to nucleic acids is characterized by interactions with nitrogen bases and the nucleotide backbone, whereas the nonspecific binding of enzymes is generally characterized by interactions only with the nucleic-acid backbone. It should be taken into account that the specificity can be modulated by metal ions and certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds. To test the hypotheses about specific and nonspecific nucleic-acid-binding proteins, it is necessary to perform additional studies of atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of enzyme-nucleic-acid complexes by methods of structural biology.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid ... Gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was ... Total amino acid analysis was done on acid hydrolysates of RJ samples by the ion-exchange ... The data of amino acids and protein content for all analyzed fresh and.

  20. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  1. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  2. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  3. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  4. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  5. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  6. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  7. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  8. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  9. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  10. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  11. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  12. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  13. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  15. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  17. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  18. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as alterações de b-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais na polpa de frutos de clones de aceroleira conservada por congelamento. Os frutos dos clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor e II 47/1 foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial (vermelho maduro em Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil, transportados para a Planta Piloto de Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, despolpados, acondicionada a polpa em sacos de polietileno (100 g, congelada, mantida em freezer a -20 °C, e avaliada a cada 30 dias durante 12 meses. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 13 (clones x tempo, com 3 repetições. A concentração de beta-caroteno foi estável no clone Cereja, enquanto, nos demais, houve decréscimo durante todo o período do experimento. Houve pequeno decréscimo no teor de ácido ascórbico em todos os clones estudados durante o armazenamento, provavelmente devido à alta acidez da polpa, que auxilia na manutenção deste nutriente. O teor de antocianinas totais foi estável nos clones Frutacor e Sertaneja, enquanto nos demais houve diminuição. O clone II 47/1 foi dentre os estudados o que apresentou maiores teores de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais, mantendo estas características durante todo o armazenamento. De um modo geral, os clones em que se determinou menor teor de beta-caroteno foram observadas as mais elevadas concentrações de antocianinas totais.The objective of the work was to evaluate b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total anthocyanins alterations in fruit pulp of acerola tree clones conserved by the cold. The fruit clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja, BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor and II 47/1 were harvested in a commercial maturation stage (ripe red in Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil, carried to Planta Piloto de

  19. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  20. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  1. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  2. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... depression is associated with lowered ω3 PUFA levels. (Hibbeln, 1998; Maes ... The amount of long chain ω3 PUFAs differs among and can be influenced ..... composition of some Malaysian freswater fish. Food Chem. 54(1):.

  4. Total Sulfate vs. Sulfuric Acid Monomer Concenterations in Nucleation Studies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neitola, K.; Brus, David; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; Mauldin III, R.L.; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2015), s. 3429-3443 ISSN 1680-7316 Grant - others:AFCE(FI) 1118615 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ion-induced nucleation * particle formation * experimental setup Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.114, year: 2015

  5. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... for Rhamnus kurdica Boiss in flowering were evaluated in this work. The polar extraction of ... INTRODUCTION. Antioxidant activity is essential for life, to counteract the strongly ... balance (Erkan et al., 2011). Phenolic ... were procured from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie (Steinheim, Germany). Analytical grade ...

  6. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native Turkish grape varieties (Vitis vinifera Öküzgözü, V. vinifera Boğazkere and V. vinifera Shiraz) and some red fruit wines produced from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) and black mulberry ...

  7. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIDIL

    After filtration ('Seitz, D.6800 / Mannheim, Germany, plate filter) and bottling, wines were stored at 15°C. The ... After 3 to 6 min, 0.5 ml saturated sodium carbonate (20 g Na2CO3 in 100 ml H2O) (Merck) was added. After .... different wines produced from grapes (V. vinifera L. cv. origin var:. Öküzgözü, Boğazkere, Shiraz.) ...

  8. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid) microspheres containing total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    potentially applied within a drug delivery system, was designed. This system acts in a ... adhesives, pharmaceutical and medical area (Hong and. Park 2000; Kim and ... Then the colloid solution was stirred continuously at. 500 rpm for 4 h until ...

  9. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2014; 13 (5): 787-792 ... surface method were used to optimize the extraction process, while antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using α ... Response surface methodology is increasingly.

  10. RICE BRAIN UTILIZATION IN COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED ON TOTAL AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACID BASIS UTILIZAÇÃO DO FARELO DE ARROZ EM RAÇÕES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM BASE EM AMINOÁCIDOS TOTAIS E DIGESTÍVEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Assuena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was evaluate the per-formance, egg quality and production costs of commercial laying hens fed with rice meal and formulated on total and digestible amino acids basis. During 5 periods of 28 days 192 Lohmann LSL hens 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely random experiment in a factorial scheme with 8 treatments and 3 replications of 8 birds each. The factorial scheme consisted in two amino acid recommen-dation (total and digestible and four inclusion levels of rice meal (0, 5, 10 and 15%. The performance and egg quality were evaluated during five cycles of 28 days. Un-der the conditions of this experiment, the use of digest-ible amino acid values determined low performance and higher production cost in comparison with the total amino acid values. The diets formulated with different rice meal levels did not affected performance and egg quality pa-rameters evaluated, however, the use of rice meal in lay-ing hens diets should be determined depending on avail-ability and cost, while was observed over 6% of inclusion the egg production costs was increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Alternative feed, amino acid recommendation, egg quality, performance.

    O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desem-penho, a qualidade e o custo de produção dos ovos de poe-deiras comerciais, alimentadas com rações contendo fare-lo de arroz e formuladas com base em aminoácidos totais e digestíveis. Empregaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann LSL com 26 semanas de idade, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fato-rial 2 x 4 (duas recomendações de aminoácidos x 4 níveis de inclusão do farelo de arroz,  sendo utilizadas três repe-tições de oito aves por tratamento. Os tratamentos consis-tiram da combinação de duas recomendações de aminoá-cidos (totais ou digestíveis e quatro níveis de inclusão do farelo de arroz (0 %, 5 %, 10 % e 15 %. Durante cinco ciclos de 28 dias, avaliaram

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  12. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  13. Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A.; Kohn, Alexandra; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Præsteng, Kirsti E.

    2008-08-01

    Reindeer are able to eat and utilize lichens as an important source of energy and nutrients. In the current study, the activities of antibiotic secondary metabolites including usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid commonly found in lichens were tested against a collection of 26 anaerobic rumen bacterial isolates from reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus) using the agar diffusion method. The isolates were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. Usnic acid had a potent antimicrobial effect against 25 of the isolates, belonging to Clostridiales, Enterococci, and Streptococci. Isolates of Clostridia and Streptococci were also susceptible to atranoric and lobaric acid. However, one isolate (R3_91_1) was found to be resistant to usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid. R3_91_1 was also seen invading and adhering to lichen particles when grown in a liquid anaerobic culture as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. This was a Gram-negative, nonmotile rod (0.2-0.7 × 2.0-3.5 μm) with a deoxyribonucleic acid G + C content of 47.0 mol% and main cellular fatty acids including 15:0 anteiso-dimethyl acetal (DMA), 16:0 iso-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), 13:0 iso-3OH FAME, and 17:0 anteiso-FAME, not matching any of the presently known profiles in the MIDI database. Combined, the phenotypic and genotypic traits including the 16S rRNA gene sequence show that R3_91_1 is a novel species inside the order Clostridiales within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Eubacterium rangiferina. This is the first record of a rumen bacterium able to tolerate and grow in the presence of usnic acid, indicating that the rumen microorganisms in these animals have adapted mechanisms to deal with lichen secondary metabolites, well known for their antimicrobial and toxic effects.

  14. Tracing carbon fixation in phytoplankton—compound specific and total

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosse, J.; Van Breugel, P.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of total primary production using 13C incorporation is a widely established tool. However, these bulk measurements lack information about the fate of fixed carbon: the production of major cellular compounds (carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and DNA/RNA) is affected by for

  15. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  16. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  17. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  18. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; van Gelder, Antonie H; Stams, Alfons J M; de Vos, Willem M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides , Sporanaerobacter , Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter _ Eubacterium , Dysgonomonas , Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

  19. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... the treatment of stomach and rheumatic pains, inflamma- tory disorders ... reagent and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Exactly. 0.25 ml .... anthocyanins and antioxidant activity following simulated gastro- intestinal ...

  1. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  2. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  3. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  4. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  5. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  6. Comparison of cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B and benazepril on large myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Bo; Yang, Xian-Zhe; Shi, Meng-Qiong; Zeng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Li-Mao; Li, Lian-Da

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we compared cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and the angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in rats with large myocardial infarction (MI). The large MI was produced by coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks in rats. The rats were divided into the following groups: sham operation; MI; MI + Sal B (100 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks) and MI + benazepril (1 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks). Echocardiogram, hemodynamic and hemorheological changes, angiogenesis, infarct size and cardiac remodeling, as well as messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) were measured. The following similar effects were observed in MI rats treated with Sal B and benazepril: (1) a marked improvement of echocardiographic, hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters, (2) significant reduction of infarct size, (3) significantly attenuated heart hypertrophy, left ventricular (LV) dilatation and fibrosis. The unique effects of Sal B were: angiogenesis and augmented VEGF expression in the border and remote noninfarcted LV area. These results suggest that Sal B and benazepril exerted beneficial cardioprotective effects. However, Sal B enforced some different modality than benazepril, which might improve myocardial microcirculation by augmenting VEGF expression and promoting angiogenesis besides similar effects to benazepril.

  7. Efeito do teor de sólidos e da concentração de sacarose na acidificação, firmeza e viabilidade de bactérias do iogurte e probióticas em leite fermentado Effect of total solids and sucrose contents on acidity, firmness and viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricê N. Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    the addition of sucrose resulted in water activity decrease, which affected the time to reach pH 4.5 according to the milk and co-culture employed. The milk fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus (STLA presented higher post acidification. Besides, the milk fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (STLR was the more stable. The milks containing higher levels of total solids reached higher acidity independently of the co-culture. Increasing sucrose amounts and total solids of milk resulted in higher firmness using the co-cultures STLR e STLA. After seven days of storage, there were no major differences in the initial counts of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in all fermented milks. In all batches, the number of probiotic bacteria was higher than suggested by literature.

  8. UTILIZAÇÃO DO FARELO DE CANOLA EM RAÇÕES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM BASE EM AMINOÁCIDOS TOTAIS E DIGESTÍVEIS CANOLA MEAL IN LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED ACCORDING TO TOTAL AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACID BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Assuena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de canola em rações para poedeiras comerciais, formuladas com diferentes recomendações de aminoácidos. Foram utilizadas 144 poedeiras comerciais, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições de seis aves cada, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, constituído da combinação de duas recomendações de aminoácidos (totais e digestíveis e quatro níveis de inclusão do farelo de canola (0%, 4%, 8% e 12%. Durante quatro ciclos de 21 dias, avaliaram-se o desempenho e nos dois últimos dias de cada ciclo a qualidade dos ovos. As aves que receberam a ração formulada com aminoácidos digestíveis apresentaram menor massa de ovos e pior conversão alimentar (P<0,05. O farelo de canola pode ser incluído em até 8% da ração sem prejuízo ao desempenho e qualidade da casca dos ovos. Na região de condução da pesquisa o custo do farelo de canola onerou o custo da ração. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimento alternativo, desempenho, nutrição, qualidade de ovos This experiment was conducted to evaluated increasing levels of canola meal in laying hens diets formulated based in different amino acid recommendations. 144 commercial laying hens was allotted in laying cages during 4 periods of 21 days. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated In the last two days of each period. Hens were distributed in a complete randomized design, in factorial arrangement 2x4, with eight treatments and three replicates of six hens each. The factors were diets formulated based on total and digestible aminoacids and increasing levels of canola meal on these diets (0; 4; 8 and 12%. Recommendations of digestible amino acid promoted worst feed conversion and lower egg mass output. Canola meal can be included in laying hens diets until 8% without decrease performance and egg shell quality. However, canola meal increased feed cost on the region where the experiment was

  9. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  10. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  12. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  13. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  14. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  15. Suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado: estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos e correlações com conteúdo dos lípides totais hepáticos e indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos de ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: oxidative stability of supplements and correlations with total hepatic lipid contents and biological lipid oxidation indicators in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa de misturas comerciais de ácido linoléico conjugado e buscar possível correlação entre a suplementação e o conteúdo total de lípides hepáticos, e também de alguns indicadores da oxidação lipídica em ratos. MÉTODOS:Um ensaio biológico com 30 ratos divididos em três grupos (n=10 caracterizando os grupos controle e suplementados com as misturas comerciais AdvantEdge® e One® foi realizado. A concentração administrada foi de 2% em relação ao consumo de dieta e os animais foram suplementados durante 42 dias. O conteúdo total de lípides do fígado foi determinado e a morfologia do órgão foi examinada por meio de microscopia ótica. Índice de peróxido e malondialdeído foram determinados para avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos in vitro. Índice de peróxido, malondialdeído, 8-iso-PGF2α isoprostana e catalase foram determinados como indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram baixa estabilidade das misturas comerciais à oxidação in vitro. As associações entre o consumo de ácido linoléico conjugado e malondialdeído (r=-0,7914, pOBJECTIVE:The claimed action of conjugated linoleic acid as an antioxidant is unexpected and unclear, in view of its chemical structure - a conjugated diene, i.e., a fatty acid in its initial stage of autoxidation. Indeed, it can be speculated that it could act as a pro-oxidant, increasing oxidative stress in biological systems, nevertheless it has carbon-carbon bonds in the trans configuration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of commercial mixtures, and to investigate a possible correlation between conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and total hepatic lipid content, as well as some lipid oxidation indicators in rats. METHODS:A biological assay was done with thirty rats divided into three groups (n=10 characterized as

  16. Morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content of the Bacteroides sp. used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albach, R A; Shaffer, J G; Watson, R H

    1965-10-01

    Albach, Richard A. (Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Ill.), James G. Shaffer, and Robert H. Watson. Morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content of the Bacteroides sp. used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica. J. Bacteriol. 90:1045-1053. 1965.-Certain changes in morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content that occur in a culture of Bacteroides sp. in the presence of penicillin G in CLG medium are described. This "variant" is one of seven recovered in several laboratories, all of which are descendants of the original Bacteroides isolated by Shaffer and Frye. Penicillin-inhibited cells of this culture are currently being used in the routine propagation of Entamoeba histolytica in CLG medium. Evidence is presented for the loss of ability to react with antibody in these penicillin-inhibited bacteria in CLG medium, when studied by fluorescent-antibody techniques. The implications of the antigenic changes observed as they pertain to similar antigenic studies of the amoebas are discussed. A pronounced reduction in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) content of such penicillin-inhibited cells was also observed. The potential importance of the changes that occur in the RNA of these cells with respect to considerations of the growth requirements of the amoebas is also discussed.

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on the nucleic acids content of the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.M.; Amin, T.R.; Al-Elimi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This work was carried out study the effect of gamma irradiation on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) content in the whole body homogenate of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) pupae were gamma irradiated with different doses (o, 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gy) at two different pupal ages (2 and 4 days before adult emergence ) to estimate the nucleic acids in pupae and adult males, and females. Experimental results showed that gamma irradiation of pupae reduced RNA content, and this reduction was proportional with the applied dose and more pronounced in the younger pupae. However, DNA content was reduced only when the highest dose was applied to pupae irradiated 2 days before adult emergence (older pupae). Concerning adult insects which were gamma irradiated as pupae, the results revealed, generally, that males and females which were irradiated 2 days before adult emergence were more affected than those irradiated 4 days before adult emergence. The male DNA content and the female RNA content showed high degrees of reduction which, more or less, increased with increasing the dose used. On the other hand, female DNA and male RNA contents were slightly, changed. The significant importance of the results and some statistical interrelations were discussed

  18. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  19. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  20. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.