WorldWideScience

Sample records for total retention system

  1. Total body retention of orally administered 47Ca in primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallette, L.E.; Sode, J.E.; Marx, S.J.; Georges, L.P.; Aurbach, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    Using a whole-body radiation detector, the total-body retention of 47 Ca 7 days after oral administration of the isotope to patients with various disorders of calcium metabolism was measured. The percent retention of 47 Ca given with 90 mg of unlabeled (carrier) calcium varied with the calcium metabolic status as follows: normals (n = 14), 33--43 percent (mean 38); primary hyperparathyroidism (n = 28), 32--74 percent (mean 52); idiopathic hypercalciuria (n = 9), 34--49 percent (mean 42); and hypercalcemia of other etiology (n = 3), 23--26 percent (mean 25). Almost half (13/28) of those with hyperparathyroidism showed a retention above 55 percent, distinguishing them from subjects with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Retention of 47 Ca correlated poorly with clinical measures of severity of hyperparathyroidism. When isotope was diluted with a smaller amount of carrier calcium (20 mg), retention was increased in normals (n = 5) to 46--54 percent (mean 50) and in hyperparathyroidism (n = 5) to 64--87 percent (mean 73). After surgical cure of hyperparathyroidism retention of isotope returned toward normal in 5 of 7 subjects. Whole-body retention of orally administered 47 Ca may prove useful in detecting hyperparathyroidism in subjects with mild hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. (U.S.)

  2. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  3. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  4. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  5. Quantitative estimation of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in neuroblastoma. Usefulness of the total body retention rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio; Ushijima, Yo; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nishimura, Tunehiko

    2000-01-01

    A new method of easily and simply quantifying 123 I-MIBG accumulation as a criterion for curative effect of chemotherapy in infants with neuroblastoma was developed. This method uses the data from two images: an early image (at 5-7.5 hr) and a delayed image (at 25-32 hr). Twenty infants with untreated neuroblastoma which showed clear accumulation of 123 I-MIBG at the primary site were examined. The differences between the accumulation counts on the early image and the delayed image showed that washout of 123 I-MIBG in the neuroblastomas was delayed in tumor regions. This finding indicated that the total body 123 I-MIBG retention rate reflects the total volume of the neuroblastoma. The 123 I-MIBG retention rate was significantly higher in patients with advanced stage neuroblastoma with systemic metastases, and there was a good correlation between the retention rate and tumor markers (VMA and HVA values in urine). The response to chemotherapy paralleled the change in markers. These results suggested that the total body 123 I-MIBG retention rate is useful as a criterion for curative effect in advanced neuroblastoma. (K.H.)

  6. A Retention Assessment Process: Utilizing Total Quality Management Principles and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjoe, Henry M.; Helms, Marilyn M.

    2005-01-01

    Retaining students is a critical topic in higher education. Methodologies abound to gather attrition data as well as key variables important to retention. Using the theories of total quality management and focus groups, this case study gathers and reports data from current college students. Key results, suggestions for replication, and areas for…

  7. Kinetics of total body retention and clearance of xenon and krypton after inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, H.; Atkins, H.L.; Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    The total body retention of Xe-127 and Kr-79 and their clearance rates following inhalation were measured in vivo. These data are useful for refined Xe-127 dosimetry calculations, to determine the potential radiation hazard of fission product Kr-85, and more generally to study the behavior of anesthetic gases. While data are available on the solubilities and partition coefficients of Xe and Kr in fat, blood, and other individual body constituents, few measurements of their retention and clearance from the entire body have been reported

  8. Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmien Smit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently there is much debate whether modifying traditional reward packages to focus on the preferences of multi-generations would be essential in attracting, motivating and retaining talent. Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee’s decision to stay at an organisation. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the different total reward components that multi-generations prefer as most important for retention. In essence, the study aims to establish possible relationships between multi-generations’ total reward components, perceived organisational support, and perceived supervisor support. Motivation for the study: This study is useful as it conducts a contemporary retention exploration that considers both the emerging demographic workforce shift and the new paradigm shift towards talent management. Research methodology: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was applied to gather data from employees (N = 303 from different industry sectors in South African organisations. Main findings: The results showed that performance management and remuneration are considered to be the most important retention factors amongst multi-generation groups. Differences between total reward preferences and demographical variables, which include age, gender, race, industry and job level, were found. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should design their reward packages by taking employees preferences into account. More specifically, organisations should focus on remuneration, performance management and development opportunities in order to retain scarce skills. Contribution/value additions: The results of the study can assist managers to design effective retention strategies, whilst also providing crucial information for the retention and motivation of employees.

  9. The effect of a total rewards strategy on school teachers’ retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitomelo Makhuzeni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African schools are facing significant challenges to retain a talented pool of school teachers. A total rewards strategy could assist schools to reduce teacher turnover. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a total rewards strategy on the turnover intentions of school teachers in the North-West province. Motivation: The under supply of quality teachers has negative consequences for both school pupils and the larger community. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative research approach was followed using semi-structured interviews to gather data from teachers in the North-West province (N = 6. Main findings: The findings showed that performance management, career development and compensations of teachers were poorly applied in schools. Teachers strongly considered leaving the teaching profession as a result of poor rewards. The participants were fairly satisfied with their work benefits and work-life balance. Practical/managerial implications: School management should implement reward practices and policies that will attract and enhance retention of school teachers. Contribution: This research highlighted the problematic areas in the reward systems for school teachers and the subsequent impact thereof on their turnover intentions.

  10. Retention systems for extraoral maxillofacial prosthetic implants: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobein, M V; Coto, N P; Crivello Junior, O; Lemos, J B D; Vieira, L M; Pimentel, M L; Byrne, H J; Dias, R B

    2017-10-01

    We describe the techniques available for retention of implant-supported prostheses: bar-clips, O-rings, and magnets. We present reported preferences and, although this is limited by the heterogeneity of methods used and patients studied, we hope we have identified the best retention systems for maxillofacial prosthetic implants. If practitioners know the advantages and disadvantages of each system, they can choose the most natural and comfortable prosthesis. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases, and restricted our search to papers published 2001-13. MeSH terms used were Maxillofacial prosthesis and Craniofacial prosthesis OR Craniofacial prostheses. We found a total of 2630 papers, and after duplicates had been removed we analysed the rest and found 25 papers for review. Of these, 12 were excluded because they were case reports or non-systematic reviews. Of the remaining 13, 10 described group analyses and seemed appropriate to find practitioner's choices, as cited in the abstract (n=1611 prostheses). Three papers did not mention the type of prosthetic connection used, so were excluded. The most popular choices for different conditions were analysed, though the sites and retention systems were not specified in all 10 papers. The bar-clip system was the most used in auricular (6/10 papers) and nasal prostheses (4/10). For the orbital region, 6/10 favoured magnets. Non-osseointegrated mechanical or adhesive retention techniques are the least expensive and have no contraindications. When osseointegrated implants are possible, each facial region has a favoured system. The choice of system is influenced by two factors: standard practice and the abilities of the maxillofacial surgeon and maxillofacial prosthetist. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Total rewards: A study of artisan attraction and retention within a South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The shortage of artisan skills remains a serious challenge in South Africa andis forcing employers to investigate which total reward factors contribute to the attractionand retention of this critical skills segment, as undifferentiated retention strategies are nolonger useful or even appropriate. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to further develop understanding of the total rewardfactors and the ideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retainartisans, including artisans from various race groups and age cohorts, using a novel approach. Motivation for the study: Limited research is available on the total reward factors and theideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retain artisans. Furtherknowledge in this area will allow organisations to develop reward models that better attractand retain artisans. Method: The study followed both a quantitative and qualitative research approach,whilst adopting a descriptive research design. Using this mixed method, primary datawere collected from individuals by means of two focus groups discussions: (1 a groupof human resource and remuneration managers (n = 4 and (2 a group of artisans (n = 7.These results were used to develop two questionnaires that were distributed to artisans (n = 143. Data from Questionnaire 1 were analysed using descriptive statistics and factoranalysis. Conjoint analysis was employed to identify an ideal total rewards compositionbased on responses from Questionnaire 2. Main findings: The results of the choice-based modelling (conjoint analysis revealed thatthree total rewards attributes were consistently deemed to be important in the retention ofartisans. These were (in order of priority: environment (work-life balance, compensation(level and compensation (variable. Environment (work-life balance was considered14.64% more important than compensation (level within the overall sample as well aswithin the

  12. Implant retention systems for implant-retained overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, D P; Green, D; Marrison, D; Addy, L; Thomas, M B M

    2017-03-10

    Implant retained overdentures are being increasingly utilised in both general and specialist practice to rehabilitate patients with missing teeth, particularly those that are edentate. This article aims to inform the reader of a variety of retention systems that are available to retain an implant overdenture and to understand how these systems work, their advantages and disadvantages and to outline some of the clinical and treatment planning considerations involved in selecting the most appropriate retention system for patients.

  13. Blended Retirement System Impact on Gender Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    compensation in their decisions on how long to remain in the service, but financial compensation is not the most important factor. In order to continue...their Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) retirement account to provide members departing the service prior to 20 year retirement eligibility with some portable...employment and promotion/ advancement opportunities. Thus, the BRS will have a neutral effect on gender 4 retention. In order to continue to close

  14. Transport and retention of pollutants from different production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mander, Ue. (Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Tartu (Estonia)); Shirmohammadi, A. (Fischell Dept. of Bioengineering, Univ. of Maryland, MD (United States))

    2008-07-01

    Transport and retentions of agricultural pollutants both at farm level and catchment scale are key challenges faced by researchers, environmental managers, and regulatory agencies. Researchers have responded to this challenge by either monitoring or modelling strategies. Models, both empirical and theoretical, have been developed and used at different scales trying to evaluate the dynamics of the pollutants as they move from upland agricultural areas to water bodies. Monitoring studies at different scales (plot, field, catchment) have tried to represent the natural system and provide data-base for calibrating and testing mathematical models. Scientists have also used both modelling and monitoring strategies to evaluate the impact of different management practices such as contour cropping, vegetated buffer strips, riparian zones, and constructed wetlands on reduction of pollutant loads to water bodies. Manuscripts presented in this special issue provide results of both modelling and monitoring at different scales as they relate to transport and retention of nutrients in different landscapes. For example, it covers application of SWAT model in Finland to meet the environmental goals of European Water Framework Directive, and application of the same model in the US to meet the Total Maximum Daily Load mandated by US's 1972 Clean Water Act. Also covered are results on nutrient and sediment reduction due to different management practices including vegetated buffer strips, riparian zones, and constructed wetlands. Overall results of monitoring indicate effectiveness of such practices in attenuating sediment and nutrients, thus reducing their entry into the water bodies. (orig.)

  15. Posttreatment and retention outcomes with and without periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics assessed using ABO objective grading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The posttreatment and retention outcomes following nonextraction orthodontic therapy, with and without corticotomy, were assessed using the American Board of Orthodontists objective grading system (OGS. Purpose: The purpose was to determine if the course of retention was any different following alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting, i.e., periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO. Materials and Methods: Study casts and panoramic radiographs of patients with and without PAOO (28 subjects each were selected on the basis of the following: (1 comprehensive nonextraction orthodontic treatment using straight wire edgewise appliances for Class I crowding, (2 availability of immediate posttreatment records and retention records at least 1 year post de-bracketing, and (3 use of Hawley removable retainers with similar wearing instructions. Results: Independent and paired t-test statistical testing revealed the following: (1 Posttreatment orthodontic outcomes were the same, with or without corticotomy. (2 During retention, 5 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the sample without corticotomy, and 6 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the group with corticotomy. (3 Retention outcome scores were lower (better for alignment and marginal ridges in the corticotomy-facilitated group. (4 The total score was significantly lower (better for the corticotomy group at retention and the increment of total score change decreased (improved significantly more during retention following corticotomy. Conclusions: The retention phase was more favorable following corticotomy because the amount of OGS total score change demonstrated a significantly improved retention outcome following PAOO therapy.

  16. A new skeletal retention system for retaining anterior open bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodore Albaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Relapse of anterior open bite after treatment poses a challenge to orthodontists and warrants finding new methods. We aimed to compare the effect of a skeletal retention (SR system to the conventional retention (CR commonly used. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients participated in this study. SR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 16.2 years, CR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 17.1 years in pretreatment stage. The SR system is comprised of four self-drilling miniscrews and vacuum retainers with interarch elastics where the CR group is comprised of removable or fixed retainers. Pretreatment (T1, posttreatment (T2, and 1-year follow up (T3 lateral cephalograms were taken and analyzed to compare the stability of both retention modalities. Results: The overbite in the CR group showed more relapse in the form of significant reduction when compared to the SR group (P < 0.001. The overbite was reduced only by 0.1 mm (±0.3 in the SR group compared to 1.4 mm (±0.9 in the CR group. In the CR group, the upper incisors and first molar showed a more significant relapse compared to the SR group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal retention using miniscrews and vertical elastic is an effective method for retention of anterior open bite cases.

  17. Safety of systems for the retention of wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    Information and minimal requirements demanded by CNEN for the emission of the Approval Certificate of the Safety Analysis Report related to system for the retention of wastes containing radionuclide, are established, aiming to assure low radioactivity levels to the environment. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Retention of total carotenoid and β-carotene in yellow sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz after domestic cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to identify cassava cultivars to improve the vitamin A nutritional status of undernourished populations, especially in northeast Brazil, where cassava is one of the principal and essentially only nutritional source. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers content in seven yellow sweet cassava roots and their retention after three boiling cooking methods. Design: The total carotenoid, β-carotene, and its all-E-, 9-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers in yellow sweet cassava samples were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, before and after applying the cooking methods. All analyses were performed in triplicate. Results: The total carotenoid in raw roots varied from 2.64 to 14.15 µg/g and total β-carotene from 1.99 to 10.32 µg/g. The β-carotene predominated in all the roots. The Híbrido 2003 14 08 cultivar presented the highest β-carotene content after cooking methods 1 and 3. The 1153 – Klainasik cultivar presented the highest 9-Z-β-carotene content after cooking by method 3. The highest total carotenoid retention was observed in cultivar 1456 – Vermelhinha and that of β-carotene for the Híbrido 2003 14 11 cultivar, both after cooking method 1. Evaluating the real retention percentage (RR% in sweet yellow cassava after home cooking methods showed differences that can be attributed to the total initial carotenoid contents. However, no cooking method uniformly provided a higher total carotenoid or β-carotene retention in all the cultivars. Conclusion: Differences were found in the cooking methods among the samples regarding total carotenoid or β-carotene retention, suggesting that the different behaviors of the cultivars need to be further analyzed. However, high percentages of total carotenoid or

  19. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p diet (37.99 and 68.54, respectively) followed by fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ diet (23.19 and 63.67, respectively). Nitrogen, sulfur, and crude protein retention was significantly higher ( p diet (23.68, 21.89, and 23.68, respectively). A general loss of minerals was observed among all groups. Strong associations were observed between crude lipid retention and sulfur retention ( r2 = 0.94), crude lipid retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.92), WG and fiber content of dietary treatments ( r2 = 0.92), WG and carbon retention and ( r2 = 0.88), WG and lysine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.86), crude protein retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.84), sulfur retention and crude protein retention ( r2 = 0.84), and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) content of residues and WG ( r2 = 0.81). Weaker associations existed between WG and crude lipid retention ( r2 = 0.77), crude fiber content and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.76), and WG and methionine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.75). Additional research is needed to improve the nutritional quality of fibrous residues as a means to improve tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio-regenerative support systems.

  20. 16 CFR 1203.16 - Dynamic strength of retention system test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic strength of retention system test.... (2) The retention system strength test equipment shall consist of a dynamic impact apparatus that... stirrup. (2) Mark the pre-test position of the retention system, with the entire dynamic test apparatus...

  1. In vitro retention force measurement for three different attachment systems for implant-retained overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Mohammed Reda

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Regardless of the initial retention level of overdenture attachment, gradual loss of retention values is inevitable. However, the rate of retention loss in overdenture attachments is higher in types which comprised plastic parts within their components, rather than those totally made up of noble metals.

  2. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  3. Does cruciate retention primary total knee arthroplasty affect proprioception, strength and clinical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Pieter-Jan T K; Parys, Roel; Tampere, Thomas; Linden, Patrick; Van den Daelen, Luc; Verdonk, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    It remains unclear what the contribution of the PCL is in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the PCL in TKA in relationship to clinical outcome, strength and proprioception. Two arthroplasty designs were compared: a posterior cruciate-substituting (PS) and a posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA. A retrospective analysis was performed of 27 CR and 18 PS implants with a minimum of 1 year in vivo. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical outcome (range of motion, visual analogue scale for pain, Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scoring system, Lysholm score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score), strength (Biodex System 3 Dynamometer(®)) and proprioception (balance and postural control using the Balance Master system(®)). Each design was also compared to the non-operated contralateral side in terms of strength and proprioception. There were no significant differences between both designs in terms of clinical outcome and strength. In terms of proprioception, only the rhythmic weight test at slow and moderate speed shifting from left to right was significant in favour of the CR design. None of the unilateral stance tests showed any significant difference between both designs. There was no difference in terms of strength and proprioception between the operated side and the non-operated side. Retaining the PCL in TKA does not result in an improved performance in terms of clinical outcome and proprioception and does not show any difference in muscle strength. III.

  4. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  5. Using a retention in care protocol to promote positive health and systems related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Alfred A; Spielberg, Freya; Kamanu Elias, Nnemdi; Athey, Erin; Ogbuawa, Ngozi; Murphy, Nancy

    2018-04-18

    People living with HIV can experience the full benefits of retention when they are continuously engaged in care. Continuous engagement in care promotes improved adherence to ART and positive health outcomes. An infectious disease clinic has implemented a protocol to primarily improve patient retention. The retrospective, facility-based, costing study took place in an infectious disease clinic in Washington DC. Retention was defined in two ways and over a 12-month period. Micro-costing direct measurement methods were used to collect unit costs in time series. Return on investment accounted for the cost of treatment based on CD4 strata. ROI was expressed in 2016USD. The difference in CD4 and viral load levels between the two periods of analysis were determined for active patients, infected with HIV. The year before the intervention was compared to the year of the intervention. Total treatment expenditure decreased from $2,435,653.00 to $2,283,296.23, resulting in a $152,356.77 gain from investment for the healthcare system over a 12-month investment period. The viral load suppression rate increased from 81 to 95 (p = 0.04) over the investment period. The number of patients in need of HIV related opportunistic infection prophylaxis decreased from 21 to 13 (p = 0.06). Improved immunologic, virologic and healthcare expenditure outcomes can be linked to the quality of retention practice.

  6. The effect of a total rewards strategy on school teachers’ retention

    OpenAIRE

    Boitomelo Makhuzeni; E. Nicolene Barkhuizen

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: South African schools are facing significant challenges to retain a talented pool of school teachers. A total rewards strategy could assist schools to reduce teacher turnover. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a total rewards strategy on the turnover intentions of school teachers in the North-West province. Motivation: The under supply of quality teachers has negative consequences for both school pupils and the larger community. Re...

  7. Contents and retentions of free and total purine bases in lamb meat cooked by several household methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anfossi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the content of total and free purine bases in muscle foods and their retentions upon cooking have been since long established (Brulé et al., 1988. Recently, though, an important rôle has been acknowledged to dietary sources of preformed purines for the growth of tissues with a rapid turnover and for optimal function of the cellular immune response, up to the point that the positive features of these nutrients seem to outweigh by far the negative ones (ILSI, 1998. Scanty information exists about the total purine content of raw ovine meat, the only available sources of data being a survey by Herbel and Montag (1987 on purine and pyrimidine contents of protein-rich foods and the comprehensive collection of food composition tables compiled by Scherz and Senser (1994...

  8. Retention versus sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty for treating osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, Wiebe C.; van den Boom, Lennard G. H.; Jacobs, Wilco; Clement, Darren J.; Wymenga, Ate A. B.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional and clinical basis on which to choose whether or not to retain the posterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty surgery remained unclear after a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis in 2005, which contained eight clinical trials. Several new trials

  9. Load-Bearing Capacity and Retention of Newly Developed Micro-Locking Implant Prosthetic System: An In Vitro Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce the newly developed micro-locking implant prosthetic system and to evaluate the resulting its characteristics. To evaluate load-bearing capacity, 25 implants were divided into five groups: external-hexagon connection (EH, internal-octagon connection (IO, internal-hexagon connection (IH, one-body implant (OB, micro-locking implant system (ML. The maximum compressive load was measured using a universal testing machine (UTM according to the ISO 14801. Retention was evaluated in two experiments: (1 a tensile test of the structure modifications of the components (attachment and implant and (2 a tensile test after cyclic loading (total 5,000,000 cycles, 100 N, 2 Hz. The load-bearing capacity of the ML group was not significantly different from the other groups (p > 0.05. The number of balls in the attachment and the presence of a hexagonal receptacle did not show a significant correlation with retention (p > 0.05, but the shape of the retentive groove in the implant post had a statistically significant effect on retention (p < 0.05. On the other hand, the retention loss was observed during the initial 1,000,000 cycles, but an overall constant retention was maintained afterward. Various preclinical studies on this novel micro-locking implant prosthetic system should continue so that it can be applied in clinical practice.

  10. Satisfaction, Motivation, and Retention in Academic Faculty Incentive Compensation Systems: A CERA Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Deanna; Williams, Jane; Gebke, Kevin; Bergus, George

    2018-02-01

    The use of incentive compensation in academic family medicine has been a topic of interest for many years, yet little is known about the impact of these systems on individual faculty members. Better understanding is needed about the relationship of incentive compensation systems (ICSs) to ICS satisfaction, motivation, and retention among academic family medicine faculty. The Council of Academic Family Medicine (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) conducted a nationwide survey of its members in 2013. This study reports the results of the incentive compensation question subset of the larger omnibus survey. The overall response rate was 53%. The majority (70% [360/511]) of academic faculty reported that they are eligible for some type of incentive compensation. The faculty reported moderate satisfaction, with only 38% being satisfied or highly satisfied with their ICS. Overall mean motivation and intent to remain in their current position were similar. The percentage of total income available as an incentive explained less than 10% of the variance of those outcomes. Faculty perceptions of appropriateness of the measures, understanding of the measurement and reward systems, and perception of due process are all related to satisfaction with the ICS, motivation, and retention. ICSs are common in academic family medicine, yet most faculty do not find them to motivate their choice of activities or promote staying in their current position. Design and implementation are both important in promoting faculty satisfaction with the ICS, motivation, and retention.

  11. Total knee replacement with retention of both cruciate ligaments: a 22-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouret, P; Lavoie, F; Cloutier, J-M

    2013-07-01

    We report on the long-term results of 163 bicruciate-retaining Hermes 2C total knee replacements in 130 patients at a mean follow-up of 22.4 years (20.3 to 23.5). Even when the anterior cruciate ligament had a partially degenerative appearance it was preserved as long as the knee had a normal anterior drawer and Lachman's test pre-operatively. The description and surgical technique of this minimally constrained prosthesis were published in 1983 and the ten-year clinical results in 1999. A total of 12% of the knees (20 of 163) in this study were revised because of wear of the polyethylene tibial insert. Excellent stability was achieved and the incidence of aseptic component loosening was 4.3% (seven of 163). The survival rate using revision for any reason as the endpoint was 82% (95% confidence interval 76.2 to 88.0). Although this series included a relatively small number of replacements, it demonstrated that the anterior cruciate ligament, even when partially degenerated at the time of TKR, remained functional and provided adequate stability at a long-term follow-up.

  12. Incidence of and risk factors for postoperative urinary retention in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars; Bogø, Stina; Raaschou, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a clinical challenge, but there is no scientific evidence for treatment principles. We describe the incidence of and predictive factors for POUR in fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS......, and preoperative international prostate symptom score (IPSS) were compared between catheterized and non-catheterized patients. RESULTS: The incidence of POUR was 40% (range between departments: 30-55%). Median bladder volume evacuated by catheterization was 0.6 (0.1-1.9) L. Spinal anesthesia increased the risk...... was 40%, with spinal anesthesia and increased IPSS in males as predictive factors. The large variation in perioperative bladder management and in bladder volumes evacuated by catheterization calls for randomized studies to define evidence-based principles for treatment of POUR in the future....

  13. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  14. [Urban non-point source pollution control by runoff retention and filtration pilot system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao; Zuo, Jian-E; Gan, Li-Li; Low, Thong Soon; Miao, Heng-Feng; Ruan, Wen-Quan; Huang, Xia

    2011-09-01

    A runoff retention and filtration pilot system was designed and the long-term purification effect of the runoff was monitored. Runoff pollution characters in 2 typical events and treatment effect of the pilot system were analyzed. The results showed that the runoff was severely polluted. Event mean concentrations (EMCs) of SS, COD, TN and TP in the runoff were 361, 135, 7.88 and 0.62 mg/L respectively. The runoff formed by long rain presented an obvious first flush effect. The first 25% flow contributed more than 50% of the total pollutants loading of SS, TP, DTP and PO4(3-). The pilot system could reduce 100% of the non-point source pollution if the volume of the runoff was less than the retention tank. Otherwise the overflow will be purification by the filtration pilot system and the removal rates of SS, COD, TN, TP, DTP and PO4(3-) reached 97.4% , 61.8%, 22.6%, 85.1%, 72.1%, and 85.2% respectively. The system was stable and the removal rate of SS, COD, TN, and TP were 98.6%, 65.4%, 55.1% and 92.6%. The whole system could effectively remove the non-point source pollution caused by runoff.

  15. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1203 - Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength ER10MR98.008 ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apparatus for Test of Retention System Strength 8 Figure 8 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  16. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of... receives communication of the determination that the transfer may proceed. All other information, except...

  17. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    (dissolved solids) and increases in retention efficiency for constituents that settle out of pond and wetland storage between storms. The greatest increase in retention efficiencies in the detention pond was observed for total lead, which increased from 19 percent before modification to 73 percent after modification. However, retention efficiencies for nutrients for nutrients and suspended constituents decreased in the wetland after modification. This was probably because of the flushing of accumulated sediments as a result of a change in flow path through the wetland. As a result, the overall effect of modification on the system (pond and wetland retention efficiencies combined) was a reduction in retention efficiency for all but two constituents (total zinc and total ammonia nitrogen).

  18. Effect of culture levels, ultrafiltered retentate addition, total solid levels and heat treatments on quality improvement of buffalo milk plain set yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijesh; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Meena, Ganga Sahay

    2018-05-01

    Studied the effect of culture (2, 2.5 and 3%), ultrafiltered (UF) retentate addition (0, 11, 18%), total milk solids (13, 13.50, 14%) and heat treatments (80 and 85 °C/30 min) on the change in pH and titratable acidity (TA), sensory scores and rheological parameters of yoghurt. With 3% culture levels, the required TA (0.90% LA) was achieved in minimum 6 h incubation. With an increase in UF retentate addition, there was observed a highly significant decrease in overall acceptability, body and texture and colour and appearance scores, but there was highly significant increase in rheological parameters of yoghurt samples. Yoghurt made from even 13.75% total solids containing nil UF retentate was observed to be sufficiently firm by the sensory panel. Most of the sensory attributes of yoghurt made with 13.50% total solids were significantly better than yoghurt prepared with either 13 or 14% total solids. Standardised milk heated to 85 °C/30 min resulted in significantly better overall acceptability in yoghurt. Overall acceptability of optimised yoghurt was significantly better than a branded market sample. UF retentate addition adversely affected yoghurt quality, whereas optimization of culture levels, totals milk solids and others process parameters noticeably improved the quality of plain set yoghurt with a shelf life of 15 days at 4 °C.

  19. Good results in postoperative and hematogenous deep infections of 89 stable total hip and knee replacements with retention of prosthesis and local antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Jan A P; Janssen, Daniël M C; Kessels, Alfons G H; Walenkamp, Geert H I M

    2013-12-01

    Deep postoperative and hematogenous prosthesis infections may be treated with retention of the prosthesis, if the prosthesis is stable. How long the infection may be present to preclude a good result is unclear. We retrospectively studied 89 deep-infected stable prostheses from 69 total hip replacements and 20 total knee replacements. There were 83 early or delayed postoperative infections and 6 hematogenous. In the postoperative infections, treatment had started 12 days to 2 years after implantation. In the hematogenous infections, symptoms had been present for 6 to 9 days. The patients had been treated with debridement, prosthesis retention, systemic antibiotics, and local antibiotics: gentamicin-PMMA beads or gentamicin collagen fleeces. The minimum follow-up time was 1.5 years. We investigated how the result of the treatment had been influenced by the length of the period the infection was present, and by other variables such as host characteristics, infection stage, and type of bacteria. In postoperative infections, the risk of failure increased with a longer postoperative interval: from 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3) if the treatment had started ≥ 4 weeks postoperatively to 0.5 (CI: 0.2-0.8) if it had started at ≥ 8 weeks. The relative risk for success was 0.6 (CI: 0.3-0.95) if the treatment had started ≥ 8 weeks. In the hematogenous group, 5 of 6 infections had been treated successfully. A longer delay before the start of the treatment caused an increased failure rate, but this must be weighed against the advantage of keeping the prosthesis. We consider a failure rate of < 50% to be acceptable, and we therefore advocate keeping the prosthesis for up to 8 weeks postoperatively, and in hematogenous infections with a short duration of symptoms.

  20. Knee strength retention and analgesia with continuous perineural fentanyl infusion after total knee replacement: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangar, Devanand; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Sprenker, Collin J; Downes, Katheryne L; Taffe, Narrene; Wainwright, Robert; Gustke, Kenneth; Bernasek, Thomas L; Camporesi, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Despite providing adequate pain relief, a femoral nerve block can induce postoperative muscle weakness after total knee arthoplasty (TKA). Fentanyl has been shown to have peripheral effects but has not been used as a perineural infusate alone after TKA. Sixty patients scheduled for TKA were randomized to one of three blinded groups: a continuous 24 h infusion of either fentanyl 3 μg/ml, ropivacaine 0.1%, or 0.9% normal saline through a femoral nerve sheath catheter at 10 ml/h. The main outcome was maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in the quadriceps femoris (knee extension), measured by a handheld dynamometer (Nm/kg). Other variables assessed were preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, hamstrings MVIC (knee flexion), active range of motion of the operative knee, distance ambulated, incidence of knee buckling, supplemental morphine usage, postoperative side effects, and serum fentanyl levels. Quadriceps MVIC values were significantly greater in the fentanyl group compared to the group that received ropivacaine (median values, 0.08 vs. 0.03 Nm/kg; p = 0.028). The incidence of postoperative knee buckling upon ambulation was higher in the ropivacaine group compared to the fentanyl group, although not statistically significant (40% vs. 15 %, respectively; p = 0.077). VAS scores while ambulating were not significantly different between the fentanyl group and the ropivacaine group (p = 0.270). Postoperative morphine consumption, nausea and vomiting, and resting VAS scores were similar among the three groups. A continuous perineural infusion of fentanyl produced greater strength retention than ropivacaine post-TKA.

  1. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  2. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  3. Gateway National Weather Service (NWS) Service Records and Retention System (SRRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Service Records Retention System (SRRS) was developed to store weather observations, summaries, forecasts, warnings, and advisories provided by the U.S. National...

  4. Using an integrated automated system to optimize retention and increase frequency of blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J Garrett; Hall, Robert F

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the impact of an integrated, automated phone system to reinforce retention and increase frequency of donations among blood donors. Cultivated by incorporating data results over the past 7 years, the system uses computerized phone messaging to contact blood donors with individualized, multilevel notifications. Donors are contacted at planned intervals to acknowledge and recognize their donations, informed where their blood was sent, asked to participate in a survey, and reminded when they are eligible to donate again. The report statistically evaluates the impact of the various components of the system on donor retention and blood donations and quantifies the fiscal advantages to blood centers. By using information and support systems provided by the automated services and then incorporating the phlebotomists and recruiters to reinforce donor retention, both retention and donations will increase. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Urinary retention in unilateral total knee arthroplasty: comparison between continuous epidural analgesia and single-shot femoral nerve block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, R.I.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the frequency of urinary retention and requirement of bladder catheterization in patients undergoing toatal knee arthroplasty while receiving either continuous epidural analgesia or single-shot femoral nerve block. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study:Operating Rooms of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to January 2015. Methodology:Patients were randomized in two groups of 30 each, i.e. epidural group (group E) or femoral nerve block group (group F). Baseline parameters were recorded. Postoperatively, patients were followed for upto 24 hours to collect the data regarding urinary retention. Final outcome was taken at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was analyzed to compare the frequency of urinary retention between the two groups. Results:The average age of the patients was 59.58 +-5.85 years. There were 28 (46.7%) male and 32 (53.3%) female patients. Frequency of urinary retention was significantly high in Group E than Group F (46.7% vs. 6.7%; p=0.0005). Conclusion: Single-shot femoral nerve block offers a more favorable profile in terms of postoperative urinary retention when compared to continuous epidural analgesia. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 862.1710 - Total triiodothyronine test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total triiodothyronine test system. 862.1710... Systems § 862.1710 Total triiodothyronine test system. (a) Identification. A total triiodothyronine test system is a device intended to measure the hormone triiodothyronine in serum and plasma. Measurements...

  7. An Economic Assessment of Local Farm Multi-Purpose Surface Water Retention Systems under Future Climate Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Berry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions dependent on agricultural production are concerned about the uncertainty associated with climate change. Extreme drought and flooding events are predicted to occur with greater frequency, requiring mitigation strategies to reduce their negative impacts. Multi-purpose local farm water retention systems can reduce water stress during drought periods by supporting irrigation. The retention systems’ capture of excess spring runoff and extreme rainfall events also reduces flood potential downstream. Retention systems may also be used for biomass production and nutrient retention. A sub-watershed scale retention system was analysed using a dynamic simulation model to predict the economic advantages in the future. Irrigated crops using water from the downstream reservoir at Pelly’s Lake, Manitoba, Canada, experienced a net decrease in gross margin in the future due to the associated irrigation and reservoir infrastructure costs. However, the multi-purpose benefits of the retention system at Pelly’s Lake of avoided flood damages, nutrient retention, carbon sequestration, and biomass production provide an economic benefit of $25,507.00/hectare of retention system/year. Multi-purpose retention systems under future climate uncertainty provide economic and environmental gains when used to avoid flood damages, for nutrient retention and carbon sequestration, and biomass production. The revenue gained from these functions can support farmers willing to invest in irrigation while providing economic and environmental benefits to the region.

  8. 5th Total System Performance Assessment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-07-01

    Research items on safety assessment of high-level waste repository have been proposed by external invited experts outside KAERI and discussed extensively during the annual 5th performance assessment workshop prepared by safety assessment group in KAERI. This could be useful to set up R and D plans necessary for the next phase of mid- and long-term reaserch area regarding the safety assessment of high-level waste repository. Through the research and the presentation, HLW-related research and development area including such specific research items as current status of HLW safety assessment research, current requirement for the licensing of the repository system, priority on research area, data base building for the safety assessment, source-term modeling as well as safety case, among many others, have been discussed and summarized

  9. The more total cognitive load is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning: A meta-analysis and two meta-regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Heping; Wang, Fuxing; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Jiaxue; An, Jing; Wang, Yuxin; Liu, Huashan

    2017-01-01

    Cueing facilitates retention and transfer of multimedia learning. From the perspective of cognitive load theory (CLT), cueing has a positive effect on learning outcomes because of the reduction in total cognitive load and avoidance of cognitive overload. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, what remains ambiguous is the direct relationship between the cue-related cognitive load and learning outcomes. A meta-analysis and two subsequent meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore these issues. Subjective total cognitive load (SCL) and scores on a retention test and transfer test were selected as dependent variables. Through a systematic literature search, 32 eligible articles encompassing 3,597 participants were included in the SCL-related meta-analysis. Among them, 25 articles containing 2,910 participants were included in the retention-related meta-analysis and the following retention-related meta-regression, while there were 29 articles containing 3,204 participants included in the transfer-related meta-analysis and the transfer-related meta-regression. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant cueing effect on subjective ratings of cognitive load (d = -0.11, 95% CI = [-0.19, -0.02], p < 0.05), retention performance (d = 0.27, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.46], p < 0.01), and transfer performance (d = 0.34, 95% CI = [0.12, 0.56], p < 0.01). The subsequent meta-regression analyses showed that dSCL for cueing significantly predicted dretention for cueing (β = -0.70, 95% CI = [-1.02, -0.38], p < 0.001), as well as dtransfer for cueing (β = -0.60, 95% CI = [-0.92, -0.28], p < 0.001). Thus in line with CLT, adding cues in multimedia materials can indeed reduce SCL and promote learning outcomes, and the more SCL is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning.

  10. Retention behavior of selected alkaloids in Reversed Phase micellar chromatographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruczynik Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS concentrations on retention, separation selectivity, peak shapes and systems efficiency were investigated. Herein, the retention data for 11 alkaloids were determined on an RP18 silica column with mobile phases containing methanol as organic modifier, with acetate buffer at pH 3.5, and, subsequently, with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The results of this study indicate that the retention of alkaloids decreases with the increase of SDS concentration in the mobile phase. The increase of SDS concentration, however, leads to the significantly improvement of peak symmetry and the increase of theoretical plate number in all cases. The best system efficiency for most of the investigated alkaloids was obtained in a mobile phase containing 0.1 M SDS, while most symmetrical peaks were obtained through the addition of 0.3 M of SDS to the mobile phase.

  11. Phosphorus retention in a 20-year-old septic system filter bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W D

    2012-01-01

    Septic systems in lakeshore environments often occur where thin soils overlie bedrock and, consequently, filter beds may be constructed of imported filter sand. The objective of this study was to assess the mobility of wastewater phosphorus (P) in such a potentially vulnerable setting by examining a 20-yr-old domestic septic system located near Parry Sound, ON, Canada, where the filter bed is constructed of imported noncalcareous sand. The groundwater plume is acidic (pH 6.0) and has a zone of elevated PO-P (up to 3.1 ± 1.7 mg L) below the tile lines but no elevated PO-P is present beyond 5 m from the tile lines. Elevated concentrations of desorbable P (up to 137 mg kg) and acid-extractable P (up to 3210 mg kg) occur in the filter sand within 1 m below four of seven tile lines present and the total mass of excess acid-extractable P (39 kg) is similar to the estimated total lifetime P loading to the system (33 kg). Microprobe images reveal abundant Fe and Al-rich authigenic mineral coatings on the sand grains that are increasingly P rich (up to 10% w/w P) near the tile lines. Additionally, 6 yr of monitoring data show that groundwater PO concentrations are not increasing. This indicates that mineral precipitation, not adsorption, dominates P immobilization at this site. This example of robust long-term P retention opens up the possibility of improving P removal in on-site treatment systems by prescribing specific sand types for filter bed construction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate. Relation to bio-chemical indices of bone turnover and to total body calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Johansen, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body retention (WBR) and urinary excretion (UE) of 99m Te-diphosphonate were determined in 161 healthy adults and the results were compared to accepted biochemical markers of bone turnover. WBR was corrected for total body bone mineral (TBBM) and UE from forearm bone mineral content (BMC). Both uncorrected and corrected retention measurements were highly significantly correlated to the biochemical markers (P<0.001), but the r values were low (0.22-0.64). All bone turnover variables demonstrated considerably higher levels of bone turnover in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (P<0.001), whereas the variables were unchanged with age in men. The correction of WBR for TBBM and UE for BMC increased the validity of the retention methods and the two calculations gave exactly the same results on a group basis, both demonstrating significantly higher bone turnover in women than in men in each age group (P<0.05-P<0.001). All the turnover variables were measured in a group of perimenopausal women (n=33). The data clearly demonstrated that bone turnover is menopause dependent, whereas age in itself is of minor significance. (orig.)

  13. [The Bridgelok system for additional retention of bonded prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto García, J; Gutiérrez Molero, F; López Montero, M V

    1989-04-01

    The partial protesis with metal carving and cemented with composite resin is used frequently as a reversible method in order to substitute teeth, due to the light preparation necessary for the original teeth. Recently, a new system (Bridgelok) with pins has been proposed as safer for this kind of protesis. This paper studies if this new system originates a higher resistance compared to other system without pins.

  14. Retention system and method for the blades of a rotary machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Poul D.; Glynn, Christopher C.; Walker, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    A retention system and method for the blades of a rotary machine for preventing forward or aft axial movement of the rotor blades includes a circumferential hub slot formed about a circumference of the machine hub. The rotor blades have machined therein a blade retention slot which is aligned with the circumferential hub slot when the blades are received in correspondingly shaped openings in the hub. At least one ring segment is secured in the blade retention slots and the circumferential hub slot to retain the blades from axial movement. A key assembly is used to secure the ring segments in the aligned slots via a hook portion receiving the ring segments and a threaded portion that is driven radially outwardly by a nut. A cap may be provided to provide a redundant back-up load path for the centrifugal loads on the key. Alternatively, the key assembly may be formed in the blade dovetail.

  15. Improving Student Retention through Evidence Based Proactive Systems at the Open University (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Graham; Regan, Peter; Simpson, Ormond

    2007-01-01

    The Open University has been undertaking an extended initiative to improve student retention through enhanced support for at-risk students. This initiative has evolved through a series of stages from ad hoc small scale local interventions relying largely on tutors and student self-referral, to an institution-wide pro-active system implemented by…

  16. Continuous Improvement: A Way of Integrating Student Enrollment, Advising, and Retention Systems in a Metropolitan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Karl J.; Moehl, Pamela J.

    1996-01-01

    The University of Missouri-St. Louis has discovered the value of continuous quality improvement methods in upgrading its core student-related administrative processes. As a result, it is increasing efficiency and personalizing a traditionally bureaucratic system of student service. Concurrent goals are to increase retention and decrease time to…

  17. Silica Retention and Enrichment in Open-System Chemical Weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Thompson, L. M.; Berger, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical signatures of weathering are evident in the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) datasets from Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater. Comparisons across the landing sites show consistent patterns indicating silica retention and/or enrichment in open-system aqueous alteration.

  18. Acquisition system environmental effects study. [for capillary-screen propellant retention devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of vibration, warm gas exposure, and feed system startup/shutdown fluid dynamics on capillary-screen propellant retention capabilities are quantified. The existing technology is extended to the point where quantitative conlusions in terms of design criteria may be drawn.

  19. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart.

  20. Investigations on retention effects in barrier system rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmert, G.

    1989-01-01

    A surface complex model is described for Sr, Ni and U, which is based on the measurement of cation exchange capacity, groundwater analysis and absorption experiments on sediment/groundwater systems from the Gorleben rocks. The results of through column and shaking experiments are shown. The data on absorption of Tc were reviewed. The research project was carried out together with the EEC CHEMVAL/MIRAGE project. (DG) [de

  1. Determination of the percentage of the /sup 125/I-lyothyronine retention in resin (T/sub 3/ Test) and the total tyroxin (T/sub 4/ Test) in mongrel equines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    1975-01-01

    Thyroid function is studied in mongrel equines by means of radioisotopic techniques 'in vitro' /sup 125/I-T/sub 3/ (/sup 125/I-lyothyronine retention in resin) and /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ (total thyroxine).

  2. Total Quality Management and the System Safety Secretary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Suzan E.

    1993-01-01

    The system safety secretary is a valuable member of the system safety team. As downsizing occurs to meet economic constraints, the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is frequently adopted as a formula for success and, in some cases, for survival.

  3. An economic assessment of local farm multi-purpose surface water retention systems in a Canadian Prairie setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Pamela; Yassin, Fuad; Belcher, Kenneth; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-12-01

    There is a need to explore more sustainable approaches to water management on the Canadian Prairies. Retention pond installation schemes designed to capture surface water may be a viable option that would reduce water stress during drought periods by providing water for irrigation. The retention systems would serve to capture excess spring runoff and extreme rainfall events, reducing flood potential downstream. Additionally, retention ponds may be used for biomass production and nutrient retention. The purpose of this research was to investigate the economic viability of adopting local farm surface water retention systems as a strategic water management strategy. A retention pond was analyzed using a dynamic simulation model to predict its storage capacity, installation and upkeep cost, and economic advantage to farmers when used for irrigation. While irrigation application increased crop revenue, the cost of irrigation and reservoir infrastructure and installation costs were too high for the farmer to experience a positive net revenue. Farmers who harvest cattails from retention systems for biomass and available carbon offset credits can gain 642.70/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. Cattail harvest also removes phosphorus and nitrogen, providing a monetized impact of 7014/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. The removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, and avoided flooding damages of the retention basin itself provide an additional 17,730-18,470/hectare of retention system/year. The recommended use of retention systems is for avoided flood damages, nutrient retention, and biomass production. The revenue gained from these functions can support farmers wanting to invest in irrigation while providing economic and environmental benefits to the region.

  4. A single-server Markovian queuing system with discouraged arrivals and retention of reneged customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has a very negative impact on the queuing system under investigation. If we talk from business point of view, the firms lose their potential customers due to customer impatience, which affects their business as a whole. If the firms employ certain customer retention strategies, then there are chances that a certain fraction of impatient customers can be retained in the queuing system. A reneged customer may be convinced to stay in the queuing system for his further service with some probability, say q and he may abandon the queue without receiving the service with a probability p(=1− q. A finite waiting space Markovian single-server queuing model with discouraged arrivals, reneging and retention of reneged customers is studied. The steady state solution of the model is derived iteratively. The measures of effectiveness of the queuing model are also obtained. Some important queuing models are derived as special cases of this model.

  5. No difference in gait between posterior cruciate retention and the posterior stabilized design after total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Lennard G. H.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; van Raaij, Jos J. A. M.; Brouwer, Reinoud W.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, knee joint kinematics (e.g. knee flexion/extension) and kinetics (e.g. knee flexion moments) are assessed after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between patients implanted with either a unilateral posterior stabilized (PS) and a posterior cruciate-retaining (PCR) design. It was

  6. Femoral loosening of high-flexion total knee arthroplasty: The effect of posterior cruciate ligament retention and bone quality reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.; van de Groes, S.A.W.; De Waal Malefijt, M.C.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2014-01-01

    High-flexion total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be more sensitive to femoral loosening than conventional TKA as the knee joint force increases during deep flexion. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the probability of femoral loosening is equal in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

  7. Vaginal distribution and retention of a multiparticulate drug delivery system, assessed by gamma scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Samata; Verstraelen, Hans; Peremans, Kathelijne; Villeirs, Geert; Vermeire, Simon; De Vos, Filip; Mehuys, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-15

    For any new vaginal dosage form, the distribution and retention in the vagina has to be assessed by in vivo evaluation. We evaluated the vaginal distribution and retention of starch-based pellets in sheep as live animal model by gamma scintigraphy (using Indium-111 DTPA as radiolabel) and in women via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, using a gadolinium chelate as contrast agent). A conventional cream formulation was used as reference in both studies. Cream and pellets were administered to sheep (n=6) in a two period-two treatment study and to healthy female volunteers (n=6) via a randomized crossover trial. Pellets (filled into hard gelatin capsule) and cetomacrogol cream, both labeled with Indium-111 DTPA (for gamma scintigraphy) or with gadolinium chelate (for MRI) were evaluated for their intravaginal distribution and retention over a 24h period. Spreading in the vagina was assessed based on the part of the vagina covered with formulation (expressed in relation to the total vaginal length). Vaginal retention of the formulation was quantified based on the radioactivity remaining in the vaginal area (sheep study), or qualitatively evaluated (women study). Both trials indicated a rapid distribution of the cream within the vagina as complete coverage of the vaginal mucosa was seen 1h after dose administration. Clearance of the cream was rapid: about 10% activity remained in the vaginal area of the sheep 12h post-administration, while after 8h only a thin layer of cream was detected on the vaginal mucosa of women. After disintegration of the hard gelatin capsule, the pellet formulation gradually distributed over the entire vaginal mucosa. Residence time of the pellets in the vagina was longer compared to the semi-solid formulation: after 24h 23 ± 7% radioactivity was detected in the vaginal area of the sheep, while in women the pellet formulation was still detected throughout the vagina. A multi-particulate system containing starch-based pellets was identified as a

  8. A numerical study on the oil retention of R410A and PVE oil mixture in multi heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Min Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Predicting an amount of discharged oil from a compressor is necessary to charge the compressor with proper amount of oil. The amount of discharged oil can be predicted by calculating the oil retention amount in each component of a heat pump system. This study suggests a method for calculating the oil retention amount in a heat pump system. In addition, flow pattern of refrigerant and oil mixture in horizontal gas line of refrigerant was ascertained by flow visualization. The oil retention amounts in each component of multi heat pump system were calculated with respect to mass flux of refrigerant, Oil circulation ratio (OCR), length of horizontal and vertical lines. Oil retention amounts in horizontal and vertical gas lines of refrigerant were significant. To validate the model for gas lines of refrigerant, comparison between predicted and experimental oil retention amounts was conducted, and mean absolute percentage error was 15.0%.

  9. Introduction to Test Facility for Iodine Retention in Filtered Containment Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jaehoon; An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In many countries the implementation of FCVS's is under discussion to mitigate fission product release not only in the short-term but also in the long-term view. To verify the performance of FCVS, the large-scaled tests have been performed such as advanced containment experiments (ACE), the iodine and aerosol retention rate test facility (JAVA), etc. The elemental and organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment atmosphere. For the iodine retention, experimental programs have confirmed the existence of gaseous organic iodine in some cases in higher concentrations than for gaseous molecular iodine (I{sub 2}). The Reaction of Methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) with surfaces and the removal by containment filters and scrubbers is less efficient in comparison to molecular iodine. In the recent years, an experimental and analytical work has been conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to develop a process leading to a fast, comprehensive and reliable retention of volatile iodine species in aqueous solutions. New FCVS test facility to verify the performance of FCVS is designed and under construction. The iodine retention tests are planned with elemental iodine or with organic iodide loaded carrier gas consisting of pure non-condensable gas, pure steam and of typical mixtures of non-condensable gas/steam. This paper introduces the iodine generation and measurement system for the iodine retention test of FCVS. In severe accidents elemental and organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment atmosphere. Release of the gaseous species in sufficient quantities from containment to environment generates a risk for public health. The filtered containment venting systems (FCVS) can considerably reduce the leakage of radioactive materials to the environment. New integral test facility is prepared to verify a performance of the FCVS. The test facility consists of a test vessel, thermal-hydraulic, and aerosol/iodine generation and

  10. Gastro-retentive drug delivery systems and their in vivo success: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS has gained immense popularity in the field of oral drug delivery recently. It is a widely employed approach to retain the dosage form in the stomach for an extended period of time and release the drug slowly that can address many challenges associated with conventional oral delivery, including poor bioavailability. Different innovative approaches like magnetic field assisted gastro-retention, plug type swelling system, muco-adhesion technique, floating system with or without effervescence are being applied to fabricate GRDDS. Apart from in vitro characterization, successful GRDDS development demands well designed in vivo study to establish enhanced gastro-retention and prolonged drug release. Gama scintigraphy and MRI are popular techniques to evaluate in vivo gastric residence time. However, checking of their overall in-vivo efficacy still remains a major challenge for this kind of dosage form, especially in small animals like mice or rat. Reported in vivo studies with beagle dogs, rabbits, and human subjects are only a handful in spite of a large number of encouraging in vitro results. In spite of the many advantages, high subject variations in gastrointestinal physiological condition, effect of food, and variable rate of gastric emptying time are the challenges that limit the number of available GRDDS in the market. This review article highlights the in vivo works of GRDDS carried out in the recent past, including their limitations and challenges that need to be overcome in the near future.

  11. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  12. Methods of multicriterion estimations in system total quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Diligenskiy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the method of multicriterion comparative estimation of efficiency (Data Envelopment Analysis and possibility of its application in system of total quality management is considered.

  13. Mortality After Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty in a Large Integrated Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Dillon, Mark T; Miric, Alex; Navarro, Ronald A; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2017-01-01

    The number of excess deaths associated with elective total joint arthroplasty in the US is not well understood. To evaluate one-year postoperative mortality among patients with elective primary and revision arthroplasty procedures of the hip and knee. A retrospective analysis was conducted of hip and knee arthroplasties performed in 2010. Procedure type, procedure volume, patient age and sex, and mortality were obtained from an institutional total joint replacement registry. An integrated health care system population was the sampling frame for the study subjects and was the reference group for the study. Standardized 1-year mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 10,163 primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), 4963 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs), 606 revision TKAs, and 496 revision THAs were evaluated. Patients undergoing primary THA (SMR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7) and TKA (SMR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.5) had lower odds of mortality than expected. Patients with revision TKA had higher-than-expected mortality odds (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5), whereas patients with revision THA (SMR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.4-1.5) did not have higher-than-expected odds of mortality. Understanding excess mortality after joint surgery allows clinicians to evaluate current practices and to determine whether certain groups are at higher-than-expected mortality risk after surgery.

  14. Development of total medical material distribution management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Y; Kumamoto, I

    1994-07-01

    Since September 1992, attempts have been made at Kagoshima University Hospital to develop the Medical Material Distribution Management System which helps to realize optimal hospital management as a subsystem of the Total Hospital Information System of Kagoshima University (THINK). As this system has been established, it has become possible for us to have an accurate grasp of the flow and stock of medical materials at our hospital. Furthermore, since September 1993, the Medical Material Distribution Management System has been improved and the Total Medical Material Distribution Management System has been smoothly introduced into the site of clinical practice. This system enables automatic demands for fees for treatment with specific instruments and materials covered by health insurance. It was difficult to predict the effect of this system, because no similar system had been developed in Japan. However, more satisfactory results than expected have been obtained since its introduction.

  15. Inhaled hyaluronic acid microparticles extended pulmonary retention and suppressed systemic exposure of a short-acting bronchodilator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Han, Meihua; Liu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomucoadhesive carbohydrate polymer to prolong the pulmonary retention and reduce the systemic exposure of inhaled medicine. Salbutamol sulphate (SAS), a model bronchodilator, was co-spray dried with HA...... to spray-dried plain SAS powders, the SAS-loaded HA microparticles possessed enhanced biomucoadhesive property in vitro and had much longer pulmonary retention and reduced systemic exposure in vivo. By incorporation, the pulmonary retention time of SAS was prolonged from 2h to 8h while the maximum...

  16. Eradication of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a female patient with total hip arthroplasty, with debridement and retention: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beieler Alison M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant cause of healthcare-associated infections, but few reports have addressed Acinetobacter baumannii infections associated with orthopedic devices. The current recommended treatment for complicated infections due to orthopedic devices, including resistant gram-negative rods, consists of antimicrobial therapy with debridement and removal of implants. Case presentation The patient, a 47-year-old woman, had previously had a prior total hip arthroplasty at 16 years of age for a complex femoral neck fracture, and multiple subsequent revisions. This time, she underwent a fifth revision secondary to pain. Surgery was complicated by hypotension resulting in transfer to the intensive care unit and prolonged respiratory failure. She received peri-operative cefazolin but postoperatively developed surgical wound drainage requiring debridement of a hematoma. Cultures of this grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii (sensitive only to amikacin and imipenem. The patient was started on imipenem. Removal of the total hip arthroplasty was not recommended because of the recent surgical complications, and the patient was eventually discharged home. She was seen weekly for laboratory tests and examinations and, after 4 months of therapy, the imipenem was discontinued. She did well clinically for 7 months before recurrent pain led to removal of the total hip arthroplasty. Intra-operative cultures grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus but no multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The patient received ampicillin for 8 weeks and had not had recurrent infection at the time of writing, 37 months after discontinuing imipenem. Conclusion We describe the successful treatment of an acute infection from multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with debridement and retention of the total hip arthroplasty, using

  17. Automation of Field Operations and Services (AFOS) National Weather Service (NWS) Service Records and Retention System (SRRS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Service Records and Retention System (SRRS) is historical digital data set DSI-9949, a collection of products created by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) and...

  18. Comparison of 24 hr total body radio-iodine retention for hypothyroid vs. thyrogen (rhTSH) stimulated whole body surveillance scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, S.; Young, I.; Bukberg, P.; Luo, J.Q.; Dakhel, M.; Heiba, S.; El-Zeftawy, H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Recently rhTSH has been used for WBS to avoid hypothyroid symptoms from T4/T3 withdrawal. There is limited data available in the current literature comparing total body radio-iodine clearance between hypothyroid pts and pts receiving rhTSH. Significant differences in radio-iodine clearance may influence the dose of radio-iodine required for diagnostic scanning or treatment of pts on a rhTSH protocol. Methods: To retrospectively compare the 24 hr total body I-123 retention in thyroid cancer pts who were made hypothyroid in preparation for radio-iodine scanning with the I-123 retention in pts who received thyrogen (rhTSH) but were maintained on thyroid hormone replacement. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Histologically diagnosed well diff. thyroid Ca s/p surgery and I-131 Rx in the past who were clinically disease free at the time of scanning. No abn. visible I-123 uptake on WBS and 24 hr neck uptake ≤ 1%. Tg level ≤ 2ng off T4/T3 or ≤ 2ng increase from basal level after rhTSH. Anti-Tg Ab negative. Serum Creatine ≤ 1.4 mg/dl. Serum ALT < 35, AST < 35. Total 78 pts were divided into the following 3 groups (Gp): Gp-1 (29 pts) received 2 IM inj. Of 0.9 mg rhTSH 24 and 48 hrs prior to oral dose of 10 mCi I-123. Gp-2 (30 pts) followed hypothyroid protocol i.e., off T4 ≥ 4 wks or T3 ≥ 10 days in order to achieve TSH ≥ 30 MIU/L. The dose of I-123 was 5 mCi. Gp-3 (19 pts) similar to Gp-2 i.e., hypothyroid but scanned using 10 mCi of I-123. Imaging protocol: Pts were scanned 4 hrs and 24 hrs after I-123 administration in a dual head gamma camera for 30 mins. Total body and neck counting were obtained from the geometric mean of Ant and Post images with appropriate decay correction. 24 hr total body retention (TBR) of I-123 were calculated and expressed in %, considering 100% at 4 hrs. Results: Demographic Profile of 3 Patient Groups. AST/ALT was < 35 and 24 hrs neck uptake was ≤ 1.0% all pts. Comparison of 24 hr % TBR of I-123 in 3 Patient Groups

  19. WATER RETENTION OPTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM FOR DRY SEASON CORN CULTIVATION AT TIDAL LOWLAND AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Farming constraint at tidal lowland area is about water management related to the nature of excessive water during wet season and insufficient water during dry season. This field research objectives was to find out the corn crop cultivation in August 2014 which entered dry season. The installation of subsurface drainage that previously had functioned as water discharge was converted into water retention. The research results showed that corn had grown well during peak dry season period (October in which water table was at –50 cm below soil surface, whereas water table depth was dropped to –70 cm below soil surface in land without subsurface drainage. This condition implied that installation of subsurface drainage at dry season had function as water retention, not as water discharge. Therefore, network function was inverted from water discharge into water retention. It had impact on the development of optimum water surface that flow in capillary mode to fulfill the crop’s water requirement. Corn production obtained was 6.4 t ha-1. This condition was very promising though still below the maximum national production. The applications of subsurface drainage was still not optimum due to the supply of water from the main system was not the same because of the soil physical properties diversity and topography differences.

  20. Preliminary installment of total picture archiving and communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, E.; Takanashi, S.; Suda, Y.; Furui, S.; Yoshida, H.; Hosaka, Y.; Fukui, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studied the image quality of various medical digital images and to install a small but total image management and communication system to file images. The system consists of a filing system with a laser scanning digitizer (2,000 x 2,000 x 8 bits), an optical disk (3.8 GB), two HD CRTs, and a 1.6 GB magnetic disk. This system can file on-line the images from a second filing system with FCR (on-line) and a Konica direct imaging system during treatment and follow-up, a CCD TV simulator system for a remote after-loading system, a dose map on CT and MR images through a self-made treatment planning system on the PC level, a CCD TV (RGB) system for local lesions, and portal images, through the imaging plate, for brachytherapy

  1. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times

  2. The influence of an audience response system on knowledge retention: an application to resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Archana; Sparano, Dina; Ananth, Cande V

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare delivery methods of lecture material regarding contraceptive options by either traditional or interactive lecture style with the use of an audience response system with obstetrics and gynecology residents. A prospective, randomized controlled trial that included 17 obstetrics and gynecology residents was conducted. Group differences and comparison of pre/posttest scores to evaluate efficacy of lecture styles were performed with the Student t test. Each participant completed an evaluation to assess usefulness of the audience response system. Residents who received audience response system interactive lectures showed a 21% improvement between pretest and posttest scores; residents who received the standard lecture demonstrated a 2% improvement (P = .018). The evaluation survey showed that 82% of residents thought that the audience response system was a helpful learning aid. The results of this randomized controlled trial demonstrate the effectiveness of audience response system for knowledge retention, which suggests that it may be an efficient teaching tool for residency education.

  3. Short-term retention of pictures and words: evidence for dual coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M

    1975-03-01

    The recall of picture and word triads was examined in three experiments that manipulated the type of distraction in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task. In all three experiments recall of pictures was superior to words under auditory distraction conditions. Visual distraction produced high performance levels with both types of stimuli, whereas combined auditory and visual distraction significantly reduced picture recall without further affecting word recall. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis and indicated that pictures are encoded into separate visual and acoustic processing systems while words are primarily acoustically encoded.

  4. Retention in a public health care system with free access to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Engsig, Frederik N; Kronborg, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    were retained in care 95.0% of person-years under observation, increasing to 98.1% after initiation of antiretroviral treatment (HAART). The overall IR/100 person-years for first episode of LTFU was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.5-2.8) and was significantly lower after initiation of HAART (1.2 (95% CI: 1......, especially after initiation of HAART. Absence from HIV care is associated with increased mortality. We conclude that high rates of retention can be achieved in a health care system with free access to treatment and is associated with a favorable outcome....

  5. Total-System Analyzer for performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.; Cummings, J.C.; Zieman, N.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Total-System Analyzer is a modular computer program for probabilistic total-system performance calculations. The code employs stratified random sampling from model parameter distribution functions to generate multiple realizations of the system. The results of flow and transport calculations for each realization are combined into a probability distribution function of the system response as indicated by the performance measure. We give a detailed description of the code and present results for four example problems simulating the release of radionuclides from a proposed high-level-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The example simulations illustrate the impact of significant variation of percolation flux and sorption on radionuclide releases. We discuss the effects of numerical sampling error and of correlations among the model parameters. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Total anomalous systemic venous drainage in left heterotaxy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandenahally, Ravindranath S; Deora, Surender; Math, Ravi S

    2013-04-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous drainage is an extremely rare congenital heart defect. In this study we describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with a history of fatigue and central cyanosis that she had had since early childhood with unremarkable precordial examination results. Investigations revealed left heterotaxy with all systemic venous drainage to the left-sided atrium with non-compaction of the left ventricle.

  7. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

    1980-05-01

    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  8. Post retention and post/core shear bond strength of four post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, L W; Williams, P T; Clarke, C T

    2000-01-01

    As clinicians we continue to search for a post system which will give us maximum retention while maximizing resistance to root fracture. The introduction of several new post systems, with claims of high retentive and resistance to root fracture values, require that independent studies be performed to evaluate these claims. This study tested the tensile and shear dislodgment forces of four post designs that were luted into roots 10 mm apical of the CEJ. The Para Post Plus (P1) is a parallel-sided, passive design; the Para Post XT (P2) is a combination active/passive design; the Flexi-Post (F1) and the Flexi-Flange (F2) are active post designs. All systems tested were stainless steel. This study compared the test results of the four post designs for tensile and shear dislodgment. All mounted samples were loaded in tension until failure occurred. The tensile load was applied parallel to the long axis of the root, while the shear load was applied at 450 to the long axis of the root. The Flexi-Post (F1) was significantly different from the other three in the tensile test, however, the Para Post XT (P2) was significantly different to the other three in the shear test and had a better probability for survival in the Kaplan-Meier survival function test. Based on the results of this study, our recommendation is for the Para Post XT (P2).

  9. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables

  10. Study of equivalent retention among different polymer-solvent systems in thermal field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Suk; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Dai Woon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Yu, Euy Kyung

    1998-01-01

    An equivalent retention has been experimentally observed in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFF) for different polymer-solvent systems. It is shown that iso-retention between two sets of polymer-solvent systems can be obtained by adjusting the temperature difference (ΔT) according to the difference in the ration of ordinary diffusion coefficient to thermal diffusion coefficient. This method uses a compensation of field strength (ΔT) in ThFFF at a fixed condition of cold wall temperature. It is applied for the calculation of molecular weight of polymers based on a calibration run of different standards obtained at an adjusted ΔT. The polymer standards used in this study are polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). Three carrier solvents, tetrahydrofuran (THF), methylethylketone (MEK) and ethylacetate (ETAc) were employed. Though the accuracy in the calculation of molecular weight is dependent on the difference in the slope of log λ vs. log M which is related to Mark-Houwink constant a, it shows reasonable agreement within about 6% of relative error in molecular weight calculation for the polymer-solvent systems having similar a value

  11. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases involving lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862.1470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  12. Micro Total Analysis Systems: Microfluidic aspects, integration concept and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution three aspects of miniaturized total analysis systems (µTAS) are described and discussed in detail. First, an overview of microfabricated components for fluid handling is given. A description of the importance of sampling- and fluid-handling techniques is followed by details of

  13. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  14. The impact of a total reward system of work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Hoole

    2016-11-01

    Research purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between total rewards and work engagement in a South African context and to determine which reward categories predict work engagement. The study further endeavoured to determine whether gender and age had a moderating effect on the relationship between total rewards and engagement. Motivation for the study: Statistics report that less than 30% of all working people are optimally engaged in their work. Considering that individuals spend more than a third of their lives at work committing themselves emotionally, physically and psychologically – research indicates that employees are no longer satisfied with traditional reward systems and want to feel valued and appreciated. Research approach, design and method: In this quantitative, cross-sectional research design using a non-probability convenience and purposive sampling strategy, 318 questionnaires were collected and analysed from financial institutions in Gauteng in which opinions were sought on the importance of different types of rewards structures and preferences, and how engaged they are in their workplace. The 17-item UWES and Nienaber total reward preference model were the chosen measuring instruments. Main findings: A small statistically significant correlation (r = 0.25; p < 0.05; small effect was found between total rewards and work engagement, and 12% of the variance of work engagement was explained. Only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement. Practical/Managerial implications: Although small, the significant correlation between total rewards and work engagement implies that total rewards are important motivators for employees in the workplace. Of the total rewards scales tested, only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement, suggesting that more research is needed. Organisations seeking to implement total reward strategies should pay specific

  15. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  16. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  17. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  18. Carbon retention in the soil–plant system under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    their environmental impacts. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and alternate partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) at early fruiting stage. In Exp. I, each plant...... to a greater microbial activity in the two treatments; particularly the PRI induced drying and wetting cycles of the soils may cause an increase of microbial activities and respiration rate, which could lead to more C losses from the soil. However, in both experiments the total C concentration in the PRI...... in the two experiments might have affected the C retention in the soil and in the plant biomass. Nevertheless, with a same degree of water saving, PRI was superior to DI in terms of enhancing C concentration in the plant biomass, which might have contributed to a better fruit quality in tomatoes as reported...

  19. Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

    1994-01-01

    A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000.

  20. A total system approach to sustainable pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy. PMID:9356432

  1. Behaviour of biopolymeric substances in the activated sludge of an MBR system working with high hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Eugenio; Pérez, Jorge I; Gómez, Miguel A

    2017-10-15

    This study was undertaken to analyse the activated sludge of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the behaviour of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) as well as their biopolymers composition, in the activated sludge of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and their influence on membrane fouling were analysed. For the experiment an experimental fullscale MBR working with real urban wastewater at high hydraulic retention time with a variable sludge-retention time (SRT) was used. The MBR system worked in denitrification/nitrification conformation at a constant flow rate (Q = 0.45 m 3 /h) with a recirculation flow rate of 4Q. The concentrations of SMP in the activated sludge were lower than the concentrations of EPS over the entire study, with humic substances being the main components of the two biopolymers. SMP and, more specifically, SMP carbohydrates, were the most influential biopolymers in membrane fouling, while for EPS and their components, no relation was found with fouling. The SRT and temperature were the operational variables that most influenced the SMP and EPS concentration, causing the increase of SRT and temperature a lower concentration in both biopolymers, although the effect was not the same for all the components, particularly for the EPS carbohydrates, which increased with longer SRTs. Both operational variables were also the ones most influential on the concentration of organic matter of the effluent, due to their effect on the SMP. The volatile suspended solid/total suspended solid (VSS/TSS) ratio in the activated sludge can be applied as a good indicator of the risk of membrane fouling by biopolymers in MBR systems.

  2. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  3. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-01-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental

  5. FY 1983 annual report on the research and development of automatic sewing systems. Total systems; 1983 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    The automatic sewing system technique research association has been commissioned by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology for (research and development of automatic sewing systems). This program covers R and D of the elementary techniques for total systems and sewing preparation/processing, sewing/assembling, cloth handling, and system management/control. This report describes the results of the R and D efforts for the total systems. The basic data are collected for a total of 5 representative types of apparels. The technical problems involved in the current and automatic sewing systems are clarified for each apparel type, to collect the data for studying the test plant plans. The automatic sewing system for each apparel type is illustrated by images, for expressing the system concepts. The concept for the basic designs of the total system is drawn for FMS. For achieving the objective of reducing time for producing unit quantity of diversified types of clothes in small quantities at least by 50% from the current level, the study is focused on how the works are (flown) in the system, for which configuration of each device is studied. The basic specifications are drawn, viewed from development of the total system. (NEDO)

  6. Nanosericite as an Innovative Microparticle in Dual-Chemical Paper Retention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shing Perng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-chemical retention systems based on 2 cationic polyacrylamides, a colloidal silica, and a globular anionic polymer microparticles were investigated and an exfoliated nanoparticle indigenous mica mineral, sericite, was examined for its efficacy in substituting commercial microparticle preparations. The results indicated that nanosericite generated FPR between 76.9 and 80.9% for fines and chemicals. Its ash retention values, however, were higher and tended to increase with doses of polymer, nanosericite, or Sc to between 16 and 24%. As for paper physical properties, nanosericite was not amenable to substitute the c-PAMb/polymer with only handsheet stiffness superior to the combination. Nanosericite, however, showed good substitution capacity than the c-PAMa-colloidal silica combination. Regardless of the c-PAMa doses, all examined handsheet physical properties incorporating nanosericite were superior to colloidal silica. The optimal performance was observed with c-PAMa dose of 200 ppm. Optical properties of the handsheets indicated that with nanosericite substitution, brightness values were comparable to the polymer group, while its substitution capacity for colloidal silica decreased with increasing c-PAMb dose. Only at c-PAMa dose of 300 ppm, it appeared to have good substitution for colloidal silica. Substituting nanosericite for colloidal silica appeared to reduce the c-PAMa charge and increased the overall cost effectiveness.

  7. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  8. Development of a totally integrated severe accident training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Young; Kim, Dong Ha

    2006-01-01

    Recently KAERI has developed the severe accident management guidance to establish the Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand the PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses the MELCOR code as the simulation engine. The simulator SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accidents with interactive user commands. Especially the control capability of SATS could make a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper we will describe the development and functions of the electrical guidance module, HyperKAMG, and the SATS-HyperKAMG linkage system designed for a totally integrated and automated severe accident training. (author)

  9. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  10. A Total Information Management System For All Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimette, Donald; Nudelman, Sol; Ramsby, Gale; Spackman, Thomas

    1985-09-01

    A PACS has been designed for the University of Connecticut Health Center to serve all departments acquiring images for diagnosis, surgery and therapy. It incorporates a multiple community communications architecture to provide complete information management for medical images, medical data and departmental administrative matter. The system is modular and expandable. It permits an initial installation for radiology and subsequent expansion to include other departments at the Health Center, beginning with internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology and dentistry. The design permits sufficient expansion to offer the potential for accepting the additional burden of a hospital information system. Primary parameters that led to this system design were based on the anticipation that departments in time could achieve generating 60 to 90% of their images suited to insertion in a PACS, that a high network throughput for large block image transfers would be essen-tial and that total system reliability was fundamental to success.

  11. Total analysis systems with Thermochromic Etching Discs technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Morais, Sergi; Carrascosa, Javier; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2014-12-16

    A new analytical system based on Thermochromic Etching Discs (TED) technology is presented. TED comprises a number of attractive features such as track independency, selective irradiation, a high power laser, and the capability to create useful assay platforms. The analytical versatility of this tool opens up a wide range of possibilities to design new compact disc-based total analysis systems applicable in chemistry and life sciences. In this paper, TED analytical implementation is described and discussed, and their analytical potential is supported by several applications. Microarray immunoassay, immunofiltration assay, solution measurement, and cell culture approaches are herein addressed in order to demonstrate the practical capacity of this system. The analytical usefulness of TED technology is herein demonstrated, describing how to exploit this tool for developing truly integrated analytical systems that provide solutions within the point of care framework.

  12. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HO, CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH, JIM; WILSON, MICHAEL L.

    1999-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  13. Evaluation of anti-GERD activity of gastro retentive drug delivery system of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Trilochan; Panda, Prasana K; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2010-08-01

    The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of the gastroretentive system of Itopride hydrochloride. In this research, we have formulated floating hydrogel-based microspheres employing calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas forming agent dispersed in alginate matrix. In vitro characterizations such as drug content, particle size, and drug release were carried out. GI motility was determined by administration of charcoal meal to rats. Results demonstrated that prepared microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface, good loading efficiency, and excellent buoyancy. The gastro retentive dosage form of itiopride demonstrated significant antacid, anti-ulcer, and anti-GERD activity after 12 hours in comparison with the conventional dosage form.

  14. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs

  15. Effects of dietary onion ( extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Aditya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa extract (OE supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR, blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively. On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04 than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01 and ether extract (p = 0.04 linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p = 0.03 with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p<0.01 with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01 redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality.

  16. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  17. Retention of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Mailen, J.C.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Retention of gaseous fission products during fuel reprocessing has, in the past, been limited to a modest retention of 131 I when processing fuels decayed less than about 180 days. The projected rapid growth of the nuclear power industry along with a desire to minimize environmental effects is leading to the reassessment of requirements for retention of gaseous fission products, including 131 I, 129 I, 85 Kr, 3 H, and 14 C. Starting in the late 1960s, a significant part of the LMFBR reprocessing development program has been devoted to understanding the behavior of gaseous fission products in plant process and effluent streams and the development of advanced systems for their removal. Systems for iodine control include methods for evolving up to 99% of the iodine from dissolver solutions to minimize its introduction and distribution throughout downstream equipment. An aqueous scrubbing system (Iodox) using 20 M HNO 3 as the scrubbing media effectively removes all significant iodine forms from off-gas streams while handling the kilogram quantities of iodine present in head-end and dissolver off-gas streams. Silver zeolite is very effective for removing iodine forms at low concentration from the larger-volume plant off-gas streams. Removal of iodine from plant liquid effluents by solid sorbents either prior to or following final vaporization appears feasible. Krypton is effectively released during dissolution and can be removed from the relatively small volume head-end and dissolver off-gas stream. Two methods appear applicable for removal and concentration of krypton: (1) selective absorption in fluorocarbons, and (2) cryogenic absorption in liquid nitrogen. The fluorocarbon absorption process appears to be rather tolerant of the normal contaminants (H 2 O, CO 2 , NOsub(x), and organics) present in typical reprocessing plant off-gas whereas the cryogenic system requires an extensive feed gas pretreatment system. Retention of tritium in a reprocessing plant is

  18. Issues associated with a total systems approach to designing dependable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    A total system approach, developed by the nuclear-reactor-safety community, is extrapolated to the design of complex, critical systems. The essential properties of these systems are described, and a generic paradigm for subsequent designs is proposed

  19. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  20. Numerical study on lateral wall displacement of deep excavation supported by IPS earth retention system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugen Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the 3D behavior characteristics of an excavation supported by an innovative prestressed support (IPS earth retention system. A numerical simulation was conducted in order to provide insight into the IPS system behavior by using the FLAC3D package. Prior to the parametric study, validation work was conducted by means of a comparison of the deformation between the field test data and numerical analysis results, and strong agreement was obtained. The reasonable excavation location, layered excavation thickness, and blocked excavation sequence are presented according to variable parameter analysis. In view of the previous findings, certain measurements are proposed in order to control the foundation pit deformation. The results indicate that prestress compensation has a significant effect on the IPS system behavior, while an optimized excavation sequence slightly improves its behavior. With the conclusion proposed based on the numerical results, the aim is to provide reference data for optimization design and the construction sequence. Keywords: FLAC3D, IPS system, Prestress compensation, Layered excavation, Blocked excavation, Deformation control

  1. Retention system for implant-supported dentures used by brazilian dentists who work in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Aparecido Ramalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide the dentists with support in the choice of the cement or screw type of retention for implant-supported dentures, according to the patient’s problem. Methods: An opinion questionnaire was applied to a sample of 468 participants, all dentists working in the field of Implant Dentistry, of whom 272 (58.1% participated in the 4th International Congress of Osseointegration of APCD, held in São Paulo (SP from 6 to 9 May 2004, 119 (25.4% participated in the 2nd International Congress of Implant Dentistry of Minas Gerais, between 10 and 12 June 2004 and 77 (16.5% were professors and specialization and master students from São Leopoldo Mandic. Results: The results showed that 254 participants opted for the screw-retained system while 214 opted for the cement-retained system. Conclusion: There was a preference for the use of the screw-retained system, and that both cemented and screw-retained systems have advantages and disadvantages, so that the dentist is left to decide and evaluate them in order to indicate and use them with confidence in different clinical cases.

  2. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  3. Total plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Hansen, Hanne B; Ring-Larsen, Helmer

    2015-01-01

    the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, extrapolated to infinity. ClU was determined as urinary excretion relative to the plasma concentration-time area up to voiding. Results. In patients without fluid retention, the difference between ClP and ClU (ClP - ClU = ClΔ) was mean 4.5 m...

  4. Sistemas farmacêuticos gastrorretentivos flutuantes Pharmaceutical gastro-retentive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel da Costa Barrocas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Freqüentemente recorre-se à produção de sistemas gastrorretentivos para modular a liberação de fármacos a partir de sistemas farmacêuticos com vistas ao aumento do tempo de permanência do fármaco no trato gastrointestinal. Umas das estratégias mais interessantes passa pela produção de sistemas flutuantes. Estes podem ser classificados em dois grupos: sistemas flutuantes efervescentes e sistemas flutuantes não-efervecentes. Neste artigo apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica do que tem sido produzido nesta área nos últimos anos.Gastro-retentive systems are often produced in order to modulate drugs release from pharmaceutical forms and in this way to increase drug residence time in the gastrointestinal tract. One of the most interesting strategies consists in the preparation of floating devices. These can be classified into two groups: effervescent systems and non-effervescent systems. A review of what has been done in the last years is presented in this article.

  5. Effect of transient liquid flow on retention characteristics of screen acquisition systems. [design of Space Shuttle feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    A design analysis, is developed based on experimental data, to predict the effects of transient flow and pressure surges (caused either by valve or pump operation, or by boiling of liquids in warm lines) on the retention performance of screen acquisition systems. A survey of screen liquid acquisition system applications was performed to determine appropriate system environment and classification. A screen model was developed which assumed that the screen device was a uniformly distributed composite orthotropic structure, and which accounted for liquid inflow/outflow, gas ingestion quality, screen stress, and liquid spill. A series of 177 tests using 13 specimens (5 screen meshes, 4 screen device construction/backup methods, and 2 orientations) with three test fluids (isopropyl alcohol, Freon 114, and LH2) provided data which verified important features of the screen model and resulted in a design tool which could accurately predict the transient startup performance acquisition devices.

  6. FY 1984 annual report on the research and development of automatic sewing systems. Total systems; 1984 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The automatic sewing system technique research association has been commissioned by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology for (research and development of automatic sewing systems). This program covers R and D of the elementary techniques for total systems and sewing preparation/processing, sewing/assembling, cloth handling, and system management/control. This report describes the results of the R and D efforts for the total systems. For producing diversified products in small quantities, which is the object of this R and D program, the target is set to reduce processing time by at least 50% from the current level. The efforts to achieve this target by solving the problems involved therein are made from the side of developing FMS and FA procedures, and apparel side. The program for the former investigates the required functions of individual sub-systems that constitute the total system, to clarify the technical targets of the core elementary techniques for each sub-system. The program for the latter analyzes the sewing steps for producing diversified clothes types, specifications for automatic operation, integration, standardization and coding of the steps, and so on, based on the results of studies on basic apparel types. (NEDO)

  7. A dense cell retention culture system using stirred ceramic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Sato, T; Kominami, M

    1994-11-20

    A novel reactor design incorporating porous ceramic tubes into a stirred jar fermentor was developed. The stirred ceramic membrane reactor has two ceramic tubular membrane units inside the vessel and maintains high filtration flux by alternating use for filtering and recovering from clogging. Each filter unit was linked for both extraction of culture broth and gas sparging. High permeability was maintained for long periods by applying the periodical control between filtering and air sparging during the stirred retention culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ceramic filter aeration system increased the k(L)a to about five times that of ordinary gas sparing. Using the automatic feeding and filtering system, cell mass concentration reached 207 g/L in a short time, while it was 64 g/L in a fed-batch culture. More than 99% of the growing cells were retained in the fermentor by the filtering culture. Both yield and productivity of cells were also increased by controlling the feeding of fresh medium and filtering the supernatant of the dense cells culture. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. A Study on Renin-Angiotensin System and Total Exchangeable Sodium in Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon

    1976-01-01

    The etiologic role of renin-angiotensin system and sodium-volume status in the pathophysiology of various forms of hypertension was investigated. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay, while sodium-volume status was evaluated by the determination of total exchangeable sodium(NaE) using isotope dilution method. The subjects consisted of 25 controls, 24 patients with essential hypertension, 22 patients with chronic renal failure (13 with hypertension, 9 without hypertension) and 14 patients with malignant hypertension. The results were as follows: 1) An inverse correlation between NaE and PRA was noted in control subjects (r=-0.598, p 0.1) 3) Absolute value of PRA was not deviated significantly from control group (2.53±1.416 ng/ml/hr) except in malignant hypertension (6.09±2.042, p 0.1). It is suggested that renin-angiotensin system plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension and in hypertension of chronic renal failure, though sodium retention is also contributing factor. PRA variation in essential hypertension does not appear to be associated with any consistent change in Na-volume status, suggesting the existence of another mechanism in the genesis of hypertension and PRA variation.

  9. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  10. Retention of the posterior cruciate ligament versus the posterior stabilized design in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Akker-Scheek Inge

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic design for the use in primary total knee arthroplasty has evolved into designs that preserve the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL and those in which the ligament is routinely sacrificed (posterior stabilized. In patients with a functional PCL the decision which design is chosen depends largely on the favour and training of the surgeon. The objective of this study is to determine whether the patient's perceived outcome and speed of recovery differs between a posterior cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty and a posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients who are admitted for primary unilateral TKA due to primary osteoarthrosis are included when the following inclusion criteria are met: non-fixed fixed varus or valgus deformity less than 10 degrees, age between 55 and 85 years, body mass index less than 35 kg/m2 and ASA score (American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II. Patients are randomized in 2 groups. Patients in the posterior cruciate retaining group will receive a prosthesis with a posterior cut-out for the posterior cruciate ligament and relatively flat topography. In patients allocated to the posterior stabilized group, in which the posterior cruciate ligament is excised, the design may substitute for this function by an intercondylar tibial prominence that articulates with the femur in flexion. Measurements will take place preoperatively and 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. At all measurement points patient's perceived outcome will be assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life (SF-36 and physician reported functional status and range of motion as determined with the Knee Society Clinical Rating System (KSS. Discussion In the current practice both posterior cruciate retaining and posterior stabilized designs

  11. The influence of solid retention time on IFAS-MBR systems: Assessment of nitrous oxide emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Capodici, Marco; Cosenza, Alida; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Di Trapani, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a moving bed based Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge (IFAS) - membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant, designed according to the University of Cape Town (UCT) layout. The experimental campaign had a duration of 110 days and was characterized by three different sludge retention time (SRT) values (∞, 30 d and 15 d). Results highlighted that N 2 O concentrations decreased when the biofilm concentrations increased within the aerobic reactor. Results have shown an increase of N 2 O with the decrease of SRT. Specifically, an increase of N 2 O-N emission factor occurred with the decrease of the SRT (0.13%, 0.21% and 0.76% of influent nitrogen for SRT = ∞, SRT = 30 d and SRT = 15 d, respectively). Moreover, the MBR tank resulted the key emission source (up to 70% of the total N 2 O emission during SRT = ∞ period) whereas the highest N 2 O production occurred in the anoxic reactor. Moreover, N 2 O concentrations measured in the permeate flow were not negligible, thus highlighting its potential detrimental contribution for the receiving water body. The role of each plant reactor as N 2 O-N producer/consumer varies with the SRT variation, indeed the aerobic reactor was a N 2 O consumer at SRT = ∞ and a producer at SRT = 30 d. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of the retention of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and cooking yield in pork loin with conventional and enhanced meal-service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Kall, M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    processing included warm-holding, conventional cook-chill, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and sous vide. Compared to retention in the freshly cooked samples, vitamin B-2 retention remained unaffected, irrespective of the meal-service system used and storage period. As regards vitamin B-1 and vitamin B-6......, retentions declined significantly, by 14% and 21% respectively during 3 h of warm-holding, and by 11% and 19% respectively after 1 day of storage and subsequent reheating (cook-chill, MAP and sous vide). Vitamin B-1 retention declined by an extra 4% during storage for 14 days (sous vide) (not significant...

  13. Automatic postural response systems in individuals with congenital total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Yabe, K

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the absence of vision from birth on automatic postural responses to platform displacements during stance. Postural responses were induced by producing randomly four types of perturbations which consisted of forward and backward translations, and toe up and down rotations. Nine congenitally totally blind and nine sighted adults served as subjects. EMG signals were recorded from four muscles in the right leg, and reaction time to somatosensory stimuli generated by platform displacements was measured by pushing a hand-held button. To assess the ability to control postural balance, the root mean square (RMS) values for lateral and antero-posterior sway before, during, and after perturbations were calculated. The EMG amplitude in the gastrocnemius muscle of a blind subject was smaller than that of a sighted subject with eyes closed. No significant differences were found between blind and sighted subjects in EMG latencies of the lower extremity muscles in response to perturbations. The blind subjects had significantly faster reaction times to somatosensory stimuli triggered by platform displacements, but in toe down rotations no significant difference was found between blind and sighted subjects. The difference in the EMG latencies and reaction times between the two groups suggests that blindness from birth may not affect the spinal stretch reflex, but may affect a volitional act mediated through the motor cortex. There were also no significant differences in the RMS values for postural sway between blind and sighted subjects with eyes open or closed, although blind subjects swayed more after backward translations than did sighted subjects with eyes open. Results suggest that the ability to control postural balance during perturbations was not affected by vision loss from birth. Our findings suggest that the automatic postural response systems of humans are unaffected by the absence of vision from birth and are rather hard wired.

  14. OUTCOMES REVIEW OF TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT WITH GENESIS II TOTAL KNEE SYSTEM: AUSTRALIAN ORTHOPAEDIC ASSOCIATION NATIONAL JOINT REPLACEMENT REGISTRY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Logvinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The goal of the article was to review Genesis II Total Knee System use according to AoA NJRR report. Genesis II has been widely used in Russian Federation since 1996. The AoA NJRR report was studied in order to learn connection between number of revision procedures and surgeon’s skills or type of the System, adequate choice among cemented, cementless and hybrid fixation, number of surgeries using Genesis II Total Knee System annually, average revision rate for Genesis II and early cumulative revision rate.CONCLUSION. The systematic study of AoA NJRR allows us to make a conclusion that cemented fixation of Genesis II Total Knee System is mostly effective, and this fact is confirmed by domestic experience. 

  15. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110... Systems § 862.1110 Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. (a) Identification. A bilirubin (total or direct) test system is a device intended to measure the levels of bilirubin (total or direct) in plasma...

  16. [Professional practices and perceptions about job retention systems for the chronically ill: a qualitative study in south-eastern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, M-L; Arnaud, S; Souville, M; Viau, A; François, G; Verger, P

    2013-04-01

    Continued employment of people with health problems that reduce their ability to work is a major social issue. The French measures to optimize job retention are characterized by a multiplicity of participants, and their efficacy depends largely on the capacity of these different participants to work together. The objective of this study was to document the perceived role, attitudes and practices of participants involved in these job retention measures and of general practitioners, as well as their difficulties in this domain. In 2009, 15 semi-directive interviews were conducted in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA) of occupational physicians, general practitioners, and other participants involved in the occupational reclassification of workers no longer completely fit for their job. The data collected were analyzed from a thematic perspective. The different groups of professionals questioned agreed on the primacy of the role of the occupational physician, on the importance of early consideration of each worker's case, and on the need to work together as partners to optimize the prospects of job retention. This study nonetheless showed numerous communication difficulties between the various professionals: although informal exchanges have developed over time, the efficacy of the system seems to be limited by a lack of clarity about the role of each institution, divergences of opinions on some key points including the role of the physicians caring for the patient, and, more largely, lack of information about the tools for job retention. The distribution of homogeneous knowledge, the development of multidisciplinary collaborative practices and the pooling of the lessons of experience between the different groups of participants are essential for the success of job retention procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A zero discharge green roof system and species selection to optimize evapotranspiration and water retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, J.S.; Whitlow, T.H. [Cornell, Univ., Urban Horticulture Inst., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Horticulture

    2006-07-01

    Economic benefits must outweigh costs, with or without governmental subsidies or enforcement in order for green roofs to become commonplace in American cities. Municipal advantages to green roofs include stormwater management, environmental quality and an expansion of the native plant palette. These benefits are difficult to quantify monetarily for the owner of the roof, yet greater water evaporation from storm water attenuation has the ability to increase cooling of the building, an economic benefit to the owner. Current green roof design and testing methods fail to explore systems that maximize stormwater retention and evaporative cooling benefits that are often associated with green roofs. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated an alternate approach that optimizes water loss through evapotranspiration using a zero discharge target and plants that tolerate both medium drought and saturation. Species selection emphasizes native species and salt tolerance, which allows the possibility of grey water irrigation. Species studied include spartina alternafiora and solidago canadensis. Plants were studied over a growing season to examine the rates of ET as they relate to weather conditions, growing media composition and saturation levels, and plant species. The study was conducted on top of a four storey school building located in the South Bronx, New York City. In June 2005, a 3,500 square foot extensive green roof was installed. The conference described the site and study in detail followed by a discussion of the results. This includes a discussion of the planting containers, planting mediums, plant materials, data collection, and irrigation trials. It was concluded that further research is needed to test this concept, and to examine the possibility of supplemental irrigation via off-season rainwater catchment or grey water irrigation. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Systems Science in Support of Total Quality Management,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Management (TQM). This paper bridges the gap between these two subjects to illustrate specific means by which systems science can begin to augment TQM. This construction is based upon the consideration of two topics. First, a brief introduction to systems science is provided. Second, systems science is applied through the concept of the Conant-Ashby

  19. Evolving Systems of Care with Total Clinical Outcomes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; Epstein, Richard A.; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The current article proposes that further specification of the system of care concept is required. Based on the assertions that the system of care concept (a) refers to an ideal as opposed to an observable phenomenon, and (b) is engaged in offering transformational experiences, the authors propose that the system of care definition must be…

  20. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis

  1. Assessment of total evacuation systems for tall buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a ...

  2. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Absolute total cross sections for noble gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, P. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with experiments on the elastic scattering of Ar, Kr and Xe, using the molecular beam technique. The aim of this work was the measurement of the absolute value of the total cross section and the behaviour of the total cross section, Q, as function of the relative velocity g of the scattering partners. The author gives an extensive analysis of the glory structure in the total cross section and parametrizes the experimental results using a semiclassical model function. This allows a detailed comparison of the phase and amplitude of the predicted and measured glory undulations. He indicates how the depth and position of the potential well should be changed in order to come to an optimum description of the glory structure. With this model function he has also been able to separate the glory and attractive contribution to Q, and using the results from the extrapolation measurements he has obtained absolute values for Qsub(a). From these absolute values he has calculated the parameter C 6 that determines the strength of the attractive region of the potential. In two of the four investigated gas combinations the obtained values lie outside the theoretical bounds. (Auth.)

  4. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve ...

  5. total electron content derived from global positioning system during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SULUNGU

    POSITIONING SYSTEM DURING SOLAR MAXIMUM OF 2012-2013. OVER THE ..... diffusion of the transported electrons from the equator (Panda et al. 2015). As the sun rises, the ..... Wang M and Christensen AB 2008 Features of annual and ...

  6. Total system for manufacture of nuclear vessels by computer: VECTRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Jin; Ueno, Osamu; Hanai, Yoshiharu; Ohkawa, Isao; Washizu, Hideyuki

    1980-01-01

    VECTRON (Vessel Engineering by Computer Tool and Rapid Operating for the N/C System) is a CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) system that has been developed to produce high quality and highly accurate vessels for nuclear power plants and other industrial plants. Outputs of this system are design drawings, manufacturing information and magnetic tapes of the N/C marking machine for vessel shell plates including their attachments. And it can also output information at each stage of designing, marking, cutting, forming and assembling by treating the vessels in three dimensions and by using data filing systems and plotting program for general use. The data filing systems consist of functional and manufacturing data of each part of vessels. This system not only realizes a change from manual work to computer work, but also leads us to improve production engineering and production jigs for safety and high quality. At present, VECTRON is being applied to the manufacture of the shell plates of primary containment vessels in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (K-1) and the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 (2F-3), to realize increased productivity. (author)

  7. Retention-tank systems: A unique operating practice for managing complex waste streams at research and development facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigdon, S.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of preventing the introduction of prohibited contaminants to the sanitary sewer is critical to the management of large federal facilities such as the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL operates 45 retention-tank systems to control wastewater discharges and to maintain continued compliance with environmental regulations. LLNL's unique internal operation practices successfully keep prohibited contaminants out of the sanitary waste stream and maintain compliance with federal, state, and local regulations, as well as determining appropriate wastewater-disposal options. Components of the system include sampling and analysis of the waste stream, evaluation of the data, discharge approval, and final disposition of the waste stream

  8. A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

  9. Current state of total artificial heart therapy and introduction of the most important total artificial heart systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Hergesell, Vera; Wasler, Andrae; Dapunt, Otto

    2018-06-14

    Due to the declining instances of organ donation, total artificial heart (TAH) therapy is of increasing importance for the management of end-stage biventricular heart failure. We introduce the currently most important established and novel TAH systems (SynCardia, CARMAT, ReinHeart, BiVACOR), report clinical outcomes and discuss technical requirements for the successful implementation of TAH therapy as an alternative to cardiac transplantation.

  10. Solar-system Education for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-10-01

    I describe an extensive outreach program about the Sun, the silhouette of the Moon, and the circumstances both celestial and terrestrial of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Publications included a summary of the last decade of solar-eclipse research for Nature Astronomy, a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses for the American Journal of Physics, and book reviews for Nature and for Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter. Symposia arranged include sessions at AAS, APS, AGU, and AAAS. Lectures include all ages from pre-school through elementary school to high school to senior-citizen residences. The work, including the scientific research about the solar corona that is not part of this abstract, was supported by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. Additional student support was received from NSF, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Honorary Research Society Sigma Xi, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation, and funds at Williams College.

  11. Retention system for implant-supported dentures used by brazilian dentists who work in implant dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Saturnino Aparecido Ramalho; Fábio Pontes Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide the dentists with support in the choice of the cement or screw type of retention for implant-supported dentures, according to the patient’s problem. Methods: An opinion questionnaire was applied to a sample of 468 participants, all dentists working in the field of Implant Dentistry, of whom 272 (58.1%) participated in the 4th International Congress of Osseointegration of APCD, held in São Paulo (SP) from 6 to 9 May 2004, 119 (25.4%) participated in the 2nd International ...

  12. Similar outcome after retention or sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, Wiebe C.; van den Boom, Lennard G. H.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Schoones, Jan W.; Wymenga, Ate B.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

    Background and purpose - To retain or to sacrifice the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a matter of discussion. In this systematic review, we wanted to find differences in functional and clinical outcome between the 2 methods. Methods - We conducted a

  13. Retention of the posterior cruciate ligament versus the posterior stabilized design in total knee arthroplasty : a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, L.G.H.; Brouwer, R.W.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Bulstra, S.K.; van Raaij, J.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Prosthetic design for the use in primary total knee arthroplasty has evolved into designs that preserve the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and those in which the ligament is routinely sacrificed (posterior stabilized). In patients with a functional PCL the decision which design is

  14. Selective Constraints on Coding Sequences of Nervous System Genes Are a Major Determinant of Duplicate Gene Retention in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Julien; Liu, Jialin; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2017-11-01

    The evolutionary history of vertebrates is marked by three ancient whole-genome duplications: two successive rounds in the ancestor of vertebrates, and a third one specific to teleost fishes. Biased loss of most duplicates enriched the genome for specific genes, such as slow evolving genes, but this selective retention process is not well understood. To understand what drives the long-term preservation of duplicate genes, we characterized duplicated genes in terms of their expression patterns. We used a new method of expression enrichment analysis, TopAnat, applied to in situ hybridization data from thousands of genes from zebrafish and mouse. We showed that the presence of expression in the nervous system is a good predictor of a higher rate of retention of duplicate genes after whole-genome duplication. Further analyses suggest that purifying selection against the toxic effects of misfolded or misinteracting proteins, which is particularly strong in nonrenewing neural tissues, likely constrains the evolution of coding sequences of nervous system genes, leading indirectly to the preservation of duplicate genes after whole-genome duplication. Whole-genome duplications thus greatly contributed to the expansion of the toolkit of genes available for the evolution of profound novelties of the nervous system at the base of the vertebrate radiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Applications of nano-fluids to enhance LWR accidents management in in-vessel retention and emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupin, A.; Hu, L. W.; Buongiorno, J.

    2008-01-01

    Water-based nano-fluid, colloidal dispersions of nano-particles in water; have been shown experimentally to increase the critical heat flux and surface wettability at very low concentrations. The use of nano-fluids to enhance accidents management would allow either to increase the safe margins in case of severe accidents or to upgrade the power of an existing power plant with constant margins. Building on the initial work, computational fluid dynamics simulations of the nano-fluid injection system have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of a nano-fluid injection system for in-vessel retention application. A preliminary assessment was also conducted on the emergency core cooling system of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) to implement a nano-fluid injection system for improving the management of loss of coolant accidents. Several design options were compared/or their respective merits and disadvantages based on criteria including time to injection, safety impact, and materials compatibility. (authors)

  16. Evaluating Carbonate System Algorithms in a Nearshore System: Does Total Alkalinity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan M; Sweet, Julia; Brzezinski, Mark A; McNair, Heather M; Passow, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to many marine organisms, especially those that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The ability to accurately measure the carbonate system is the first step in characterizing the drivers behind this threat. Due to logistical realities, regular carbonate system sampling is not possible in many nearshore ocean habitats, particularly in remote, difficult-to-access locations. The ability to autonomously measure the carbonate system in situ relieves many of the logistical challenges; however, it is not always possible to measure the two required carbonate parameters autonomously. Observed relationships between sea surface salinity and total alkalinity can frequently provide a second carbonate parameter thus allowing for the calculation of the entire carbonate system. Here, we assessed the rigor of estimating total alkalinity from salinity at a depth sampling water from a pier in southern California for several carbonate system parameters. Carbonate system parameters based on measured values were compared with those based on estimated TA values. Total alkalinity was not predictable from salinity or from a combination of salinity and temperature at this site. However, dissolved inorganic carbon and the calcium carbonate saturation state of these nearshore surface waters could both be estimated within on average 5% of measured values using measured pH and salinity-derived or regionally averaged total alkalinity. Thus we find that the autonomous measurement of pH and salinity can be used to monitor trends in coastal changes in DIC and saturation state and be a useful method for high-frequency, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification.

  17. A study on fission product retention capability in a sodium coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, K.; Kubo, S.; Hashiguchi, Y.; Itooka, S.; Akatsu, Y.; Miyagi, K.; Wakamatsu, M.; Endo, H.; Tachino, T.

    1992-01-01

    Three kinds of separate model tests have been performed using water and air, focusing on the transport behavior of FP gas bubbles from subassembly outlets into a cover gas region, to study the dominant processes regarding the retention for volatiles ejected with inert gas into sodium after fuel failures. In the case that whole fuel pin failures occurring coherently in a subassembly were assumed, a periodic formation of globules was observed at the subassembly outlet. The globules rapidly broke up into small bubbles of less than 10 mm in mean diameter. The small bubbles at the top region had a tendency to be coalesced during rising through the upper plenum. As the coolant flow rate increased, bubble deformation and breakup were accelerated, but the bubble transport time did not vary remarkably. It is expected that bubbles in sodium would play in a similar way as in the water test, and the importance of the bubble behavior for the retention capability of volatiles has been confirmed. (author)

  18. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011. [4] Mevcha A, Drake MJ. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. August ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  19. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  20. Self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles as a novel ophthalmic delivery system for dexamethasone: Improving preocular retention and ocular bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li; Han, Shun; Shen, Jinqiu; Zhu, Jiabi; Zhu, Chunliu; Zhang, Xinxin; Gan, Yong

    2010-08-30

    The object of this study was to design novel self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) as an ophthalmic delivery system for dexamethasone (DEX) to improve its preocular retention and ocular bioavailability. DEX cubosome particles were produced by fragmenting a cubic crystalline phase of monoolein and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. Small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXR) profiles revealed its internal structure as Pn3m space group, indicating the diamond cubic phase. In vitro, the apparent permeability coefficient of DEX administered in cubosomes exhibited a 4.5-fold (F1) and 3.5-fold (F2) increase compared to that of Dex-Na phosphate eye drops. Preocular retention studies revealed that the retention of cubosomes was significantly longer than that of solution and carbopol gel, with AUC(0-->180min) of Rh B cubosomes being 2-3-fold higher than that of the other two formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetics in aqueous humor was evaluated by microdialysis, which indicated a 1.8-fold (F1) increase in AUC(0-->240min) of DEX administered in cubosomes relative to that of Dex-Na phosphate eye drops, with about an 8-fold increase compared to that of DEX suspension. Corneal cross-sections after incubation with DEX cubosomes demonstrated an unaffected corneal structure and tissue integrity, which indicated the good biocompatibility of DEX cubosomes. In conclusion, self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles might represent a promising vehicle for effective ocular drug delivery. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS 2013): soluble plutonium retention in the lungs of an occupationally exposed USTUR case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachev, S. Y.; Avtandilashvili, M.; Martinez, F.; Thomas, E. M.; Miller, F. L.; Nielsen, C. E.; Puncher, M.; Morgan, W. F.; Birchall, A.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, plutonium retention in human upper airways was investigated based on the dosimetric structure of the human respiratory tract proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This paper describes analytical work methodology, case selection criteria, and summarizes findings on soluble (ICRP 68 Type M material) plutonium distribution in the lungs of a former nuclear worker occupationally exposed to plutonium nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ]. Thirty-eight years post-intake, plutonium was found to be uniformly distributed between bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) dosimetric compartments as well as between the left and right lungs. 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu total body activity was estimated to be 2333 ± 23 and 42.1 ± 0.7 Bq, respectively. The results of this work provide key information on the extent of plutonium binding in the upper airways of the human respiratory tract. (authors)

  2. Conceptual and Numerical Modeling of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in Near-Surface Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Berglund, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Scenarios of barrier failure and radionuclide release to the near-surface environment are important to consider within performance and safety assessments of repositories for nuclear waste. A geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is planned at Forsmark, Sweden. Conceptual and numerical reactive transport models were developed in order to assess the retention capacity of the Quaternary till and clay deposits for selected radionuclides, in the event of an activity release from the repository. The elements considered were carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), cesium (Cs), iodine (I), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), radium (Ra), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), technetium (Tc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). According to the numerical predictions, the repository-derived nuclides that would be most significantly retained are Th, Ni, and Cs, mainly through sorption onto clays, followed by U, C, Sr, and Ra, trapped by sorption and/or incorporation into mineral phases

  3. Puerarin exhibits greater distribution and longer retention time in neurons than astrocytes in a co-cultured system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytoestrogen puerarin has been shown to protect neurons and astrocytes in the brain, and is therefore an attractive drug in the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease and cerebral ischemia. Whether puerarin exhibits the same biological processes in neurons and astrocytes in vitro has rarely been reported. In this study, cortical neurons and astrocytes of newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were separated, identified and co-cultured in a system based on Transwell membranes. The retention time and distribution of puerarin in each cell type was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscope. The concentration of puerarin in both co-cultured and separately cultured neurons was greater than that of astrocytes. Puerarin concentration reached a maximum 20 minutes after it was added. At 60 minutes after its addition, a scant amount of drug was detected in astrocytes; however in both separately cultured and co-cultured neurons, the concentration of puerarin achieved a stable level of about 12.8 ng/mL. The results indicate that puerarin had a higher concentration and longer retention time in neurons than that observed in astrocytes.

  4. [Effect of different sludge retention time (SRT) on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching continuous plug flow reaction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Dian-Zhan

    2012-01-01

    A plug-flow bio-reactor of 700 L working volume for sludge bioleaching was used in this study. The reactor was divided into six sections along the direction of the sludge movement. Fourteen days of continuous operation of sludge bioleaching with different sludge retention time (SRT) under the condition of 1.2 m3 x h(-1) aeration amount and 4 g x L(-1) of microbial nutritional substance was conducted. During sludge bioleaching, the dynamic changes of pH, DO, dewaterability (specific resistance to filtration, SRF) of sewage sludge in different sections were investigated in the present study. The results showed that sludge pH were maintained at 5.00, 3.00, 2.90, 2.70, 2.60 and 2.40 from section 1 to section 6 and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.64 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) to the final 0.33 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 72 with SRT 2.5d. In addition, the sludge pH were maintained at 5.10, 4.10, 3.20, 2.90, 2.70 and 2.60, the DO value were 0.43, 1.47, 3.29, 4.76, 5.75 and 5.88 mg x L(-1) from section 1 to section 6, and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.56 x 10(13) to the final 0.20 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 120 with SRT 2 d. The pH value was increased to 3.00 at section 6 at hour 48 h with SRT 1.25 d. The bioleaching system imbalanced in this operation conditions because of the utilization efficiency of microbial nutritional substance by Acidibacillus spp. was decreased. The longer sludge retention time, the easier bioleaching system reached stable. 2 d could be used as the optimum sludge retention time in engineering application. The bioleached sludge was collected and dewatered by plate-and-frame filter press to the moisture content of dewatered sludge cake under 60%. This study would provide the necessary data to the engineering application on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1270 - Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. 862.1270 Section 862.1270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.1270 Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. (a) Identification. As estrogens...

  6. Accuracy of some simple models for predicting particulate interception and retention in agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.; Adriano, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of three radionuclide transfer models for predicting the interception and retention of airborne particles by agricultural crops was tested using Pu-bearing aerosols released to the atmosphere from nuclear fuel facilities on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, near Aiken, SC. The models evaluated were: (1) NRC, the model defined in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.109; (2) FOOD, a model similar to the NRC model that also predicts concentrations in grains; and (3) AGNS, a model developed from the NRC model for the southeastern United States. Plutonium concentrations in vegetation and grain were predicted from measured deposition rates and compared to concentrations observed in the field. Crops included wheat, soybeans, corn and cabbage. Although predictions of the three models differed by less than a factor of 4, they showed different abilities to predict concentrations observed in the field. The NRC and FOOD models consistently underpredicted the observed Pu concentrations for vegetation. The AGNS model was a more accurate predictor of Pu concentrations for vegetation. Both the FOOD and AGNS models accurately predicted the Pu concentrations for grains

  7. Training Requirements and Training Delivery in the Total Army School System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, John

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes training requirements and school delivery of training in the Total Army School System, focusing on the system's ability to meet its training requirements in Reserve Component Training Institutions...

  8. Novel cemented cup-holding technique while performing total hip arthroplasty with navigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Takai, MD; Tomoki Takahashi, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Recently, navigation systems have been more widely utilized in total hip arthroplasty. However, almost all of these systems have been developed for cementless cups. In the case of cemented total hip arthroplasty using a navigation system, a special-ordered cemented holder is needed. We propose a novel cemented cup-holding technique for navigation systems using readily available articles. We combine a cementless cup holder with an inverted cementless trial cup. The resulting apparatus is used ...

  9. Assessing Potential Additional PFAS Retention Processes in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. Current conceptual and mathematical models are based on an assumption that solid-phase adsorption is the sole source of retention for PFASs. However, additional retention processes may be relevant for PFAS compounds in vadose-zone systems and in source zones that contain trapped immiscible organic liquids. These include adsorption at the air-water interface, partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at the NAPL-water interface, and absorption by NAPL. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for these potential additional sources of PFAS retardation. An initial assessment of the relative magnitudes and significance of these retention processes was conducted for three representative PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH). Data collected from the literature were used to determine measured or estimated values for the relevant distribution coefficients, which were in turn used to calculate retardation factors for a representative porous medium. Adsorption at the air-water interface was shown to be a primary source of retention for PFOA and PFOS, contributing approximately 80% of total retardation. Adsorption to NAPL-water interfaces and absorption by bulk NAPL were also shown to be significant sources of retention for PFOS and PFOA. The latter process was the predominant source of retention for 8:2 FTOH, contributing 98% of total retardation. These results indicate that we may anticipate significant retention of PFASs by these additional processes. In such cases, retardation of PFASs in source areas may be significantly greater than what is typically estimated based on the standard assumption of solid-phase adsorption as the sole retention mechanism. This has significant ramifications for

  10. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples

  11. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  12. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The current most important solar energy utilization fields are solar energy power generation (solar heat and photovoltaic power generation), and solar heat cooling and heating. A solar heat power system collects or stores solar thermal energy as energy source of power systems, and converts it to electric power through heat exchange systems. To establish such system, not only R and D on a collector, absorption capsule, storage unit and heat transfer unit, but also complete study on an optimum system configuration and environmental impact are necessary. A photovoltaic power system converts solar energy to electric power directly by photoelectric conversion device such solar cell. Except specific local uses, drastic cost reduction and improvement of a conversion efficiency (at present 12-15%) and life (several years) are necessary for solar cells. Although a lot of solar heat cooling and heating systems is in practical use in Japan, for its further diffusion an important research task is development of heat collector excellent in efficiency, cost, life and maintainability. (NEDO)

  13. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, S.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Ganan, J.; Sabio, E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Ramiro, A.; Mangut, V.

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 deg. C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO 2 , the influence of the temperature (700-950 deg. C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N 2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has S BET of 741 m 2 g -1 , V mi of 0.39 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g -1 ): carbon C (gasification with CO 2 at 850 deg. Cduring 1 h), with S BET of 523 m 2 g -1 , V mi of 0.33 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g -1 , and carbon D (gasification with CO 2 at 900 deg. Cduring 1 h), whose S BET is 672 m 2 g -1 , V mi is 0.28 cm 3 g -1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g -1

  14. The construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengying; Li Tiantuo; Zhu Wenkai; Zhang Quanhu

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication. The merits of this system are simple construction, reliable performance, big communication distance, and wide covering range. The system fits in with application in radiation environment. The author also discusses the system's hardware equipment and communication protocol

  15. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversified cropping systems support greater microbial cycling and retention of carbon and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Alison E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2017-03-01

    Diversifying biologically simple cropping systems often entails altering other management practices, such as tillage regime or nitrogen (N) source. We hypothesized that the interaction of crop rotation, N source, and tillage in diversified cropping systems would promote microbially-mediated soil C and N cycling while attenuating inorganic N pools. We studied a cropping systems trial in its 10th year in Iowa, USA, which tested a 2-yr cropping system of corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] managed with conventional fertilizer N inputs and conservation tillage, a 3-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and a 4-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/alfalfa. Three year and 4-yr cropping systems were managed with composted manure, reduced N fertilizer inputs, and periodic moldboard ploughing. We assayed soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN), soil extractable NH4 and NO3, gross proteolytic activity of native soil, and potential activity of six hydrolytic enzymes eight times during the growing season. At the 0-20cm depth, native protease activity in the 4-yr cropping system was greater than in the 2-yr cropping system by a factor of 7.9, whereas dissolved inorganic N pools did not differ between cropping systems (P = 0.292). At the 0-20cm depth, MBC and MBN the 4-yr cropping system exceeded those in the 2-yr cropping system by factors of 1.51 and 1.57. Our findings suggest that diversified crop cropping systems, even when periodically moldboard ploughed, support higher levels of microbial biomass, greater production of bioavailable N from SOM, and a deeper microbially active layer than less diverse cropping systems.

  17. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For every solar energy utilization field, its background, feasibility, impact in practical use, and R and D policy in Japan were studied. Heating and hot water supply by solar energy are already practical because of less technical problems and reasonable profitability, and cooling is also practical as far as a technical viewpoint. At present, the technical level of solar heat power generation is in the stage of basic technology, however, in the future, development of economically reasonable systems will be demanded as well as establishment of its technology. The most difficult problem for realizing practical solar cell power generation systems is cost reduction. It is also another problem that a big demand of Si for solar cells further exceeds the current yield of Si in a semiconductor industry. A small-scale hybrid solar cell power generation system applicable to the roof of general residences is already feasible. Although a solar furnace is still poor in application to industrial fields, it is expected as the leading part for a future solar heat chemical industry. (NEDO)

  18. Optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems with hydrogen storage for total energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-01-01

    A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the solar array and hydrogen storage size for any given system configuration and geographical site. Sensitivity analyses have been performed to study the effect of subsystem efficiencies on the total system performance and sizing, and also to identify possibilities for further improvements. Optimum system configurations have also been derived. The results indicate that a solar-hydrogen energy system is a very promising potential alternative for low power applications requiring a total electricity self-sufficiency. (Author).

  19. Novel cemented cup-holding technique while performing total hip arthroplasty with navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoki

    2017-09-01

    Recently, navigation systems have been more widely utilized in total hip arthroplasty. However, almost all of these systems have been developed for cementless cups. In the case of cemented total hip arthroplasty using a navigation system, a special-ordered cemented holder is needed. We propose a novel cemented cup-holding technique for navigation systems using readily available articles. We combine a cementless cup holder with an inverted cementless trial cup. The resulting apparatus is used as a cemented cup holder. The upside-down cup-holding technique is useful and permits cemented cup users to utilize a navigation system for placement of the acetabular component.

  20. Novel cemented cup-holding technique while performing total hip arthroplasty with navigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takai, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, navigation systems have been more widely utilized in total hip arthroplasty. However, almost all of these systems have been developed for cementless cups. In the case of cemented total hip arthroplasty using a navigation system, a special-ordered cemented holder is needed. We propose a novel cemented cup-holding technique for navigation systems using readily available articles. We combine a cementless cup holder with an inverted cementless trial cup. The resulting apparatus is used as a cemented cup holder. The upside-down cup-holding technique is useful and permits cemented cup users to utilize a navigation system for placement of the acetabular component.

  1. Seasonal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus retention in an agricultural drainage river in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Shen, Yena; Kimberley, Mark O

    2010-02-01

    Riverine retention decreases loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in running water. It is an important process in nutrient cycling in watersheds. However, temporal riverine nutrient retention capacity varies due to changes in hydrological, ecological, and nutrient inputs into the watershed. Quantitative information of seasonal riverine N and P retention is critical for developing strategies to combat diffuse source pollution and eutrophication in riverine and coastal systems. This study examined seasonal variation of riverine total N (TN) and total P (TP) retention in the ChangLe River, an agricultural drainage river in east China. Water quality, hydrological parameters, and hydrophyte coverage were monitored along the ChangLe River monthly during 2004-2006. Nutrient export loads (including chemical fertilizer, livestock, and domestic sources) entering the river from the catchment area were computed using an export coefficient model based on estimated nutrient sources. Riverine TN and TP retention loads (RNRL and RPRL) were estimated using mass balance calculations. Temporal variations in riverine nutrient retention were analyzed statistically. Estimated annual riverine retention loads ranged from 1,538 to 2,127 t year(-1) for RNRL and from 79.4 to 90.4 t year(-1) for RPRL. Monthly retention loads varied from 6.4 to 300.8 t month(-1) for RNRL and from 1.4 to 15.3 t month(-1) for RPRL. Both RNRL and RPRL increased with river flow, water temperature, hydrophyte coverage, monthly sunshine hours, and total TN and TP inputs. Dissolved oxygen concentration and the pH level of the river water decreased with RNRL and RPRL. Riverine nutrient retention ratios (retention as a percentage of total input) were only related to hydrophyte coverage and monthly sunshine hours. Monthly variations in RNRL and RPRL were functions of TN and TP loads. Riverine nutrient retention capacity varied with environmental conditions. Annual RNRL and RPRL accounted for 30.3-48.3% and 52

  2. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  3. Comparative cost analyses: total flow vs other power conversion systems for the Salton Sea Geothermal Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, G.W.

    1978-09-18

    Cost studies were done for Total Flow, double flash, and multistage flash binary systems for electric Energy production from the Salton Sea Geothermal Resource. The purpose was to provide the Department of energy's Division of Geothermal Energy with information by which to judge whether to continue development of the Total Flow system. Results indicate that the Total Flow and double flash systems have capital costs of $1,135 and $1,026 /kW with energy costs of 40.9 and 39.7 mills/kW h respectively. The Total Flow and double flash systems are not distinguishable on a cost basis alone; the multistage flash binary system, with capital cost of $1,343 /kW and energy cost of 46.9 mills/kW h, is significantly more expensive. If oil savings are considered in the total analysis, the Total Flow system could save 30% more oil than the double flash system, $3.5 billion at 1978 oil prices.

  4. Development of a record retention and retrieval system for the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    The records associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant have increased in both volume and complexity. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company chose to retain and make available these records by using microfilm and a computer-generated index system. The technique of filming, data assembly, and controlled distribution of this material to various locations within the Company was developed and implemented. The index system has been designed to locate information and to provide a basis for searches of the data base for special information

  5. Do illness rating systems predict discharge location, length of stay, and cost after total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Rudasill, BA

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

  6. Moving Word Learning to a Novel Space: A Dynamic Systems View of Referent Selection and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K.; Kucker, Sarah C.; Spencer, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Theories of cognitive development must address both the issue of how children bring their knowledge to bear on behavior in-the-moment, and how knowledge changes over time. We argue that seeking answers to these questions requires an appreciation of the dynamic nature of the developing system in its full, reciprocal complexity. We illustrate this…

  7. The effects of changes to estuarine hydrology on system phosphorous retention capacity: The Mondego estuary, Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebo, A. I.; Otero, M.; Coelho, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    with the highest PO4-P adsorption capacity (Q* = 657 mu g P g(-1) wwt), thus the PO4-P availability in the water column was mostly dependent on the mineralization processes, which is in agreement with previous findings; ii) After 1998, the water residence time diminished from moderate (weeks) to short (days......). This change coincided with a diversion of the water to an area with a much lower PO4-P adsorption capacity (Q* = 410 mu g P g(-1) wwt), which represented a decrease in 7.3% of the system adsorption capacity. This means that sediments were not able to adsorb much of the PO4-P and a higher equilibrium...... in the estuary, we framed the hypothesis that the significant increase of DIP could be related to different sorption capacities of the sediments. The results highlighted two scenarios: i) Before 1998 the nutrient-rich freshwater input from the upstream cultivated lands entered the system through the area...

  8. Analysis of hypothetical nuclear excursions in the external core retention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, R.; Kussmaul, G.; Schmuck, P.

    1976-01-01

    The core catcher system of the SNR 300 is outside the reactor tank. The probability of recriticality phenomena is reduced by its design, but the licensing procedures still call for the analysis of strong recriticality phenomena in the core catcher system outside the reactor tank in order to achieve a better understanding of the possible physical effects and to get to know the safety limits of the system. For their theoretical investigations, the authors used a two-partner model as presented in fig. 1. At the bottom of the core catcher - which consists of depleted UO 2 - there is a fuel cylinder. Another fuel cylinder (with the same axis) is dropped from a height of 250 cm. The two cylindrical masses are immersed in sodium, but a free fall is assumed since the possibility cannot be excluded that the reactor bottom may be empty or only partially filled with sodium. It was found that under these conditions the strongest excursions may be expected in those cases where prompt criticality does not occur until just before the two partners meet. (orig./AK) [de

  9. In Vitro Drug Transfer Due to Drug Retention in Human Epidermis Pretreated with Application of Marketed Estradiol Transdermal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Pavurala, Naresh; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Katragadda, Usha; Yang, Yongsheng; Shah, Rakhi; Fang, Guodong; Khan, Mansoor A

    2017-08-01

    Study objective was to assess skin-to-skin drug transfer potential that may occur due to drug retention in human epidermis (DRE) pretreated with application of estradiol transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) and other estradiol transdermal dosage forms (gels and sprays). TDDS (products-A, B, and C) with varying formulation design and composition, and other estradiol transdermal products (gel and spray) were applied to heat separated human epidermis (HSE) and subjected to in vitro drug permeation study. Amounts of DRE were quantified after 24 h. The DRE with product-B was significantly (P  0.05) amounts of DRE. A separate in vitro permeation study was carried out to determine amounts of drug transferred from drug-retaining epidermis to untreated HSE. The amounts of drug transferred, due to DRE after 8 h, with product-C were significantly (P drug transfer due to the DRE after labeled period of using estradiol TDDS, though the clinical relevance of these findings is yet to be determined.

  10. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong; Zhu Nanwen

    2008-01-01

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni 0 ) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d -1 and HRT was 3 days

  11. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: effect of hydraulic retention time and process load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Nan-Wen

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni0) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1Ld(-1) and HRT was 3 days.

  12. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Nanwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: nwzhu@sina.com

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni{sup 0}) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d{sup -1} and HRT was 3 days.

  13. Managing retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990).

  14. Grain-A Java data analysis system for Total Data Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahkila, P.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is a data analysis system developed to be used with the novel Total Data Readout data acquisition system. In Total Data Readout all the electronics channels are read out asynchronously in singles mode and each data item is timestamped. Event building and analysis has to be done entirely in the software post-processing the data stream. A flexible and efficient event parser and the accompanying software system have been written entirely in Java. The design and implementation of the software are discussed along with experiences gained in running real-life experiments

  15. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  16. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  17. Design and simulation of a totally digital image system for medical image applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archwamety, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Totally Digital Imaging System (TDIS) is based on system requirements information from the Radiology Department, University of Arizona Health Science Center. This dissertation presents the design of this complex system, the TDIS specification, the system performance requirements, and the evaluation of the system using the computer-simulation programs. Discrete-event simulation models were developed for the TDIS subsystems, including an image network, imaging equipment, storage migration algorithm, data base archive system, and a control and management network. The simulation system uses empirical data generation and retrieval rates measured at the University Medical Center hospital. The entire TDIS system was simulated in Simscript II.5 using a VAX 8600 computer system. Simulation results show the fiber-optical-image network to be suitable; however, the optical-disk-storage system represents a performance bottleneck

  18. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  19. Radiologic total lung capacity measurement. Development and evaluation of a computer-based system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, G.W.; Mazzeo, J.; Borgstrom, M.; Hunter, T.B.; Newell, J.D.; Bjelland, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    The development of a computer-based radiologic total lung capacity (TLC) measurement system designed to be used by non-physician personnel is detailed. Four operators tested the reliability and validity of the system by measuring inspiratory PA and lateral pediatric chest radiographs with a Graf spark pen interfaced to a DEC VAX 11/780 computer. First results suggest that the ultimate goal of developing an accurate and easy to use TLC measurement system for non-physician personnel is attainable.

  20. Total robotic radical rectal resection with da Vinci Xi system: single docking, single phase technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Anup Sunil; Jatal, Sudhir; Saklani, Avanish

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to assess the advantages of Da Vinci Xi system in rectal cancer surgery. It also assesses the initial oncological outcomes after rectal resection with this system from a tertiary cancer center in India. Robotic rectal surgery has distinct advantages over laparoscopy. Total robotic resection is increasing following the evolution of hybrid technology. The latest Da Vinci Xi system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, USA) is enabled with newer features to make total robotic resection possible with single docking and single phase. Thirty-six patients underwent total robotic resection in a single phase and single docking. We used newer port positions in a straight line. Median distance from the anal verge was 4.5 cm. Median robotic docking time and robotic procedure time were 9 and 280 min, respectively. Median blood loss was 100 mL. One patient needed conversion to an open approach due to advanced disease. Circumferential resection margin and longitudinal resection margins were uninvolved in all other patients. Median lymph node yield was 10. Median post-operative stay was 7 days. There were no intra-operative adverse events. The latest Da Vinci Xi system has made total robotic rectal surgery feasible in single docking and single phase. With the new system, four arm total robotic rectal surgery may replace the hybrid technique of laparoscopic and robotic surgery for rectal malignancies. The learning curve for the new system appears to be shorter than anticipated. Early perioperative and oncological outcomes of total robotic rectal surgery with the new system are promising. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu; Chiu, Ming-Hung; Chen, Wei-Wu; Kao, Fu-Hsi; Chang, Rong-Seng

    2009-05-01

    A small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry is proposed. In this paper, a small displacement can be obtained only by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states for the total internal reflection effect. In order to improve the sensitivity, we increase the number of total internal reflections by using a parallelogram prism. The theoretical resolution of the method is better than 0.417 nm. The method has some merits, e.g., high resolution, high sensitivity, and real-time measurement. Also, its feasibility is demonstrated.

  2. Urinary Retention Associated with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.

  3. Employee Engagement Is Vital for the Successful Selection of a Total Laboratory Automation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hoi-Ying E; Wilkerson, Myra L

    2017-11-08

    To concretely outline a process for selecting a total laboratory automation system that connects clinical chemistry, hematology, and coagulation analyzers and to serve as a reference for other laboratories. In Phase I, a committee including the laboratory's directors and technologists conducted a review of 5 systems based on formal request for information process, site visits, and vendor presentations. We developed evaluation criteria and selected the 2 highest performing systems. In Phase II, we executed a detailed comparison of the 2 vendors based on cost, instrument layout, workflow design, and future potential. In addition to selecting a laboratory automation system, we used the process to ensure employee engagement in preparation for implementation. Selecting a total laboratory automation system is a complicated process. This paper provides practical guide in how a thorough selection process can be done with participation of key stakeholders. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  5. Final report of the environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer system technology demonstration at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    The environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRs system during drilling are compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  6. Final report of the environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer system technology demonstration at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    The environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRs system during drilling are compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples

  7. Predicting mercury retention in utility gas cleaning systems with SCR/ESP/FGD combinations or activated carbon injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Balaji; Naik, Chitralkumar V.; Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Fujiwara, Naoki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Chiba (Japan). Coal and Environment Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validations of the Hg speciation predicted by NEA's MercuRator trademark package with an American field test database for 28 full-scale utility gas cleaning systems. It emphasizes SCR/ESP/FGD combinations and activated carbon injection because these two applications present the best long- term prospects for Hg control by coal-burning utilities. Validations of the extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation across SCRs and of Hg retention in wet FGDs gave correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 for both units. A transport-based FGD analysis correctly assessed the potential for Hg{sup 0} re-emission in one limestone wet FGD. Among the ten stations in the SCR/ESP/FGD validations, the simulations correctly identified 3 of 4 of the relatively high Hg emissions rates; all four of the sites with moderate emissions rates; and both sites with the lowest emission rates. The validations for ACI applications demonstrated that Hg removals can be accurately estimated for the full domain of coal quality, LOI, and ACI rates for both untreated and brominated carbon sorbents. The predictions for ACI depict the test-to-test variations in most cases, and accurately describe the impact of ACI configuration and sorbent type. ACI into FFs is the most effective configuration, although ACI into ESPs often removes 90% or more Hg, provided that there is sufficient residence time and Cl in the flue gas. Brominated sorbents perform better than untreated carbons, unless SO{sub 3} condensation inhibits Hg adsorption.

  8. Effectiveness of an audience response system on orthodontic knowledge retention of undergraduate dental students--a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Nicholas; Popat, Hashmat; Richmond, Stephen; Farnell, Damian J J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of an audience response system (ARS) on knowledge retention of dental students and to gauge student perceptions of using the ARS. Randomised control study. School of Dentistry, Cardiff University. Seventy four second-year dental students were stratified by gender and randomised anonymously to one of two groups. One group received a lecture on orthodontic terminology and diagnosis in a traditional didactic format and the other received the same lecture integrated with ARS slides. Students completed an assessment of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) scored out of 20, before and immediately after the lecture. Students were also asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire on their perceptions of ARS. Both groups had statistically significant increases in MCQ scores post-lecture (ARS mean increase 3.6 SD2.0, 95% CI 2.2-3.5 and Didactic mean increase 2.9 SD2.3, 95% CI 2.8-4.3). A mixed-design analysis of variance showed that ARS led to an improved MCQ score (by 0.8 or 25%) compared to the didactic group, although this effect was not significant (P = 0.15). The effect of gender at baseline (P = 0.49), post-lecture (P = 0.73) and increase in MCQ score split by group (P = 0.46) was also not significant. Students reported that the ARS was easy to use, helped them engage with the lecture and encouraged them to work harder. The ARS did not lead to a significant increase in short-term orthodontic knowledge recall of students compared with didactic teaching. However, the use of ARS within orthodontic teaching could make lectures more interactive and engaging.

  9. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993.

  10. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S.; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993

  11. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k d ) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone

  12. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k{sub d}) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone.

  13. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  14. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  15. Integration of project management and systems engineering: Tools for a total-cycle environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacker, P.B.; Winston, R.

    1997-01-01

    An expedited environmental management process has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This process is one result of the Lockheed Martin commitment to the US Department of Energy to incorporate proven systems engineering practices with project management and program controls practices at the INEEL. Lockheed Martin uses a graded approach of its management, operations, and systems activities to tailor the level of control to the needs of the individual projects. The Lockheed Martin definition of systems engineering is: ''''Systems Engineering is a proven discipline that defines and manages program requirements, controls risk, ensures program efficiency, supports informed decision making, and verifies that products and services meet customer needs.'''' This paper discusses: the need for an expedited environmental management process; how the system was developed; what the system is; what the system does; and an overview of key components of the process

  16. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  17. Personnel protective equipment total-encapsulating suit decontamination study using shower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkhaus, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents an experimental evaluation, conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, of a shower-based decontamination station for personnel wearing a Level A, total- encapsulating, chemical-protective suit. The decontamination station is used by personnel when egressing a dry, dusty environment contaminated with transuranic radionuclides. This system has the potential to minimize the risk of spreading the contaminants to clean areas. Two types of shower systems were evaluated, a drench shower and a multi-nozzle shower. A total-encapsulating suit, worn by personnel. was contaminated with soil containing 239 Pu. Pre- shower and post-shower contamination samples were collected and visual observations were made to evaluate the ability of the shower system to remove the contaminated dust and to obtain baseline data useful in designing a shower-based personnel decontamination system. 12 figs., 7 tabs

  18. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  19. Measuring in-stream retention of copper by means of constant-rate additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, A; Guasch, H; Martí, E; Geiszinger, A

    2009-06-01

    Human practices entail inputs of nutrients and toxicants such as heavy metals to the fluvial ecosystems. While nutrient dynamics in fluvial ecosystems have been widely studied for over three decades, dynamics of toxicants still remain unclear. In this investigation, the nutrient spiraling concept and associated methodologies to quantify nutrient retention in streams were applied to study copper (Cu) dynamics in streams. The present study aimed to quantify total dissolved Cu retention using a simplified system of indoor channels colonized with fluvial biofilms. Cu retention was studied at sub-toxic concentrations to avoid negative/lethal effects on biota. In addition, Cu retention was compared with retention estimates of a macronutrient, phosphate (PO(4)(3-)), which has been widely studied within the context of the nutrient spiraling concept. The methodology used allowed a successful quantification of Cu and PO(4)(3-) retention. The results showed higher retention efficiency for PO(4)(3-) than for Cu. The biofilm played a key role in retaining both solutes. Although retention efficiency for both solutes was higher in the experiments with colonized substrata compared to uncolonized substrata, we found a positive relationship between uptake rate and chlorophyll-a only for PO(4)(3-). Finally, retention efficiency for both solutes was influenced by water discharge, showing lower retention efficiencies under higher flow conditions. These results suggest that the fate and toxic effects of copper on stream biota may be strongly influenced by the prevailing environmental conditions. Our results indicate that the experimental approach considered can provide new insights into the investigation of retention of toxic compounds in fluvial systems and their controlling mechanisms.

  20. Three-tiered integration of PACS and HIS toward next generation total hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Lee, D H; Choi, J W; Cho, H I; Kang, H S; Yeon, K M; Han, M C

    1998-01-01

    The Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) started a project to innovate the hospital information facilities. This project includes installation of high speed hospital network, development of new HIS, OCS (order communication system), RIS and PACS. This project aims at the implementation of the first total hospital information system by seamlessly integrating these systems together. To achieve this goal, we took three-tiered systems integration approach: network level, database level, and workstation level integration. There are 3 loops of networks in SNUH: proprietary star network for host computer based HIS, Ethernet based hospital LAN for OCS and RIS, and ATM based network for PACS. They are linked together at the backbone level to allow high speed communication between these systems. We have developed special communication modules for each system that allow data interchange between different databases and computer platforms. We have also developed an integrated workstation in which both the OCS and PACS application programs run on a single computer in an integrated manner allowing the clinical users to access and display radiological images as well as textual clinical information within a single user environment. A study is in progress toward a total hospital information system in SNUH by seamlessly integrating the main hospital information resources such as HIS, OCS, and PACS. With the three-tiered systems integration approach, we could successfully integrate the systems from the network level to the user application level.

  1. Toward a System of Total Quality Management: Applying the Deming Approach to the Education Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Willis B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the Petersburg (Virginia) Public Schools have moved away from a highly centralized organizational structure to a Total Quality Management system featuring shared decision making and school-based management practices. The district was guided by Deming's philosophy that all stakeholders should be involved in defining the level of products…

  2. Biomechanical comparison of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems in soft tissue-constrained shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; King, Frank K; Tashjian, Robert Z; Burks, Robert T

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined the biomechanics of isolated variables in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This study directly compared the composite performance of two reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems; each system was designed around either a medialized or a lateralized glenohumeral center of rotation. Seven pairs of shoulders were tested on a biomechanical simulator. Center of rotation, position of the humerus, passive and active range of motion, and force to abduct the arm were quantified. Native arms were tested, implanted with a Tornier Aequalis or DJO Surgical Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis (RSP), and then retested. Differences from the native state were then documented. Both systems shifted the center of rotation medially and inferiorly relative to native. Medial shifts were greater in the Aequalis implant (P .05). Both reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems exhibited adduction deficits, but the RSP implant deficit was smaller (P = .046 between implants). Both systems reduced forces to abduct the arm compared with native, although the Aequalis required more force to initiate motion from the resting position (P = .022). Given the differences in system designs and configurations, outcome variables were generally comparable. The RSP implant allowed slightly more adduction, had a more lateralized humeral position, and required less force to initiate elevation. These factors may play roles in limiting scapular notching, improving active external rotation by normalizing the residual rotator cuff length, and limiting excessive stress on the deltoid. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personnel Retention Policy and Force Quality: Twice-Passed Staff Sergeants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    61 Figure 20. Impact of Policy Changes on Average TIG . For Staff Sergeants, average TIG is reduced from 4.4 years to 3.8 years...with a 2P non-retention policy. Sergeants (E5) experience the only other significant reduction in average TIG , which goes from 3.2 years in the base...Warehouse TFRS Total Force Retention System TIG Time in Grade TIS Time in Service VSP Voluntary Separations Pay xxiii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In

  4. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  5. Regional application of a cropping systems simulation model: crop residue retention in maize production systems of Jalisco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.D.; White, J.W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bakker, E.J.; Rabbinge, R.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the productivity of smallholder maize production systems in Central America, increased attention must be paid to conserving soil and water resources. Various stakeholders from national agricultural research services (NARS), networks, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and research

  6. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  7. Bypassing and tightening of an underground water retention system in permeable karst: case study of the hydropower plant (HPP) Bribin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudella, Peter; Loges, Iryna; Mutschler, Thomas; Eiche, Elisabeth; Ruppert, Julia; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) joint research project in the karst area of Gunung Kidul, Province of Yogyakarta Special Region on the Java Island, Indonesia, an underground hydropower driven water extraction facility in the cave "Bribin" was developed using pump-as-turbine-driven systems for freshwater supply of the rural area. As numerous other caves in the Gunung Kidul area, Bribin is part of a ramified system of all-season water-bearing subterraneous rivers and natural caves in karstic limestone. The elliptic cross section of the cave was completely closed with a concrete barrage, thus creating a year-round underground retention volume with an operational storage level of approx. 15 m. This contribution highlights the geotechnical and geohydraulic challenges handled within the sub-project "Short-time and long-time behaviour of karst rock surrounding pressure-bearing underground water-retaining structures". One key to the feasibility of an artificial water retention scheme in a natural cave is to ensure the mechanical stability of the cave roof and sidewalls. The necessary geotechnical investigations are described. Another key to the effectiveness of such a water retention concept is the control and minimization of "lost" seepage water bypassing the barrage structure through the karst rock mass. Measures to monitor and to explain the seepage phenomena are presented as well as grouting efforts to minimize them. The limitations of improving the overall tightness will be discussed. Interpretation includes the use of analytical and numerical methods.

  8. The retention of radioactive noble gases in nuclear power stations by means of activated charcoal delay systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s off-gas systems using activated charcoal have been used in BWRs and PWRs to minimize the release of radioactive noble gases and the resultant exposure of the environment. In practice, the power-related noble gas emission rate achieved is 1-10 Ci/MWa in the case of BWRs and 0.1-1 Ci/MWa for PWRs. The systems are relatively simple in design and operators state that they are easy and cheap to run. The activated charcoal used shows no signs of becoming spent and, if protected from humidity, retains its full efficiency. On the basis of the information to hand it has never been necessary to replace it. Experience to date suggests that a charge of activated charcoal can last the life of the facility as a whole. All knowledge and experience gained so far indicate that off-gas systems using activated delay systems for BWR facilities are indispensable and must therefore be considered an integral part of such facilities. Capital expenditure amounts to approximately 1% of the total cost and should, therefore, not be unacceptable. In PWRs off-gas systems using pressure vessels as delay trains are in competition with off-gas systems based on activated charcoal delay systems. The activated charcoal systems have proved themselves and their use, which involves capital expenditure equivalent to approximately of 0.5% to the overall cost, can be recommended without reservation

  9. FY 1987 report on the result of the R and D of an automatic sewing system. Total system; 1987 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The paper summarized the R and D of a total system which is an element technology of an automatic sewing system by the Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association. As to the research on the apparel side, the following were studied: A. To clarify the effective field of element technology by dress type. B. To clarify the method of applying the system to small-/medium-size plants. C. To make study for automation so that it can be the basic data for experimental plants. To proceed with the study concretely, they asked 6 companies developing element technology to have the field study meeting. To study conditions for experimental plants from viewpoints of FA and FMS, the following studies were conducted concretely using a system model, based on the plant design law: A. Layout plan of the system model. B. Handling plan of the system model. C. Communication plan of the system model. D. Utility plan of the system model. E. Building plan. F. Study of the medium-term evaluation method. G. Study on the model plant. The above-mentioned study of the total system was proceeded with under the consideration of supporting the smooth progress of the developmental schedule of the automatic sewing system. (NEDO)

  10. Cubic systems with invariant affine straight lines of total parallel multiplicity seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Suba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the planar cubic differential systems with invariant affine straight lines of total parallel multiplicity seven. We classify these system according to their geometric properties encoded in the configurations of invariant straight lines. We show that there are only 17 different topological phase portraits in the Poincar\\'e disc associated to this family of cubic systems up to a reversal of the sense of their orbits, and we provide representatives of every class modulo an affine change of variables and rescaling of the time variable.

  11. Total Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System by CAD Assisted Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    Isolation tasks in a nuclear power station require high confidence and quick response particularly during the annual inspection when the equipment must be checked in a safe and planned manner. To realize these advanced isolation works, JAPC has developed TOtal Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System using CAD Assisted Technology. This system, TOMM-CAT, developed under the concept of 'User friendly advanced man-machine interface', allows planning and management to be performed on a CRT display. TOMM-CAT allows isolation tasks to be performed accurately and efficiently in conjunction with equipment information from the existing Job Order Management System, which runs on the station host computer. (author)

  12. Hybrid procedure for total laryngectomy with a flexible robot-assisted surgical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Patrick J; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Veit, Johannes A; Rotter, Nicole; Friedrich, Daniel T; Greve, Jens; Scheithauer, Marc O

    2017-06-01

    Total laryngectomy is a standard procedure in head-and-neck surgery for the treatment of cancer patients. Recent clinical experiences have indicated a clinical benefit for patients undergoing transoral robot-assisted total laryngectomy (TORS-TL) with commercially available systems. Here, a new hybrid procedure for total laryngectomy is presented. TORS-TL was performed in human cadavers (n = 3) using a transoral-transcervical hybrid procedure. The transoral approach was performed with a robotic flexible robot-assisted surgical system (Flex®) and compatible flexible instruments. Transoral access and visualization of anatomical landmarks were studied in detail. Total laryngectomy is feasible with a combined transoral-transcervical approach using the flexible robot-assisted surgical system. Transoral visualization of all anatomical structures is sufficient. The flexible design of the robot is advantageous for transoral surgery of the laryngeal structures. Transoral robot assisted surgery has the potential to reduce morbidity, hospital time and fistula rates in a selected group of patients. Initial clinical studies and further development of supplemental tools are in progress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews.

  14. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalichowski, Adrian; Eagle, Don G.; Burmeister, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalichowski, Adrian, E-mail: nalichoa@karmanos.org [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Eagle, Don G. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Burmeister, Jay [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  17. Design and Implementation of Remotely Monitoring System for Total Dissolved Solid in Baghdad Drinking Water Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdul-Ridha Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available he pollution of drinking water is a dangerous problem for the whole world, it can threaten the health of people and as people in developed society attaches more importance to environmental protection, it is of great research significance to intelligently and remotely monitoring the environment. Therefore in this paper, a remote water monitoring system for Baghdad drinking water system is suggested. The proposed system consists of data sensing and monitoring nodes at different locations in Baghdad to sensing and analyzes the data. These nodes are periodically measured Total Dissolved Solids (TDS. In case of measured value above TDS threshold which is 500 ppm, then an automated warning message will be sent to authorize persons in the maintenance center via Global Position System to take the correct action. This suggested structure has several advantages over traditional monitoring systems in terms of price, portability, reliability, applicability and takes a sample from a water tap in easy and real-time approach.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation index system of total supply capability in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linyao; Wu, Guilian; Yang, Jingyuan; Jia, Shuangrui; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Weiqing

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the lack of a comprehensive evaluation of the distribution network, based on the existing distribution network evaluation index system, combined with the basic principles of constructing the evaluation index, put forward a new evaluation index system of distribution network capacity. This paper is mainly based on the total supply capability of the distribution network, combining single index and various factors, into a multi-evaluation index of the distribution network, thus forming a reasonable index system, and various indicators of rational quantification make the evaluation results more intuitive. In order to have a comprehensive judgment of distribution network, this paper uses weights to analyse the importance of each index, verify the rationality of the index system through the example, it is proved that the rationality of the index system, so as to guide the direction of distribution network planning.

  19. Do autologous blood transfusion systems reduce allogeneic blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Aditya; Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok; Kekatpure, Aashay; Chen, Yongsheng; Nambi, G I; Tan, Junhao; Sonawane, Dhiraj; Pathak, Subodhkumar

    2017-09-01

    To study whether autologus blood transfusion systems reduce the requirement of allogneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. A comprehensive search of the published literature with PubMed, Scopus and Science direct database was performed. The following search terms were used: (total knee replacement) OR (total knee arthroplasty) OR (TKA) AND (blood transfusion) OR (autologous transfusion) OR (autologous transfusion system). Using search syntax, a total of 748 search results were obtained (79 from PubMed, 586 from Science direct and 83 from Scopus). Twenty-one randomized control trials were included for this meta-analysis. The allogenic transfusion rate in autologus blood transfusion (study) group was significantly lower than the control group (28.4 and 53.5 %, respectively) (p value 0.0001, Relative risk: 0.5). The median units of allogenic blood transfused in study control group and control group were 0.1 (0.1-3.0) and 1.3 (0.3-2.6), respectively. The median hospital stay in study group was 9 (6.7-15.6) days and control group was 8.7 (6.6-16.7) days. The median cost incurred for blood transfusion per patient in study and control groups was 175 (85.7-260) and 254.7 (235-300) euros, respectively. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the use of auto-transfusion systems is a cost-effective method to reduce the need for and quantity of allogenic transfusion in elective total knee arthroplasty. Level I.

  20. The hydrodynamic dust retention modeling process with a foam layer for open linear dynamic technological systems at construction industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical essence of the reducing air pollution hydrodynamic method by means of the foamy method as the most effective dust retention technology for open long sources at construction industry enterprises is presented in the article. The mathematical description of this technology has been performed, taking into account the physical and chemical properties of the dust and foam bubble, as well as the parameters of the return of dust particles to technological raw material due to various physical mechanisms for their capture. The obtained parametric dependence of dust retention efficiency provides the possibility of its predicted calculation as a resultant parameter for the considering technology, taking into account the interaction of dust with a foam layer.

  1. Effects of dispersal on total biomass in a patchy, heterogeneous system: analysis and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xin; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ni, Wei-Ming; Wang, G Geoff

    2015-01-01

    An intriguing recent result from mathematics is that a population diffusing at an intermediate rate in an environment in which resources vary spatially will reach a higher total equilibrium biomass than the population in an environment in which the same total resources are distributed homogeneously. We extended the current mathematical theory to apply to logistic growth and also showed that the result applies to patchy systems with dispersal among patches, both for continuous and discrete time. This allowed us to make specific predictions, through simulations, concerning the biomass dynamics, which were verified by a laboratory experiment. The experiment was a study of biomass growth of duckweed (Lemna minor Linn.), where the resources (nutrients added to water) were distributed homogeneously among a discrete series of water-filled containers in one treatment, and distributed heterogeneously in another treatment. The experimental results showed that total biomass peaked at an intermediate, relatively low, diffusion rate, higher than the total carrying capacity of the system and agreeing with the simulation model. The implications of the experiment to dynamics of source, sink, and pseudo-sink dynamics are discussed.

  2. Effects of diffusion on total biomass in heterogeneous continuous and discrete-patch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ming Ni, Wei; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models of populations on a system of two connected patches previously have shown that when the two patches differ in maximum growth rate and carrying capacity, and in the limit of high diffusion, conditions exist for which the total population size at equilibrium exceeds that of the ideal free distribution, which predicts that the total population would equal the total carrying capacity of the two patches. However, this result has only been shown for the Pearl-Verhulst growth function on two patches and for a single-parameter growth function in continuous space. Here, we provide a general criterion for total population size to exceed total carrying capacity for three commonly used population growth rates for both heterogeneous continuous and multi-patch heterogeneous landscapes with high population diffusion. We show that a sufficient condition for this situation is that there is a convex positive relationship between the maximum growth rate and the parameter that, by itself or together with the maximum growth rate, determines the carrying capacity, as both vary across a spatial region. This relationship occurs in some biological populations, though not in others, so the result has ecological implications.

  3. Metal-ion retention properties of water-soluble amphiphilic block copolymer in double emulsion systems (w/o/w) stabilized by non-ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Manuel; Rivas, Bernabé L

    2011-11-15

    Metal-ion retention properties of water-soluble amphiphilic polymers in presence of double emulsion were studied by diafiltration. Double emulsion systems, water-in-oil-in-water, with a pH gradient between external and internal aqueous phases were prepared. A poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSAM) solution at pH 6.0 was added to the external aqueous phase of double emulsion and by application of pressure a divalent metal-ion stream was continuously added. Metal-ions used were Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) at the same pH of polymer solution. According to our results, metal-ion retention is mainly the result of polymer-metal interaction. Interaction between PSMA and reverse emulsion globules is strongly controlled by amount of metal-ions added in the external aqueous phase. In addition, as metal-ion concentration was increased, a negative effect on polymer retention capacity and promotion of flocculation phenomena were produced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiseed liposomal drug delivery system using micelle gradient as driving force to improve amphiphilic drug retention and its anti-tumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Li, Caibin; Jin, Ya; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Zhiyu; Shaw, John P; Baguley, Bruce C; Wu, Zimei; Liu, Jianping

    2018-11-01

    To improve drug retention in carriers for amphiphilic asulacrine (ASL), a novel active loading method using micelle gradient was developed to fabricate the ASL-loaded multiseed liposomes (ASL-ML). The empty ML were prepared by hydrating a thin film with empty micelles. Then the micelles in liposomal compartment acting as 'micelle pool' drove the drug to be loaded after the outer micelles were removed. Some reasoning studies including critical micelle concentration (CMC) determination, influencing factors tests on entrapment efficiency (EE), structure visualization, and drug release were carried out to explore the mechanism of active loading, ASL location, and the structure of ASL-ML. Comparisons were made between pre-loading and active loading method. Finally, the extended drug retention capacity of ML was evaluated through pharmacokinetic, drug tissue irritancy, and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies. Comprehensive results from fluorescent and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, encapsulation efficiency (EE) comparison, and release studies demonstrated the formation of ML-shell structure for ASL-ML without inter-carrier fusion. The location of drug mainly in inner micelles as well as the superiority of post-loading to the pre-loading method , in which drug in micelles shifted onto the bilayer membrane was an additional positive of this delivery system. It was observed that the drug amphiphilicity and interaction of micelles with drug were the two prerequisites for this active loading method. The extended retention capacity of ML has been verified through the prolonged half-life, reduced paw-lick responses in rats, and enhanced tumor inhibition in model mice. In conclusion, ASL-ML prepared by active loading method can effectively load drug into micelles with expected structure and improve drug retention.

  5. Solutions to Burnout and Retention as Perceived by County Extension Agents of the Colorado State University Extension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Benge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored solutions to the issue of burnout and retention of Extension agents. Extension agents experience burnout for reasons such as long hours, stress, and organizational factors. As Extension administration addresses job satisfaction and performance of Extension employees, burnout and retention issues identified in this study can facilitate efforts to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide Extension program. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory was the theoretical framework for this study. Researchers used the constant-comparative method of analysis to identify recurring themes from the open-ended items of an online-administered survey. Twelve primary themes emerged, including (a compensation, (b hiring practices, (c promotion and advancement within Extension, (d organizational support regarding agent development, (e organizational support regarding administration, (f organizational support regarding colleagues, (g reporting, (h recognition, (i resources, (j personnel and staffing, (k evaluation of administration and specialists, and (l workload. Results suggest that Extension administration should focus on the maintenance factors of compensation, workload, and internal promotion and advancement, as well as motivating factors, to improve retention of Extension agents.

  6. Feasibility Study of Correcting Circuit Scheme for Automatic Control System of Total Air in Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations on dynamic characteristics automatic control system (ACS for total air consumption (TAC in a boiler with corrections for О2 and СО. From transition process point of view the ACS TAC with correction for СО is considered as the most optimum one as with disturbance attack on fuel expenditure so discharging beyond boiler furnace.

  7. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Dubiel, Russell F.

    2014-01-01

    The geological model for the development of the Total Petroleum Systems (TPSs) within the Paradox Basin formed the foundation of the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in the basin. Five TPSs were defined, of which three have known production and two are hypothetical. These TPSs are based on geologic elements of the basin and the potential development of Precambrian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian-Mississippian, and Cretaceous source rock intervals.

  8. Dependence of the quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshai, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence of the quasipotential of one-boson exchange on the total energy of the system is calculated. It is shown that despite the nonlocal form of the obtained quasipotential the three-dimensional equations for the waves function can be reduced by a partial expansion to one-dimensional equations. The influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behavior in the coordinate representation is discussed

  9. On the dependence of quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the framework of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence is calculated of the one-boson exchange potential on the total energy of the system. It is shown that in spite of a nonlocal form of the quasipotential obtained, three-dimensional equations for the wave function are reduced to one-dimensional ones by means of partial expansion. Influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behaviour in the coordinate representation is discussed

  10. Application of Viral Systems for Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Budi; Affandi, Umar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a relatively new algorithm inspired by the viral replication system called Viral Systems is used to solve the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness (SMTWTP). SMTWTP is a job scheduling problem which is one of classical combinatorial problems known as np-hard problems. This algorithm makes the process of finding solutions through neighborhood and mutation mechanism. The experiment was conducted to evaluate its performance. There are seven parameters which are required to tune in to find best solution. The experiment was implemented on data sets of 40 jobs, 50 jobs, and 100 jobs. The results show that the algorithm can solve 235 optimally out of 275 problems.

  11. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  12. Development and calibration of an accurate 6-degree-of-freedom measurement system with total station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Zhu, Jigui

    2016-01-01

    To meet the demand of high-accuracy, long-range and portable use in large-scale metrology for pose measurement, this paper develops a 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) measurement system based on total station by utilizing its advantages of long range and relative high accuracy. The cooperative target sensor, which is mainly composed of a pinhole prism, an industrial lens, a camera and a biaxial inclinometer, is designed to be portable in use. Subsequently, a precise mathematical model is proposed from the input variables observed by total station, imaging system and inclinometer to the output six pose variables. The model must be calibrated in two levels: the intrinsic parameters of imaging system, and the rotation matrix between coordinate systems of the camera and the inclinometer. Then corresponding approaches are presented. For the first level, we introduce a precise two-axis rotary table as a calibration reference. And for the second level, we propose a calibration method by varying the pose of a rigid body with the target sensor and a reference prism on it. Finally, through simulations and various experiments, the feasibilities of the measurement model and calibration methods are validated, and the measurement accuracy of the system is evaluated. (paper)

  13. Practical application of the KMS: 1) total system performance assessment - 16349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hitoshi; Hioki, Kazumasa; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Yang, Hongzhi; Takase, Hiroyasu; McKinley, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive total system performance assessment (PA) is a key component of the safety case. Within this PA there are a number of tasks that reuse specific models and datasets, together with associated knowledge base for the disposal system considered. These are tasks where recent developments in the Knowledge Management System by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA KMS) can lead to optimisation of procedures. This paper will outline the reformulation of PA as a Knowledge Management (KM) task, discuss application of KM technologies to PA tasks, and illustrate how these can be handled electronically in a 'Performance assessment All-In-one Report System (PAIRS)' utilising hyper-links and embedded tools to minimise duplication of material, ease Quality Assurance (QA) and facilitate the regular updating required in the Japanese programme. (authors)

  14. Data Analysis of Occupational Health and Safety Management and Total Quality Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, Total Quality Management, Occupational Health and Safety on the effects of the construction industry, building sites of Istanbul evaluated with the results of the survey of 25 firms. For Occupational Health and Safety program, walked healthy, active employees in her role increased and will increase the importance of education. Due to non-implementation of the OHS system in our country enough, work-related accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from these accidents is very high. Firms as a result of the analysis, an effective health and safety management system needs to be able to fulfill their responsibilities. This system is designated as OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System and the construction industry can be regarded as the imperatives.

  15. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05 and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  16. Using wide area differential GPS to improve total system error for precision flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Keith Warren

    Total System Error (TSE) refers to an aircraft's total deviation from the desired flight path. TSE can be divided into Navigational System Error (NSE), the error attributable to the aircraft's navigation system, and Flight Technical Error (FTE), the error attributable to pilot or autopilot control. Improvement in either NSE or FTE reduces TSE and leads to the capability to fly more precise flight trajectories. The Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) became operational for non-safety critical applications in 2000 and will become operational for safety critical applications in 2002. This navigation service will provide precise 3-D positioning (demonstrated to better than 5 meters horizontal and vertical accuracy) for civil aircraft in the United States. Perhaps more importantly, this navigation system, which provides continuous operation across large regions, enables new flight instrumentation concepts which allow pilots to fly aircraft significantly more precisely, both for straight and curved flight paths. This research investigates the capabilities of some of these new concepts, including the Highway-In-The Sky (HITS) display, which not only improves FTE but also reduces pilot workload when compared to conventional flight instrumentation. Augmentation to the HITS display, including perspective terrain and terrain alerting, improves pilot situational awareness. Flight test results from demonstrations in Juneau, AK, and Lake Tahoe, CA, provide evidence of the overall feasibility of integrated, low-cost flight navigation systems based on these concepts. These systems, requiring no more computational power than current-generation low-end desktop computers, have immediate applicability to general aviation flight from Cessnas to business jets and can support safer and ultimately more economical flight operations. Commercial airlines may also, over time, benefit from these new technologies.

  17. Sequential spectrofluorimetric determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel in a multicommuted flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sidnei G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morales-Rubio, Angel; Guardia, Miguel de la [Universidad de Valencia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rocha, Fabio R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    A new procedure for spectrofluorimetric determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel samples is presented. It is based on the oxidation of glycerol by periodate, forming formaldehyde, which reacts with acetylacetone, producing the luminescent 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine. A flow system with solenoid micro-pumps is proposed for solution handling. Free glycerol was extracted off-line from biodiesel samples with water, and total glycerol was converted to free glycerol by saponification with sodium ethylate under sonication. For free glycerol, a linear response was observed from 5 to 70 mg L{sup -1} with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, which corresponds to 2 mg kg{sup -1} in biodiesel. The coefficient of variation was 0.9% (20 mg L{sup -1}, n = 10). For total glycerol, samples were diluted on-line, and the linear response range was 25 to 300 mg L{sup -1}. The detection limit was 1.4 mg L{sup -1} (2.8 mg kg{sup -1} in biodiesel) with a coefficient of variation of 1.4% (200 mg L{sup -1}, n = 10). The sampling rate was ca. 35 samples h{sup -1} and the procedure was applied to determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel samples from soybean, cottonseed, and castor beans. (orig.)

  18. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; hide

    2014-01-01

    for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

  19. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Inder Fozdar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not been well researched. The main aim of our research, therefore, is to better understand and measure students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning. Our hope is to determine how this technology can be optimally used to improve student retention at Bachelor of Science programmes at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in India. For our research, we used a survey. Results of this survey clearly indicate that offering mobile learning could be one method improving retention of BSc students, by enhancing their teaching/ learning and improving the efficacy of IGNOU’s existing student support system. The biggest advantage of this technology is that it can be used anywhere, anytime. Moreover, as mobile phone usage in India explodes, it offers IGNOU easy access to a larger number of learners. This study is intended to help inform those who are seeking to adopt mobile learning systems with the aim of improving communication and enriching students’ learning experiences in their ODL institutions.

  20. HEALING THE ROMANIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM THROUGH THE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Dobrin

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, this method is used with success and covers a large area of industries, including the sanitary industry. European hospitals have used this method in order to rearrange, from the quality’s point of view, their departments and keep their customers and employees satisfied with the sanitary institution.Total Quality Management is a method that has the ability to convert the health care system, and to cover all “gaps” formed for several years. Starting with correcting as much as possible all the issues found in the health care system, will lead to the top and most important objective: focusing on patient and assuring him a significant level of satisfaction. The applicability of this method made is possible also for Romanian hospitals. Since our health care system is confronting daily with issues that affect the patients (some issues being even deadly, a change in the way the quality is perceived, is suitable for our hospitals and clinics.

  1. Development of a microcontroller-based automatic control system for the electrohydraulic total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H C; Khanwilkar, P S; Bearnson, G B; Olsen, D B

    1997-01-01

    An automatic physiological control system for the actively filled, alternately pumped ventricles of the volumetrically coupled, electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) was developed for long-term use. The automatic control system must ensure that the device: 1) maintains a physiological response of cardiac output, 2) compensates for an nonphysiological condition, and 3) is stable, reliable, and operates at a high power efficiency. The developed automatic control system met these requirements both in vitro, in week-long continuous mock circulation tests, and in vivo, in acute open-chested animals (calves). Satisfactory results were also obtained in a series of chronic animal experiments, including 21 days of continuous operation of the fully automatic control mode, and 138 days of operation in a manual mode, in a 159-day calf implant.

  2. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1986. Total system; 1986 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association was commissioned from the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on the 'development of an automatic sewing system'. The association has performed the research and development by dividing the subject into such component technologies as a total system and sewing preparation and processing technology, a sewing and assembling technology, a cloth handling technology, and a system management and control technology. This paper reports the achievement of the research and development on the total system. Such apparel side researches were performed on setting five kinds of trial wears to be said model wears, and on developing the component technologies by wear types. In addition, software research was carried out on automating five kinds of three-dimensional assembling and sewing works as the core works. With regard to codification required for the software, plans were established on apparel configuration codes, sewing specification codes, sewing device codes, and sewing attachment codes. Plans for indication symbols in the sewing works were also established. In the research based on FA and FMS, researches were executed on the facility plan in the system model and on an intermediate evaluation method, with information exchange being made with the apparel side researches. In researching the retrofit technologies, researches were performed to incorporate the principle of achieving the target. (NEDO)

  3. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1986. Total system; 1986 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association was commissioned from the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on the 'development of an automatic sewing system'. The association has performed the research and development by dividing the subject into such component technologies as a total system and sewing preparation and processing technology, a sewing and assembling technology, a cloth handling technology, and a system management and control technology. This paper reports the achievement of the research and development on the total system. Such apparel side researches were performed on setting five kinds of trial wears to be said model wears, and on developing the component technologies by wear types. In addition, software research was carried out on automating five kinds of three-dimensional assembling and sewing works as the core works. With regard to codification required for the software, plans were established on apparel configuration codes, sewing specification codes, sewing device codes, and sewing attachment codes. Plans for indication symbols in the sewing works were also established. In the research based on FA and FMS, researches were executed on the facility plan in the system model and on an intermediate evaluation method, with information exchange being made with the apparel side researches. In researching the retrofit technologies, researches were performed to incorporate the principle of achieving the target. (NEDO)

  4. Proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.H.; Kycia, T.F.

    1978-03-01

    A PWC system was developed and extensively used in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4 to 1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23 to 370 GeV/c). This ''electronic collimator'' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 nsec) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 msec) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hard-wired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events were read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure

  5. A proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.-H.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Mazur, P.O.; Michael, D.N.; Mockett, P.M.; Rahm, D.C.; Rubinstein, R.; Eartly, D.P.; Wehmann, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The authors have developed and extensively used a PWC system in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4-1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23-370 GeV/c). This 'electronic collimator' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 ns) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 ms) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hardwired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events was read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure. (Auth.)

  6. WILL THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BENEFIT SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joubert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The increased levels of competition experienced in recent times in the construction sector due to globalisation and the economic downturn highlighted the need for South African construction companies to be more competitive. This paper investigates the reasons for poor quality in the South African construction industry and whether the implementation of a Total Quality Management system in this industry will improve the situation.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die hoër vlakke van kompetisie wat gedurende die afgelope tydperk in die konstruksiebedryf ervaar is as gevolg van globalisering en die afswaai in die ekonomie, het die behoefte laat ontstaan dat Suid-Afrikaanse konstruksiemaatskappye meer mededingend moes raak. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die redes vir swak kwaliteit in die Suid-Afrikaanse konstruksiebedryf en of die implementering van ‘n Totale Kwaliteitsbestuurstelsel sal bydra om die situasie te verbeter.

  7. Efficiency and cost analysis of cell saver auto transfusion system in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet

    2014-06-01

    Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Retrospective comparative study. Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (pblood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  8. Total integrated performance excellence system (TIPES): A true north direction for a clinical trial support center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mike R; Parsons, Sherry; Boardman, Kathy D; Warren, Stuart R; Davis-Karim, Anne; Griffin, Kevin; Betterton, Jane A; Jones, Mark S; Johnson, Stanley H; Vertrees, Julia E; Hickey, Jan H; Salazar, Thelma P; Huang, Grant D

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the quality journey taken by a Federal organization over more than 20 years. These efforts have resulted in the implementation of a Total Integrated Performance Excellence System (TIPES) that combines key principles and practices of established quality systems. The Center has progressively integrated quality system frameworks including the Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) Framework and Criteria for Performance Excellence, ISO 9001, and the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3), as well as supplemental quality systems of ISO 15378 (packaging for medicinal products) and ISO 21500 (guide to project management) to systematically improve all areas of operations. These frameworks were selected for applicability to Center processes and systems, consistency and reinforcement of complimentary approaches, and international acceptance. External validations include the MBNQA, the highest quality award in the US, continued registration and conformance to ISO standards and guidelines, and multiple VA and state awards. With a focus on a holistic approach to quality involving processes, systems and personnel, this paper presents activities and lessons that were critical to building TIPES and establishing the quality environment for conducting clinical research in support of Veterans and national health care.

  9. Total integrated performance excellence system (TIPES: A true north direction for a clinical trial support center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike R. Sather

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality journey taken by a Federal organization over more than 20 years. These efforts have resulted in the implementation of a Total Integrated Performance Excellence System (TIPES that combines key principles and practices of established quality systems. The Center has progressively integrated quality system frameworks including the Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA Framework and Criteria for Performance Excellence, ISO 9001, and the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3, as well as supplemental quality systems of ISO 15378 (packaging for medicinal products and ISO 21500 (guide to project management to systematically improve all areas of operations. These frameworks were selected for applicability to Center processes and systems, consistency and reinforcement of complimentary approaches, and international acceptance. External validations include the MBNQA, the highest quality award in the US, continued registration and conformance to ISO standards and guidelines, and multiple VA and state awards. With a focus on a holistic approach to quality involving processes, systems and personnel, this paper presents activities and lessons that were critical to building TIPES and establishing the quality environment for conducting clinical research in support of Veterans and national health care.

  10. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  11. A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Geibel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

    Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control.

    First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months.

    After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

  12. A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics. Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control. First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months. After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

  13. Total Data Management System for the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, J.; Coignaud, G.; Perot, J.P.; Fournier, W.; Silvain, B.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants at La Hague, France, generates considerable data processing requirements. To meet these requirements, a Total Data Management System (TDMS) has been designed and installed to operate the biggest Ethernet industrial network in Europe. This network, called Haguenet, interconnects a large number of computers and user terminals. The TDMS' main operational functions are plant operation and production data management, maintenance data management, technical documents management and computer-aided design (CAD). Extensive experience was gained through the design and operation of the TDMS at La Hague. (author)

  14. A multilayered integrated sensor for three-dimensional, micro total analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jing; Song, Fuchuan; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a layer-by-layer integration approach of different functional devices and demonstrates a heterogeneously integrated optical sensor featuring a micro-ring resonator and a high-speed thin-film InGaAs-based photodetector co-integrated with a microfluidic droplet generation device. A thin optical device structure allows a seamless integration with other polymer-based devices on a silicon platform. The integrated sensor successfully demonstrates its transient measurement capability of two-phase liquid flow in a microfluidic droplet generation device. The proposed approach represents an important step toward fully integrated micro total analysis systems. (paper)

  15. Effect of TOC [total organic carbon] on a PWR secondary cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gau, J.Y.; Oung, J.C.; Wang, T.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) during the wet layup of the steam generator was a problem in PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The results of surveys of TOC in PWR secondary cooling water systems had shown that the impurity of hydrazine and the bacteria were the main reasons that increase TOC. These do not have a corrosion effect on Inconel 600 and carbon steel when the secondary cooling water containing the TOC is below 200 ppb. But the anaerobic bacteria from the steam generator in wet layup will increase corrosion rate of carbon steel and crevice corrosion of Inconel 600. (author)

  16. Analysing patient queue system in an imaging department: a step toward total quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pratik; Pandey, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Medical imaging has become an inevitable part of any diagnosis and/or management of the disease. This has put tremendous work-load on the medical imaging machines. The crowd of waiting patients at any busy imaging centre or rooms has become a common scene. This is especially true for any Government hospital or medical college in India since they cater to bulk of patients. As a part of total quality management we attempted to record, investigate, analyse and suggest on the state of patients' queue system at radiological imaging rooms

  17. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  18. Placement of the stemless humeral component in the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Ghislain F; van Riet, Roger P; Jansen, Nick; Declercq, Geert

    2010-12-01

    Humeral implant design in shoulder arthroplasty has evolved over the years. The third generation shoulder prostheses have an anatomic humeral stem that replicates the 3-dimensional parameters of the proximal humerus. The overall complication rate has decreased as a result of these changes in implant design. In contrast, the rate of periprosthetic humeral fractures has increased. To avoid stem-related complications while retaining the advantages of the third generation of shoulder implants, the stemless total evolutive shoulder system has been developed. The indications, the surgical technique, and the complications of this humeral implant in shoulder arthroplasty will be described.

  19. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  20. The radioimmunotoxicological and radiogenotoxicological effect induced by 134Cs retention in the whole body and skeleton and germ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Xia Fen; Yang Weidong

    1993-05-01

    A fitted equation to describe the retention of 134 Cs in whole body is obtained by a whole body counter. The equation consists of two half-life components, the fast component is T 1/2 = 0.07 d and the slow component is T 1/2 = 16.14 d. Two fitted equations describing the retention of 134 Cs in skeleton and testes are also introduced. The T 1/2 in skeleton is 5.73 d and in testes is 5.21 d. The results of investigating radioimmunotoxicological effect induced by 134 Cs show that the inhibition of thymus cells is higher than bone marrow cells, the spleen T-lymphocytes is more sensitive to 134 Cs than B-lymphocytes and lymphocytes of peripheral immune organ are more sensitive to radiation than central immune cells and thymus cells. The study of radiogenotoxicological effect induced by 134 Cs shows that the chromosome aberration frequencies and PCE micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells are significantly high, it can induce chromosome aberrations of spermatogonia and increases the abnormality of sperm. The relations between injected dose and abnormalities can be expressed by power functions

  1. Total Quality Management of Information System for Quality Assessment of Pesantren Using Fuzzy-SERVQUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizah, Arbiati; Syafei, Wahyul Amien; Isnanto, R. Rizal

    2018-02-01

    This research proposed a model combining an approach of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Fuzzy method of Service Quality (SERVQUAL) to asses service quality. TQM implementation was as quality management orienting on customer's satisfaction by involving all stakeholders. SERVQUAL model was used to measure quality service based on five dimensions such as tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Fuzzy set theory was to accommodate subjectivity and ambiguity of quality assessment. Input data consisted of indicator data and quality assessment aspect. Input data was, then, processed to be service quality assessment questionnaires of Pesantren by using Fuzzy method to get service quality score. This process consisted of some steps as follows : inputting dimension and questionnaire data to data base system, filling questionnaire through system, then, system calculated fuzzification, defuzzification, gap of quality expected and received by service receivers, and calculating each dimension rating showing quality refinement priority. Rating of each quality dimension was, then, displayed at dashboard system to enable users to see information. From system having been built, it could be known that tangible dimension had the highest gap, -0.399, thus it needs to be prioritized and gets evaluation and refinement action soon.

  2. Control of total voltage in the large distributed RF system of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, Edmond

    1995-01-01

    The LEP RF system is made up of a large number of independent RF units situated around the ring near the interaction points. These have different available RF voltages depending on their type and they may be inactive or unable to provide full voltage for certain periods. The original RF voltage control system was based on local RF unit voltage function generators pre-loaded with individual tables for energy ramping. This was replaced this year by a more flexible global RF voltage control system. A central controller in the main control room has direct access to the units over the LEP TDM system via multiplexers and local serial links. It continuously checks the state of all the units and adjusts their voltages to maintain the desired total voltage under all conditions. This voltage is distributed among the individual units to reduce the adverse effects of RF voltage asymmetry around the machine as far as possible. The central controller is a VME system with 68040 CPU and real time multitasking operating syste...

  3. Uniform discretizations: a quantization procedure for totally constrained systems including gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Miguel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Di Bartolo, Cayetano [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Aptdo. 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Gambini, Rodolfo [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    We present a new method for the quantization of totally constrained systems including general relativity. The method consists in constructing discretized theories that have a well defined and controlled continuum limit. The discrete theories are constraint-free and can be readily quantized. This provides a framework where one can introduce a relational notion of time and that nevertheless approximates in a well defined fashion the theory of interest. The method is equivalent to the group averaging procedure for many systems where the latter makes sense and provides a generalization otherwise. In the continuum limit it can be shown to contain, under certain assumptions, the 'master constraint' of the 'Phoenix project'. It also provides a correspondence principle with the classical theory that does not require to consider the semiclassical limit.

  4. Feature, Event, and Process Screening and Scenario Development for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.; Barr, G.; Burch, P.; Freeze, G.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Swift, P.

    1999-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of post-closure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited

  5. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible...

  6. System overview of the fully implantable destination therapy--ReinHeart-total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Benedikt; Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Graef, Felix; Kuipers, Kristin; Laumen, Marco; Guersoy, Dilek; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the lack of suitable allografts, the demand for long-term mechanical circulatory support in patients with biventricular end-stage heart failure is rising. Currently available Total Artificial Heart (TAH) systems consist of pump units with only limited durability, percutaneous tubes and bulky external equipment that limit the quality of life. Therefore we are focusing on the development of a fully implantable, highly durable destination therapy total artificial heart. The ReinHeart-TAH system consists of a passively filling pump unit driven by a low-wear linear drive between two artificial ventricles, an implantable control unit and a compliance chamber. The TAH is powered by a transcutaneous energy transmission system. The flow distribution inside the ventricles was analysed by fluid structure interaction simulation and particle image velocimetry measurements. Along with durability tests, the hydrodynamic performance and flow balance capability were evaluated in a mock circulation loop. Animal trials are ongoing. Based on fluid structure interaction simulation and particle image velocimetry, blood stagnation areas have been significantly reduced. In the mock circulation loop the ReinHeart-TAH generated a cardiac output of 5 l/min at an operating frequency of 120 bpm and an aortic pressure of 120/80 mmHg. The highly effective preload sensitivity of the passively filling ventricles allowed the sensorless integration of the Frank Starling mechanism. The ReinHeart-TAH effectively replaced the native heart's function in animals for up to 2 days. In vitro and in vivo testing showed a safe and effective function of the ReinHeart-TAH system. This has the potential to become an alternative to transplantation. However, before a first-in-man implant, chronic animal trials still have to be completed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The open-quotes weeps modelclose quotes now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive

  8. Biosphere Modeling and Analyses in Support of Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappen, J. J.; Wasiolek, M. A.; Wu, D. W.; Schmitt, J. F.; Smith, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the obligations of and the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In 1985, the EPA promulgated regulations that included a definition of performance assessment that did not consider potential dose to a member of the general public. This definition would influence the scope of activities conducted by DOE in support of the total system performance assessment program until 1995. The release of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the technical basis for a Yucca Mountain-specific standard provided the impetus for the DOE to initiate activities that would consider the attributes of the biosphere, i.e. that portion of the earth where living things, including man, exist and interact with the environment around them. The evolution of NRC and EPA Yucca Mountain-specific regulations, originally proposed in 1999, was critical to the development and integration of biosphere modeling and analyses into the total system performance assessment program. These proposed regulations initially differed in the conceptual representation of the receptor of interest to be considered in assessing performance. The publication in 2001 of final regulations in which the NRC adopted standard will permit the continued improvement and refinement of biosphere modeling and analyses activities in support of assessment activities

  9. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The ''weeps model'' now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive

  10. The difference of tensile bond strength between total and self etch adhesive systems in dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selly Yusalina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Total etch adhesive system has been widely used in teeth conservation area as an adhesive agent before implicating composite resin restoration agent. The aim of this research is to prove the difference of tensile bond strength between total etch (Single Bond and self etch adhesive system (Adper prompt L-Pop on dentin surface in vitro. The extracted and non carries maxillary premolar teeth were used in this research and were divided into 2 groups. The first group comprised 15 specimen teeth etched in phosphoric acid and was applicated with the Single Bond adhesive agent. The second group comprised 15 specimen teeth, applicated with the Adper Prompt-L-Pop. The composite resin (Z 350, 3M was applied incrementally and each of the layers was rayed for 20 seconds. The specimens were stored in physiologic solution before they were tested. Tensile bond strength was measured by LRX Plus Lloyd Instrument, with 1 N load and 1 mm/minute speed, and the measurement result was in Mpa unit. The result was evaluated statistically by the Student t-test with α = 0.05. Single Bond (the 5th generation showed a better bond strength compared to the Adper Prompt-L-Pop (the 6th generation.

  11. Biosphere Modeling and Analyses in Support of Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeff Tappen; M.A. Wasiolek; D.W. Wu; J.F. Schmitt

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the obligations of and the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In 1985, the EPA promulgated regulations that included a definition of performance assessment that did not consider potential dose to a member of the general public. This definition would influence the scope of activities conducted by DOE in support of the total system performance assessment program until 1995. The release of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the technical basis for a Yucca Mountain-specific standard provided the impetus for the DOE to initiate activities that would consider the attributes of the biosphere, i.e. that portion of the earth where living things, including man, exist and interact with the environment around them. The evolution of NRC and EPA Yucca Mountain-specific regulations, originally proposed in 1999, was critical to the development and integration of biosphere modeling and analyses into the total system performance assessment program. These proposed regulations initially differed in the conceptual representation of the receptor of interest to be considered in assessing performance. The publication in 2001 of final regulations in which the NRC adopted standard will permit the continued improvement and refinement of biosphere modeling and analyses activities in support of assessment activities

  12. Impact Of Health Care Delivery System Innovations On Total Cost Of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin W; Bir, Anupa; Freeman, Nikki L B; Koethe, Benjamin C; Cohen, Julia; Day, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Using delivery system innovations to advance health care reform continues to be of widespread interest. However, it is difficult to generalize about the success of specific types of innovations, since they have been examined in only a few studies. To gain a broader perspective, we analyzed the results of forty-three ambulatory care programs funded by the first round of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation's Health Care Innovations Awards. The innovations' impacts on total cost of care were estimated by independent evaluators using multivariable difference-in-differences models. Through the first two years, most of the innovations did not show a significant effect on total cost of care. Using meta-regression, we assessed the effects on costs of five common components of these innovations. Innovations that used health information technology or community health workers achieved the greatest cost savings. Savings were also relatively large in programs that targeted clinically fragile patients-clinically complex populations at risk for disease progression. While the magnitude of these effects was often substantial, none achieved conventional levels of significance in our analyses. Meta-analyses of a larger number of delivery system innovations are needed to more clearly establish their potential for patient care cost savings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Development of a totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Barton, V.C.; Brand, H.R.; Neufeld, K.W.; Bowman, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is described. It has a number of unique features not available on current commercial instruments, including: complete computer control of source and all ion axial potentials; use of dual computers for data acquisition and data processing; and capability for self-adaptive control of experiments. Furthermore, it has been possible to produce this instrument at a cost significantly below that of commercial instruments. This triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been constructed using components commercially available from several different manufacturers. The source is a standard Hewlett-Packard 5985B GC/MS source. The two quadrupole analyzers and the quadrupole CAD region contain Balzers QMA 150 rods with Balzers QMG 511 rf controllers for the analyzers and a Balzers QHS-511 controller for the CAD region. The pulsed-positive-ion-negative-ion-chemical ionization (PPINICI) detector is made by Finnigan Corporation. The mechanical and electronics design were developed at LLNL for linking these diverse elements into a functional TQMS as described. The computer design for total control of the system is unique in that two separate LSI-11/23 minicomputers and assorted I/O peripherals and interfaces from several manufacturers are used. The evolution of this design concept from totally computer-controlled instrumentation into future self-adaptive or ''expert'' systems for instrumental analysis is described. Operational characteristics of the instrument and initial results from experiments involving the analysis of the high explosive HMX (1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazacyclooctane) are presented

  14. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1985. Total system; 1985 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes the total system, extracted from the achievement report for fiscal 1985 on developing an automatic sewing system. In the study of automating the production system by apparel types, basic and multiple type developments were studied on five representative types of apparels by fiscal 1984. As a result, fiscal 1985 has made it possible to narrow the trial wear down to one type which incorporates characteristics of the five apparel types. It was made possible to focus the study on this type to perform the automation study on the sewing system. Automation procedure was made clear step by step on the series of works including collar fitting, sleeve fitting, side matching, and hem processing as the three-dimensional sewing system being the core technology in the automatic sewing system. Studies from the hardware aspect were executed in the process formation utilizing the new technologies. In the automation study from the production system point of view, the FMS and FA technologies were utilized, and device control was advanced by using NC as the base. In order to complete the study, networking of information and software are important. A simulation program was prepared for the optimized sewing process mixed flexible flow, which incorporates multi-functional stations. (NEDO)

  15. FERTILITY AND TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON IN OXISOL UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN SAVANNAH OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Araújo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of natural resources for food production has ruptured the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. In this context, this study aimed to quantify chemical attributes of Oxisol under five management systems: 1 = conventional tillage (CT; 2 = no-tillage system with millet (NT + M; 3 = crop–livestock integration system with soybean (CL + S; 4 = CL with pasture (CL + P; and 5 = native forest (NF. The following soil depths were studied: 0.00–0.05, 0.05–0.10, and 0.10–0.20 m; and the following traits were quantified: total organic carbon (TOC, soil acidity (pH, soil potential acidity (H + Al and soil fertility (Ca, Mg, P and K. All treatments modified soil chemical attributes in comparison to NF (p <0.01. The highest phosphorus and potassium levels were observed under CL + S at all evaluated depths. The NT + M treatment increased Ca and Mg levels in layers 0.0–0.05 and 0.10–0.20, whereas CL + S increased base addition (BA, cation exchange capacity (CEC and  base saturation (BS levels in layer 0.05–0.10 m. Finally, both CL systems improved soil chemical quality, increased surface TOC and carbon stock in depth.

  16. A Physical Heart Failure Simulation System Utilizing the Total Artificial Heart and Modified Donovan Mock Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Betterton, Edward; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J

    2017-07-01

    With the growth and diversity of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) systems entering clinical use, a need exists for a robust mock circulation system capable of reliably emulating and reproducing physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states for use in MCS training and inter-device comparison. We report on the development of such a platform utilizing the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and a modified Donovan Mock Circulation System, capable of being driven at normal and reduced output. With this platform, clinically relevant heart failure hemodynamics could be reliably reproduced as evidenced by elevated left atrial pressure (+112%), reduced aortic flow (-12.6%), blunted Starling-like behavior, and increased afterload sensitivity when compared with normal function. Similarly, pressure-volume relationships demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to afterload and decreased Starling-like behavior in the heart failure model. Lastly, the platform was configured to allow the easy addition of a left ventricular assist device (HeartMate II at 9600 RPM), which upon insertion resulted in improvement of hemodynamics. The present configuration has the potential to serve as a viable system for training and research, aimed at fostering safe and effective MCS device use. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Toward the Turkish National Registry System: A Prevalence Study of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Erman; Gursoy, Safa; Akkaya, Mustafa; Ugurlu, Mahmut; Koksal, Ismet; Bozkurt, Murat

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the data obtained from a retrospective examination of the records of the existing reimbursement system and through the identification of gaps in the data to create a foundation for a reliable, descriptive national registry system for our country. The Social Security Institution Medical Messenger (MEDULA) records were scanned for the years 2010-2014, and the numbers of total knee arthroplasty applied for a diagnosis of gonarthrosis and the numbers of revision knee arthroplasty were recorded for the country in general. The patients were classified according to age, gender, and bilateral or unilateral surgery. The institution where the surgery was applied, the geographic region and the province were also recorded. A total of 283,400 primary and 9900 revision knee arthroplasty operations were applied in Turkey between 2010 and 2014. Numbers were recorded for each year, and there was found to be an increase between years. For primary knee arthroplasty, the female:male ratio was 67 of 33, and surgery was applied most often between the ages of 60-69 years. Both types of surgery were determined to have been applied most often in second-stage state hospitals. Geographically, both types of surgery were applied most in the Marmara region, with the highest frequency of primary knee arthroplasty in Istanbul and the highest frequency of revision surgery in Ankara. The data obtained from this study will contribute to the creation of the basis for a National Registry System and thereby define more scientific treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  19. Scoring the full extent of periodontal disease in the dog: development of a total mouth periodontal score (TMPS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin E; Laster, Larry; Shofer, Frances; Miller, Bonnie

    2008-09-01

    The development of a total mouth periodontal scoring system is described. This system uses methods to score the full extent of gingivitis and periodontitis of all tooth surfaces, weighted by size of teeth, and adjusted by size of dog.

  20. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  1. Cost-Effective Mobile-Based Healthcare System for Managing Total Joint Arthroplasty Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsaki, Marina; Koutras, George; Heep, Hansjoerg; Koutras, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Long-term follow-up care after total joint arthroplasty is essential to evaluate hip and knee arthroplasty outcomes, to provide information to physicians and improve arthroplasty performance, and to improve patients' health condition. In this paper, we aim to improve the communication between arthroplasty patients and physicians and to reduce the cost of follow-up controls based on mobile application technologies and cloud computing. We propose a mobile-based healthcare system that provides cost-effective follow-up controls for primary arthroplasty patients through questions about symptoms in the replaced joint, questionnaires (WOMAC and SF-36v2) and the radiological examination of knee or hip joint. We also perform a cost analysis for a set of 423 patients that were treated in the University Clinic for Orthopedics in Essen-Werden. The estimation of healthcare costs shows significant cost savings (a reduction of 63.67% for readmission rate 5%) in both the University Clinic for Orthopedics in Essen-Werden and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia when the mobile-based healthcare system is applied. We propose a mHealth system to reduce the cost of follow-up assessments of arthroplasty patients through evaluation of diagnosis, self-monitoring, and regular review of their health status.

  2. La influencia de factores sistémicos en el uso de las prótesis totales Influence of systemic factors in use of total prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Andrade Lima Chaves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la posible influencia de las enfermedades sistémicas y de los medicamentos utilizados para su tratamiento en la cavidad bucal, el presente estudio se propone realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema, enfatizando la influencia de estos factores en el uso de las prótesis totales (PTs, con el fin de proporcionar al cirujano-dentista un mejor conocimiento científico para la realización de ese tipo de tratamiento rehabilitador.According to the possible influence of systemic diseases and of drugs used for its treatment in buccal cavity, the aim of present study is to carry out a review of literature on this topic, emphasizing on influence of these factors on use of the total prostheses (PTs, allowing to surgeon-dentist a better scientific knowledge to creation of this type of rehabilitation treatment.

  3. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  4. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Henzler, Dietrich; Tacke, Josef

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied (γ = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  5. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  6. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the 6He +58Ni system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Gasques, L.; Morais, M. C.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.; Scarduelli, V.; Condori, R. Pampa; Leistenschneider, E.

    2014-11-01

    Elastic scattering measurements of 6He + 58Ni system have been performed at the laboratory energy of 21.7 MeV. The 6He secondary beam was produced by a transfer reaction 9Be (7Li , 6He ) and impinged on 58Ni and 197Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS, installed in the Pelletron Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The elastic angular distribution was obtained in the angular range from 15° to 80° in the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using a hybrid potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  7. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ''dry-out'', and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. μTAS (micro total analysis systems) for the high-throughput measurement of nanomaterial solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantra, R; Jarman, J

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus in the nanoecotoxicology community that better analytical tools i.e. faster and more accurate ones, are needed for the physicochemical characterisation of nanomaterials in environmentally/biologically relevant media. In this study, we introduce the concept of μTAS (Micro Total Analysis Systems), which was a term coined to encapsulate the integration of laboratory processes on a single microchip. Our focus here is on the use of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) with conductivity detection microchip and how this may be used for the measurement of dissolution of metal oxide nanomaterials. Our preliminary results clearly show promise in that the device is able to: a) measure ionic zinc in various ecotox media with high selectivity b) track the dynamic dissolution events of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterial when dispersed in fish medium.

  9. Outcome of total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Min Su; Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the result of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for avascular necrosis of the femur head (AVNFH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Nineteen THAs were performed on 13 patients with SLE. The results of these patients were compared with the results of the control group (19 patients) who had THR due to AVNFH with none-SLE conditions. The Harris hip score increased from a preoperative average of 65.3 points to 94.9 at the most recent follow-up. In the control group, the mean HHS was 67.2 preoperatively and 96.1 postoperatively at the last follow-up. No significant difference was found between SLE patients and non-SLE patients who underwent hip arthroplasty. In conclusion, THA is an acceptable treatment for achieving functional improvement in patients who had SLE and AVNFH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Total hip arthroplasty outcomes assessment using functional and radiographic scores to compare canine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, D; Broun, H C; Black, A P; Preston, C A; Anderson, G I

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective multi-centre study was carried out in order to compare outcomes between cemented and uncemented total hip arthoplasties (THA). A quantitative orthopaedic outcome assessment scoring system was devised in order to relate functional outcome to a numerical score, to allow comparison between treatments and amongst centres. The system combined a radiographic score and a clinical score. Lower scores reflect better outcomes than higher scores. Consecutive cases of THA were included from two specialist practices between July 2002 and December 2005. The study included 46 THA patients (22 uncemented THA followed for 8.3 +/- 4.7M and 24 cemented THA for 26.0 +/- 15.7M) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 3.3 years at surgery. Multi-variable linear and logistical regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age at surgery, surgeon, follow-up time, uni- versus bilateral disease, gender and body weight. The differences between treatment groups in terms of functional scores or total scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Radiographic scores were different between treatment groups. However, these scores were usually assessed within two months of surgery and proved unreliable predictors of functional outcome (p > 0.05). The findings reflect relatively short-term follow-up, especially for the uncemented group, and do not include clinician-derived measures, such as goniometry and thigh circumference. Longer-term follow-up for the radiographic assessments is essential. A prospective study including the clinician-derived outcomes needs to be performed in order to validate the outcome instrument in its modified form.

  11. Total integrated energy system (TIES) feasibility analysis for the downtown redevelopment project, Pasadena, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the most desirable method of serving the energy needs of a commercial development to be constructed in Pasadena, California. The factors that determine maximum desirability consist of the following: (1) maximum economic benefit to the energy user and to the surrounding community; (2) minimum usage of energy by both the energy user and the surrounding community; and (3) minimum introduction of pollutants into the community. The methods studied were the Total Integrated Energy System (TIES) concept in several configurations. The TIES concept differs from the ''total energy concept'' in the respect that the electric power output of the local power generation plant goes into the utility company distribution grid, rather than to the user. The user is served power from the grid, as with a conventional system, but also receives heating and cooling media produced from power generation by-product heat from the TIES plant. The effect of this concept is that a very large source-sink for electric energy is provided by the utility company grid. This, in turn, permits the plant to operate in response to instantaneous thermal demand, rather than instantaneous power demand. No auxiliary firing is ever required. No waste of unneeded by-product energy to atmosphere ever occurs. Balance is achieved by either delivering excess power into the grid or by withdrawing power production deficiency from the grid. Near-optimum efficiency is achieved during all operating conditions. There is no need whatsoever for the power-generating plant to be sized to meet the power demand, since it seldom, if ever, tracks the power demand. Sizing of the electric generation is solely a function of economics and the demand for waste heat.

  12. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model

  13. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of anaerobic acidogenesis by integrating an electrochemical system into an acidogenic reactor: effect of hydraulic retention times (HRT) and role of bacteria and acidophilic methanogenic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, an acidogenic reactor packed with a pair of Fe-carbon electrodes (R1) was developed to enhance anaerobic acidogenesis of organic wastewater at short hydraulic retention times. The results indicated that the acidogenic efficiency was improved by settling a bio-electrochemical system. When hydraulic retention times decreased from 12 to 3h, R1 showed 18.9% more chemical oxygen demand removal and 13.8% more acidification efficiency. After cutting off the voltage of R1, the COD removal decreased by about 5%. Coupling of Fe(2+) leaching and electric field accelerated the hydrolysis of polysaccharide, relieving its accumulation in the sludge phase. Several acidophilic methanogenic Archaea such as Methanosarcina sp. were enriched in R1, which was favorable for consuming organic acids and preventing excessive pH decline. Thus, the developed acidogenic reactor with Fe-carbon electrodes is expected to be potentially effective and useful for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of using an audience response system on learning, motivation and information retention in the orthodontic teaching of undergraduate dental students: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Harmeet Kaur; Allen, Mark; Kang, Jing; Bates, Claire; Hodge, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    New methods of teaching and learning are constantly being sought in the adult learning environment. Audience Response Systems (ARS) have been used in many different learning environments, especially in the field of medical education. The objective of this investigation was to ascertain the effect of ARS use in undergraduate teaching in a UK dental school. A cross-over clustered randomized educational trial. Leeds Dental Institute. Year 4 undergraduate dental students in orthodontics. Students at Leeds Dental Institute were taught two different topics within the curriculum to test the use of ARS in a cross-over trial. A questionnaire was delivered to the test (ARS) and control (non-ARS) groups. The response rate to the questionnaires was 89·5% (test group) and 82·9% (control group). The ARS enabled students to perform better as shown by knowledge retention (P = 0·013). Students found the seminar more interesting (P = 0·013), easier to concentrate (P = 0·025) and easier to participate in (P = 0·020) when ARS was used. When ARS was used, students were more able to answer questions (P<0·0001), were more likely to prepare for the seminar (P<0·0001) and significantly preferred using ARS (P<0·0001). ARS was found to significantly improve student concentration and participation in small group seminar teaching and significantly improved knowledge retention. ARS may be useful in facilitating orthodontic teaching in the future.

  16. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  17. Total energy supply-system for manned spaceship using nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Honma, Yuji; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the deep space, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc in the future, a spacecraft that will be driven by nuclear power should be developed. At present, satellites or space probes have been using mainly electric source of chemical battery, fuel battery, solar battery, and RI battery. However, considering highly developed and extensive space exploration in the future, it is obvious that larger electric power is required over the long term space travel more than several years. Additionally, the solar battery used in space will be fundamentally impossible to use in planetary exploration father away form Mars because sunlight is attenuated. Therefore, larger electric power source must be installed in the space craft. In this study, we consider about co-generation system for heat and electricity using nuclear power. We think that the nuclear power is appropriate for using in deep space because of a long time operation without refueling and possibility in downsizing due to higher power density. We selected the fast reactor system of about 18 MWth compared with other type of reactors, such as PWR and high temperature gas reactor (Honma, 2006). With regard to a power generation system, we examined about efficiency of Stirling engine compared with a gas-turbine engine. Theoretical efficiency of Stirling engine is much higher than that of gas-turbine engine. Therefore, we selected Stirling engine and we have started the model test of a Stirling engine. Total power generation at International Space Station (ISS) that has been built since 1998 is about 110kWe. We estimated that about 5 times as much electricity as that of ISS is enough to explore or developed the space. In that case, 2.5MWe will be generated by the system, number of crews will be about 10 and 2MW will be used to electric propulsion. (author)

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  19. The advanced launch system: Application of total quality management principles to low-cost space transportation system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, M. G.; Rothwell, T. G.; Rosenberg, D. A.; Oliver, M. B.

    Recognizing that a major inhibitor of man's rapid expansion of the use of space is the high cost (direct and induced) of space transportation, the U.S. has embarked on a major national program to radically reduce the cost of placing payloads into orbit while, at the same time, making equally radical improvements inlaunch system operability. The program is entitled "The Advanced Launch System" (ALS) and is a joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (DoD/NASA) program which will provide launch capability in the post 2000 timeframe. It is currently in Phase II (System Definition), which began in January 1989, and will serve as a major source of U.S. launch system technology over the next several years. The ALS is characterized by a new approach to space system design, development, and operation. The practices that are being implemented by the ALS are expected to affect the management and technical operation of all future launch systems. In this regard, the two most significant initiatives being implemented on the ALS program are the practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Unified Information System (Unis). TQM is a DoD initiative to improve the quality of the DoD acquisition system, contractor management systems, and the technical disciplines associated with the design, development, and operation of major systems. TQM has been mandated for all new programs and affects the way every group within the system currently does business. In order to implement the practices of TQM, new methods are needed. A program on the scale of the ALS generates vast amounts of information which must be used effectively to make sound decisions. Unis is an information network that will connect all ALS participants throughout all phases of the ALS development. Unis is providing support for project management and system design, and in following phases will provide decision support for launch operations, computer integrated manufacturing, automated

  20. Redesigning the work system of rubber industries based on total ergonomics and ergo-micmac integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, H.

    2018-01-01

    The factory capacity achievement and the bottleneck reduction of production process at wet-blanket workstations are influenced by the balance of life quality rates and worker’s productivity, along with the worker’s ability and limitations, tasks, organization and work environment. The life quality of workers is indicated by: the reduction of workload, and fatigue. Meanwhile, work productivity is measured by increasing production results per work shift. The optimization of the quality of life and productivity of workers is achieved by redesigning the system and workstations based on ergonomics integrating Total Ergonomics with Ergo-MicMac (Micro Ergonomics and Macro Ergonomics), which includes redesigning wet-blanket folding worktable, regulating the system pattern of working in pairs, giving official break time, giving extra nutritious intakes such as sweet tea and snack Pempek, giving personal protective equipments, and redesigning physical working environments.This study was an experimental study, with treatment by subject design involving 30 workers sampled at a workstation condition before and after Ergonomics based redesign. The findings and conclusions of the study were derived from the reduction of the workload by 16.06%, fatigue by 18.84% and the increase of production results per work shift by 20.29%.

  1. Interobserver Reliability of the Total Body Score System for Quantifying Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Connor, Melissa; Bytheway, Joan A

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have tested the accuracy of the Total Body Score (TBS) method for quantifying decomposition, but none have examined the reliability of the method as a scoring system by testing interobserver error rates. Sixteen participants used the TBS system to score 59 observation packets including photographs and written descriptions of 13 human cadavers in different stages of decomposition (postmortem interval: 2-186 days). Data analysis used a two-way random model intraclass correlation in SPSS (v. 17.0). The TBS method showed "almost perfect" agreement between observers, with average absolute correlation coefficients of 0.990 and average consistency correlation coefficients of 0.991. While the TBS method may have sources of error, scoring reliability is not one of them. Individual component scores were examined, and the influences of education and experience levels were investigated. Overall, the trunk component scores were the least concordant. Suggestions are made to improve the reliability of the TBS method. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Physiological characterization of the SynCardia total artificial heart in a mock circulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J

    2015-01-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) has emerged as an effective, life-saving biventricular replacement system for a wide variety of patients with end-stage heart failure. Although the clinical performance of the TAH is established, modern physiological characterization, in terms of elastance behavior and pressure-volume (PV) characterization has not been defined. Herein, we examine the TAH in terms of elastance using a nonejecting left ventricle, and then characterize the PV relation of the TAH by varying preload and afterload parameters using a Donovan Mock Circulatory System. We demonstrate that the TAH does not operate with time-varying elastance, differing from the human heart. Furthermore, we show that the TAH has a PV relation behavior that also differs from that of the human heart. The TAH does exhibit Starling-like behavior, with output increasing via preload-dependent mechanisms, without reliance on an alteration of inotropic state within the operating window of the TAH. Within our testing range, the TAH is insensitive to variations in afterload; however, this insensitivity has a limit, the limit being the maximum driving pressure of the pneumatic driver. Understanding the physiology of the TAH affords insight into the functional parameters that govern artificial heart behavior providing perspective on differences compared with the human heart.

  3. Integration of electrochemistry in micro-total analysis systems for biochemical assays: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

    2009-11-15

    Micro-total analysis systems (microTAS) integrate different analytical operations like sample preparation, separation and detection into a single microfabricated device. With the outstanding advantages of low cost, satisfactory analytical efficiency and flexibility in design, highly integrated and miniaturized devices from the concept of microTAS have gained widespread applications, especially in biochemical assays. Electrochemistry is shown to be quite compatible with microanalytical systems for biochemical assays, because of its attractive merits such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and sample/reagent economy. This review presents recent developments in the integration of electrochemistry in microdevices for biochemical assays. Ingenious microelectrode design and fabrication methods, and versatility of electrochemical techniques are involved. Practical applications of such integrated microsystem in biochemical assays are focused on in situ analysis, point-of-care testing and portable devices. Electrochemical techniques are apparently suited to microsystems, since easy microfabrication of electrochemical elements and a high degree of integration with multi-analytical functions can be achieved at low cost. Such integrated microsystems will play an increasingly important role for analysis of small volume biochemical samples. Work is in progress toward new microdevice design and applications.

  4. Feature, event, and process screening and scenario development for the yucca mountain total system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Barr, G.; Barnard, R.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Freeze, G.; Burck, P.

    2001-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of postclosure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). To ensure clear documentation of the treatment of potentially relevant future states of the system in the Yucca Mountain license application (LA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to adopt a scenario development process based on the methodology developed by Cranwell et al. (1990) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although the process, described below, has been modified somewhat as a result of experience gained in the last decade, the underlying methodology is consistent with that outlined by the DOE in the 1988 Site Characterization Plan for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) (U.S. DOE, 1988). The approach is fundamentally the same as that used in many performance assessments, including the most recent analysis of the Yucca Mountain repository by the NRC (Wescott et al., 1995). The approach has also been used by the DOE for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (U.S. DOE, 1996), by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and by other radioactive waste programs internationally. Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited. (authors)

  5. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Total abdominal hysterectomy versus minimal-invasive hysterectomy: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon Palmero, Felipe Jorge; Exposito Exposito, Moises

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. At the present time three types of hysterectomies are used: the vaginal hysterectomy and the minimal-invasive hysterectomy (MIH). The objective of present research was to compare the MIH and the total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) in women presenting with benign uterine diseases. METHODS. A systemic review was made and a meta-analysis from the following databases: MEDLINE, EBSCO HOST AND The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only the controlled and randomized studies were selected. The data of all studies were combined and also the relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI was used with the Mantel-Haenszel method as an effect measure for dichotomy variables. For the analysis of continuing variables the mean difference was used. In all the comparisons performed the results were obtained with the fix effect and randomized forms. RESULTS. A total of 53 transoperative complications were registered in the MIH hysterectomy versus 17 in the TAH group (RR: 1,78; 95% CI: 1,04-3.05). Postoperative complications evolved in a similar way in both groups without significant differences from the statistical point of view. The blood losses, the hospital stay and the patient's reincorporation to usual and work activities were lesser in the laparoscopy group; however, the operative time is higher when it is compared with TAH (mean difference: 37,36; 95% CI: 34,36-39,93). CONCLUSIONS. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. The indication of MIH must to be individualized according to the clinical situation of each patient and these not to be performed in those centers without a properly trained surgical staff and with experience in advanced minimal invasive surgery. (author)

  7. Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-03-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system.

  8. Transparency of the Total System Performance Assessment through the Development of the FEAS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.; Seo, E.J.; Kang, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    Transparency on the total system performance assessment (TSPA) is the key issue to enhance the public acceptance for a permanent high level radioactive repository. Throughout the lessons accumulated in international projects, it turns out to be important to translate technical languages to more understandable ones. One of the key consolidated statements of the RISCOM project was 'the public should know you have a model, which is clear to everybody about value judgments, facts, uncertainties and questions'. In fact, the final assessment is the integration of identifying and clarifying facts, expert judgment, uncertainties, value judgment, level of significance, and open questions, which cannot be easily understood. Traditionally, the study on features, events, and processes (FEPs) and associated scenarios has been regarded as the starting point to open the communicative discussion on TSPA such as what to evaluate, how to evaluate and how to translate outcomes into more friendly language that many stakeholders can easily understand and react with. However, in most cases, it is difficult for stakeholders outside the performance assessment field to assess the details on the story of the safety assessment; scenario and technical background of it. Fortunately, the advent of the internet era opens up the possibility of two way communication from the beginning of the performance assessment so that every stake bolder can exchange their keen opinions on the safety issues. To achieve it, KAERI develops the systematic approach from the FEPs to Assessment method flow chart, through the formation of integrated FEPs corresponding to the elements in the RES matrix. All information is integrated into the web based program named FEAS (FEp to Assessment through Scenario development) under development in KAERI. In parallel, two independent systems are also under development, the web based quality assurance system and the performance assessment input database. Throughout the next phase

  9. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  10. Total System Performance Assessment Sensitivity Analyses for Final Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2001-01-01

    This Letter Report presents the results of supplemental evaluations and analyses designed to assess long-term performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The evaluations were developed in the context of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) final public regulation, or rule, 10 CFR Part 63 (66 FR 55732 [DIRS 156671]), which was issued on November 2, 2001. This Letter Report addresses the issues identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) technical direction letter dated October 2, 2001 (Adams 2001 [DIRS 156708]). The main objective of this Letter Report is to evaluate performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository using assumptions consistent with performance-assessment-related provisions of 10 CFR Part 63. The incorporation of the final Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, 40 CFR Part 197 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216]), and the analysis of the effect of the 40 CFR Part 197 EPA final rule on long-term repository performance are presented in the Total System Performance Assessment--Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain--Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156460]), referred to hereafter as the FEIS/SSE Letter Report. The Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses conducted and documented prior to promulgation of the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (66 FR 55732 [DIRS 156671]), were based on the NRC proposed rule (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). Slight differences exist between the NRC's proposed and final rules which were not within the scope of the FEIS/SSE Letter Report (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156460]), the Preliminary Site Suitability Evaluation (PSSE) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 155743]), and supporting documents for these reports. These differences include (1) the possible treatment of ''unlikely'' features, events and processes (FEPs) in evaluation of both the groundwater protection standard and the human-intrusion scenario of the individual

  11. Retention practices in education human resources management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retention practices in education human resources management. ... education system in South Africa, particularly in public schools, faces serious problems. ... of quality management which aim at continual increase of the accountability in ...

  12. SMSaúde: Design, Development, and Implementation of a Remote/Mobile Patient Management System to Improve Retention in Care for HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhavoto, José António; Grönlund, Åke; Chaquilla, Walter Ponce

    2015-03-09

    The widespread and low cost of mobile phones and the convenience of short message service (SMS) text messaging suggest potential suitability for use with alternative strategies for supporting retention in care and adherence to the treatment of various chronic diseases, such as HIV and tuberculosis (TB). Despite the growing body of literature reporting positive outcomes of SMS text message-based communication with patients, there is yet very little research about the integration of communication technologies and electronic medical records or electronic patient tracking systems. To design, develop, and implement an integrated mobile phone text messaging system used to follow up with patients with HIV and TB in treatment in Mozambique. Following the design science research methodology, we developed a Web-based system that provides support to patients. A case study involving three health care sites in Mozambique was a basis for discussing design issues for this kind of system. We used brainstorming techniques to solicit usability requirements, focus group meetings to discuss and define system architecture, and prototyping to test in real environments and to improve the system. We found six sets of system requirements that need to be addressed for success: data collection, telecommunication costs, privacy and data security, text message content, connectivity, and system scalability. A text messaging system was designed and implemented in three health facilities. These sites feed data into a central data repository, which can be used for analysis of operations and decision support. Based on the treatment schedule, the system automatically sent SMS text message appointment reminders, medication reminders, as well as motivational and educational messages to patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment programs. We successfully defined the requirements for, designed, and implemented a mobile phone text messaging system to support HIV and TB treatments

  13. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M; Vidania Munoz, R de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Drying/rewetting cycles of the soil under alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation reduce carbon and nitrogen retention in the soil-plant systems of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    for five weeks. For each N rate, the PRD and DI plants received a same amount of water, which allowed re-filling one half of the PRD pots close to full water holding capacity. The results showed that plant dry biomass, plant water use, and water use efficiency were increased with increasing N...... retention in the soil–plant systems of potato. Potato plants were grown in 20 L split-root pots with three N-fertilization rates, viz., 1.4 (N1), 2.5 (N2), and 4 (N3) g N pot−1 soil, respectively. At tuber initiation and earlier tuber bulking stages, the plants were subjected to PRD and DI treatment...

  15. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. A Stereophotogrammetric System For The Detection Of Prosthesis Loosening In Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Genant, Harry K.; Hunter, John; Miller, David; Moffitt, Francis; Murray, William R.; Ross, Steven E.

    1980-07-01

    Loosening of the prosthetic device occurs in about 5% of cases following placement of total hip prostheses (THP). Early detection of loosening is much desired but is difficult to achieve using conventional methods. Due to errors of projection, it is quite possible to fail to detect mobility of even as much as 5 mm on single x-ray films. We are attempting to develop a simplified photogrammetric system suitable for general hospital use which could detect loosening of 0.8 mm at the 95 % level of confidence without use of complex stereoplotting equipment. Metal reference markers are placed in the shaft of the femur and in the acetabular region of the pelvis at the time of surgery. The distances between these reference markers and certain unambiguous points on the prostheses are computed analytically using an X-Y acoustical digitizer (accuracy ± 0.1 mm) and software developed previously for craniofacial measurement. Separate stereopairs of the joint region are taken under weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing conditions. Differences in the measured distances between the bo-ne markers and the prosthetic components on the two stereopairs are taken as indicators of prosthesis loosening. Measurements on a phantom using ten different x-ray stereopairs taken from as many different perspectives have established that true linear distances between reference points and prostheses can be measured at the desired reliability with the present low precision system. Preliminary in vivo measurements indicate that the main unresolved problem is the movement of the subject between the two exposures of each single stereopair. Two possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  17. Performance, carotenoids yield and microbial population dynamics in a photobioreactor system treating acidic wastewater: Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiangkun; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent organic loading rate (OLR) were investigated in a photobioreactor containing PNSB (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)-chemoheterotrophic bacteria to treat volatile fatty acid wastewater. Pollutants removal, biomass production and carotenoids yield in different phases were investigated in together with functional microbial population dynamics. The results indicated that properly decreasing HRT and increasing OLR improved the nutrient removal performance as well as the biomass and carotenoids productions. 85.7% COD, 89.9% TN and 91.8% TP removals were achieved under the optimal HRT of 48h and OLR of 2.51g/L/d. Meanwhile, the highest biomass production and carotenoids yield were 2719.3mg/L and 3.91mg/g-biomass respectively. In addition, HRT and OLR have obvious impacts on PNSB and total bacteria dynamics. Statistical analyses indicated that the COD removal exhibited a positive relationship with OLR, biomass and carotenoids production. PNSB/total bacteria ratio had a positive correlation with the carotenoids yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Posterior Mandibular Ridge Resorption Associated with Different Retentive Systems for Overdentures: A 7-Year Retrospective Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Mohamed, Shahinaz Sayed; Shawky, Ahmad Fathalla

    This retrospective study compared posterior mandibular residual ridge resorption with two different retentive mechanisms for overdentures after 7 years. A convenience sample of 18 edentulous men was assigned to one of two equal groups. Two implants were placed in the mandibular canine areas for each patient using the conventional two-stage surgical protocol, and the implants were splinted with a round bar 3 months later. New mandibular overdentures were then connected to the bars with clips (clip-retained overdentures, CR group) or resilient liners (resilient liner-retained overdentures, RR group). Posterior mandibular ridge resorption (PMRR) was recorded using proportional measurements and posterior area index (PAI) on panoramic radiographs taken immediately after overdenture insertion (T 0 ) and 7 years later (T 7 ). A linear regression model was used to verify the relationship between PAI and the following considerations: attachment type, age, initial mandibular ridge height, period of mandibular edentulism, number of previously worn dentures, and relining events. After 7 years, the RR group demonstrated a significantly (P = .014) higher change in PAI (0.11 ± 0.02) than the CR group (0.06 ± 0.04). The average PMRR for each mm of posterior mandibular ridge was 0.79 mm (0.11 mm/year) in the CR group and 1.4 mm (0.2 mm/year) in the RR group. Attachment type, initial mandibular ridge height, and relining times were significantly correlated with change in the PAI (P = .004, P = .035, and P = .045, respectively). Within the limitations of this preliminary study's design, it was observed that following a 7-year period of use, resilient liner attachments for bar/implant-retained overdentures appear to be associated with greater posterior mandibular ridge resorption when compared to clip attachments.

  19. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Spectra Research, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel.

  20. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  1. The feasibility of transradial laser atherectomy for chronic total occlusion using the 5 Fr sheath system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sherif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We present a case of chronic total occlusion (CTO approached with LASER endovascular intervention by radial artery approach using a 5 French sheath. Case report. A 57-year-old man presented to our hospital having had retrosternal chest pain for two days. Physical examination was normal at the time of presentation. The laboratory tests were within normal limits, including cardiac enzymes except the lipid panel which showed hypertriglyceridemia. The patient underwent a myocardial perfusion scintigraphy stress test that revealed inferior wall ischemia, with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. A 5-French vascular sheath was placed in the right radial artery. Selective coronary artery angiography was performed, which showed right coronary artery (RCA CTO. A 5-French JR4 guide catheter successfully engaged the RCA and Laser angioplasty was performed across the CTO into the RCA. A marked improvement of flow was evident thereafter. Conclusion. To best of our knowledge this is the first case report showing the feasibility of laser atherectomy using the 5 French sheath system in a coronary arterial CTO.

  2. The feasibility of transradial laser atherectomy for chronic total occlusion using the 5 Fr sheath system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Khaled; Yaqub, Yasir; Suarez, Jose A

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of chronic total occlusion (CTO) approached with LASER endovascular intervention by radial artery approach using a 5 French sheath. A 57-year-old man presented to our hospital having had retrosternal chest pain for two days. Physical examination was normal at the time of presentation. The laboratory tests were within normal limits, including cardiac enzymes except the lipid panel which showed hypertriglyceridemia. The patient underwent a myocardial perfusion scintigraphy stress test that revealed inferior wall ischemia, with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. A 5-French vascular sheath was placed in the right radial artery. Selective coronary artery angiography was performed, which showed right coronary artery (RCA) CTO. A 5-French JR4 guide catheter successfully engaged the RCA and Laser angioplasty was performed across the CTO into the RCA. A marked improvement of flow was evident thereafter. To best of our knowledge this is the first case report showing the feasibility of laser atherectomy using the 5 French sheath system in a coronary arterial CTO. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (TQMS IN SMALL WINERY AND BAKERY IN CYPRUS. A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIS A. ZORPAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality of products and production affects the welfare, efficiency and competitiveness of the business entity. Total Quality Management System (TQMS represent the organizational structure of enterprise, application of methods, tools and processes used for the implantation, maintenance and improvement of activities and their outcomes as well as the organization takes all the necessary actions for its environmental performance and safety.The aim of the implementing TQMS in company is to create a good relation of employees to quality and safety as a fundamental category of the market economy and make them produce this quality and on the other and to provide good relationbetween SMEs and governmental authorities. QMS determine the prior characteristics of products, through which the company meets the identified needs of the market. The paper presents a case study of the implementation of aTQMS in small winery and bakery industry from Cyprus. The TQMS include the implementation of ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 22000:2005.

  4. Total staff costs to implement a decision support system in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Castilho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the direct labor (DL costs to put in practice a decision support system (DSS in nursing at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo (HU-USP. METHOD: the development of the DSS was mapped in four sub-processes: Conception, Elaboration, Construction and Transition. To calculate the DL, the baseline salary per professional category was added to the five-year additional remuneration, representation fees and social charges, and then divided by the number of hours contracted, resulting in the hour wage/professional, which was multiplied by the time spend on each activity in the sub-processes. RESULTS: the DL cost corresponded to R$ 752,618.56 (100%, R$ 26,000.00 (3.45% of which were funded by a funding agency, while R$ 726,618.56 (96,55% came from Hospital and University resources. CONCLUSION: considering the total DL cost, 72.1% related to staff wages for the informatics consulting company and 27.9% to the DL of professionals at the HU and the School of Nursing.

  5. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel

  6. Assessing the potential contributions of additional retention processes to PFAS retardation in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces. An initial assessment of the relative magnitudes and significance of these retention processes was conducted for two PFAS of primary concern, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an example precursor (fluorotelomer alcohol, FTOH). The illustrative evaluation was conducted using measured porous-medium properties representative of a sandy vadose-zone soil. Data collected from the literature were used to determine measured or estimated values for the relevant distribution coefficients, which were in turn used to calculate retardation factors for the model system. The results showed that adsorption at the air-water interface was a primary source of retention for both PFOA and PFOS, contributing approximately 50% of total retention for the conditions employed. Adsorption to NAPL-water interfaces and partitioning to bulk NAPL were also shown to be significant sources of retention. NAPL partitioning was the predominant source of retention for FTOH, contributing ~98% of total retention. These results indicate that these additional processes may be, in some cases, significant sources of retention for subsurface transport of PFAS. The specific magnitudes and significance of the individual retention processes will depend upon the properties and conditions of the specific system of interest (e.g., PFAS constituent and concentration, porous medium, aqueous chemistry, fluid saturations, co-contaminants). In cases wherein these

  7. Electrically enhanced MBR system for total nutrient removal in remote northern applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, V; Elektorowicz, M; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of sparsely populated communities scatter in the remote areas of northern Canada. It is economically preferable to adopt the decentralized systems to treat the domestic wastewater because of the vast human inhabitant distribution and cold climatic conditions. Electro-technologies such as electrofiltration, elctrofloatation, electrocoagulation and electrokinetic separation have been applied in water and conventional wastewater treatment for decades due to the minimum requirements of chemicals as well as ease of operation. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is gaining popularity in recent years as an alternative water/wastewater treatment technology. However, few studies have been conducted to hyphenate these two technologies. The purpose of this work is to design a novel electrically enhanced membrane bioreactor (EMBR) as an alternative decentralized wastewater treatment system with improved nutrient removal and reduced membrane fouling. Two identical submerged membranes (GE ZW-1 hollow fiber module) were used for the experiment, with one as a control. The EMBR and control MBR were operated for 4 months at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) with synthetic feed and 2 months at 10 °C with real sewage. The following results were observed: (1) the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased significantly more slowly in the EMBR and the interval between the cleaning cycles of the EMBR increased at least twice; (2) the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD) or total organic carbon (TOC) in the EMBR biomass was reduced from 30 to 51%, correspondingly, concentrations of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the major suspicious membrane foulants, decreased by 26-46% in the EMBR; (3) both control and EMBR removed >99% of ammonium-N and >95% of dissolved COD, in addition, ortho-P removal in the EMBR was >90%, compared with 47-61% of ortho-P removal in the MBR; and (4) the advantage of the EMBR over the conventional MBR in terms of membrane fouling retardation and

  8. Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, H; Huybrechts, P; Raper, S C B; Loutre, M-F; Goosse, H; Fichefet, T

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

  9. Results of infected total knee arthroplasty treated with arthroscopic debridement and continuous antibiotic irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Arthroscopic debridement combined with continuous antibiotic irrigation and suction is an effective treatment for patients with acute presentation of late infected total knee arthroplasty.

  10. Use of novel fibre-coupled radioluminescence and RADPOS dosimetry systems for total scatter factor measurements in small fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploquin, N.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Vandervoort, E.

    2015-01-01

    A dosimetry system based on Al2O3:C radioluminescence (RL), and RADPOS, a novel 4D dosimetry system using microMOSFETs, were used to measure total scatter factors, (Sc,p)fclindet, for the CyberKnife robotic radiosugery system. New Monte Carlo calculated correction factors are presented and applied...

  11. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental laboratory program was conducted to develop economical solid adsorbents for the retention of krypton from a dissolver off-gas stream. The study indicates that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems which utilize fluorocarbon absorption nd cryogenic distillation. This technology may have potential applications not only in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, but also in nuclear reactors and in environmental monitoring. Of the 13 prospective adsorbents evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost, the commercially available hydrogen mordenite was the most cost-effective material at subambient temperatures (-40 0 to -80 0 C). Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite

  12. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  13. The Picmonic® Learning System: enhancing memory retention of medical sciences, using an audiovisual mnemonic Web-based learning platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adeel Yang,1,* Hersh Goel,1,* Matthew Bryan,2 Ron Robertson,1 Jane Lim,1 Shehran Islam,1 Mark R Speicher2 1College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Medical students are required to retain vast amounts of medical knowledge on the path to becoming physicians. To address this challenge, multimedia Web-based learning resources have been developed to supplement traditional text-based materials. The Picmonic® Learning System (PLS; Picmonic, Phoenix, AZ, USA is a novel multimedia Web-based learning platform that delivers audiovisual mnemonics designed to improve memory retention of medical sciences. Methods: A single-center, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled study was conducted to compare the PLS with traditional text-based material for retention of medical science topics. Subjects were randomly assigned to use two different types of study materials covering several diseases. Subjects randomly assigned to the PLS group were given audiovisual mnemonics along with text-based materials, whereas subjects in the control group were given the same text-based materials with key terms highlighted. The primary endpoints were the differences in performance on immediate, 1 week, and 1 month delayed free-recall and paired-matching tests. The secondary endpoints were the difference in performance on a 1 week delayed multiple-choice test and self-reported satisfaction with the study materials. Differences were calculated using unpaired two-tailed t-tests. Results: PLS group subjects demonstrated improvements of 65%, 161%, and 208% compared with control group subjects on free-recall tests conducted immediately, 1 week, and 1 month after study of materials, respectively. The results of performance on paired-matching tests showed an improvement of up to 331% for PLS group subjects. PLS group

  14. The Picmonic(®) Learning System: enhancing memory retention of medical sciences, using an audiovisual mnemonic Web-based learning platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Adeel; Goel, Hersh; Bryan, Matthew; Robertson, Ron; Lim, Jane; Islam, Shehran; Speicher, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Medical students are required to retain vast amounts of medical knowledge on the path to becoming physicians. To address this challenge, multimedia Web-based learning resources have been developed to supplement traditional text-based materials. The Picmonic(®) Learning System (PLS; Picmonic, Phoenix, AZ, USA) is a novel multimedia Web-based learning platform that delivers audiovisual mnemonics designed to improve memory retention of medical sciences. A single-center, randomized, subject-blinded, controlled study was conducted to compare the PLS with traditional text-based material for retention of medical science topics. Subjects were randomly assigned to use two different types of study materials covering several diseases. Subjects randomly assigned to the PLS group were given audiovisual mnemonics along with text-based materials, whereas subjects in the control group were given the same text-based materials with key terms highlighted. The primary endpoints were the differences in performance on immediate, 1 week, and 1 month delayed free-recall and paired-matching tests. The secondary endpoints were the difference in performance on a 1 week delayed multiple-choice test and self-reported satisfaction with the study materials. Differences were calculated using unpaired two-tailed t-tests. PLS group subjects demonstrated improvements of 65%, 161%, and 208% compared with control group subjects on free-recall tests conducted immediately, 1 week, and 1 month after study of materials, respectively. The results of performance on paired-matching tests showed an improvement of up to 331% for PLS group subjects. PLS group subjects also performed 55% greater than control group subjects on a 1 week delayed multiple choice test requiring higher-order thinking. The differences in test performance between the PLS group subjects and the control group subjects were statistically significant (P<0.001), and the PLS group subjects reported higher overall satisfaction with the

  15. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  17. The influence of solar system oscillation on the variability of the total solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yndestad, Harald; Solheim, Jan-Erik

    2017-02-01

    Total solar irradiance (TSI) is the primary quantity of energy that is provided to the Earth. The properties of the TSI variability are critical for understanding the cause of the irradiation variability and its expected influence on climate variations. A deterministic property of TSI variability can provide information about future irradiation variability and expected long-term climate variation, whereas a non-deterministic variability can only explain the past. This study of solar variability is based on an analysis of two TSI data series, one since 1700 A.D. and one since 1000 A.D.; a sunspot data series since 1610 A.D.; and a solar orbit data series from 1000 A.D. The study is based on a wavelet spectrum analysis. First, the TSI data series are transformed into a wavelet spectrum. Then, the wavelet spectrum is transformed into an autocorrelation spectrum to identify stationary, subharmonic and coincidence periods in the TSI variability. The results indicate that the TSI and sunspot data series have periodic cycles that are correlated with the oscillations of the solar position relative to the barycenter of the solar system, which is controlled by gravity force variations from the large planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A possible explanation for solar activity variations is forced oscillations between the large planets and the solar dynamo. We find that a stationary component of the solar variability is controlled by the 12-year Jupiter period and the 84-year Uranus period with subharmonics. For TSI and sunspot variations, we find stationary periods related to the 84-year Uranus period. Deterministic models based on the stationary periods confirm the results through a close relation to known long solar minima since 1000 A.D. and suggest a modern maximum period from 1940 to 2015. The model computes a new Dalton-type sunspot minimum from approximately 2025 to 2050 and a new Dalton-type period TSI minimum from approximately 2040 to 2065.

  18. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  19. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: open-quotes wetclose quotes with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and open-quotes dryclose quotes with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a open-quotes hot repositoryclose quotes) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone

  20. Avaliação da resistência da união metal-resina usando sistemas de retenção mecânico e químico Evaluation of the resistance of metal-resin bond using mechanical and chemical retention systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva Andrade TAROZZO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da união metal-resina empregando-se cinco tipos de retenção na estrutura metálica, em três ligas comerciais de Ni-Cr: Duceranium U, Wiron 99 e Wirocer. Um total de 90 corpos-de-prova foi submetido ao ensaio de cisalhamento e os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente, o que permitiu concluir que a interação retenção versus ligas foi estatisticamente significante em nível de 1% de probabilidade, sendo que o maior valor médio de resistência foi obtido com a liga Wirocer com retenção mecânica 0,6 mm, e o menor foi obtido com a liga Wiron 99 com retenção química.The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the resistance of metal-resin bonding using the Silicoater® MD system (Kulzer, five types of retention in the metal structure, and three commercial Ni-Cr alloys: Duceranium U, Wiron 99 and Wirocer. A total of 90 samples were submitted to the shearing test. Statistical analysis of the results permitted us to conclude that retention versus alloy interaction was statistically significant at a 1% level of probability, the highest mean value being obtained with the Wirocer alloy with mechanical retention with 0.6 mm spheres. The lowest mean values were observed with the Wiron 99 alloy with chemical retention.

  1. Developing a fuzzy rule based cognitive map for total system safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessment, TSPA, for radioactive waste disposal is a multi and interdisciplinary task that is characterized by complex interactions between parameters and processes; lack of data; and ignorance regarding natural processes and conditions. The vagueness in the determination of ranges of values of parameters and identification of interacting processes pose further difficulties to the analysts with regard to the establishment of the relations between processes and parameters. More specifically the vagueness makes uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis challenging to analyze. To cope with these difficulties experts often use simplifications and linguistic terms to express their state of knowledge about a certain situation. For example, experts use terms such as 'low pH', 'very unlikely', etc to describe their perception about natural processes or conditions. In this work we propose the use of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, FCM, for representation of interrelation between processes and parameters as well as to promote a better understanding of the system performance. Fuzzy cognitive maps are suited for the case where the causal relations are not clearly defined and, therefore, can not be represented by crisp values. In other words, instead of representing the quality of the interactions by crisp values, they are assigned degrees of truth. For example, we can assign values to the effect of one process on another such that (+) 1 corresponds to positive, (-) 1 to negative and 0 to neutral effects respectively. In this case the effect of a process A, on a process, B, can be depicted as function of the membership to the fuzzy set 'causal effect' of the cause process to the target one. One of the main advantages of this methodology would be that it allows one to aggregate the linguistic expressions as descriptions of processes. For example, a process can be known to have a 'very strong' positive effect on another one, or using fuzzy sets terminology

  2. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  3. Distribution and retention of inhaled selenium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkstaller, M.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Selenium containing compounds released into the atmosphere during coal combustion are principally of the elemental form or the dioxide. These compounds differ greatly in their chemical properties. Fischer-344 rats were exposed via inhalation to both the dioxide and the red elemental form of selenium. Subsequently, measurements were made of internal absorption, organ distribution and retention, and modes of excretion. A radiotracer, 75 Se, was incorporated into the aerosol to facilitate these measurements. Retention of both aerosols in the total body showed long term components with half lives of 43 and 15 days accounting for 25 to 35% of the initially deposited selenium. Excretion occurred principally by way of urine. For both aerosols, selenium absorbed into the systemic circulation was mainly found in the liver, kidney, blood, gastrointestinal tract and bone

  4. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  5. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  6. Digital Procedural Skill Retention for Selected M1A2 Tank Inter-Vehicular Information System (IVIS) Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, William

    1999-01-01

    .... While digital communications offers great potential, anecdotal reports from field trials and testing repeatedly state that the basic procedural skills needed to operate these systems are highly perishable...

  7. Understanding Total Hip Replacement Recovery towards the Design of a Context-Aware Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement (THR) is a common procedure to improve the mobility of elderly with osteoarthritis. Presently information about the recovery process after discharge is unclear. As consequence patients and physiotherapists face uncertainties to follow an adequate trajectory for recovery.

  8. Effectiveness of autologous transfusion system in primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schneider, Marco M

    2014-01-01

    Autologous transfusion has become a cost-efficient and useful option in the treatment of patients with high blood loss following major orthopaedic surgery. However, the effectiveness of autologous transfusion in total joint replacement remains controversial.

  9. Recent Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Compendium of Candidate Electronics for NASA Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Campola, Michael J.; Carts, Martin A.; Casey, Megan C.; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Marshall, Cheryl J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... levels of bilirubin (total and unbound) in the blood (serum) of newborn infants to aid in indicating the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus). (b) Classification. Class I. [54 FR 30206, July 19...

  11. Use of total cross sections for obtaining the anisotropic interaction potential in atom--diatom system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, J.; Secrest, D.

    1977-01-01

    A study is made of the ''conservation of the total cross section'' and the ''equivalence of the total cross section'' rules for scattering from H 2 . It is shown that these rules are a better approximation than the random phase approximation would indicate. Cross section formulas are given for scattering atoms from m/sub j/ state selected molecules and it is shown that total cross sections for state selected molecules depend on the anisotropic part of the interaction potential, while the spin-averaged total cross section often depends only on the spherically symmetric part of the interaction potential. The total spin-averaged cross section is thus independent of the initial rotation state of the molecule and depends only on the relative collision energy. It is further demonstrated that isotopic substitution, which shifts the center of mass changing the symmetric part of the interaction potential, has too small an effect on the total cross section to be useful as a means of determining the anisotropy of the potential

  12. Diagnostic performance and prognostic value of extravascular retention of I-123-labeled serum amyloid P component in systemic amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; van Rijswijk, Martin H.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Vellenga, Edo; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Jager, Pieter L.

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to amyloid.I-123-SAP scintigraphy is used to evaluate the extent and distribution of amyloid in systemic amyloidosis and has great clinical value in the detection of systemic amyloidosis. The aim of the study was to assess during scintigraphy the diagnostic

  13. Appendix N. Implementation of the RUPS System in a Total School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    The implementation in a school district of the Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) System is demonstrated. RUPS is an instructional system for an inservice program designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and…

  14. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  15. The state of the art in Japan's telecommunications energy systems - Strategy for Total Power Management -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroyama, Seiichi [NTT Power and Building Facilities Inc., Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The ''strategy for total power management (STPM)'' was developed for managing problems in relation to energy for multimedia services in a comprehensive manner from the viewpoints of risk, cost, and environment. To provide integrated services based on STPM, a DC power supply system, a highly reliable UPS, and a co-generation system have been developed. (orig.)

  16. Considering clay rock heterogeneity in radionuclide retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Montavon, G.; Tournassat, C.; Giffaut, E.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation has a strong retention capacity for radionuclides, a favorable condition for the implementation of a nuclear waste repository. Principal retaining minerals are illite, and inter-stratified illite/smectite (I/S). Radionuclide retention has been studied on illite, illite/smectite and on clay rock obtained from different locations and data for retention on bentonite (80% smectite) are available. Sorption depends on the type of mineral, composition of mineralogical assemblages, individual mineral ion exchange capacities, ion distribution on exchange sites, specific surface areas, surface site types and densities for surface complexation as well as on water/rock ratios, temperature etc. As a consequence of mineralogical and textural variations, radionuclide retention properties are expected to vary with depth in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. Using a simple additivity approach for the case of sorption of Cs and Ni it is shown that models and databases for illite and bentonite can be used to describe sorption in heterogeneous clay rock systems. A surface complexation/ion-exchange model as proposed by Bradbury and Baeyens without electrostatic contributions, was used directly as far as acid base properties are concerned but was modified with respect to sorption constants, in order to describe Na-, Ca, and Cs montmorillonite and bentonite MX-80 with a single set of surface complexation constants and also to account for carbonate and sulphate concentrations in groundwater. The model is integrated into the geochemical code PHREEQC considering dissolution/ precipitation/solubility constraints of accessory minerals (calcite, illite, celestite, quartz). Site densities for surface complexation and ion exchange are derived from the mass fractions of illite and of smectite in illite/smectite obtained from an overall fit of measured CEC data from all samples of the EST205 drill core

  17. Simulation of a heat pump system for total heat recovery from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Maolin; Yuan, Weixing; Song, Zhijia; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Shigang

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach of using an open-cycle absorption heat pump (OAHP) for recovering waste heat from the flue gas of a gas boiler with a system model. And equivalent energy efficiency is used to evaluate two other heat recovery systems that integrate an electric compression heat pump (EHP) or an absorption heat pump (AHP) with a boiler. The key factors influencing the systems are evaluated. The OAHP system efficiency is improved by 11% compared to the base case. And the OAHP system is more efficient than the AHP or the EHP systems, especially when the solution mass flow rate is only a little less than the cold water mass flow rate. The energy efficiency comparison is supplemented with a simplified economic analysis. The results indicate that the OAHP system is the best choice for the current prices of electricity and natural gas in Beijing. - Highlights: • An OAHP system is analyzed to improve heat recovery from natural gas flue gas. • OAHP system models are presented and analyzed. • The key factors influencing the OAHP systems are analyzed. • The OAHP system is most efficient for most cases compared with other systems. • The OAHP system is more economic than other systems

  18. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  19. Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes in a two-stage CSTR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophilic conditions (37°C) were used to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production. The acidogenic reactor was fed with a mixture consisting of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (in a ratio 55:40:5, v/v/v) and operated at five different HRTs (5, 3, 2, 1 and 0.75 d) aiming to evaluate hydrogen productivity and operational stability. The highest system efficiency was achieved at HRT 0.75 d with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.72 L/LRd and hydrogen yield of 0.54 mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed. The methanogenic reactor was operated at HRTs 20 and 25 d with better stability observed at HRT 25 d, whereas accumulation of volatile fatty acids took place at HRT 20 d. The methane production rate at the steady state of HRT 25 d reached 0.33 L CH4/LRd. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of the Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of an Ecological Wastewater Treatment System: An Anaerobic Filter with a Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Merino-Solís

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the performance of a municipal pilot wastewater treatment system employing an up-flow anaerobic filter (UAF followed by a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSCW. This pilot scale demonstration project was implemented in a zone with subtropical climate in order to protect Lake Chapala from wastewater loads that are discharged by small communities in the Lake’s vicinity. The filters were filled with tezontle as the media for biofilm support and the HSSCW was planted with two ornamental plants species, Canna hybrids and Strelitzia reginae. The experiment evaluated three hydraulic retention times (HRT of 18, 28 and 38 h in the UAF, which corresponds to two, three and four days in HSSCW over 66 weeks. The mean efficiencies found for the complete system were 80% and 90% of BOD, 80% and 86% of COD, 30% and 33% of Ntot and between 24% and 44% of Ptot. It was possible to remove almost 80% of organic matter in 18 h in the UAF while the HSSCW reached 30% of removal for Ntot in a HRT of three days. As expected, the UAF was responsible for removing most of the organic matter and the HSSCW removed most of the nitrogen.

  1. The stability of the femoral component of a minimal invasive total hip replacement system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, M.M.M.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Gibbons, P.; Minderhoud, N.; Weernink, T.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the initial stability of the femoral component of a minimal invasive total hip replacement was biomechanically evaluated during simulated normal walking and chair rising. A 20 mm diameter canal was created in the femoral necks of five fresh frozen human cadaver bones and the femoral

  2. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  3. Short-term retention of pictures and words as a function of type of distraction and length of delay interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M

    1976-01-01

    Picture and word triads were tested in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task at varying delay intervals (3, 10, or 30 sec) and under acoustic and simultaneous acoustic and visual distraction. Pictures were superior to words at all delay intervals under single acoustic distraction. Dual distraction consistently reduced picture retention while simultaneously facilitating word retention. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis with modality-specific interference effects in the visual and acoustic processing systems. The differential effects of dual distraction were related to the introduction of visual interference and differential levels of functional acoustic interference across dual and single distraction tasks. The latter was supported by a constant 2/1 ratio in the backward counting rates of the acoustic vs. dual distraction tasks. The results further suggest that retention may not depend on total processing load of the distraction task, per se, but rather that processing load operates within modalities.

  4. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Over a dozen prospective adsorbents for krypton were studied and evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost for dissolver off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. Results show that, at subambient temperature (-40 0 to -80 0 C), the commercially available hydrogen mordenite has sufficient adsorptive capacity to be the most cost-effective material studied. Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite. The results indicate that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems whih utilize fluorocarbon absorption and cryogenic distillation

  5. International perspectives on retention and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burkholder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to higher education globally is increasing dramatically; attainment of tertiary degrees is a high priority, as educational attainment is associated with increased personal incomes as well as growth of the middle class in developing countries. The purpose of this essay is to briefly examine retention and persistence issues from a global perspective, review some retention strategies that have been employed at schools outside the United States, and to identify several key factors that related to retention and persistence globally, including access, infrastructure, financial consideration, and readiness for tertiary education.  There exists an opportunity to utilize knowledge gained in the evolution of the higher education system in the United States to help address the problems associated with retention and persistence.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.208

  6. Usability Requirements for Complex Cyber-Physical Systems in a Totally Networked World

    OpenAIRE

    Kölmel , Bernhard; Bulander , Rebecca; Dittmann , Uwe; Schätter , Alfred; Würtz , Günther

    2014-01-01

    Part 7: Cyber-Physical Systems; International audience; “The Internet has made the world “flat” by transcending space. […] The Internet has transformed how we conduct research, studies, business, services, and entertainment.” [1] Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. Advances in CPS will enable capability, adaptability, scalability, resiliency, safety, security, an...

  7. Comment Response on the Final Report: Peer Review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    The Management and Operating Contractor established a Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (hereinafter ''the Panel'') at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office. The objectives of the peer review were to provide: (1) A formal, independent evaluation and critique of Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain: Total System Performance Assessment, Volume 3 (DOE 1998a; hereinafter ''Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment'') that was conducted in support of the Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1998b). (2) Suggestions for improvements as the U.S. Department of Energy prepares to develop the documentation for a Total System Performance Assessment to support a potential License Application. The Panel conducted a phased review over a two-year period to observe the development and, ultimately, to review the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). During the development of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Panel submitted three Interim Reports (Whipple et al., 1997a, 1997b, and 1998) to the Management and Operating Contractor with recommendations and comments on the process models, model abstractions, and draft documentation for the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). The Panel's Final Report Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (Whipple et al. 1999; hereinafter ''Final Report'') on the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a) is based primarily on the completed Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998), and the cited references. The Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) includes the major points from the three Interim Reports (Whipple et al. 1997a, 1997b, and 1998

  8. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  9. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  10. Logistics Control Facility: A Normative Model for Total Asset Visibility in the Air Force Logistics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    IIssue Computers, information systems, and communication systems are being increasingly used in transportation, warehousing, order processing , materials...inventory levels, reduced order processing times, reduced order processing costs, and increased customer satisfaction. While purchasing and transportation...process, the speed in which crders are processed would increase significantly. Lowering the order processing time in turn lowers the lead time, which in

  11. Algorithm for preparation of multilayer systems with high critical angle of total reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, I.; Ignatovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    The new development of theory of multilayer systems is presented. It shows precisely how to calculate thickness and number of layers to get reflectivity close to unity for a given, in principle, arbitrary critical angle. Application of the new approach to real systems is demonstrated

  12. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  13. Retenção e disponibilidade de água às plantas, em solo sob plantio direto e preparo convencional Retention and availability of water to plants in soils under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genei A. Dalmago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Teve-se, neste trabalho, como função principal, avaliar a retenção de água no solo e sua disponibilidade às plantas, em plantio direto (PD e preparo convencional (PC. O estudo foi conduzido em Eldorado do Sul, Brasil, em 2002. Densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, mesoporosidade, microporosidade, distribuição do tamanho de mesoporos, curvas de retenção de água, capacidade de campo (CC e ponto de murcha permanente (PMP foram analisados em sete profundidades no perfil. As maiores diferenças ocorreram próximo à superfície. Na profundidade de 2,5 cm a densidade foi 7% menor e a porosidade total foi cerca de 15% maior em PD do que em PC. A mesoporosidade apresentou distribuição exponencial em PD, com valores mais elevados em tamanhos maiores de poros, mas teve tendência a uma curva normal em PC. Em todo o perfil, PC apresentou cerca de 53% mais água armazenada em comparação a PD; entretanto, a armazenagem de água foi 80% maior em PD próximo à superfície (2,5 cm de profundidade. Nos primeiros 15 cm de profundidade 70% da água disponível foram retidos acima de -80 kPa em PD, em comparação a 50%, para PC. O sistema plantio direto aumenta a disponibilidade de água às plantas próximo à superfície e com menos energia de retenção, em comparação com o preparo convencional.This work had the objective of evaluating the soil water storage and availability to plants, when comparing the no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil, in 2002. Soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, mesoporosity, microporosity, distribution of mesopores size, curves of water retention, field capacity (FC, and permanent wilting point (PWP were analyzed in seven depths, into the soil profile. The highest differences occurred close to the soil surface. At 2.5 cm deep, the soil density was 7% lower while the total soil porosity was about 15% higher in NT than in CT. The

  14. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  16. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  17. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.

  18. Complementary modelling of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Grandia, Fidel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-10-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting a comprehensive geoscientific characterization of two alternative sites to allocate a deep geological repository of high level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Program also includes the near-surface systems, which are expected to constitute the last geological barrier between the repository system and the earth's surface. The evaluation of the retention capacity of the near surface systems is, therefore, very relevant for the site characterization program. From the geological point of view, near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits that overlay a granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the most abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit (approx75% of surface extension) and the remainder is made up of clayey materials (glacial and post-glacial clays). These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time scale considered in this work, is calcium carbonate (calcite). This mineral is found along with clay minerals (e.g. illite) and Fe(III) hydroxides. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with minor amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich levels (gyttja) which can promote reducing conditions in the system. The assessment of the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark was developed in an earlier work, that focused on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is an improvement of the geochemical conceptual and numerical model already presented, based on data available in the Site Descriptive Model v 1.2 (Forsmark). Regarding the geochemical variability of the Quaternary deposits present at Forsmark and its implications on radionuclide mobility through the near-surface systems, a

  19. Is Yang-Mills equation a totally integrable system. Lecture III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Wang, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Topics covered include: loop-space formulation of gauge theory - loop-space chiral equation; two dimensional chiral equation - conservation laws, linear system and integrability; and parallel development for the loop-space chiral equation - subtlety

  20. Institutional applications of solar total energy systems. First quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The meteorology followed to develop a data base for assessing market potential in the eight institutional subsectors is described. The subsectors are: elementary and high schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, military installations, public administration buildings, post offices, airports, and prisons. The market characteristics to be studied in detail are defined, and the methodology to be followed in assessing the relative economic performance of representative STE systems is given. The generic STE conceptual system design is introduced. (MHR)

  1. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili; Ersin Erçin; Cemal Kural; Altuğ Duramaz; Cevdet Avkan; Gökhan Peker; Serdar Hakan Başaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system ...

  2. A computerized total-radiation management system for Shikoku Electric Power's Ikata nuclear-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshiyuki; Sakakihara, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shozo; Kano, Mamoru; Hoshi, Jun-ichi.

    1985-01-01

    This system allows on-line, real-time radiation management at nuclear-power plants. It increases management precision, decreases management workloads, and saves labor in operations that previously required specialized technicians to expend great amounts of time and effort on radiation management at facilities and their environments, environmental radiation evaluation, and control of radioactive waste. The article outlines the already installed system. (author)

  3. Quantitative biomonitoring of nitrogen deposition with TONIS (Total N Input Biomonitoring System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Karsten; Suda, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of air pollutants is an important instrument to detect threats and to observe temporal trends of emissions. Determining the spatial distribution of oxidized and reduced N species via modelling requires sufficient knowledge about innumerous small sources from traffic, settlements and agriculture. Empirical studies are required to validate the model data but measurements of the total N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological measurements) are very expensive. Against this background, the TONIS, a new suitable technique which combines a biomonitoring with plants and technical measurements was developed. During 6 exposures between 2012 and 2016 at different polluted sites in Northwest Germany, TONIS accumulated between 17 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr −1 t. The results are feasible compared to simultaneously measured NH 3 and NO 2 concentration and bulk N deposition. At one site within a peat bog the accumulated N in TONIS was found to be in the range of total N deposition derived from a micrometeorological approach. - Highlights: • A new suitable biomonitoring technique is presented to determine N deposition rates relating to low-growing vegetation on nutrient-poor sites. • TONIS combines the advantages of biomonitoring and technical measurements. • The results of 6 exposures between 2012 and 2016 are feasible compared to technical measurements and modelled data.

  4. A multi-modality tracking, navigation and calibration for a flexible robotic drill system for total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fuad, Ahmad Nazmi Bin; Deep, Kamal; Yao, Wei

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-modality tracking and navigation system that provides a unique capability to guild a flexible drill tip inside the bone with accurate curved tunnelling. As the flexible drill tip cannot be tracked optically inside the bone, this research focuses on developing a hybrid tracking and navigation system for tracking a flexible drill tip by using both optical and kinematic tracking. The tracking information is used to guide the THA (total hip arthroplasty) procedure, providing a real-time virtual model of the flexible drill. The flexible and steerable drill tip system is then tested on total hip arthroplasty followed by evaluation of the positioning and orientation of femoral stem placement by femoral milling. Based on this study, we conclude that the tracking and navigation system is able to guide the flexible drill to mill inside femoral canal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1982 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    In this research on a hydrogen energy total system, studies are conducted on the plan of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base and on hydrogen as fuel for automobiles. It is estimated that the construction of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base will cost 7.125-billion yen in total. The sum includes 6.410-billion yen for the construction of a system on an island named Island A, 500-million yen for structures on an island named Island B, and 215-million yen for the construction of a marine transportation system between the two islands. Large shares will go to a hydroelectric power plant and a hydrogen liquefaction system, the two occupying approximately half of the total sum. In the study of hydrogen as fuel for automobiles, it is concluded that hydrogen is advantageously employed as fuel for automobiles. When comparison is made in terms of heat value, it is found that even a hydrogen engine which is a mere modification of a currently used engine is comparable to the currently used engine in terms of performance. As for abnormal combustion, a hydrogen/air 2-system injection method is contrived, and this solves the problem almost completely. Cryogenic hydrogen is advantageous in both NOx emission and heat efficiency though within certain limitations. From the viewpoint of safety, the recommended automobile fuel structural formula is GH{sub 2}(MH). (NEDO)

  6. Data-Filtering System to Avoid Total Data Distortion in IoT Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Young Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things (IoT networking, numerous objects are connected to a network. They sense events and deliver the sensed information to the cloud. A lot of data is generated in the IoT network, and servers in the cloud gather the sensed data from the objects. Then, the servers analyze the collected data and provide proper intelligent services to users through the results of the analysis. When the server analyzes the collected data, if there exists malfunctioning data, distortional results of the analysis will be generated. The distortional results lead to misdirection of the intelligent services, leading to poor user experience. In the analysis for intelligent services in IoT, malfunctioning data should be avoided because integrity of the collected data is crucial. Therefore, this paper proposes a data-filtering system for the server in the cloud. The proposed data-filtering system is placed in front of the server and firstly receives the sensed data from the objects. It employs the naïve Bayesian classifier and, by learning, classifies the malfunctioning data from among the collected data. Data with integrity is delivered to the server for analysis. Because the proposed system filters the malfunctioning data, the server can obtain accurate analysis results and reduce computing load. The performance of the proposed data-filtering system is evaluated through computer simulation. Through the simulation results, the efficiency of the proposed data-filtering system is shown.

  7. Scanning with a Total Information Storage and Controlled Data Presentation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejali, A. M.; Gregg, E. C.; Voelker, W. H.; Friedell, H. L. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1969-01-15

    This presentation demonstrates improved clinical results obtained from storing all available information received by the detector or detectors without prior modifications in a permanent memory. Permanently stored information is modified later with a special electronic imaging system with kinescope presentation in black and white or colour. Under carefully controlled circumstances this system permits immediate and innumerable degrees of erase and contrast enhancement or colour coding in fractions of a second. A profile representing the count-rate through any slice in the scanned area may be performed to determine relative distribution of radioisotopes. The advantage of this system and various clinical results in scans of myocardiums, pancreas, cardiac blood pool, placenta, etc. will be presented. (author)

  8. Use of Wingz spreadsheet as an interface to total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.F.; Treadway, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    A commercial spreadsheet has been used as an interface to a set of simple models to simulate possible nominal flow and failure scenarios at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Individual models coded in FORTRAN are linked to the spreadsheet. Complementary cumulative probability distribution functions resulting from the models are plotted through scripts associated with the spreadsheet. All codes are maintained under a source code control system for quality assurance. The spreadsheet and the simple models can be run on workstations, PCs, and Macintoshes. The software system is designed so that the FORTRAN codes can be run on several machines if a network environment is available

  9. Total and Direct Correlation Function Integrals from Molecular Simulation of Binary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; O’Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility for obtaining derivative properties for mixtures from integrals of spatial total and direct correlation functions obtained from molecular dynamics simulations is explored. Theoretically well-supported methods are examined to extend simulation radial distribution functions to long...... are consistent with an excess Helmholtz energy model fitted to available simulations. In addition, simulations of water/methanol and water/t-butanol mixtures have been carried out. The method yields results for partial molar volumes, activity coefficient derivatives, and individual correlation function integrals...... in reasonable agreement with smoothed experimental data. The proposed method for obtaining correlation function integrals is shown to perform at least as well as or better than two previously published approaches....

  10. Changes in total cell numbers of the basal ganglia in patients with multiple system atrophy - A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Ullerup, Birgitte H; Sunay, Fatma B

    2014-01-01

    Total numbers of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia in the basal ganglia and red nucleus were estimated in brains from 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 11 age- and gender-matched control subjects with unbiased stereological methods. Compared to the control...

  11. Total motile sperm count: a better indicator for the severity of male factor infertility than the WHO sperm classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cissen, M.; Brandes, M.; Smeenk, J.M.; Bruin, J.P. de; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the prewash total motile sperm count (TMSC) have a better predictive value for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy (SOP) than the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system? SUMMARY ANSWER: The prewash TMSC shows a better correlation with the spontaneous ongoing pregnancy

  12. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  13. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had 125 I and 638 patients had 103 Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline α-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm 3 , 25-45 cm 3 , 3 ; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline α-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  14. BER and total throughput of asynchronous DS-OCDMA/WDM systems with multiple user interference

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiringhelli, F.; Zervas, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The BER and throughput of Direct-Sequence OCDMA/WDM systems based on quadripolar codes and superstructured fiber Bragg gratings are statistically derived under asynchronous operation, intensity detection, and Multiple User Interference. Performance improvements with Forward Error Correction are included.

  15. Hybrid fuel cell/diesel generation total energy system, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, C. F.

    1982-11-01

    Meeting the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (DGSCC) electrical and thermal requirements with the existing system was compared with using fuel cells. Fuel cell technology selection was based on a 1985 time frame for installation. The most cost-effective fuel feedstock for fuel cell application was identified. Fuels considered included diesel oil, natural gas, methanol and coal. These fuel feedstocks were considered not only on the cost and efficiency of the fuel conversion process, but also on complexity and integration of the fuel processor on system operation and thermal energy availability. After a review of fuel processor technology, catalytic steam reformer technology was selected based on the ease of integration and the economics of hydrogen production. The phosphoric acid fuel cell was selected for application at the GDSCC due to its commercial readiness for near term application. Fuel cell systems were analyzed for both natural gas and methanol feedstock. The subsequent economic analysis indicated that a natural gas fueled system was the most cost effective of the cases analyzed.

  16. Secrets of Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  17. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  18. Support for total hip replacement surgery: Structures modeling, Gait Data Analysis and Report system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Mario Izzo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the treatment of advanced damages of hip joints, Total Hip Arthroplasty is well proven. Due to the different mechanical properties of the prosthesis material and the bone tissue, a partial unloading of the periprosthetic bone occurs. The bone cement causes reduction in bone density as a result of removal of normal stress from the bone, leading to weakening of the bone in that area and the fracture risk increases. Bone loss is identified as one of the main reasons for loosening of the stem. Otherwise, thanks to the press-fit of the non-cemented stem achieved by surgery, the bone layers immediately adjacent to the stem are preloaded, thus encouraged growing, and the bone getting stronger. The non-cemented stem would be the better choice for every patient, but the question remains if the femur can handle the press- fitting surgery. This studies aim to develop a monitoring techniques based on Gait analysis and bone density changes to assess patient recovery after Total Hip Arthroplasty. Furthermore, to validate computational processes based on 3D modeling and Finite Element Methods for optimizing decision making in the operation process and selecting the suited surgical procedure. A vision could be minimizing risk of periprosthetic fracture during and after surgery. Patients: The sample presents 11 patients receiving cemented implant and 13 for the uncemented. Patients are grouped by type of implant. Three checkpoints were considered: before, after operation and one year later. CT scans, gaitrite and kinepro measurements have been realized. Main outcome measures: Fracture risk probability is higher in bone with low bone mineral density; therefore bones are more fragile in elderly people. BMD is indeed one parameter considered among all the observations. Periprosthetic fracture of the femur is a rare but complex complication of THA, and requires demanding surgery. As such, they result in considerable morbidity and dysfunction. Thus, tests of

  19. Total picture archiving communication system for medical use at medium-sized hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabata, Shun; Goto, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazumi; Okaniwa, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    An increasingly widespread use of diagnostic imaging systems has seen a concomitant rise in the number of medical images. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) allows filmless storage by digitizing images to record and store into the optical disk, and allows the rapid data retrieval and transmission. It is anticipated that PACS may be a promising approach to the medical routine practice. In January 1991, Hitachi PACS was introduced in Tokyo Hitachi Hospital. In this paper, the experience with PACS in the clinical setting is presented. The process of improvement in PACS is given in terms of the following: the flow of images, image deletion in the image workstation, and the number of sequential images to be observed. (N.K.)

  20. Trichromatic π-Pulse for Ultrafast Total Inversion of a Four-Level Ladder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serrat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical solution for complete population inversion in a four-level ladder system obtained by using a full π-pulse illumination scheme with resonant ultrashort phase-locked Gaussian laser pulses. We find that a set of pulse areas such as √3π , √2π , and √3π completely inverts the four-level system considering identical effective dipole coupling coefficients. The solution is consistent provided the involved electric fields are not too strong and it is amply accurate also in the case of diverse transition dipole moments. We study the effect of detuning and chirp of the laser pulses on the complete population inversion using the level structure of atomic sodium interacting with ps and fs pulses as an example. Our result opens the door for multiple applications such as efficient ultrashort pulse lasing in the UV or the engineering of quantum states for quantum computing.

  1. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  2. An Analysis of Program Managers as Total Life Cycle Systems Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Acquisition Executive DAG Defense Acquisition Guidebook DAS Defense Acquisition System DFAS Defense Finance and Accounting Service DOD Department...will consume most of a system’s funding resources. 20 F. INDUSTRY COMPARISON In industry, there are two concepts adopted by corporations that are...strategies are not applied by every corporation or for every product or service. The strategy chosen all depends on the circumstances and capabilities

  3. Lab-on-a-chip devices and micro-total analysis systems a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Svendsen, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all the steps in order to fabricate a lab-on-a-chip device starting from the idea, the design, simulation, fabrication and final evaluation. Additionally, it includes basic theory on microfluidics essential to understand how fluids behave at such reduced scale. Examples of successful histories of lab-on-a-chip systems that made an impact in fields like biomedicine and life sciences are also provided.

  4. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Gen; Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  5. Mass flow discharge and total temperature characterisation of a pyrotechnic gas generator formulation for airbag systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neutz, Jochen; Koenig, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany); Knauss, Helmut; Jordan, Sebastian; Roediger, Tim; Smorodsky, Boris [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik; Bluemcke, Erich Walter [AUDI AG, Department I/EK-523, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The mass flow characteristics of gas generators for airbag applications have to comply with a number of requirements for an optimal deployment of the airbag itself. Up to now, the mass flow was determined from pressure time histories of so-called can tests. This procedure suffers from the missing knowledge on the temperature of the generated gas entering the can. A new test setup described in this paper could overcome this problem by providing highly time resolved information on the gas's total temperature and the mass flow of the generator. The test setup consisted of a combustion chamber with a specially designed Laval nozzle in combination with a temperature sensor of high time resolution. The results showed a high time resolved temperature signal, which was disturbed by the formation of a slag layer on the sensor. Plausibility considerations with experimentally and thermodynamically determined combustion temperatures led to satisfying results for the overall temperature as characteristic parameter of airbag inflating gases flows from pyrotechnics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. A comparative study of total quality management of health care system in India and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Gorji Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total quality management (TQM has a great potential to address quality problems in a wide range of industries and improve the organizational performance. The growing need to take initiatives by hospitals in countries like India and Iran to improve the service quality and reduce wastage of resources has inspired the authors to develop a survey instrument to measure health care quality and performance in the two countries. Methods Based on the Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals in pursuit of excellence, compared health care services in three countries. The data are collected from the capital cities and their nearby places in India and Iran. Using ANOVAs, three groups in quality planning and performance have been compared. Result Results showed there is significantly difference between groups and in no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks. The average scores of Indian and Iranian hospitals on different constructs of the IHCQPM model are compared with the major results achieved by the recipients of the MBNQ award. Conclusion In no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks (Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals. These results suggested to health care services more attempt to achieve high quality in management and performance.

  7. A comparative study of total quality management of health care system in India and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Gorji, Ali Morad; Farooquie, Jamal A

    2011-12-28

    Total quality management (TQM) has a great potential to address quality problems in a wide range of industries and improve the organizational performance. The growing need to take initiatives by hospitals in countries like India and Iran to improve the service quality and reduce wastage of resources has inspired the authors to develop a survey instrument to measure health care quality and performance in the two countries. Based on the Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals in pursuit of excellence, compared health care services in three countries. The data are collected from the capital cities and their nearby places in India and Iran. Using ANOVAs, three groups in quality planning and performance have been compared. Results showed there is significantly difference between groups and in no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks. The average scores of Indian and Iranian hospitals on different constructs of the IHCQPM model are compared with the major results achieved by the recipients of the MBNQ award. In no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks (Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals). These results suggested to health care services more attempt to achieve high quality in management and performance.

  8. Toward formal analysis of ultra-reliable computers: A total systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.; Kljaich, J.; Smith, B.T.; Wojcik, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of modeling and analysis techniques to software that is designed to execute on four channel version of the the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) Fault-Tolerant Processor, referred to as the Draper FTP. The software performs sensor validation of four independent measures (singlas) from the primary pumps of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II operated by Argonne National Laboratory-West, and from the validated signals formulates a flow trip signal for the reactor safety system. 11 refs., 4 figs

  9. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chu, Junhao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu-tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Liu, Aiyun [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Gui Lin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Shi, Yiwei [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-07-07

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO{sub 2} layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO{sub 2} laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11–28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE{sub 11} mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024–0.037 dB/m).

  10. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  11. 7S’s System Foundation of Total Productive Maintenance House for Lean Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Lean TPM or TPM for lean organization approach is maintaining international competitiveness . This Lean TPM from our article, approach proposes tree additions to the current understanding of the TPM system: the 7Ss as a critical first step in any improvement program; instant maintenance; improvement setup operations. A company cannot make business gains solely by using cost-cutting measures because it cannot cost enough to become a world-class competitor. Instead, it must invest resources in productivity improvement. This generally increases factory throughput and cuts costs at the same time. Maintaining equipment in its optimal state and continually improving its productivity is the whole strategy behind TPM. The main objective of the 7S system is to grow the value added to each worker. To grow the added value, we must create ordered and well adjusted production lines based on the principles of the 7S’s: organization and order. Above all these two S’s bring to the factory standard positions and acknowledgement. Focus on the first two S’s brings a new perspective on understanding the 7S’s.

  12. The skill of surface registration in CT-based navigation system for total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hananouchi, T.; Sugano, N.; Nishii, T.; Miki, H.; Sakai, T.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iwana, D.; Yamamura, M.; Nakamura, N.

    2007-01-01

    Surface registration of the CT-based navigation system, which is a matching between computational and real spatial spaces, is a key step to guarantee the accuracy of navigation. However, it has not been well described how the accuracy is affected by the registration skill of surgeon. Here, we reported the difference of the registration error between eight surgeons with the experience of navigation and six apprentice surgeons. A cadaveric pelvic model with an acetabular cup was made to measure the skill and learning curve of registration. After surface registration, two cup angles (inclination and anteversion) were recorded in the navigation system and the variance of these cup angles in ten trials were compared between the experienced surgeons and apprentices. In addition, we investigated whether the accuracy of registration by the apprentices was improved by visual information on how to take the surface points. The results showed that there was statistically significant difference in the accuracy of registration between the two groups. The accuracy of the second ten trials after getting the visual information showed great improvements. (orig.)

  13. Development of total systems of piping stress analysis and evaluation: ISAPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Teizaburo; Koyanagi, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Masanao

    1978-01-01

    IHI has developed the systems of piping stress analysis and evaluation: ISAPPS (IHI Stress Analysis Program for Piping Systems), which are further described in this paper. In addition, the results of structural analysis and heat transfer analysis were confirmed. An example of stress evaluation in accordance with the modified ASME Code Sec. III is shown. ISAPPS consists of the following seven parts, and is designed for easy adoption of other programs by making modifications. 1. Piping design oriented language programs 2. Structural analysis programs 3. Isometric plotting programs 4. Multi-file dumping program 5. Load combination program 6. Heat transfer program 7. Stress evaluation programs As one of the examples of structural analysis programs, IHI make use of the modified SAP IV developed by the University of California. Evaluations of stresses are performed in accordance with: 1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. III Class 1, 2 and 3 2. ANSI Code, B31.1 and B31.3 3. MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry ) Code ISAPPS is very useful for design of nuclear and chemical pipings and so on. (author)

  14. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W.; Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models

  15. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    A numerical model was prepared to express fields and size of hydrogen energy introduction in Japan's energy systems in the future. Dividing Japan into 13 weather sections, one to two energy bases (import and secondary production bases in coastal areas) were assumed on each section. Secondary energies produced in these energy bases are transported to intermediate bases, from which the energies are distributed into cities and consumed. For the purpose of simplification, final consumption departments are hypothesized to exist in these intermediate bases. Parameters that characterize the flows on networks in the processes of supply, distribution, production, storage, transportation and utilization are divided largely into energy efficiency and cost of the processes. The amount of energy demand in each final consumption department was defined as an amount to maximize the expected effects as a result of having satisfied the demand. The result of trial calculations revealed that, as long as the hydrogen to be introduced is limited to hydrogen produced via electrolysis using thermally generated power, the hydrogen introduction into the future energy systems is difficult in terms of economic performance. (NEDO)

  16. Total-system expertise in economically efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH can look back on well over 40 years of experience in developing and constructing nuclear power plants. 23 Power plant units of Siemens design are in operation in five countries, and in autumn this year, another one will start commercial operation, while yet another one is under construction. In comparative international power plant surveys, the Siemens-design systems usually rank in top positions when it comes to comparing systems availability and electric power generation, and Siemens have build a reputation in manufacturing power plants up to the highest safety standards worldwide. Our experience as a manufacturer of turnkey PWR and BWR type reactors, as well as our profound knowledge of international nuclear standardisation, engineering codes and safety guides, has been used and processed to the benefit of the services offered by Siemens, resulting in well-devised service packages, and enhancements and optimisation of our machinery and equipment. Siemens has of course obtained the relevant licenses and certification for all its services and products according to DIN ISO 9001, KTA and ASME standards [de

  17. A total patient monitoring system for point-of-care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, home care for chronically ill patients and the elderly requires periodic visits to the patient's home by doctors or healthcare personnel. During these visits, the visiting person usually records the patient's vital signs and takes decisions as to any change in treatment and address any issues that the patient may have. Patient monitoring systems have since changed this scenario by significantly reducing the number of home visits while not compromising on continuous monitoring. This paper describes the design and development of a patient monitoring systems capable of concurrent remote monitoring of 8 patient-worn sensors: Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), temperature, airflow pressure, movement and chest expansion. These sensors provide vital signs useful for monitoring the health of chronically ill patients and alerts can be raised if certain specified signal levels fall above or below a preset threshold value. The data from all eight sensors are digitally transmitted to a PC or to a standalone network appliance which relays the data through an available internet connection to the remote monitoring client. Thus it provides a real-time rendering of the patient's health at a remote location.

  18. Analysis of bioethanol samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a total sample consumption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2016-10-01

    Bioethanol real samples have been directly analyzed through ICP-MS by means of the so called High Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS). Because bioethanol samples may contain water, experiments have been carried out in order to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the ICP-MS response. The ethanol content studied went from 0 to 50%, because higher alcohol concentrations led to carbon deposits on the ICP-MS interface. The spectrometer default spray chamber (double pass) equipped with a glass concentric pneumatic micronebulizer has been taken as the reference system. Two flow regimes have been evaluated: continuous sample aspiration at 25 μL min- 1 and 5 μL air-segmented sample injection. hTISIS temperature has been shown to be critical, in fact ICP-MS sensitivity increased with this variable up to 100-200 °C depending on the solution tested. Higher chamber temperatures led to either a drop in signal or a plateau. Compared with the reference system, the hTISIS improved the sensitivities by a factor included within the 4 to 8 range while average detection limits were 6 times lower for the latter device. Regarding the influence of the ethanol concentration on sensitivity, it has been observed that an increase in the temperature was not enough to eliminate the interferences. It was also necessary to modify the torch position with respect to the ICP-MS interface to overcome them. This fact was likely due to the different extent of ion plasma radial diffusion encountered as a function of the matrix when working at high chamber temperatures. When the torch was moved 1 mm plasma down axis, ethanolic and aqueous solutions provided statistically equal sensitivities. A preconcentration procedure has been applied in order to validate the methodology. It has been found that, under optimum conditions from the point of view of matrix effects, recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100%. Furthermore, analytical concentrations for real

  19. INIS - International Nuclear Information System. CEA-users relations. Nuclear information in total freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, J.; Paillard, M.D.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J.; Lilin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This poster, prepared for the seventh edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents the principle of operation of the INIS system, based on a cooperative and decentralized preparation of the data which are centralized by the IAEA for the preparation of the INIS products: the database (on Internet and on CD/DVD-Rom), the collection of grey literature documents in full text (microfiches and CD/DVD-roms), and the multilingual thesaurus available in 7 different languages and under various formats. The poster presents these different products, and the role of the INIS members in the distribution of these products towards their national users. One insert presents the French INIS team of the CEA-Saclay and its daily work. (J.S.)

  20. Total cost of ownership of CHP SOFC systems: Effect of installation context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduino, Francesco; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are one of the most interesting between the emerging technologies for energy production. Although some information about the production cost of these devices are already known, their operational cost has not been studied yet with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of CHP (combined heat and power) SOFC systems performed in hospitals located in various cities of the US and one in Italy. In this study the strong effects of the installation context will be analyzed using a customized use phase model for each location. The cost effectiveness of these devices has been proved without credits in Mondovi (IT), New York (NY) and Minneapolis (MN) where the payback time goes from 10 to 7 years. Considering the credits, it is possible to obtain economic feasibility also in Chicago (IL) and reduce the payback for other cities to values from 4 to 6 years. In other cities like Phoenix (AZ) and Houston (TX) the payback can’t be reached in any case. The life cycle impact assessment analysis has shown how, even in the cities with cleaner electricity grid, there is a reduction in the emissions of both greenhouse gases and pollutants. - Highlights: •Life cycle cost analysis has been performed for CHP SOFC systems. •The strong effects of the installation context have been analyzed. •Economic feasibility has been proven in new york, Minneapolis and Mondovi. •Economic feasibility can’t be reached in phoenix and Houston. •SOFC always provide a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutant.

  1. Demonstration of transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy in cadaveric specimens using the Medrobotics Flex System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Emily; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav

    2017-06-01

    Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA). All procedures were completed successfully in the cadaveric models. The articulated endoscope allowed for access to the desired surgical site. Flexible instruments enabled an atraumatic approach and allowed for precise surgical technique. Access to deep anatomic structures remains problematic using current minimally invasive robotic approaches. Improvements in visualization and access to the laryngopharyngeal complex offered by this system may improve surgical applications to the larynx. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility using the Flex Robotic System for transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  3. Higher complication risk of totally implantable venous access port systems in patients with advanced cancer - a single institution retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Fang; Lo, An-Chi; Tsai, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Pei-Yi; Sun, Shen; Chang, Te-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Yuan-Shin; Chen, Jen-Ruei

    2013-02-01

    Totally implantable port systems are generally recommended for prolonged central venous access in diverse settings, but their risk of complications remains unclear for patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of port system failure in patients with advanced cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a comprehensive cancer centre. A detailed chart review was conducted among 566 patients with 573 ports inserted during January-June, 2009 (average 345.3 catheter-days). Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate factors during insertion and early maintenance that could lead to premature removal of the port systems due to infection or occlusion. Port system-related infection was significantly associated with receiving palliative care immediately after implantation (hazard ratio, HR = 7.3, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 1.2-46.0), after adjusting for probable confounders. Primary cancer site also impacted the occurrence of device-related infection. Receiving oncologic/palliative care (HR = 3.0, P = 0.064), advanced cancer stage (HR = 6.5, P = 0.077) and body surface area above 1.71 m(2) (HR = 3.4, P = 0.029) increased the risk of port system occlusion. Our study indicates that totally implantable port systems yield a higher risk of complications in terminally ill patients. Further investigation should be carefully conducted to compare outcomes of various central venous access devices in patients with advanced cancer and to develop preventive strategies against catheter failure.

  4. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy's Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program's life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Managing Your Mathematics Program: A Total System. A Guide to the U-SAIL Basic Mathematics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Carma M.; Jones, Maurine E.

    The Utah System Approach to Individual Learning (U-SAIL) Mathematics System was developed to make it possible for teachers to provide excellence in arithmetic instruction. It is based on the premise that in order to teach arithmetic well, teachers must accurately assess, teach directly, provide students with focused practice, corrective feedback,…

  6. Retention performance of green roofs in three different climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Andrew W.; Robinson, Clare E.; Smart, Charles C.; Voogt, James A.; Hay, Geoffrey J.; Lundholm, Jeremey T.; Powers, Brandon; O'Carroll, Denis M.

    2016-11-01

    Green roofs are becoming increasingly popular for moderating stormwater runoff in urban areas. This study investigated the impact different climates have on the retention performance of identical green roofs installed in London Ontario (humid continental), Calgary Alberta (semi-arid, continental), and Halifax Nova Scotia (humid, maritime). Drier climates were found to have greater percent cumulative stormwater retention with Calgary (67%) having significantly better percent retention than both London (48%) and Halifax (34%). However, over the same study period the green roof in London retained the greatest depth of stormwater (598 mm), followed by the green roof in Halifax (471 mm) and then Calgary (411 mm). The impact of climate was largest for medium sized storms where the antecedent moisture condition (AMC) at the beginning of a rainfall event governs retention performance. Importantly AMC was a very good predictor of stormwater retention, with similar retention at all three sites for a given AMC, emphasizing that AMC is a relevant indicator of retention performance in any climate. For large rainfall events (i.e., >45 mm) green roof average retention ranged between 16% and 29% in all cities. Overall, drier climates have superior retention due to lower AMC in the media. However, moderate and wet climates still provide substantial total volume reduction benefits.

  7. A new phenomenon in the prenatal effects of harmful agents: total system teratogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filyushkin, I.V.; Ignatov, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the mechanism of induction of minor teratogenic effects were performed. Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of minor teratogenesis have utilized reliable facts, well established concepts of biomedical science, and also categories and language of the theory of complex systems. To check theoretical statement in the experiments 889 baby rats were obtained. Of them, 487 were prenatally irradiated with 2 Gy of gamma rays and 402 were nonirradiated controls. Indices of the CNS development indices of the immunity status development and indices of the endocrine development were studied along the course of postnatal development of prenatally irradiated rats comparatively to controls, with loading test also being used, such as sensitization with allogeneic protein, immobilization stress and acute irradiation. A mechanism through which prenatal exposure to radiation and any other agent affecting physical embryonic development leads to congenital CNS deficiencies is found theoretically and confirmed in animal experiment. In the frame of this mechanism, the ultimate effect of prenatal exposure to a deleterious agent is the distortion of the structure of the neuroimmunoendocrine regulation of a postnatal organism in the direction of the excessive development of is endocrine component and the (ontogenetically) successive coadaptive under development of nervous and immune components. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. [Mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. Extravasation mucoceles (mucus granulomas) and retention mucoceles (mucus retention cysts) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, G; Donath, K; von Gumberz, C

    1981-06-01

    360 cases of salivary glands cysts (= 6%) were collected in the Salivary Glands Register (Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg) from 1965 until 1979 among a total of 5739 register cases. 273 cases of the cystic lesions (= 76%) were mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. The analysis of these 273 cases revealed the following results: 1. Two types of mucoceles can be morphologically distinguished: extravasation mucoceles and retention mucoceles. 2. The extravasation mucocele is in our material (240 cases = 88.7%) the most frequent type of mucocele. The term "extravasation mucocele" of the anglo-american literature is identical with the term "mucus granuloma" ("Schleimgranulom") introduced by Hamperl (1932). 3. The main signs of the mucus granulomas are: predominant location (79%) at the lower lip, age peak in the 2nd decade and more frequent occurrence (in 60%) in the male sex. 4. Three stages of development can be distinguished in the pathogenesis of the mucus granulomas: an initial stage (interstitial mucus lakes), a resorption stage (mucus granulomas with macrophages, foam cells and foreign bodies giant cells) and a terminal stage with the development of a pseudocyst (capsule of collagen tissue, no epithelial demarcation). 5. The retention mucocele (synonym: mucus retention cyst) is a rare type of mucocele (33 cases = 11.3%). The main signs are: nearly equal occurrence in all oral regions, age peak in the 8th decade, moderate predominance of the female sex. 6. The retention mucoceles contain viscous mucous material, possess always an epithelial demarcation of the cysts differentiated analogous to the different segments of the salivary duct system and show as a rule no inflammatory reaction compared with the extravasation mucoceles. 7. Microtraumas and mucus congestions play the important role in the development of the extravasation mucocele. The final formation depends on the amount of the overflowed mucus and the intensity of the mucus phagocytosis. 8

  9. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  10. The experience of totally endoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the robotic system «Da Vinci» in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, V. U.; Alsov, S. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Mikheenko, I. L.; Chernyavsky, A. M.; Malakhov, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    A new technology - a thoracoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the use of Da Vinci robotic system in Russia is represented by the experience of NRICP. The technology was introduced in Russia in 2011. Overall, one hundred endoscopic coronary artery bypass procedures were performed. We have compared and analyzed results of coronary artery stenting vs minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. According to the results, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting has several advantages over alternative treatment strategies.

  11. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  12. Iron telluride nanorods-based system for the detection of total mercury in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prathik; Lin, Zong-Hong [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chi-Te [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Huan-Tsung, E-mail: changht@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Elucidation of the detection of mercury using iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs), and dose-response curve for varying concentrations of Hg{sup 2+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs) are prepared from tellurium nanowires (Te NWs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury telluride nanorods (HgTe NRs) form by cation exchange reaction of FeTe NRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+} ions released catalyze the oxidation of ABTS by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury is effectively determined in blood with an LOD of 1.31 nM at S/N ratio 3. - Abstract: We have developed a simple, colorimetric iron telluride (FeTe) nanorods (NRs) based system for the detection of mercury, mainly based on the cation exchange reaction between FeTe NRs and Hg{sup 2+}. FeTe NRs (length, 105 {+-} 21 nm) react with Hg{sup 2+} to form HgTe NRs (length, 112 {+-} 26 nm) and consequently release Fe{sup 2+} ions that catalyzes the oxidation between a peroxidase substrate 2,2 Prime -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The concentration of Fe{sup 2+} and thereby Hg{sup 2+} can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the ABTS oxidized product at 418 nm. This approach allows the detection of Hg{sup 2+}, with a limit of detection of 1.31 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio 3 and a linear range 5-100 nM (R{sup 2} = 0.99). The low-cost, simple, sensitive, and reproducible assay has been validated for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in a blood sample (SRM 955c), with the result being in good agreement with that provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1981 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this research, studies are conducted relative to the time point, form, and magnitude of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's total energy system. The research aims to construct a hydrogen energy total system consisting of hydrogen energy subsystems to be available in the future and to clearly define the stage at which transfer to the target system will be carried out. In the research for fiscal 1981, studies continue about the feasibility of hydrogen as automobile and aviation fuels and as a material for use in chemical engineering, about conversion into each other of hydrogen and various synthetic fuels and electric power with which hydrogen will have to compete in the domain into which it will be supplied, and about technologies of their utilization for comparison between such energies in the search for their interchangeability. Surveys are conducted on technical data about local energies. The Yakushima island is chosen, for instance, and a conceptual hydrogen energy base is constructed there and the cost for the construction is estimated. At the last part, the feasibility of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's energy system in the future is discussed for assessment. (NEDO)

  14. Spreading Sequence Design for Multiple Cell Synchronous DS-CDMA Systems under Total Weighted Squared Correlation Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotae Paul

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for designing spreading sequences for an overloaded multicellular synchronous DS-CDMA system on uplink is introduced. The criterion used to measure the optimality of the design is the total weighted square correlation (TWSC assuming the channel state information known perfectly at both transmitter and receiver. By using this algorithm it is possible to obtain orthogonal generalized WBE sequences sets for any processing gain. The bandwidth of initial generalized WBE signals of each cell is preserved in the extended signal space associated to multicellular system. Mathematical formalism is illustrated by selected numerical examples.

  15. A totally automated data acquisition/reduction system for routine treatment of mass spectroscopic data by factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tway, P.C.; Love, L.J.C.; Woodruff, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Target transformation factor analysis is applied to typical data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid-probe mass spectrometry to determine rapidly the number of components in unresolved or partially resolved peaks. This technique allows the detection of hidden impurities which often make interpretation or quantification impossible. The error theory of Malinowski is used to assess the reliability of the results. The totally automated system uses a commercially available g.c.-m.s. data system interfaced to the large computer, and the number of components under a peak can be determined routinely and rapidly. (Auth.)

  16. Socio-ecological Niches for Minimum Tillage and Crop-residue Retention in Continuous Maize Cropping Systems in Smallholder Farms of Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guto, S.N.; Pypers, P.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil fertility gradients develop on smallholder farms due to preferential allocation of inputs. A multi-location on-farm trial was conducted in Meru South, Central Kenya whose overall aim was to test minimum tillage and crop-residue retention practices in socio-ecological niches across heterogeneous

  17. Operation of the main feedwater system turbopump following plant trip with total failure of the auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas Alvaro, A.M. de; Rosa Martinez, B. de la; Alcaide, F.; Toledano Camara, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Auxiliary Feedwater System (AF) is a safeguard system which has been designed to supply feedwater to the steam generators, cool the primary system and remove decay heat from the reactor when the main feedwater pumps fail due to loss of power or any other reason. Thus, when plant trip occurs, the AF system pumps start up automatically, allowing removal of decay heat from the reactor. However, even though this system (2 motor-driven pumps and 1 turbopump) is highly reliable, injection of water to the steam generators must be ensured when it fails completely. To do this, if plant trip has not been caused by loss of off site power or failure of the Main Feedwater System (FW) turbopumps, one of these turbopumps can be used to achieve removal of decay heat. Since a large amount of steam is consumed by these turbopumps, an analysis has been performed to determine whether one of these pumps can be used and what actions are necessary to inject water into the steam generators. Results show that, for the case in question, a FW turbopump can be used to remove decay heat from the reactor. (author)

  18. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  19. Performance analysis of a direct expansion air dehumidification system combined with membrane-based total heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Cai-Hang; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Pei, Li-Xia [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A direct expansion (DX) air dehumidification system is an efficient way to supply fresh and dry air to a built environment. It plays a key role in preventing the spread of respiratory disease like Swine flu (H1N1). To improve the efficiency of a conventional DX system in hot and humid regions, a new system of DX in combination with a membrane-based total heat exchanger is proposed. Air is supplied with dew points. A detailed mathematical modeling is performed. A cell-by-cell simulation technique is used to simulate its performances. A real prototype is built in our laboratory in South China University of Technology to validate the model. The effects of inlet air humidity and temperature, evaporator and condenser sizes on the system performance are investigated. The results indicate that the model can predict the system accurately. Compared to a conventional DX system, the air dehumidification rate (ADR) of the novel system is 0.5 times higher, and the coefficient of performance (COP) is 1 times higher. Furthermore, the system performs well even under harsh hot and humid weather conditions. (author)

  20. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Studies on a hydrogen energy total system; 1978 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Analysis was made on timing, patterns and scales of introducing hydrogen energy into the Japan's total energy system, and case studies were made on transfer of the comprehensive systems that can be realized in the years of 1985, 2000 and 2025. The basic conception for the analytic method employed a method to analyze and present theoretically the conditions in which prerequisites or results of the estimation can be established, rather than intending elucidation of the estimation itself. An energy model was used for the theoretical means thereof. The objective function to be optimized was assumed to maximize (estimate over the planned period of time) the total effectiveness of the hydrogen energy system converted into the present value being given appropriate discount. The economic performance measures for different secondary energies working as the comparison measures are the limiting production cost of each energy. A consideration was given to the point that the electrolytic hydrogen cannot compete with that made by using the thermo-chemical method (if developed successfully) using heat from high-temperature gas reactor if the fossil fuel price rises sharply. Considerations are also required in replaceability of hydrogen energy with other energies, and hydrogen utilization in petroleum refining. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of nonmetallic material recycling promotion technology (demonstration test and research, total system technology); 2000 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jissho shiken kenkyu, total system gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on advanced recycling technology for aluminum and base metal/rare metal based materials, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the research of aluminum recycling technology, on a continuous fractional crystallization process and a purification by zinc removal process, the existing facilities for each demonstrated that they could simulate an aluminum scrap melting process capacity of 1,000 t/month, with a series of initial conditions determined. In the research of total system technology, combined test facilities were completed in which a purification process and a melt cleaning process were integrated. In the research of the recycling technology for base metal/rare metal based materials, a test was carried out by demonstrative facilities, with the aim of establishing copper regeneration technology in which high grade copper is produced using metal/resin based scraps such as shredder dust of automobiles as the materials. In structuring the total system technology, a preliminary survey and environmental load measures were carried out toward the practicability of a comprehensive copper metal collection recycling system. (NEDO)

  2. Calculation of retention time tolerance windows with absolute confidence from shared liquid chromatographic retention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T

    2015-09-18

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user's system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called "retention projection" was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of One-On Analysis to Evaluate Total System Performance of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Lee, K.P.; Mehta, S.; Sevougian, S.D.; Kalinich, D.; McNeish, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the future performance of the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. Using the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model, a stylized analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of natural and engineered barriers to movement of radionuclides from the proposed repository. These stylized ''one-on'' analyses consist of sequentially adding features, components, and processes, associated with the natural and engineered barriers, incorporated within the TSPA model and evaluating the effect of these elements on repository performance, as measured by the total mean annual dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The analyses are ''stylized'' in the sense that they are performed to gain insight only. They are not meant to represent a real physical system in most cases, and in some cases allow the TSPA model to simulate results using parameter ranges outside the normal bounds of the TSPA model. In particular, the analyses provide insight into the relative contributions of repository features and processes in a way that is not possible using the full TSPA performance-assessment model. For example, in the nominal scenario of the TSPA model, the contribution of the natural system is masked by the contribution of the engineered system

  4. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  5. Effects of fire ash on soil water retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the pronounced effect of fire on soil hydrological systems, information on the direct effect of fire on soil water retention characteristics is limited and contradictory. To increase understanding in this area, the effect of fire on soil water retention was evaluated using laboratory burning

  6. 48 CFR 2152.215-70 - Contractor records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor records... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.215-70 Contractor records retention. As prescribed in 2115.071, insert the following clause: Contractor Records Retention (OCT 2005...

  7. 48 CFR 1652.204-70 - Contractor records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor records... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.204-70 Contractor records retention. As prescribed in 1604.705 the following clause will be inserted in all FEHB Program contracts. Contractor Records Retention (JUL 2005...

  8. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on different retention times in the anaerobic fermentation of slurry from poultry droppings and cassava peels. The system adopted in this work was batch-type. Daily gas production fell slightly from 130 to 32 litres as retention time was increased from 10 to 40 days for poultry droppings. For cassava ...

  9. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  10. Total aircraft flight-control system - Balanced open- and closed-loop control with dynamic trim maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of the airborne digital computer has made possible a Total Aircraft Flight Control System (TAFCOS) that uses virtually the complete nonlinear propulsive and aerodynamic data for the aircraft to construct dynamic trim maps that represent an inversion of the aircraft model. The trim maps, in series with the aircraft, provide essentially a linear feed-forward path. Basically, open-loop trajectory control is employed with only a small perturbation feedback signal required to compensate for inaccuracy in the aircraft model and for external disturbances. Simulation results for application to an automatic carrier-landing system are presented. Flight-test results for a STOL aircraft operating automatically over a major portion of its flight regime are presented. The concept promises a more rapid and straightforward design from aerodynamic principles, particularly for highly nonlinear configurations, and requires substantially less digital computer capacity than conventional automatic flight-control system designs.

  11. A Computer Navigation System Analysis of the Accuracy of the Extramedullary (Tibial Alignment Technique in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Chee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In total knee arthroplasty, mechanical alignment guides have improved the accuracy of implant alignment, but errors are not uncommon. In the present study, an image-free computer-assisted navigation system was used to analyse the accuracy of an extramedullary (tibial alignment system, which is based on predetermined, fixed anatomical landmarks. Comparisons were made between two surgeons, with different levels of competency in order to determine if experience affected the accuracy of extramedullary tibial jig placement, in either the coronal and sagittal planes or both planes. The results showed that the accuracy of the extramedullary tibial alignment system, in the coronal plane (in up to 80-87% of cases was much better than for posterior slope, and sagittal plane. Surgeon experience was not a significant factor.

  12. Modeling Coast Redwood Variable Retention Management Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Kevin O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Variable retention is a flexible silvicultural system that provides forest managers with an alternative to clearcutting. While much of the standing volume is removed in one harvesting operation, residual stems are retained to provide structural complexity and wildlife habitat functions, or to accrue volume before removal during subsequent stand entries. The residual...

  13. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs

  14. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Leslie R M; Brandt, Cynthia A; Carroll, Constance M; Fenton, Brenda T; Ibrahim, Said A; Becker, William C; Burgess, Diana J; Wandner, Laura D; Bair, Matthew J; Goulet, Joseph L

    2017-08-01

    To examine black-white and Hispanic-white differences in total knee arthroplasty from 2001 to 2013 in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Data were from the VA Musculoskeletal Disorders cohort, which includes data from electronic health records of more than 5.4 million veterans with musculoskeletal disorders diagnoses. We included white (non-Hispanic), black (non-Hispanic), and Hispanic (any race) veterans, age ≥50 years, with an OA diagnosis from 2001-2011 (n = 539,841). Veterans were followed from their first OA diagnosis until September 30, 2013. As a proxy for increased clinical severity, analyses were also conducted for a subsample restricted to those who saw an orthopedic or rheumatology specialist (n = 148,844). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine racial and ethnic differences in total knee arthroplasty by year of OA diagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical and mental diagnoses, and pain intensity scores. We identified 12,087 total knee arthroplasty procedures in a sample of 473,170 white, 50,172 black, and 16,499 Hispanic veterans. In adjusted models examining black-white and Hispanic-white differences by year of OA diagnosis, total knee arthroplasty rates were lower for black than for white veterans diagnosed in all but 2 years. There were no Hispanic-white differences regardless of when diagnosis occurred. These patterns held in the specialty clinic subsample. Black-white differences in total knee arthroplasty appear to be persistent in the VA, even after controlling for potential clinical confounders. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  16. A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes with Regular- and Low-Profile Totally Implanted Central Venous Port Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin; Steitparth, Florian; Cho, Chie Hee; Benter, Thomas; Gebauer, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether low-profile totally implanted central venous port systems can reduce the late complication of skin perforation. Forty patients (age, 57 ± 13 years; 22 females, 18 males) were randomized for the implantation of a low-profile port system, and another 40 patients (age, 61 ± 14 years; 24 females, 16 males) received a regular port system as control group. Indications for port catheter implantation were malignant disease requiring chemotherapy. All port implantations were performed in the angiography suite using sonographically guided central venous puncture and fluoroscopic guidance of the catheter placement. Procedure time, number of complications (procedure-related immediate, early, and late complications), and number of explantations were assessed. Follow-up was performed for 6 months. All port implantations were successfully completed in both study groups. There were two incidents of skin perforation observed in the control group. One skin perforation occurred 13 weeks and the other 16 weeks after port implantation (incidence, 5%) in patients with regular-profile port systems. Two infections were observed, one port infection in each study group. Both infections were characterized as catheter-related infections (infection rate: 0.15 catheter-related infections per 1000 catheter days). In conclusion, low-profile port systems can be placed as safely as traditional chest ports and reduce the risk of developing skin perforations, which occurs when the port system is too tight within the port pocket.

  17. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  18. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard; Arabshahi, H.; Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al x Ga (1−x) As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: ► OptiOptical Non-Linear. ► Total Effective Length. ► Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm ► Schrödinger equation solution. ► Nanostructure.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of tibial bone adaptation after revision total knee arthroplasty: A comparison of different implant systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Quilez

    Full Text Available The best methods to manage tibial bone defects following total knee arthroplasty remain under debate. Different fixation systems exist to help surgeons reconstruct knee osseous bone loss (such as tantalum cones, cement, modular metal augments, autografts, allografts and porous metaphyseal sleeves However, the effects of the various solutions on the long-term outcome remain unknown. In the present work, a bone remodeling mathematical model was used to predict bone remodeling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA revision. Five different types of prostheses were analyzed: one with a straight stem; two with offset stems, with and without supplements; and two with sleeves, with and without stems. Alterations in tibia bone density distribution and implant Von Mises stresses were quantified. In all cases, the bone density decreased in the proximal epiphysis and medullary channels, and an increase in bone density was predicted in the diaphysis and around stem tips. The highest bone resorption was predicted for the offset prosthesis without the supplement, and the highest bone formation was computed for the straight stem. The highest Von Mises stress was obtained for the straight tibial stem, and the lowest was observed for the stemless metaphyseal sleeves prosthesis. The computational model predicted different behaviors among the five systems. We were able to demonstrate the importance of choosing an adequate revision system and that in silico models may help surgeons choose patient-specific treatments.

  20. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  1. Development of total quality management technology for the establishment of better-quality R and D system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lim, Kap Soon; Chang, Ho Il; Kim, Sung Ki; Kim, Jong Suk; Nam, Ji Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Lim, Nam Jin; Cho, Moon Sung; Choi, Se Jin

    1996-01-01

    The existing total quality management technology(TGMT) has been surveyed to establish R and D quality system by upgrading such TGMT and deploying the concept of quality management. However, there has been a variety of differences on the quality management environments between R and D institutes in advanced countries and KAERI. So the case studies of quality management in advanced countries and those in domestic corporations have been analyzed. Finally, based on this analysis, the questionnaire for all KAERI staff-members has been drawn up for applying TQM to KAERI. 4 tabs., 13 figs., 21 refs. (Author)

  2. Effects of Uncertainty and Spatial Variability on Seepage into Drifts in the Yucca Mountain Total system Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinich, D. A.; Wilson, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Seepage into the repository drifts is an important factor in total-system performance. Uncertainty and spatial variability are considered in the seepage calculations. The base-case results show 13.6% of the waste packages (WPs) have seepage. For 5th percentile uncertainty, 4.5% of the WPs have seepage and the seepage flow decreased by a factor of 2. For 95th percentile uncertainty, 21.5% of the WPs have seepage and the seepage flow increased by a factor of 2. Ignoring spatial variability resulted in seepage on 100% of the WPs, with a factor of 3 increase in the seepage flow

  3. Studies on nitrogen retention in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Henckel, S; Chwalibog, André

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen retention (RN) was measured in 60 barrows of Danish Landrace and a total of 470 balance periods was carried out during the growth period from 20 to 85 kg live weight. In the first serie (Expt A) six different feed compounds of high biological value (HBV) were fed to 48 barrows, while...... in the second serie (Expt B) 12 barrows were measured on feed compounds of HBV or low biological value (LBV). Three different levels of gross energy were used in Expt B. Individual differences of 10-20% in the pigs capability for nitrogen retention were observed. Nitrogen retention increased from 12 to 21 g N....../d on the HBV-compounds and was not influenced by increasing nitrogen or energy intake. Nitrogen retention was curvilinear in relation to metabolic live weight (kg0.75) in both series. A parabolic function on kg0.75 gave the best fit to the data with the following regression equations: Expt A + B: RN, g/d = 1...

  4. Synergistic Effect of the Lactoperoxidase System and Cinnamon Essential Oil on Total Flora and Salmonella Growth Inhibition in Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz Abbes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its antibacterial and antipathogenic effects, the heat treatment of milk induces undesirable changes that can be noted in the overall properties of ultrahigh temperature (UHT milk, such as changes in nutritional and organoleptic properties. Our goal is to find new nonthermal antibacterial technologies for the preservation of raw milk (RM. This study investigates the possible synergistic effect of using a combination of the lactoperoxidase system (LS and 3 μg mL−1 of cinnamon essential oil (cinnamon EO to inactivate the total flora of milk and Salmonella Hadar (S. Hadar. The LS was activated with 30 mg L−1 sodium percarbonate and 14 mg L−1 of sodium thiocyanate. Using this approach, we obtained a synergistic effect with a complete inhibition of the activity of the total flora of the milk and S. Hadar after 12 hours at 25°C. In addition, the attainment of synergy was defined when the inhibitory effect of the two compounds together was greater than the effect observed by each compound added alone. Moreover, the monitoring of the synergistic effect at 4°C for 5 days showed complete inhibition of total flora for 3 days and for S. Hadar it was up to 5 days. To summarize, the current study clearly identified a new inhibitory combination that may be used in food-based applications.

  5. Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K. L. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Parang, M. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Landguth, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coleman, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-09-13

    TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

  6. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  7. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Third quarterly progress report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The application of Solar Total Energy System (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, etc.) in the United States is investigated. Candidate solar-thermal and solar-photovoltaic concepts are considered for providing on-site electrical power generation as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. The solar-thermal concepts include the use of solar concentrators (distributed or central-receiver) for collection of the thermal energy for conversion to electricity by means of a Rankine-cycle or Brayton-cycle power-conversion system. Recoverable waste heat from the power-generation process is utilized to help meet the building thermal-energy demand. Evaluation methodology is identified to allow ranking and/or selection of the most cost-effective concept for commercial-building applications.

  8. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscall, I.; Fox, G.H.; Orr, C.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  9. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  10. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Ziff, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  11. Implicit memory. Retention without remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, H L

    1990-09-01

    Explicit measures of human memory, such as recall or recognition, reflect conscious recollection of the past. Implicit tests of retention measure transfer (or priming) from past experience on tasks that do not require conscious recollection of recent experiences for their performance. The article reviews research on the relation between explicit and implicit memory. The evidence points to substantial differences between standard explicit and implicit tests, because many variables create dissociations between these tests. For example, although pictures are remembered better than words on explicit tests, words produce more priming than do pictures on several implicit tests. These dissociations may implicate different memory systems that subserve distinct memorial functions, but the present argument is that many dissociations can be understood by appealing to general principles that apply to both explicit and implicit tests. Phenomena studied under the rubric of implicit memory may have important implications in many other fields, including social cognition, problem solving, and cognitive development.

  12. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  13. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  14. A new three-dimensional, print-on-demand temporomandibular prosthetic total joint replacement system: Preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulis, George; Austin, Stephen; Sin Lee, Peter Vee; Ackland, David

    2018-05-16

    The aim of this study is to present the preliminary clinical data on the OMX Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prosthetic total joint replacement system. A prospective, cohort, clinical study was undertaken of consecutive adult patients with Category 5 end-stage joint disease who were implanted with the OMX TMJ prosthesis between May 2015 and April 2017. A total of 50 devices were implanted in 38 patients, with 12 patients receiving bilateral prosthetic joints. There were 31 females and 7 males in this cohort, who ranged in age from 20 to 66 years, with a mean of 43.8 years (±14.0 years). Ten of the 50 prosthetic joints (20%) were fully customized, while the remaining were patient matched using virtual planning software. Based on a mean follow-up period of 15.3 months (range 12-24 months) following the TMJ total joint replacement, preliminary results suggest the OMX TMJ prosthesis has made a positive impact on clinical outcomes, with a mean 74.4% reduction in joint pain levels and significant improvements (p < 0.05) in jaw function as measured by the visual analogue scales for mouth opening (30.8%), diet (77.1%), and function (59.2%). No device failures were reported during the study period. This study suggests that the print-on-demand OMX TMJ prosthesis, designed for rapid delivery of both patient-matched and fully customize devices, represents a safe, reliable and versatile implantable joint replacement system for the treatment of category 5 end-stage TMJ disease. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FY 1998 annual summary report on shared product life-cycle total information system. 3; 1998 nendo joho kyoyugata product lifecycle system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Recycling resources is gaining importance increasingly to correspond to global environmental problems. In urban areas, in particular, it is important to efficiently recover and recycle used large-size consumer products, e.g., home electric appliances and automobiles, which are discharged in large quantities. This study proposes a shared product life-cycle total information system, based on recognition that material recycling systems, encompassing stock materials, product production, consumption, and disposal and recycling of wastes, are essential. This system corresponds a material to information, in an attempt to realize more efficient recycling of products. The study for this fiscal year was focused on use of information modules attached to products and their members, product recycling systems using these modules, necessity for and problems involved in thermal recycle systems, problems involved in recycling home electric appliances and extraction of the data for their recycling, and material recycling process systems for home electric appliances and automobiles. (NEDO)

  16. Development and evaluation of totally implantable ventricular assist system using a vibrating flow pump and transcutaneous energy transmission system with amorphous fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, T; Hashimoto, H; Kobayashi, S; Sonobe, T; Naganuma, S; Nanka, S S; Matsuki, H; Yoshizawa, M; Tabayashi, K; Takayasu, H; Takeda, H; Nitta, S

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a vibrating flow pump (VFP) that can generate oscillated blood flow with a relatively high frequency (10-50 Hz) for a totally implantable ventricular assist system (VAS). To evaluate the newly developed VAS, left heart bypasses, using the VFP, were performed in chronic animal experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded in a data recorder in healthy adult goats during an awake condition and analyzed in a personal computer system through an alternating-direct current converter. Basic performance of the total system with a transcutaneous energy transmission system were satisfactory. During left ventricular assistance with the VFP, Mayer wave fluctuations of hemodynamics were decreased in the power spectrum, the fractal dimensions of the hemodynamics were significantly decreased, and peripheral vascular resistance was significantly decreased. These results suggest that cardiovascular regulatory nonlinear dynamics, which mediate the hemodynamics, may be affected by left ventricular bypass with oscillated flow. The decreased power of the Mayer wave in the spectrum caused the limit cycle attractor of the hemodynamics and decreased peripheral resistance. These results suggest that this newly developed VAS is useful for the totally implantable system with unique characteristics that can control hemodynamic properties.

  17. Achievement report on surveys and researches in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Surveys and researches on total energy systems; 1980 nendo total energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho yoyaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-06-01

    Identifying the energy demand system as a total system covering from energy generation to the ultimate utilization, a quantitative and theoretical analysis method was developed in achieving selection and development of long-term strategy of Japan for 50 years from about 1975 to about 2025. Development was made on a supply estimation model by using the system dynamics method, that includes international fluctuation factors in primary energy supply structure and time-based relevant elements. Improvements were made in several occasions on the demand estimation model that includes movements of Japan's industrial structures and nation's needs for living, and fluctuation factors of population configuration. Development and improvement were made on the energy flow model to link the supply side with the demand side and analyze the energy flow. In addition, efforts were made on arranging data for inputting these models (data collection, putting them in order, and processing). These models are now in the phase of practical use, and three models have also been nearly completed. Quantitative analysis will be possible if arranging the input database is continued. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Development of coal liquefaction plant (Research on total system); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika plant no kaihatsu (total system no kenkyu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For a quantitative analysis of a coal liquefaction process and its constituent sub-processes from both engineering and economic viewpoints, research is conducted for the development of a coal liquefaction process simulator. In the development of a liquefaction simulator, surveys and studies are performed relative to a coal liquefaction process, which is the object of this development effort, its system, existing like simulators, computation for the estimation of the physical properties that a liquefaction simulator should be equipped with, liquefaction yield prediction model, unit operation model, etc. Based on the results of these studies, a conceptual system design is drawn, which is the first step toward the programming of a more concrete software program. Also compiled into this book are the contents of advice and guidance provided by the total system committee in the period September 1981-February 1982 on the research for the development of a liquefaction simulator, and reports by researchers who were dispatched to the U.S. etc. for the development of a coal liquefaction simulator. (NEDO)

  19. Reliability evaluation of linear multi-state consecutively-connected systems constrained by m consecutive and n total gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huan; Yang, Jun; Peng, Rui; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends the linear multi-state consecutively-connected system (LMCCS) to the case of LMCCS-MN, where MN denotes the dual constraints of m consecutive gaps and n total gaps. All the nodes are distributed along a line and form a sequence. The distances between the adjacent nodes are usually non-uniform. The nodes except the last one can contain statistically independent multi-state connection elements (MCEs). Each MCE can provide a connection between the node at which it is located and the next nodes along the sequence. The LMCCS-MN fails if it meets either of the two constraints. The universal generating function technique is adopted to evaluate the system reliability. The optimal allocations of LMCCS-MN with two different types of failures are solved by genetic algorithm. Finally, two examples are given for the demonstration of the proposed model. - Highlights: • A new model of multi-state consecutively-connected system (LMCCS-MN) is proposed. • The non-uniform distributed nodes are involved in the proposed LMCCS-MN model. • An algorithm for system reliability evaluation is provided by the UGF method. • The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is discussed in detail. • Optimal element allocation problem is formulated and solved.

  20. Methodology used for total system performance assessment of the potential nuclear waste repository at yucca mountain (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonec, E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Mattie, P.D.; Mcneish, J.A.; Mishra, S.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates the performance of the repository when various natural or engineered barriers are assumed to be degraded. The objective of these analyses is to evaluate the performance of the potential repository system under conditions ranging from expected to highly unlikely, though physically possible conditions. (author)