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Sample records for total response rate

  1. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  2. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  3. Dependence of total dose response of bipolar linear microcircuits on applied dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, S.; Will, W.; Perry, G.; Pease, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dose rate on the total dose radiation hardness of three commercial bipolar linear microcircuits is investigated. Total dose tests of linear bipolar microcircuits show larger degradation at 0.167 rad/s than at 90 rad/s even after the high dose rate test is followed by a room temperature plus a 100 C anneal. No systematic correlation could be found for degradation at low dose rate versus high dose rate and anneal. Comparison of the low dose rate with the high dose rate anneal data indicates that MIL-STD-883, method 1019.4 is not a worst-case test method when applied to bipolar microcircuits for low dose rate space applications

  4. Utilizing the Total Design Method in medicine: maximizing response rates in long, non-incentivized, personal questionnaire postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Haggie, Rebecca; Forouhi, Parto; Kazzazi, Nazar; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Maximizing response rates in questionnaires can improve their validity and quality by reducing non-response bias. A comprehensive analysis is essential for producing reasonable conclusions in patient-reported outcome research particularly for topics of a sensitive nature. This often makes long (≥7 pages) questionnaires necessary but these have been shown to reduce response rates in mail surveys. Our work adapted the "Total Design Method," initially produced for commercial markets, to raise response rates in a long (total: 11 pages, 116 questions), non-incentivized, very personal postal survey sent to almost 350 women. A total of 346 women who had undergone mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 2008-2014 (inclusive) at Addenbrooke's University Hospital were sent our study pack (Breast-Q satisfaction questionnaire and support documents) using our modified "Total Design Method." Participants were sent packs and reminders according to our designed schedule. Of the 346 participants, we received 258 responses, an overall response rate of 74.5% with a useable response rate of 72.3%. One hundred and six responses were received before the week 1 reminder (30.6%), 120 before week 3 (34.6%), 225 before the week 7 reminder (64.6%) and the remainder within 3 weeks of the final pack being sent. The median age of patients that the survey was sent to, and the median age of the respondents, was 54 years. In this study, we have demonstrated the successful implementation of a novel approach to postal surveys. Despite the length of the questionnaire (nine pages, 116 questions) and limitations of expenses to mail a survey to ~350 women, we were able to attain a response rate of 74.6%.

  5. Water cut measurement of oil–water flow in vertical well by combining total flow rate and the response of a conductance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a conductance probe-based well logging instrument was developed and the total flow rate is combined with the response of the conductance probe to estimate the water cut of the oil–water flow in a vertical well. The conductance probe records the time-varying electrical characteristics of the oil–water flow. Linear least squares regression (LSR) and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) were used to establish models to map the total flow rate and features extracted from the probe response onto the water cut, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares analysis (PLSA) techniques were employed to reduce data redundancy within the extracted features. An experiment was carried out in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 125 mm and a height of 24 m in an experimental multi-phase flow setup, Daqing Oilfield, China. In the experiment, oil–water flow was used and the total flow rate varied from 10 to 200 m 3 per day and the water cut varied from 0% to 100%. As a direct comparison, the cases were also studied when the total flow rate was not used as an independent input to the models. The results obtained demonstrate that: (1) the addition of the total flow rate as an input to the regression models can greatly improve the accuracy of water cut prediction, (2) the nonlinear SVR model performs much better than the linear LSR model, and (3) for the SVR model with the total flow rate as an input, the adoption of PCA or PLSA not only decreases the dimensions of inputs, but also increases prediction accuracy. The SVR model with five PCA-treated features plus the total flow rate achieves the best performance in water cut prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) as high as 0.9970. The corresponding root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean quoted error (MQE) are 0.0312% and 1.99%, respectively. (paper)

  6. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  7. Theoretic simulation for CMOS device on total dose radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Baoping; Zhou Heqin; Guo Hongxia; He Chaohui; Zhou Hui; Luo Yinhong; Zhang Fengqi

    2006-01-01

    Total dose effect is simulated for C4007B, CC4007RH and CC4011 devices at different absorbed dose rate by using linear system theory. When irradiation response and dose are linear, total dose radiation and post-irradiation annealing at room temperature are determined for one random by choosing absorbed dose rate, and total dose effect at other absorbed dose rate can be predicted by using linear system theory. The simulating results agree with the experimental results at different absorbed dose rate. (authors)

  8. Immunological Responses to Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kenny; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Foster, Richard; Yang, Xuebin B

    2017-08-01

    The use of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has been continuously rising to meet the demands of the increasingly ageing population. To date, this procedure has been highly successful in relieving pain and restoring the functionality of patients' joints, and has significantly improved their quality of life. However, these implants are expected to eventually fail after 15-25 years in situ due to slow progressive inflammatory responses at the bone-implant interface. Such inflammatory responses are primarily mediated by immune cells such as macrophages, triggered by implant wear particles. As a result, aseptic loosening is the main cause for revision surgery over the mid and long-term and is responsible for more than 70% of hip revisions. In some patients with a metal-on-metal (MoM) implant, metallic implant wear particles can give rise to metal sensitivity. Therefore, engineering biomaterials, which are immunologically inert or support the healing process, require an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound-healing response to implanted materials. This review discusses the immunological response initiated by biomaterials extensively used in THA, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), cobalt chromium (CoCr), and alumina ceramics. The biological responses of these biomaterials in bulk and particulate forms are also discussed. In conclusion, the immunological responses to bulk and particulate biomaterials vary greatly depending on the implant material types, the size of particulate and its volume, and where the response to bulk forms of differing biomaterials are relatively acute and similar, while wear particles can initiate a variety of responses such as osteolysis, metal sensitivity, and so on.

  9. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  10. Airborne and total gamma absorbed dose rates at Patiala - India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfaye, Tilahun; Sahota, H.S.; Singh, K.

    1999-01-01

    The external gamma absorbed dose rate due to gamma rays originating from gamma emitting aerosols in air, is compared with the total external gamma absorbed dose rate at the Physics Department of Punjabi University, Patiala. It has been found out that the contribution, to the total external gamma absorbed dose rate, of radionuclides on particulate matter suspended in air is about 20% of the overall gamma absorbed dose rate. (author)

  11. An Analysis of Total Lightning Flash Rates Over Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Thomas O.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    2017-12-01

    Although Florida is known as the "Sunshine State", it also contains the greatest lightning flash densities in the United States. Flash density has received considerable attention in the literature, but lightning flash rate has received much less attention. We use data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) to produce a 5 year (2010-2014) set of statistics regarding total flash rates over Florida and adjacent regions. Instead of tracking individual storms, we superimpose a 0.2° × 0.2° grid over the study region and count both cloud-to-ground (CG) and in-cloud (IC) flashes over 5 min intervals. Results show that the distribution of total flash rates is highly skewed toward small values, whereas the greatest rate is 185 flashes min-1. Greatest average annual flash rates ( 3 flashes min-1) are located near Orlando. The southernmost peninsula, North Florida, and the Florida Panhandle exhibit smaller average annual flash rates ( 1.5 flashes min-1). Large flash rates > 100 flashes min-1 can occur during any season, at any time during the 24 h period, and at any location within the domain. However, they are most likely during the afternoon and early evening in East Central Florida during the spring and summer months.

  12. Sex differences in obesity associated with total fertility rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brooks

    Full Text Available The identification of biological and ecological factors that contribute to obesity may help in combating the spreading obesity crisis. Sex differences in obesity rates are particularly poorly understood. Here we show that the strong female bias in obesity in many countries is associated with high total fertility rate, which is well known to be correlated with factors such as low average income, infant mortality and female education. We also document effects of reduced access to contraception and increased inequality of income among households on obesity rates. These results are consistent with studies that implicate reproduction as a risk factor for obesity in women and that suggest the effects of reproduction interact with socioeconomic and educational factors. We discuss our results in the light of recent research in dietary ecology and the suggestion that insulin resistance during pregnancy is due to historic adaptation to protect the developing foetus during famine. Increased access to contraception and education in countries with high total fertility rate might have the additional benefit of reducing the rates of obesity in women.

  13. A note on total muon capture rates in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.

    1978-03-01

    The results of calculations of the total capture rates in heavy nuclei, into account the nucleon velocity-dependent terms in the Fujii-Primakoff Hamiltonian and the effective mass of nucleons inside the nucleus, are presented along with the recent experimental data. The results are in general agreement with experiment. However, they indicate a possible deviation from SU(4) symmetry and, in some nuclei, support the Salam-Strathdee idea of the vanishing of the Cabibbo angle at large magnetic fields.

  14. Failure rate of cemented and uncemented total hip replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makela, K. T.; Matilainen, M.; Pulkkinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    ). Participants 347 899 total hip replacements performed during 1995-2011. Main outcome measures Probability of implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis) along with implant survival with revision for any reason as endpoint (Cox multiple regression) adjusted for age, sex, and diagnosis in age groups 55-64, 65......Objective To assess the failure rate of cemented, uncemented, hybrid, and reverse hybrid total hip replacements in patients aged 55 years or older. Design Register study. Setting Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database (combined data from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland......-74, and 75 years or older. Results The proportion of total hip replacements using uncemented implants increased rapidly towards the end of the study period. The 10 year survival of cemented implants in patients aged 65 to 74 and 75 or older (93.8%, 95% confidence interval 93.6% to 94.0% and 95.9%, 95...

  15. Total gas pressure and biological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.; Prince, A.

    1999-01-01

    The total gas pressure (TGP) is a possible threat to fish populations, having a potentially lethal effect on them, but if they dive below certain depths they can avoid these effects. The spatial and temporal depth distribution of adult rainbow trout in the Columbia River below the Hugh Keenleyside (HLK) Dam was monitored, and twenty one adult rainbow trout had depth sensitive electronic tags attached to them to allow their spatial and temporal depth behavior to be tracked and recorded. Nineteen of the fish were consistently relocated after release into the Columbia River, and fish were monitored during the numerous day and night 12 hour observation periods to provide a cross section of fish behavior. With a depth benchmark determined, an experiment was carried out to manipulate TGP production levels from the HLK dam and monitor the fish behavior. TGP levels were manipulated while keeping flows downstream of the dam constant. Two groups of fish were monitored and each group of fish was monitored continuously during the specific 12 hour observation periods within each experimental session. The first session recorded fish behavior when TGP was less than 110%, the second session when TGP was elevated to over 110%, and finally, when the TGP levels were lowered back below 110%. Neither temporal nor spatial fish behavior patterns of the rainbow trout monitored appeared to be influenced by the changes in TGP, compared to that of the benchmark observations. Fish continued to hold at and feed at, or within, a 5 m depth of the surface regardless of the TGP

  16. Implementation of total responsibility management into corporate strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gorenak, Štefka; Bobek, Vito

    2012-01-01

    This contribution reports about relationship and potential synergies between the total quality management (TQM) and total responsibility management (TRM) as well as corporate citizenship. TRM principles and standards reflect the raising public expectations about corporate social responsibility. Many companies develop TRM as requisitely holistically and hence successfully manage their responsibilities toward their stakeholders and natural environment. The evolution and implementation of TRM in...

  17. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize extraction of total triterpene acids from loquat leaf and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant activities. Methods: The independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction time, and solvent ratio, while the dependent variable was content of total triterpene acids. Composite design and response ...

  18. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  20. 38 CFR 4.15 - Total disability ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be given to unusual physical or mental effects in individual cases, to peculiar effects of occupational activities, to defects in physical or mental endowment preventing the usual amount of success in overcoming the handicap of disability and to the effect of combinations of disability. Total disability will...

  1. Using "Total Physical Response" with Young Learners in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harrasi, Kothar Talib Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Among several approaches to teaching and learning a foreign language, Total Physical Response, or TPR, is one that simulates the way children naturally acquire their mother tongue. Instructors give commands to students in the new language, and students respond through gestures. This article showcases a language learning project that the Ministry…

  2. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery by Using Total Physical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrurrozi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe how Total Physical Response improves students' vocabulary learning outcomes at the third-grade elementary school Guntur 03 South Jakarta, Indonesia. This research was conducted in the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 with the number of students as many as 40 students. The method used in this research is a…

  3. Low-dose-rate total lymphoid irradiation: a new method of rapid immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.; de Silva, S.M.; Rachman, D.B.; Order, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) has been successful in inducing immunosuppression in experimental and clinical applications. However, both the experimental and clinical utility of TLI are hampered by the prolonged treatment courses required (23 days in rats and 30-60 days in humans). Low-dose-rate TLI has the potential of reducing overall treatment time while achieving comparable immunosuppression. This study examines the immunosuppressive activity and treatment toxicity of conventional-dose-rate (23 days) vs low-dose-rate (2-7 days) TLI. Seven groups of Lewis rats were given TLI with 60Co. One group was treated at conventional-dose-rates (80-110 cGy/min) and received 3400 cGy in 17 fractions over 23 days. Six groups were treated at low-dose-rate (7 cGy/min) and received total doses of 800, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3000, and 3400 cGy over 2-7 days. Rats treated at conventional-dose-rates over 23 days and at low-dose-rate over 2-7 days tolerated radiation with minimal toxicity. The level of immunosuppression was tested using allogeneic (Brown-Norway) skin graft survival. Control animals retained allogeneic skin grafts for a mean of 14 days (range 8-21 days). Conventional-dose-rate treated animals (3400 cGy in 23 days) kept their grafts 60 days (range 50-66 days) (p less than .001). Low-dose-rate treated rats (800 to 3400 cGy total dose over 2-7 days) also had prolongation of allogeneic graft survival times following TLI with a dose-response curve established. The graft survival time for the 3400 cGy low-dose-rate group (66 days, range 52-78 days) was not significantly different from the 3400 cGy conventional-dose-rate group (p less than 0.10). When the total dose given was equivalent, low-dose-rate TLI demonstrated an advantage of reduced overall treatment time compared to conventional-dose-rate TLI (7 days vs. 23 days) with no increase in toxicity

  4. Nurses' responsibilities in postoperative pain management following total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Dumolard, Pierre; Gök, Mustafa; Le, Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is the replacement of a hip joint that has been severely damaged. The operation is recommended if other treatments have not responded adequately. As the nurses are the professionals who spend the most time with patients after the surgery, they play an important role in the patient’s pain management. The aim of the thesis is to define the nurse’s responsibilities in the care of total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze existing research, which may s...

  5. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  6. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  7. Maximising nurses' and midwives' response rates to surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alannah Louise; Brown, Janie

    2017-12-18

    Low response rates to surveys have been a long-standing issue in research. This includes research involving nurses and midwives. To gain representative samples, appropriate measures to maximise response rates need to be used. To explore ways to maximise response rates from nurses and midwives, using a hospital-wide survey as an example. All nurses and midwives at the study hospital were invited to participate in a survey. To encourage participation and elicit an adequate response rate, several strategies were used. A total of 1,000 surveys were distributed and 319 (32%) were returned. All the required age groups, levels of experience and types of nursing registration were represented in the responses and data saturation was achieved. It is important to pay attention to obtaining a representative sample. Further investigation of response rates to surveys by nurses and midwives is warranted. Strategies to maximise response rates from a target population should be used when conducting surveys. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  8. Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Carpenter, Joanne S

    2011-10-01

    Four experiments used delay conditioning of magazine approach in rats to investigate the relationship between the rate of responding, R, to a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the rate, r, at which the CS is reinforced with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats were concurrently trained with four variable-duration CSs with different rs, either as a result of differences in the mean CS-US interval or in the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US. In each case, R was systematically related to r, and the relationship was very accurately characterized by a hyperbolic function, R = Ar/(r +c). Accordingly, the reciprocal of these two variables-response interval, I (= 1/R), and CS-US interval, i (= 1/r) - were related by a simple affine (straight line) transformation, I = mi+b. This latter relationship shows that each increment in the time that the rats had to wait for food produced a linear increment in the time they waited between magazine entries. We discuss the close agreement between our findings and the Matching Law (Herrnstein, 1970) and consider their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000) of conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Automatic postural response systems in individuals with congenital total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Yabe, K

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the absence of vision from birth on automatic postural responses to platform displacements during stance. Postural responses were induced by producing randomly four types of perturbations which consisted of forward and backward translations, and toe up and down rotations. Nine congenitally totally blind and nine sighted adults served as subjects. EMG signals were recorded from four muscles in the right leg, and reaction time to somatosensory stimuli generated by platform displacements was measured by pushing a hand-held button. To assess the ability to control postural balance, the root mean square (RMS) values for lateral and antero-posterior sway before, during, and after perturbations were calculated. The EMG amplitude in the gastrocnemius muscle of a blind subject was smaller than that of a sighted subject with eyes closed. No significant differences were found between blind and sighted subjects in EMG latencies of the lower extremity muscles in response to perturbations. The blind subjects had significantly faster reaction times to somatosensory stimuli triggered by platform displacements, but in toe down rotations no significant difference was found between blind and sighted subjects. The difference in the EMG latencies and reaction times between the two groups suggests that blindness from birth may not affect the spinal stretch reflex, but may affect a volitional act mediated through the motor cortex. There were also no significant differences in the RMS values for postural sway between blind and sighted subjects with eyes open or closed, although blind subjects swayed more after backward translations than did sighted subjects with eyes open. Results suggest that the ability to control postural balance during perturbations was not affected by vision loss from birth. Our findings suggest that the automatic postural response systems of humans are unaffected by the absence of vision from birth and are rather hard wired.

  10. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  11. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  12. Do illness rating systems predict discharge location, length of stay, and cost after total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Rudasill, BA

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

  13. Dose-rate dependence of thermoluminescence response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Chen, R.; Groom, P.J.; Durrani, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The previously observed dose-rate effect of thermoluminescence in quartz at high dose-rates is given at theoretical formulation. Computer calculations simulating the experimental conditions yield similar results to the experimental ones. (orig.)

  14. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2014; 13 (5): 787-792 ... surface method were used to optimize the extraction process, while antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using α ... Response surface methodology is increasingly.

  15. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  16. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  17. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  18. Impact of Total, Internal and External Government Debt on Interest Rate in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Asma; Munir, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine impact of total, internal and external government debt on nominal interest rate in Pakistan. To attain these objectives, the study used annual time series data from 1973 to 2016. The study used loanable fund theory as theoretical model and ARDL bound testing approach for cointegration and Granger causality test to estimate the results. The results of the study found negative relation between total government debt, external debt and nominal interest rat...

  19. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  20. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen......This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...

  1. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  2. Order of current variance and diffusivity in the rate one totally asymmetric zero range process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balázs, M.; Komjáthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the variance of the current across a characteristic is of order t 2/3 in a stationary constant rate totally asymmetric zero range process, and that the diffusivity has order t 1/3. This is a step towards proving universality of this scaling behavior in the class of one-dimensional

  3. High bacterial contamination rate of electrocautery tips during total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Hussein; Zahar, Akos; Lausmann, Christian; Gehrke, Thorsten; Fickenscher, Helmut; Suero, Eduardo M; Gebauer, Matthias; Citak, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the bacterial contamination rate of electrocautery tips during primary total joint replacement (TJR), as well as during aseptic and septic revision TJR. A total of 150 electrocautery tips were collected between April and July 2017. TJR surgeries were divided into three groups: (1) primary, (2) aseptic and (3) septic revisions. In each group, a total of 50 electrocautery tips were collected. A monopolar electrocautery with a reusable stainless-steel blade tip was used in all cases. The rate of bacterial contamination was determined for all groups. Correlation of exposure time and type of surgery was analyzed. The overall bacterial contamination rate was 14.7% (95% CI 9.4 to 21.4%). The highest contamination rate occurred in the septic revision group (30.0%; 95% CI 17.9 to 44.6%), followed by the primary cases group (10.0%; 95% CI 3.3 to 21.8%) and the aseptic revision group (4.0%; 95% CI 0.5 to 13.7%). Exposure time did not affect the bacterial contamination rate. In 12 out of 15 (80%) contaminations identified in the septic group, we found the same causative microorganism of the prosthetic joint infection on the electrocautery tip. The bacterial contamination of the electrocautery tips is relatively high, especially during septic hip revision arthroplasty. Electrocautery tips should be changed after debridement of infected tissue.

  4. Comparing 30-day all-cause readmission rates between tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; Ferrandino, Rocco M; Hoffman, Ryan; Ndu, Anthony; Shaffer, Gene W

    2018-01-12

    End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating condition that negatively impacts patient quality of life. Tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement are treatment options for managing ankle arthritis. Few studies have examined short term readmission rates of these two procedures. The objective of this study was compare all-cause 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing tibiotalar fusion vs. total ankle replacement. This study queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) from 2013-2014 and used international classification of disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) procedure codes to identify all patients who underwent a tibiotalar fusion or a total ankle replacement. Comorbidities, insurance status, hospital characteristics, and readmission rates were statistically compared between the two cohorts. Risk factors were then identified for 30-day readmission. A total of 5660 patients were analyzed with 2667 in the tibiotalar fusion cohort and 2993 in the total ankle replacement cohort. Univariate analysis revealed that the readmission rate after tibiotalar fusion (4.4%) was statistically greater than after total ankle replacement (1.4%). Multivariable regression analysis indicated that deficiency anemia (OR 2.18), coagulopathy (OR 3.51), renal failure (OR 2.83), other insurance relative to private (OR 3.40), and tibiotalar fusion (OR 2.51) were all statistically significant independent risk factors for having a readmission within 30-days. These findings suggest that during the short-term period following discharge from the hospital, patients who received a tibiotalar fusion are more likely to experience a 30-day readmission. These findings are important for decision making when a surgeon encounters a patient with end stage ankle arthritis. Level III, cohort study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The impact of the total tax rate reduction on public services provided in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TRANDAFIR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic globalization, governments tend to take tax measures disadvantageous to society in order to increase the attractiveness of the business environment. A common measures for this purpose is the reduction in tax rate. According to the classical theory of tax competition such measure leads to under the provision of public goods. This article aims to show, through an econometric analysis, whether in Romania, in the period 2006-2013, reducing total tax rate had a negative impact on public services. For this, using linear regression technique, the article analysed the correlation between total tax rate and the variation in the share of the main public service spending in GDP.

  6. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  7. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  8. Dose rate and dose fractionation studies in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Schaffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) with 800-900 rads and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation according to the regimen designated by the Seattle group has induced remissions in patients with otherwise refractory acute leukemias. Relapse of leukemia after bone marrow transplantation remains the major problem, when the Seattle set up of two opposing 60 Co-sources and a low dose rate is used in TBI. Studies in dogs with TBI at various dose rates confirmed observations in mice that gastrointestinal toxicity is unlike toxicity against hemopoietic stem cells and possibly also leukemic stem cells depending on the dose rate. However, following very high single doses (2400 R) and marrow infusion acute gastrointestinal toxicity was not prevented by the lowest dose rate studied (0.5 R/min). Fractionated TBI with fractions of 600 R in addition to 1200 R (1000 rads) permitted the application of total doses up to 300 R followed by marrow infusion without irreversible toxicity. 26 dogs given 2400-3000 R have been observed for presently up to 2 years with regard to delayed radiation toxicity. This toxicity was mild in dogs given single doses at a low dose rate or fractionated TBI. Fractionated TBI is presently evaluated with allogeneic transplants in the dog before being applied to leukemic patients

  9. Quantitative estimation of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in neuroblastoma. Usefulness of the total body retention rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio; Ushijima, Yo; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nishimura, Tunehiko

    2000-01-01

    A new method of easily and simply quantifying 123 I-MIBG accumulation as a criterion for curative effect of chemotherapy in infants with neuroblastoma was developed. This method uses the data from two images: an early image (at 5-7.5 hr) and a delayed image (at 25-32 hr). Twenty infants with untreated neuroblastoma which showed clear accumulation of 123 I-MIBG at the primary site were examined. The differences between the accumulation counts on the early image and the delayed image showed that washout of 123 I-MIBG in the neuroblastomas was delayed in tumor regions. This finding indicated that the total body 123 I-MIBG retention rate reflects the total volume of the neuroblastoma. The 123 I-MIBG retention rate was significantly higher in patients with advanced stage neuroblastoma with systemic metastases, and there was a good correlation between the retention rate and tumor markers (VMA and HVA values in urine). The response to chemotherapy paralleled the change in markers. These results suggested that the total body 123 I-MIBG retention rate is useful as a criterion for curative effect in advanced neuroblastoma. (K.H.)

  10. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... offer a cost-effective alternative for gas treatment. In this study, the OLAND application thus was broadened toward ammonia loaded gaseous streams. A down flow, oxygen-saturated biofilter (height of 1.5 m; diameter of 0.11 m) was fed with an ammonia gas stream (248 ± 10 ppmv) at a loading rate of 0...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  11. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  13. Wenckebach upper rate response in single chamber pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S S

    2000-07-01

    The Medtronic Minix pacemaker during normal function in the VVT mode was found to exhibit a Wenckenbach upper rate response similar to that of dual chamber devices. This behavior occurred only when the upper rate interval was longer than the pacemaker refractory period. In a single chamber device this response may simulate pacemaker malfunction.

  14. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  15. Relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculation of total muon capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketin, T.; Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of total muon capture rates on a large set of nuclei from 12 C to 244 Pu, for which experimental values are available. The microscopic theoretical framework is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model for the nuclear ground state, and transitions to excited states are calculated using the pn-RQRPA. The calculation is fully consistent, i.e., the same interactions are used both in the RHB equations that determine the quasiparticle basis, and in the matrix equations of the pn-RQRPA. The calculated capture rates are sensitive to the in-medium quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant. By reducing this constant from its free-nucleon value g A =1.262 by 10% for all multipole transitions, the calculation reproduces the experimental muon capture rates to better than 10% accuracy.

  16. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  17. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative pain response to heat stimulation in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-09-01

    It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. This study aimed to explore whether 2 heat test paradigms could predict postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients scheduled for elective, unilateral, primary TKA under spinal anesthesia were consecutively included in this prospective, observational study. Perioperative analgesia was standardized for all patients. Outcomes were postoperative pain during walk: from 6 to 24 hours (primary), from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 7 (secondary), and from POD 14 to 30 (tertiary). Two preoperative tonic heat stimuli with 47°C were used; short (5 seconds) and long (7 minutes) stimulation upon which patients rated their pain response on an electronic visual analog scale. Multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regressions analyses were carried out, including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety, depression, preoperative pain, and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as an independent predictor for postoperative pain. A total of 100 patients were included, and 3 were later excluded. A weak correlation [rho (95% confidence interval); P value] was observed between pain from POD 1 to 7 and pain response to short [rho=0.25(0.04 to 0.44); P=.02] and to long [rho=0.27 (0.07 to 0.46); P=.01] heat pain stimulation. However, these positive correlations were not supported by the linear and logistic regression analyses, in which only anxiety, preoperative pain, and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-squares; 0.05 to 0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinically relevant predictors for postoperative pain after TKA. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of

  18. Rate and Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Among 36,494 Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios K; Soranoglou, Vasileios G; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Sculco, Thomas P; Poultsides, Lazaros A

    2018-04-01

    As periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can have tremendous health and socioeconomic implications, recognizing patients at risk before surgery is of great importance. Therefore, we sought to determine the rate of and risk factors for deep PJI in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical characteristics of patients treated with primary THA between January 1999 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. These included patient demographics, comorbidities (including the Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index), length of stay, primary diagnosis, total/allogeneic transfusion rate, and in-hospital complications, which were grouped into local and systemic (minor and major). We determined the overall deep PJI rate, as well as the rates for early-onset (occurring within 2 years after index surgery) and late-onset PJI (occurring more than 2 years after surgery). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for developing deep PJI. Significance level was set at 0.05. A deep PJI developed in 154 of 36,494 primary THAs (0.4%) during the study period. Early onset PJI was found in 122 patients (0.3%), whereas late PJI occurred in 32 patients (0.1%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary hypertension were identified as independent risk factors for deep PJI after primary THA. The rate of deep PJIs of the hip is relatively low, with the majority occurring within 2 years after THA. If the optimization of modifiable risk factors before THA can reduce the rate of this complication remains unknown, but should be attempted as part of good practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  20. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-11-11

    Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p total peroxide level and mean oxidative stress index were higher (all p total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  1. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  2. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  3. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    to both mixed modes. The total cost of the online survey was 38% lower than simultaneous mixed mode and 22% lower than sequential mixed mode. The cost of the sequential mixed mode was 14% lower than simultaneous mixed mode. Compared to the online mode, the sequential mixed mode was the most cost-effective, although exhibiting some evidence of response bias. Conclusions Decisions on which survey mode to use depend on response rates, response bias, item non-response and costs. The sequential mixed mode appears to be the most cost-effective mode of survey administration for surveys of the population of doctors, if one is prepared to accept a degree of response bias. Online surveys are not yet suitable to be used exclusively for surveys of the doctor population.

  4. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifakiogullari Serpil

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Results Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p In subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis score was significantly correlated with total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05. Conclusion Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  5. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  6. Total skin high-dose-rate electron therapy dosimetry using TG-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Sharma, Subhash C.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to dosimetry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) is discussed using the currently accepted TG-51 high-energy calibration protocol. The methodology incorporates water phantom data for absolute calibration and plastic phantom data for efficient reference dosimetry. The scheme is simplified to include the high-dose-rate mode conversion and provides support for its use, as it becomes more available on newer linear accelerators. Using a 6-field, modified Stanford technique, one may follow the process for accurate determination of absorbed dose

  7. [Rates of total and free PSA prescriptions in France (2012-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Leboucher, Claire; Peyre-Lanquar, Gabrielle; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gabach, Pierre; Rébillard, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    In 2010, the French Haute Autorité de santé (National Health Authority) confirmed the limited value of prostate cancer (PCa) screening by total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay. This study was designed to determine the modalities of ordering total PSA or free PSA assays (in the absence of PCa) according to various parameters and the corresponding sums reimbursed. Men aged 40 years and older covered by the national health insurance general scheme (73% of the French population) between 2012 and 2014 were selected. Data were derived from the Système national d'information inter-régimes de l'assurance maladie (Sniiram) (National health insurance information system) database. In 2014, 27% of the 11.6 million men 40 years and older underwent at least one total PSA assay and 5.6% underwent at least one free PSA assay, with marked variations according to the presence or absence of treated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (53% and 15% vs 24% and 5%) and from one administrative department to another. The peak total PSA assay rate was observed between the ages of 65 and 74 years: 64% of men with LUTS, 46% without LUTS. Between 2012 and 2014, men in whom at least one PSA assay had been performed underwent a mean of 1.8 total PSA assays and 1.7 free PSA assays, with means of 2.3 and 2, respectively, in the presence of LUTS. General practice specialists ordered 91% of the PSA tests reimbursed in 2014 (92% for total PSA and 87% for free PSA) and urologists ordered 4% of reimbursed tests. The total sum reimbursed was €28.5 million, comprising €8.7 million for free PSA. An average of 10 laboratory tests was performed at the same time as the PSA assay in the absence of treated LUTS. Total PSA and free PSA assays are performed in a large number of men, although the value of these tests as first-line test before biopsy remains controversial. These PSA assays are associated with many other laboratory tests looking for possible abnormalities, especially in younger

  8. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures.

  9. Improving completion rates in adult education through social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... of reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  10. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  11. Relationship Between Partial and Total Responses to Advertising with Application to U.S. Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Myrland, Oystein

    2002-01-01

    Buse’s concept of total response is extended to advertising effects. Results suggest that partial advertising elasticities overstate advertising’s ability to increase market demand. One implication is that advertising bans (e.g., for alcohol and tobacco) are apt to be less effective than indicated by partial advertising elasticities estimated from econometric models. Extending the concept of total response to price effects, the total advertising “flexibility” sets the lower bound on the optim...

  12. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  13. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  14. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  15. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  16. Effects of various methodologic strategies: survey response rates among Canadian physicians and physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava-Gubins, Inese; Scott, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    To increase the overall 2007 response rate of the National Physician Survey (NPS) from the survey's 2004 rate of response with the implementation of various methodologic strategies. Physicians were stratified to receive either a long version (12 pages) or a short version (6 pages) of the survey (38% and 62%, respectively). Mixed modes of contact were used-58% were contacted by e-mail and 42% by regular mail-with multiple modes of contact attempted for nonrespondents. The self-administered, confidential surveys were distributed in either English or French. Medical residents and students received e-mail surveys only and were offered a substantial monetary lottery incentive for completing their surveys. A professional communications firm assisted in marketing the survey and delivered advance notification of its impending distribution. Canada. A total of 62 441 practising physicians, 2627 second-year medical residents, and 9162 medical students in Canada. Of the practising physicians group, 60 811 participants were eligible and 19 239 replied, for an overall 2007 study response rate of 31.64% (compared with 35.85% in 2004). No difference in rate of response was found between the longer and shorter versions of the survey. If contacted by regular mail, the response rate was 34.1%; the e-mail group had a response rate of 29.9%. Medical student and resident response rates were 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively (compared with 31.2% and 35.6% in 2004). Despite shortening the questionnaires, contacting more physicians by e-mail, and enhancing marketing and follow-up, the 2007 NPS response rate for practising physicians did not surpass the 2004 NPS response rate. Offering a monetary lottery incentive to medical residents and students was also unsuccessful in increasing their response rates. The role of surveys in gathering information from physicians and physicians-in-training remains problematic. Researchers need to investigate alternative strategies for achieving higher rates of

  17. A parsimonious characterization of change in global age-specific and total fertility rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand trends in global fertility from 1950-2010 though the analysis of age-specific fertility rates. This approach incorporates both the overall level, as when the total fertility rate is modeled, and different patterns of age-specific fertility to examine the relationship between changes in age-specific fertility and fertility decline. Singular value decomposition is used to capture the variation in age-specific fertility curves while reducing the number of dimensions, allowing curves to be described nearly fully with three parameters. Regional patterns and trends over time are evident in parameter values, suggesting this method provides a useful tool for considering fertility decline globally. The second and third parameters were analyzed using model-based clustering to examine patterns of age-specific fertility over time and place; four clusters were obtained. A country’s demographic transition can be traced through time by membership in the different clusters, and regional patterns in the trajectories through time and with fertility decline are identified. PMID:29377899

  18. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  19. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  20. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  1. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions (a... loan cost rate for various transactions, as well as instructions, explanations, and examples for.... (2) Term of the transaction. For purposes of total annual loan cost disclosures, the term of a...

  2. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  3. Oil flow rate measurements using 198Au and total count technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Eduardo R.; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2013-01-01

    In industrial plants, oil and oil compounds are usually transported by closed pipelines with circular cross-section. The use of radiotracers in oil transport and processing industrial facilities allows calibrating flowmeters, measuring mean residence time in cracking columns, locate points of obstruction or leak in underground ducts, as well as investigating flow behavior or industrial processes such as in distillation towers. Inspection techniques using radiotracers are non-destructive, simple, economic and highly accurate. Among them, Total Count, which uses a small amount of radiotracer with known activity, is acknowledged as an absolute technique for flow rate measurement. A viscous fluid transport system, composed by four PVC pipelines with 13m length (12m horizontal and 1m vertical) and 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 2-inch gauges, respectively, interconnected by maneuvering valves was designed and assembled in order to conduct the research. This system was used to simulate different flow conditions of petroleum compounds and for experimental studies of flow profile in the horizontal and upward directions. As 198 Au presents a single photopeak (411,8 keV), it was the radioisotope chosen for oil labeling, in small amounts (6 ml) or around 200 kBq activity, and it was injected in the oil transport lines. A NaI scintillation detector 2'x 2', with well-defined geometry, was used to measure total activity, determine the calibration factor F and, positioned after a homogenization distance and interconnected to a standardized electronic set of nuclear instrumentation modules (NIM), to detect the radioactive cloud. (author)

  4. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  5. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  6. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  7. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  8. TRANC - a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, O.; Brümmer, C.; Ammann, C.; Wolff, V.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-05-01

    The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (reactive nitrogen: Nr) from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter), which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen compounds (∑Nr) in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of all Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO) within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced Nr compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised Nr compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate Nr is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher nitrogen oxides or those generated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD) for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3-, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in ∑Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all individual Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal and catalytic

  9. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (reactive nitrogen: Nr from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen compounds (∑Nr in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of all Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced Nr compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised Nr compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate Nr is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher nitrogen oxides or those generated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3−, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in ∑Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all individual Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal

  10. Reducing questionnaire length did not improve physician response rate: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Eva E; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of reducing questionnaire length on the response rate in a physician survey. A postal four double-page questionnaire on end-of-life decision making was sent to a random sample of 1,100 general practitioners, 400 elderly care physicians, and 500 medical specialists. Another random sample of 500 medical specialists received a shorter questionnaire of two double pages. After 3 months and one reminder, all nonresponding physicians received an even shorter questionnaire of one double page. Total response was 64% (1,456 of 2,269 eligible respondents). Response rate of medical specialists for the four double-page questionnaire was equal to that of the two double-page questionnaire (190 and 191 questionnaires were returned, respectively). The total response rate increased from 53% to 64% after sending a short one double-page questionnaire (1,203-1,456 respondents). The results of our study suggest that reducing the length of a long questionnaire in a physician survey does not necessarily improve response rate. To improve response rate and gather more information, researchers could decide to send a drastically shortened version of the questionnaire to nonresponders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  12. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  13. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  14. Effect of radiation dose rate and cyclophosphamide on pulmonary toxicity after total body irradiation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Nielsen, Ole S.; El-Badawy, Samy; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is still a major complication after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). It is difficult to determine the exact role of radiation in this multifactorial complication, especially because most of the experimental work on lung damage was done using localized lung irradiation and not TBI. We have thus tested the effect of radiation dose rate and combining cyclophosphamide (CTX) with single fraction TBI on lung damage in a mouse model for BMT. Methods and Materials: TBI was given as a single fraction at a high dose rate (HDR, 0.71 Gy/min) or a low dose rate (LDR, 0.08 Gy/min). CTX (250 mg/kg) was given 24 h before TBI. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed 4-6 h after the last treatment. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days (LD (50(28))-180 ). Results: The LD 50 for lung damage, ± standard error (SE), increased from 12.0 (± 0.2) Gy using single fraction HDR to 15.8 (± 0.6) Gy using LDR. Adding CTX shifted the dose-response curves towards lower doses. The LD 50 values for the combined treatment were 5.3 (± 0.2) and 3.5 (± 0.2) Gy for HDR and LDR, respectively. This indicates that the combined effect of CTX and LDR was more toxic than that of combined CTX and HDR. Lung damage evaluated by VR demonstrated two waves of VR increase. The first wave of VR increase occurred after 6 weeks using TBI only and after 3 weeks in the combined CTX-TBI treatment, irrespective of total dose or dose rate. The second wave of VR elevation resembled the IP that follows localized thoracic irradiation in its time of occurrence. Conclusions: Lung damage following TBI could be spared using LDR. However, CTX markedly enhances TBI-induced lung damage. The combination of CTX and LDR is more toxic to the lungs than combining CTX and HDR

  15. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  16. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalco...

  17. Rate Dependence of the Compressive Response of Ti Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Petrinic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium foams of relative density ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 were produced by titanium powder sintering procedures and tested in uniaxial compression at strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 2,000 s−1. The material microstructure was examined by X-ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observations. The foams investigated are strain rate sensitive, with both the yield stress and the strain hardening increasing with applied strain rate, and the strain rate sensitivity is more pronounced in foams of lower relative density. Finite element simulations were conducted modelling explicitly the material’s microstructure at the micron level, via a 3D Voronoi tessellation. Low and high strain rate simulations were conducted in order to predict the material’s compressive response, employing both rate-dependant and rate-independent constitutive models. Results from numerical analyses suggest that the primary source of rate sensitivity is represented by the intrinsic sensitivity of the foam’s parent material.

  18. Response of human fibroblasts to low dose rate gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritschilo, A.; Brennan, T.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Cells from 11 human strains, including fibroblasts from patients with the genetic diseases of ataxia telangiectasia (AT), xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and Fanconi's anemia (FA), were exposed to γ radiation at high (1.6-2.2 Gy/min) and at low (0.03-0.07 Gy/min) dose rates. Survival curves reveal an increase inthe terminal slope (D 0 ) when cells are irradiated at low dose rates compared to high dose rates. This was true for all cell lines tested, although the AT, FA, and XP cells are reported or postulated to have radiation repair deficiencies. From the response of these cells, it is apparent that radiation sensitivities differ; however, at low dose rate, all tested human cells are able to repair injury

  19. 38 CFR 3.342 - Permanent and total disability ratings for pension purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applied with other types of disabilities requiring hospitalization for indefinite periods. The need for... permanency of total disability contained in § 3.340, the following special considerations apply in pension... permanence of total disability will be established as of the earliest date consistent with the evidence in...

  20. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Comparative responsiveness of measures of pain and function after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A K; Roos, Ewa M.; Westerlund, J P

    2001-01-01

    To compare the responsiveness of the Functional Assessment System (FAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for total hip replacement....

  2. Atmospheric Responses from Radiosonde Observations of the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Responses from Radiosonde Observations project during the August 21st, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse was to observe the atmospheric response under the shadow of the Moon using both research and operational earth science instruments run primarily by undergraduate students not formally trained in atmospheric science. During the eclipse, approximately 15 teams across the path of totality launched radiosonde balloon platforms in very rapid, serial sonde deployment. Our strategy was to combine a dense ground observation network with multiple radiosonde sites, located within and along the margins of the path of totality. This can demonstrate how dense observation networks leveraged among various programs can "fill the gaps" in data sparse regions allowing research ideas and questions that previously could not be approached with courser resolution data and improving the scientific understanding and prediction of geophysical and hazardous phenomenon. The core scientific objectives are (1) to make high-resolution surface and upper air observations in several sites along the eclipse path (2) to quantitatively study atmospheric responses to the rapid disappearance of the Sun across the United States, and (3) to assess the performance of high-resolution weather forecasting models in simulating the observed response. Such a scientific campaign, especially unique during a total solar eclipse, provides a rare but life-altering opportunity to attract and enable next-generation of observational scientists. It was an ideal "laboratory" for graduate, undergraduate, citizen scientists and k-12 students and staff to learn, explore and research in STEM.

  3. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  4. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  5. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL -1 (control), 50 BqL -1 and 100 BqL -1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh -1 , the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh -1 ) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  6. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  7. Direct and correlated responses to selection for total weight of lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimated selection responses indicate that direct selection for TWW would be the most suitable selection criterion for improving reproductive performance in flocks with a high reproduction rate where an increase in the number of lambs would be undesirable. (South African Journal of Animal Science, 2001, 31(2): ...

  8. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  9. Total-dielectric-function approach to electron and phonon response in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, D.R.; Lewis, S.P.; Cohen, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between two test charges, the response of a solid to an external field, and the normal modes of the solid can be determined from a total dielectric function that includes both electronic and lattice polarizabilities as well as local-field effects. In this paper we examine the relationship between superconductivity and the stability of a solid and derive sum rules for the electronic part of the dielectric function. It is also shown that there are negative eigenvalues of the total static dielectric function, implying the possibility of an attractive interaction between test charges. An attractive interaction is required for superconductivity

  10. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Beta Decay of 60Mn to Constrain the Neutron Capture Rate of 60Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Debra; Spyrou, Artemis; Dombos, Alex; Couture, Aaron; e15034 Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Interest in 60Fe, a long lived radioisotope synthesized in massive stars, has recently peaked. The signature of its decay allows us to probe astrophysical processes, events such as the early formation of the solar system and nucleosynthesis. To understand these observations a complete understanding of the creation, destruction and nuclear properties of 60Fe in the astrophysical environment are required. Using the beta decay of 60Mn in conjunction with total absorption spectroscopy (TAS), made possible by the high efficiency gamma ray calorimeter SuN (Summing NaI detector) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), to study the distribution of beta-decay intensity over the daughter-nucleus 60Fe, provides information about the structure of the daughter and improves the predictive power of astrophysical models. In addition to the ongoing TAS analysis, The Beta-Oslo method will be used to extract the nuclear level density and gamma-strength function of 60Fe providing much needed constraints on the neutron capture reaction rate responsible for the creation of this nucleus.

  11. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  12. Predictors of low self-rated health in patients aged 65+ after total hip replacement (THA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Hemmingsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    predicting low self-rated health after surgery. Material and method: A cross-sectional study including 287 patients aged 65+, who had had THR within 12-months were performed. Patients from five Danish counties received a mailed questionnaire assessing health status and demographic data. Short Form-36...

  13. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy; TOTAL rapport societal and environnemental 2004. Notre energie en partage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  14. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  15. Predicting temporal trends in total absenteeism rates for civil service employees of a federal public health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, D Ross; McNeil, Carrie; Warnock, Eli; Trapp, Jonathan; Oyinloye, Oluremi; Whitehurst, Vanessa; Decker, K C; Chapman, Sandy; Campbell, Morris; Meechan, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluates the predictability in temporal absences trends due to all causes (total absenteeism) among employees at a federal agency. The objective is to determine how leave trends vary within the year, and determine whether trends are predictable. Ten years of absenteeism data from an attendance system were analyzed for rates of total absence. Trends over a 10-year period followed predictable and regular patterns during a given year that correspond to major holiday periods. Temporal trends in leave among small, medium, and large facilities compared favorably with the agency as a whole. Temporal trends in total absenteeism rates for an organization can be determined using its attendance system. The ability to predict employee absenteeism rates can be extremely helpful for management in optimizing business performance and ensuring that an organization meets its mission.

  16. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  17. Total dose and dose rate radiation characterization of EPI-CMOS radiation hardened memory and microprocessor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, B.L.; Hermsen, J.M.; Lee, J.C.; Schroeder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The process, circuit discription, and total dose radiation characteristics are presented for two second generation hardened 4K EPI-CMOS RAMs and a first generation 80C85 microprocessor. Total dose radiation performance is presented to 10M rad-Si and effects of biasing and operating conditions are discussed. The dose rate sensitivity of the 4K RAMs is also presented along with single event upset (SEU) test data

  18. Optimization of Total Flavonoids Extraction from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, X. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to predict optimum conditions for extraction of flavonoid from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effect of extraction temperature, extraction time, and water-to-material ratio on yield of total flavonoids. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained as water-to-material ratio of 55 ml g−1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and extraction time of 70 minutes. Under these conditions, the average total flavonoids yield, according to the mass of raw material, was 9.0 ± 0.6 %, which corresponds to the predicted value of 8.9 %. Thus, the extraction method was applied successfully to extract total flavonoids from C. tinctoria.

  19. Impact of Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Joint Arthroplasty on 30-Day Hospital Readmission Rates and Unplanned Episodes of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Vegari, David N; Mokris, Jeffrey G; Beaver, Walter B

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study comparing 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing outpatient versus inpatient total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. A retrospective review of 137 patients undergoing outpatient total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and 106 patients undergoing inpatient (minimum 2-day hospital stay) TJA was conducted. Unplanned hospital readmissions and unplanned episodes of care were recorded. All patients completed a telephone survey. Seven inpatients and 16 outpatients required hospital readmission or an unplanned episode of care following hospital discharge. Readmission rates were higher for TKA than THA. The authors found no statistical differences in 30-day readmission or unplanned care episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  1. New insights into fully-depleted SOI transistor response during total-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Burns, J.A.; Keast, C.L.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present irradiation results on 2-fully depleted processes (HYSOI6, RKSOI) that show SOI (silicon on insulator) device response can be more complicated than originally suggested by others. The major difference between the 2 process versions is that the RKSOI process incorporates special techniques to minimize pre-irradiation parasitic leakage current from trench sidewalls. Transistors were irradiated at room temperature using 10 keV X-ray source. Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. It appears that the worst-case bias for HYPOI6 process is the bias that causes the largest increase in sidewall leakage. The RKSOI process shows a different response during irradiation, the transition response appears to be dominated by charge trapping in the buried oxide. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing. (A.C.)

  2. The effects of dose rate in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Bodenberger, U.; Holler, E.; Thierfelder, S.; Eckstein, R.

    1986-01-01

    In summary the studies in dogs show that the dose rate or exposure time has a great impact on survival of acute radiation syndromes. In contrast the inactivation of colony forming hemopoietic precursors is less influenced by the dose rate. The potential of hemopoietic recovery is determined by the survival of hemopoietic precursor cells. Therefore in patients with a suspected whole body exposure of more than 1.50 Gy, bacterial and fungal decontamination and reverse isolation in a sterile environment has to be started immediately. Human patients treated with about 10 Gy of TBI frequently developed nausea, elevated temperatures and swelling of the parotic glands at the first and second day. The extent of these changes varies from patient to patient. The temperature is rarely elevated above 38.5 0 C. The swelling of parotics and the nausea subside within 48 hours. The presence of such systemic symptoms may suggest the exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. The disappearance of immature red cells, i.e. reticulocytes, and bandforms of granulocytes within the first 5 days supports this suggestion. HLA typing of the victim and his family should be performed as soon as possible after the accident. An HLA-identical sibling would be a suitable bone marrow donor. Unlike therapeutic TBI accidental exposures bring about uncertainties in the calculation of dose, dose distribution and dose rate. Early after irradiation biological changes are extremely variable. Both biological and physical data have to be considered, when microbiological decontamination, reverse isolation and transplantation of bone marrow are to be decided upon. Obviously these intensive therapeutic efforts are limited to a small number of victims. (orig.)

  3. Increasing the Response Rate of the Patient Satisfaction Survey of Inpatients at National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    identify a method to improve the effectiveness of the current survey process to increase the response rate of the patients being sampled. As health care... consumer must have adequate representation to provide meaningful information for decision making by the health care organization. Background of the...the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy into the health care industry has increased the importance of listening to the customer (Matthews, 1992

  4. Measurement of the total antioxidant response in preeclampsia with a novel automated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harma, Mehmet; Harma, Muge; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-10

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications of pregnancy. Free radical damage has been implicated in the pathophysiology of this condition. In this study, we aimed to measure the antioxidant capacity in plasma samples from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women to evaluate their antioxidant status using a more recently developed automated measurement method. Our study group contained 42 women, 24 of whom had preeclampsia, while 18 had normotensive pregnancies. We measured the total plasma antioxidant capacity for all patients, as well as the levels of four major individual plasma antioxidant components; albumin, uric acid, ascorbic acid and bilirubin, and as a reciprocal measure, their total plasma peroxide levels. Statistically significant differences (determined using Student's t-test) were noted between the normotensive and the preeclamptic groups for their total antioxidant responses and their vitamin C levels (1.31 +/- 0.12 mmol versus 1.06 +/- 0.41 mmol Trolox eq./L; 30.2 +/- 17.83 micromol/L versus 18.1 +/- 11.37 micromol/L, respectively), which were both considerably reduced in the preeclamptic patients. In contrast, the total plasma peroxide levels were significantly elevated in this group (49.8 +/- 14.3 micromol/L versus 38.8 +/- 9.6 micromol/L). We found a decreased total antioxidant response in preeclamptic patients using a simple, rapid and reliable automated colorimetric assay, which may suitable for use in any routine clinical biochemistry laboratory, and considerably facilitates the assessment of this useful clinical parameter. We suggest that this novel method may be used as a routine test to evaluate and follow up of the levels of oxidative stress in preeclampsia.

  5. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  6. Monitoring of German fertility: Estimation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates on the basis of preliminary monthly data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Doblhammer (Gabriele); Milewski, N. (Nadja); F. Peters (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR) on the basis of

  7. Low revision rate after total hip arthroplasty in patients with pediatric hip diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesæter, Lars B; Engesæter, Ingvild Ø; Fenstad, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background The results of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) after pediatric hip diseases such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), or Perthes' disease have been reported to be inferior to the results after primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA.......9%) were operated due to pediatric hip diseases (3.1% for Denmark, 8.8% for Norway, and 1.9% for Sweden) and 288,435 THAs (77.8%) were operated due to OA. Unadjusted 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival of THAs after pediatric hip diseases (94.7% survival) was inferior to that after OA (96.6% survival......). Consequently, an increased risk of revision for hips with a previous pediatric hip disease was seen (risk ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5). However, after adjustment for differences in sex and age of the patients, and in fixation of the prostheses, no difference in survival was found (93.6% after pediatric hip...

  8. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  9. The Biologic Response to Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Wear Particles in Total Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Powell, Ashley A; Pasko, Kinga M; Brockett, Claire L; Tipper, Joanne L

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composites are polymers resistant to fatigue strain, radiologically transparent, and have mechanical properties suitable for a range of orthopaedic applications. In bulk form, PEEK composites are generally accepted as biocompatible. In particulate form, however, the biologic response relevant to joint replacement devices remains unclear. The biologic response to wear particles affects the longevity of total joint arthroplasties. Particles in the phagocytozable size range of 0.1 µm to 10 µm are considered the most biologically reactive, particularly particles with a mean size of PEEK-based wear debris from total joint arthroplasties. (1) What are the quantitative characteristics of PEEK-based wear particles produced by total joint arthroplasties? (2) Do PEEK wear particles cause an adverse biologic response when compared with UHMWPE or a similar negative control biomaterial? (3) Is the biologic response affected by particle characteristics? Embase and Ovid Medline databases were searched for studies that quantified PEEK-based particle characteristics and/or investigated the biologic response to PEEK-based particles relevant to total joint arthroplasties. The keyword search included brands of PEEK (eg, MITCH, MOTIS) or variations of PEEK types and nomenclature (eg, PAEK, CFR-PEEK) in combination with types of joint (eg, hip, knee) and synonyms for wear debris or immunologic response (eg, particles, cytotoxicity). Peer-reviewed studies, published in English, investigating total joint arthroplasty devices and cytotoxic effects of PEEK particulates were included. Studies investigating devices without articulating bearings (eg, spinal instrumentation devices) and bulk material or contact cytotoxicity were excluded. Of 129 studies, 15 were selected for analysis and interpretation. No studies were found that isolated and characterized PEEK wear particles from retrieved periprosthetic human tissue samples. In the four studies that

  10. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  11. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    events during the initial four weeks of training. RESULTS: The majority of patients experienced only moderate hip pain during exercise (range in median across exercises and sessions: 5-35 mm Visual Analog Scale) and mild pain at rest (median: 1-18 mm Visual Analog Scale), both of which decreased over...... time ( p training load (67%-166 % across exercises, p training sessions, short term pain response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...

  12. Abnormal heart rate recovery and deficient chronotropic response after submaximal exercise in young Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Paulo; Carvalho, Antônio C; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Medeiros, Wladimir M

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise. A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration. Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001). Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.

  13. Predictors of Total Mortality and Echocardiographic Response for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Gazzoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Clinical studies demonstrate that up to 40% of patients do not respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, thus, appropriate patient selection is critical to the success of CRT in heart failure. Objective: Evaluation of mortality predictors and response to CRT in the Brazilian scenario. Methods: Retrospective cohort study including patients submitted to CRT in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil from 2008 to 2014. Survival was assessed through a database of the State Department of Health (RS. Predictors of echocardiographic response were evaluated using Poisson regression. Survival analysis was performed by Cox regression and Kaplan Meyer curves. A two-tailed p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 170 patients with an average follow-up of 1011 ± 632 days were included. The total mortality was 30%. The independent predictors of mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.05, p = 0.027, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI (HR of 2.17, p = 0.049 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (HR of 3.13, p = 0.015. The percentage of biventricular stimulation at 6 months was identified as protective factor of mortality ([HR] 0.97, p = 0.048. The independent predictors associated with the echocardiographic response were absence of mitral insufficiency, presence of left bundle branch block and percentage of biventricular stimulation. Conclusion: Mortality in patients submitted to CRT in a tertiary hospital was independently associated with age, presence of COPD and previous AMI. The percentage of biventricular pacing evaluated 6 months after resynchronizer implantation was independently associated with improved survival and echocardiographic response.

  14. Total Leishmania antigens with Poly(I:C) induce Th1 protective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M V; Eliçabe, R J; Di Genaro, M S; Germanó, M J; Gea, S; García Bustos, M F; Salomón, M C; Scodeller, E A; Cargnelutti, D E

    2017-11-01

    Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at 3-week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad. Mice vaccinated with TLA-Poly(I:C) showed a high anti-Leishmania IgG titre, as well as increased IgG1 and IgG2a subclass titres compared with mice vaccinated with the TLA alone. The high IgG2a indicated a Th1 bias response induced by the TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization. Accordingly, the cellular immune response elicited by the formulation was characterized by an increased production of IFN-γ and no significant production of IL-4. The TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization elicited good protection, which was associated with decreased footpad swelling, a lower parasite load and a reduced histopathological alteration in the footpad. Our findings demonstrate a promising vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis that is relatively economic and easy to develop and which should be taken into account for preventing leishmaniasis in developing countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of music on psychophysiological responses and opioid dosage in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Ji; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2015-10-01

    The present authors examined the effects of listening to music on psychophysiological parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate) during preoperative and postoperative days and determined whether listening to music could lower pain intensity and opioid dosage during postoperative days in patients who underwent total knee replacements. This was a two group repeated measures design for 30 subjects aged 53-85 years who were scheduled for total knee replacement. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a music group or a control group. Psychophysiological parameters were obtained from patients' monitors. A visual analog scale was used to assess postoperative pain. Opioid dosage was recorded and converted to standardized units. Mann-Whitney U-test and generalized estimating equation analysis were used to compare groups. Respiratory rates while in the surgical waiting area were lower for the music group than for the control group (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between these groups for blood pressure, heart rate, pain intensity, or opioid dosage. However, a within-group comparison showed that systolic blood pressure in the music group was significantly and consistently decreased during postoperative recovery (Wald = 9.21, P = 0.007). These results suggest that listening to music stabilized systolic blood pressure in patients during postoperative recovery. However, the effects of music on psychophysiological parameters, pain intensity, and opioid dosage in a surgical setting require further research. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. Interference in the gg→h→γγ On-Shell Rate and the Higgs Boson Total Width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John; Carena, Marcela; Harnik, Roni; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-03

    We consider interference between the Higgs signal and QCD background in gg→h→γγ and its effect on the on-shell Higgs rate. The existence of sizable strong phases leads to destructive interference of about 2% of the on-shell cross section in the standard model. This effect can be enhanced by beyond the standard model physics. In particular, since it scales differently from the usual rates, the presence of interference allows indirect limits to be placed on the Higgs width in a novel way, using on-shell rate measurements. Our study motivates further QCD calculations to reduce uncertainties. We discuss possible width-sensitive observables, both using total and differential rates and find that the HL-LHC can potentially indirectly constrain widths of order tens of MeV.

  17. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa; Kempfner, Jacob; Gammeltoft, Steen; Sorensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that hypocretin-1 may influence the cerebral control of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed whether hypocretin-1 deficiency in narcolepsy patients may result in a reduced heart rate response. We analyzed the heart rate response during various sleep stages from a 1-night polysomnography in patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. The narcolepsy group was subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 67 narcolepsy patients and 22 control subjects were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 46 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency in 38 patients. None. All patients with narcolepsy had a significantly reduced heart rate response associated with arousals and leg movements (P hypocretin-1 deficiency and cataplexy groups compared with patients with normal hypocretin-1 levels (P hypocretin-1 deficiency significantly predicted the heart rate response associated with arousals in both REM and non-REM in a multivariate linear regression. Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest.

  18. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  19. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Henzler, Dietrich; Tacke, Josef

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied (γ = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  20. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  1. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  2. Anesthesia Preoperative Clinic Referral for Elevated Hba1c Reduces Complication Rate in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Peter J.; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C.; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncon...

  3. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkaer, D.M.; Dey, D.B.; Heron, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm/sup -2/sub((DNA)) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm/sup -2/sub((DNA)). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation.

  4. Effect Of Adding Sago Flour In Yoghurt Based On Viscosity, Overrun, Melting Rate And Total Solid Of Yoghurt Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Ayu Wijayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replication. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  5. Estimates of the Tempo-adjusted Total Fertility Rate in Western and Eastern Germany, 1955-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Luy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present estimates of the tempo-adjusted total fertility rate in Western and Eastern Germany from 1955 to 2008. Tempo adjustment of the total fertility rate (TFR requires data on the annual number of births by parity and age of the mother. Since official statistics do not provide such data for West Germany as well as Eastern Germany from 1990 on we used alternative data sources which include these specific characteristics. The combined picture of conventional TFR and tempo-adjusted TFR* provides interesting information about the trends in period fertility in Western and Eastern Germany, above all with regard to the differences between the two regions and the enormous extent of tempo effects in Eastern Germany during the 1990s. Compared to corresponding data for populations from other countries, our estimates of the tempo-adjusted TFR* for Eastern and Western Germany show plausible trends. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the estimates of the tempo-adjusted total fertility rate presented in this paper should not be seen as being on the level of or equivalent to official statistics since they are based on different kinds of data with different degrees of quality.

  6. Mathematical model for evaluation of dose-rate effect on biological responses to low dose γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose, dose-rate and irradiation time. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and [ 3 H] thymidine uptake in human cells as indices of biological response to gamma radiation, and analyzed mathematically and statistically the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/low dose-rate. Effective dose (ED x ) was mathematically estimated by fitting a general function of logistic model to the dose-response relationship. Assuming that biological response depends on not only cumulative dose but also dose-rate and irradiation time, a multiple logistic function was applied to express the relationship of the three variables. Moreover, to estimate the effect of radiation at very low dose, we proposed a modified exponential model. From the results of fitting curves to the inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, it was obvious that ED 50 in proportion of inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake increased with longer irradiation time. As for the micronuclei, ED 30 also increased with longer irradiation times. These results suggest that the biological response depends on not only total dose but also irradiation time. The estimated response surface using the three variables showed that the biological response declined sharply when the dose-rate was less than 0.01 Gy/h. These results suggest that the response does not depend on total cumulative dose at very low dose-rates. Further, to investigate the effect of dose-rate within a wider range, we analyzed the relationship between ED x and dose-rate. Fitted curves indicated that ED x increased sharply when dose-rate was less than 10 -2 Gy/h. The increase of ED x signifies the decline of the response or the risk and suggests that the risk approaches to 0 at infinitely low dose-rate

  7. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  8. Determination of total flow rate and flow rate of every operating branch in commissioning of heavy water loop for ARR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yan

    1997-01-01

    The heavy water loop (i,e, RCS) for ARR-2 in Algeria is a complex loop. Flow regulating means are not provided by the design in order to operate the reactor safely and simplify operating processes. How to determine precisely the orifice diameters of resistance parts for the loop is a key point for decreasing deviation between practical and design flow rates. Commissioning tests shall ensure that under every one of combined operating modes for the pumps, total coolant flow rate is about the same (the number of pumps operating in parallel is the same) and is consistent with design requirement, as well as the distribution of coolant flow rate to every branch is uniform. The flow Determination is divided into two steps. First and foremost, corresponding resistance part at each pump outlet is determined in commissioning test of shorted heavy water loop with light water, so that the problem about uniform distribution of the flow rate to each branch is solved, Secondly, resistance part at the reactor inlet is determined in commissioning test of heavy water loop connected with the vessel, so that the problem about that total heavy water flow rate is within optimal range is solved. According to practical requirements of the project, a computer program of hydraulic calculation and analysis for heavy water loop has been developed, and hydraulic characteristics test for a part of loop has been conducted in order to correct calculation error. By means of program calculation combining with tests in site, orifice diameters of 9 resistance parts has been determined rapidly and precisely and requirements of design and operation has been met adequately

  9. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Cirba, C.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Turflinger, T.; Krieg, J.F.; Maher, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N ot ) and interface traps (N it ) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations

  10. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  11. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira Negreti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Total electron content (TEC is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE activity events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013 the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O ∕ N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from  ∼  25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to

  12. Comparison of 3 Types of Readmission Rates for Measuring Hospital and Surgeon Performance After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle, Alex; Loeffler, Mark D; Aylin, Paul; Ali, Adam M

    2018-02-26

    All-cause 30-day hospital readmission is in widespread use for monitoring and incentivizing hospital performance for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, little is known on the extent to which all-cause readmission is influenced by hospital or surgeon performance and whether alternative measures may be more valid. This is an observational study using multilevel modeling on English administrative data to determine the interhospital and intersurgeon variation for 3 readmission metrics: all-cause, surgical, and return-to-theater. Power calculations estimated the likelihood of identifying whether the readmission rate for a surgeon or hospital differed from the national average by a factor of 1.25, 1.5, 2, or 3 times, for both average and high-volume providers. 259,980 THAs and 311,033 TKAs were analyzed. Variations by both surgeons and hospitals were smaller for the all-cause measure than for the surgical or return-to-theater metrics, although statistical power to detect differences was higher. Statistical power to detect surgeon-level rates of 1.25 or 1.5 times the average was consistently low. However, at the hospital level, the surgical readmission measure showed more variation by hospital while maintaining excellent power to detect differences in rates between hospitals performing the average number of THA or TKA cases per year in England. In practice, more outliers than expected from purely random variation were found for all-cause and surgical readmissions, especially at hospital level. The 30-day surgical readmission rate should be considered as an adjunctive measure to 30-day all-cause readmission rate when assessing hospital performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of reconstructed radial pin total fission rates with experimental results in full scale BWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter; Jatuff, Fabian [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This work presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates in two configurations, I-1A and I-2A. Both configurations contain, in the central test zone, an array of 3x3 SVEA-96+ fuel elements moderated with light water at 20 deg. C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the NW corner of the central fuel element. To minimize the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3x3 experimental configuration was modeled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group albedos calculated at the test zone boundary using a full-core 3D MCNPX model. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratios of the total fission rates have a standard deviation of 1.3% in configuration I-1A (uncontrolled) and 3.2% in configuration I-2A (controlled). Sensitivity cases are analyzed to show the impact of certain parameters on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. It is shown that the relative pin fission rate is only weakly dependent on these parameters. In cases without a control blade, the pin power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, significant deviations, that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations, are observed in cases when the control blade is inserted. (authors)

  14. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  15. Analysis of bias effects on the total ionizing dose response in a 180 nm technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhangli; Hu Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan; Shao Hua; Chen Ming; Bi Dawei; Ning Bingxu; Zou Shichang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the shallow trench isolation (STI) leakage current in a 180 nm technology are investigated. The radiation response is strongly influenced by the bias modes, gate bias during irradiation, substrate bias during irradiation and operating substrate bias after irradiation. We found that the worst case occurs under the ON bias condition for the ON, OFF and PASS bias mode. A positive gate bias during irradiation significantly enhances the STI leakage current, indicating the electric field influence on the charge buildup process during radiation. Also, a negative substrate bias during irradiation enhances the STI leakage current. However a negative operating substrate bias effectively suppresses the STI leakage current, and can be used to eliminate the leakage current produced by the charge trapped in the deep STI oxide. Appropriate substrate bias should be introduced to alleviate the total ionizing dose (TID) response, and lead to acceptable threshold voltage shift and subthreshold hump effect. Depending on the simulation results, we believe that the electric field distribution in the STI oxide is the key parameter influencing bias effects on the radiation response of transistor. - Highlights: → ON bias is the worst bias condition for the ON, PASS and OFF bias modes. → Larger gate bias during irradiation leads to more pronounced characteristic degradation. → TID induced STI leakage can be suppressed by negative operating substrate bias voltage. → Negative substrate bias during irradiation leads to larger increase of off-state leakage. → Electric field in the STI oxide greatly influences the device's radiation effect.

  16. Effect of γ-dose rate and total dose interrelation on the polymeric hydrogel: A novel injectable male contraceptive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pradeep K.; Jha, Rakhi; Gupta, B.L.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2010-01-01

    Functional necessity to use a particular range of dose rate and total dose of γ-initiated polymerization to manufacture a novel polymeric hydrogel RISUG (reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance) made of styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), for its broad biomedical application explores new dimension of research. The present work involves 16 irradiated samples. They were tested by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, etc. to see the interrelation effect of gamma dose rates (8.25, 17.29, 20.01 and 25.00 Gy/min) and four sets of doses (1.8, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4 kGy) on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and porosity analysis of the biopolymeric drug RISUG. The results of randomized experiment indicated that a range of 18-24 Gy/min γ-dose rate and 2.0-2.4 kGy γ-total doses is suitable for the desirable in vivo performance of the contraceptive copolymer.

  17. No Correlation Between Press Ganey Survey Responses and Outcomes in Post-Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Khlopas, Anton; Sodhi, Nipun; Delanois, Ronald E; Spindler, Kurt P; Mont, Michael A

    2018-03-01

    In the era of the online orthopedic market, patients tend to equate publicly available online satisfaction surveys with what they presume their ultimate surgical outcome will be. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether there is a correlation between Press Ganey (PG) scores and (1) Hip Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Harris Hip Score; (2) Short Form-12 and Short Form-36 scores; (3) University of California Los Angeles and Visual Analog Scale scores assessed at a mean of 3 years (range, 1 to 6 years) after surgery. In addition, we assessed whether (4) these correlations persist in patients who were evaluated under 2 years and 3 or more years after surgery. Six-hundred ninety-two patients from November 2009 to January 2015 were identified from our institutional PG database. One-hundred ninety (27%) responded to the survey. One-hundred forty-nine (78%) patients were given the total hip arthroplasty assessment tools at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, and 33 patients (17%) completed their survey before 2 years after surgery. We assessed whether overall hospital rating scores correlated with the above assessment tools. Pearson correlation analysis revealed no correlation between the PG survey score and the assessment tools. HHS had the highest correlation coefficient (r = .120; P = .316); however, this was not significant. After removing the patients who had their follow-up survey administered under 2 years after surgery (33 patients), there was still no statistically significant correlation between the above-mentioned outcome scores and PG overall hospital rating (P > .05). No statistically significant relationship was found between commonly used total hip arthroplasty assessment tools and the PG overall hospital rating. Based on these results, PG surveys may not be a suitable implementation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid services. A set of measures that can be widely collected and reported by hospitals for

  18. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its relation to in vivo rumen and total digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Larsen, Mogens; Lund, Peter

    2009-01-01

    in different ways both chemically and physically. The starch sources were fed in mixed diets together with grass silage and soya bean meal and allocated ad libitum to fistulated dairy cows. The starch content varied between 13 and 35% in ration dry matter for the different starch sources. The design...... was a series of cross-over experiments with two cows and two periods. Ruminal starch pool was estimated from rumen evacuation and starch flow was estimated by duodenal and faeces sampling. Fractional rate of rumen degradation was estimated from the equation [kd = rumen degraded/rumen pool] and rumen and total...

  19. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  20. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  1. Monitoring of German Fertility: Estimation of Monthly and Yearly Total Fertility Rates on the Basis of Preliminary Monthly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR on the basis of preliminary monthly data, including a confidence interval. The method for estimating most current fertility rates can be applied when no information on the age structure and the number of women exposed to childbearing is available. The methods introduced in this study are useful for calculating monthly birth indicators, with minimal requirements for data quality and statistical effort. In addition, we suggest an approach for projecting the yearly TFR based on preliminary monthly information up to June.

  2. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    employment were positively related to the birth rate. The birth rate is higher in rural areas. Mortality of professional, engineering, and administrative workers was slightly lower than the total working population, while sales workers, those in farming, fishing, and forestry, and in personal and domestic service had significantly higher mortality. The mortality of the nonworking population was 6-8 times higher than sales, transportation, and communication, and personal and domestic service as well as the total population.

  3. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  4. Total dynamic response of a PSS vehicle negotiating asymmetric road excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-12-01

    A planar suspension system (PSS) is a novel automobile suspension system in which an individual spring-damper strut is implemented in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively. The wheels in a vehicle with such a suspension system can move back and forth relative to the chassis. When a PSS vehicle experiences asymmetric road excitations, the relative longitudinal motion of wheels with respect to the chassis in two sides of the same axle are not identical, and thus the two wheels at one axle will not be aligned in the same axis. The total dynamic responses, including those of the bounce, pitch and the roll of the PSS vehicle, to the asymmetric road excitation may exhibit different characteristics from those of a conventional vehicle. This paper presents an investigation into the comprehensive dynamic behaviour of a vehicle with the PSS, in such a road condition, on both the straight and curved roads. The study was carried out using an 18 DOF full-car model incorporating a radial-spring tyre-ground contact model and a 2D tyre-ground dynamic friction model. Results demonstrate that the total dynamic behaviour of a PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of the conventional vehicle, while PSS exhibits significant improvement in absorbing the impact forces along the longitudinal direction when compared to the conventional suspension system. The PSS vehicle is found to be more stable than the conventional vehicle in terms of the directional performance against the disturbance of the road potholes on a straight line manoeuvre, while exhibiting a very similar handling performance on a curved line.

  5. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  6. Opioids Consumed in the Immediate Post-Operative Period Do Not Influence How Patients Rate Their Experience of Care After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheson, Jennifer I; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; George, Nicole E; Virani, Sana; Mont, Michael A; Delanois, Ronald E

    2018-04-01

    Patient perception of care, commonly measured with Press Ganey (PG) surveys, is an important metric used to determine hospital and provider reimbursement. However, post-operative pain following total hip arthroplasty (THA) may negatively affect patient satisfaction. As a result, over-administration of opioids may occur, even without marked evidence of pain. Therefore, this study evaluated whether opioid consumption in the immediate postoperative period bears any influence on satisfaction scores after THA. Specifically, this study assessed the correlation between post-operative opioid consumption and 7 PG domains: (1) Overall hospital rating; (2) Communication with nurses; (3) Responsiveness of hospital staff; (4) Communication with doctors; (5) Hospital environment; (6) Pain Management; and (7) Communication about medicines. Our institutional PG database was reviewed for patients who received THA from 2011 to 2014. A total of 322 patients (mean age = 65 years; 61% female) were analyzed. Patient's opioid consumption was measured using a morphine milli-equivalent conversion algorithm. Bivariate correlation analysis assessed the association between opioid consumption and Press-Ganey survey elements. Pearson's r assessed the strength of the association. No correlation was found between total opioid consumption and Overall hospital rating (r = 0.004; P = .710), Communication with nurses (r = 0.093; P = .425), Responsiveness of hospital staff (r = 0.104; P = .381), Communication with doctors (r = 0.009; P = .940), Hospital environment (r = 0.081; P = .485), and Pain management (r = 0.075; P = .536). However, there was a positive correlation between total opioid consumption and "Communication about medicines" (r = 0.262; P = .043). Our report demonstrates that PG patient satisfaction scores are not influenced by post-operative opioid use, with the exception of PG domain, "Communication about medications." These results suggest that opioid medications should be

  7. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  8. The homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery responses after total sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersyn, Garance; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Ciret, Sylvain; Drogou, Catherine; Leger, Damien; Gallopin, Thierry; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration. During TSD mice were awake at least 97% of the time, with a consecutive sleep rebound during D1 that persisted during D2. This was characterized by increases of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (44.2 ± 6.9% for D1 and 43.0 ± 7.7% for D2 versus 33.8 ± 9.2% for BSL) and the relative delta band power (179.2 ± 34.4% for D1 and 81.9 ± 11.2% for D2). Greater NREM and REM sleep amounts were observed during the 'light' periods. Temperature and locomotor activity characteristics were unchanged during D1 and D2 versus BSL. In non-implanted mice, corticosterone levels as well as adrenal gland and overall body weights did not differ between TSD and ad libitum sleep groups. In conclusion, 24 h of TSD in an activity wheel without stress responses influence homeostatic sleep regulation with no effect on the circadian regulation over at least 2 days of recovery in mice. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Response rates to oestrogen treatment in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Tofteng, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise women with no response or with a good response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), evaluated by change in bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Nested case-control study within a comprehensive cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...

  11. Anesthesia Preoperative Clinic Referral for Elevated Hba1c Reduces Complication Rate in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Peter J; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncontrolled). Those evaluated between in subsequent two-year intervals were referred to primary care for HbA1c ≥ 10% and ≥ 8%, respectively, to improve DM control before surgery. Complications and mortality were quantified postoperatively and at three, six, and twelve months. Length of stay (LOS) and patients requiring a prolonged LOS (> 5 days) were recorded. Patients (197 men, 6 women) underwent 71, 131, and 1 total hip, knee, and shoulder replacements, respectively. Patients undergoing TJA with uncontrolled HbA1c and those with HbA1c patients without DM. An increase in complication rate was observed in DM patients with uncontrolled HbA1c versus patients without DM (P patients with preoperative HbA1c that was uncontrolled or ≥ 10% required prolonged LOS versus those without DM (P diabetics undergoing TJA.

  12. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  13. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  14. Measurement Properties of Performance-Specific Pain Ratings of Patients Awaiting Total Joint Arthroplasty as a Consequence of Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Paul W.; Kennedy, Deborah M.; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Spadoni, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the test–retest reliability of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain sub-scale and performance-specific assessments of pain, as well as the association between these measures for patients awaiting primary total hip or knee arthroplasty as a consequence of osteoarthritis. Methods: A total of 164 patients awaiting unilateral primary hip or knee arthroplasty completed four performance measures (self-paced walk, timed up and go, stair test, six-minute walk) and the WOMAC. Scores for 22 of these patients provided test–retest reliability data. Estimates of test–retest reliability (Type 2,1 intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and standard error of measurement [SEM]) and the association between measures were examined. Results: ICC values for individual performance-specific pain ratings were between 0.70 and 0.86; SEM values were between 0.97 and 1.33 pain points. ICC estimates for the four-item performance pain ratings and the WOMAC pain sub-scale were 0.82 and 0.57 respectively. The correlation between the sum of the pain scores for the four performance measures and the WOMAC pain sub-scale was 0.62. Conclusion: Reliability estimates for the performance-specific assessments of pain using the numeric pain rating scale were consistent with values reported for patients with a spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions. The reliability estimate for the WOMAC pain sub-scale was lower than typically reported in the literature. The level of association between the WOMAC pain sub-scale and the various performance-specific pain scales suggests that the scores can be used interchangeably when applied to groups but not for individual patients. PMID:20145758

  15. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  16. TOTAL HEMOCYTE COUNT AND HEMOLYMPH GLUCOSE CONCENRATION RESPONSE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus homarus ON RATIO OF SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiba Djai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to assess the physiological response of the lobster Panulirus homarus for the ratio of the shelters. The method used completely randomized design with two replicates of each treatments with shelter ratio (A 1 : 5, (B 3 : 5, (C 4 : 5, (D 5 : 5. Weight average for 184 lobsters with the stocking density of 23 lobsters for each treatment was 32.64 ± 0.58 g. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The lobster was fed with trash fish and acclimatized for 7 days before the experiment. Observations on the physiologycal of every 10 days. The physiological responses that observed were total hemocyte count (THC and hemolymph glucose concentration. The results showed that 4:5 was the best lobster shelter ratio because it could reduce stress levels. This is indicated by the stable values of THC and hemolymph glucose level during the experiment and supported by the growth of 57.28 ± 0.15 g and survival rate of 91.31 ± 2.60%. Keywords: lobster, Panulirus homarus, ratio, shelter, THC, glucose

  17. Quantitative analysis of biological responses to low dose-rate γ-radiation, including dose, irradiation time, and dose-rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Because biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose, it is necessary to include dose, dose-rate and irradiation time simultaneously to predict the risk of low dose-rate irradiation. In this study, we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, irradiation time and dose-rate, using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells. For evaluation of chromosome breakage we assessed micronuclei induced by radiation. U2OS cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were exposed to gamma-ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60 Co. After the irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide, and the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was determined by fluorescent microscopy. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and [3H] thymidine was pulsed for 4 h before harvesting. Dose-rate in the irradiation room was measured with photoluminescence dosimeter. While irradiation time less than 24 h did not affect dose-response curves for both biological responses, they were remarkably attenuated as exposure time increased to more than 7 days. These biological responses were dependent on dose-rate rather than dose when cells were irradiated for 30 days. Moreover, percentage of micronucleus-forming cells cultured continuously for more than 60 days at the constant dose-rate, was gradually decreased in spite of the total dose accumulation. These results suggest that biological responses at low dose-rate, are remarkably affected by exposure time, that they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in the case of long-term irradiation, and that cells are getting resistant to radiation after the continuous irradiation for 2 months. It is necessary to include effect of irradiation time and dose-rate sufficiently to evaluate risk

  18. Effect of Eucalyptus Oil Inhalation on Pain and Inflammatory Responses after Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Suk Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR surgery. Participants were randomized 1 : 1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group or control group (almond oil inhalation group. Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM on 3 consecutive days. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS, blood pressure, heart rate, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, and white blood cell (WBC count were measured before and after inhalation. Pain VAS on all three days (P<.001 and systolic (P<.05 and diastolic (P=.03 blood pressure on the second day were significantly lower in the group inhaling eucalyptus than that inhaling almond oil. Heart rate, CRP, and WBC, however, did not differ significantly in the two groups. In conclusion, inhalation of eucalyptus oil was effective in decreasing patient's pain and blood pressure following TKR, suggesting that eucalyptus oil inhalation may be a nursing intervention for the relief of pain after TKR.

  19. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Dodd, P.E.; Keast, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. No evidence was found for total-dose induced snap back. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing

  20. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav Agarwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence that monetary incentives are effective in increasing survey response rates in the general population as well as with physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a monetary incentive intended for administrative assistants on the survey response rate of physicians in leadership positions. Methods This was an ancillary study to a national survey of chairs of academic Departments of Medicine in the United States about measuring faculty productivity. We randomized survey participants to receive or not receive a $5 gift card enclosed in the survey package. The cover letter explained that the gift card was intended for the administrative assistants as a “thank you for their time.” We compared the response rates between the 2 study arms using the Chi-square test. Results Out of 152 participants to whom survey packages were mailed to, a total of 78 responses were received (51 % response rate. The response rates were 59 % in the incentive arm and 46 % in the no incentive arm. The relative effect of the incentive compared to no monetary incentive was borderline statistically significant (relative risk (RR = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.99 to 1.87; p = 0.055. Conclusion Monetary incentives intended for administrative assistants likely increase the response rate of physicians in leadership positions.

  1. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  2. Brake response time before and after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederseer David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the numbers of total knee arthroplasty (TKA are increasing, there is only a small number of studies investigating driving safety after TKA. The parameter 'Brake Response Time (BRT' is one of the most important criteria for driving safety and was therefore chosen for investigation. The present study was conducted to test the hypotheses that patients with right- or left-sided TKA show a significant increase in BRT from pre-operative (pre-op, 1 day before surgery to post-operative (post-op, 2 weeks post surgery, and a significant decrease in BRT from post-op to the follow-up investigation (FU, 8 weeks post surgery. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the BRT of patients after TKA is significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Methods 31 of 70 consecutive patients (mean age 65.7 +/- 10.2 years receiving TKA were tested for their BRT pre-op, post-op and at FU. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We used normative BRT data from 31 healthy controls for comparison. Results There were no significant increases between pre-op and post-op BRT values for patients who had undergone left- or right-sided TKA. Even the proportion of patients above a BRT threshold of 700 ms was not significantly increased postop. Controls had a BRT which was significantly better than the BRT of patients with right- or left-sided TKA at all three time points. Conclusion The present study showed a small and insignificant postoperative increase in the BRT of patients who had undergone right- or left-sided TKA. Therefore, we believe it is not justified to impair the patient's quality of social and occupational life post-surgery by imposing restrictions on driving motor vehicles beyond an interval of two weeks after surgery.

  3. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  4. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  5. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  6. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  7. The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Mak, Tytus D.; Chen, Congju; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics has been shown to have utility in assessing responses to exposure by ionizing radiation (IR) in easily accessible biofluids such as urine. Most studies to date from our laboratory and others have employed γ-irradiation at relatively high dose rates (HDR), but many environmental exposure scenarios will probably be at relatively low dose rates (LDR). There are well-documented differences in the biologic responses to LDR compared to HDR, so an important question is to assess LDR effects at the metabolomics level. Our study took advantage of a modern mass spectrometry approach in exploring the effects of dose rate on the urinary excretion levels of metabolites 2 days after IR in mice. A wide variety of statistical tools were employed to further focus on metabolites, which showed responses to LDR IR exposure (0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, which also have been implicated in our previous IR studies. However, it is important to note that dose rate did affect the levels of particular metabolites. Differences in urinary excretion levels of such metabolites could potentially be used to assess an individual's exposure in a radiobiological event and thus would have utility for both triage and injury assessment. (orig.)

  8. Total intravenous anaesthesia by boluses or by continuous rate infusion of propofol in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Holzapfel, Judith; Brunnberg, Leo

    2011-07-01

    To investigate intravenous (IV) propofol given by intermittent boluses or by continuous rate infusion (CRI) for anaesthesia in swans. Prospective randomized clinical study. Twenty mute swans (Cygnus olor) (eight immature and 12 adults) of unknown sex undergoing painless diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Induction of anaesthesia was with 8 mg kg(-1) propofol IV. To maintain anaesthesia, ten birds (group BOLI) received propofol as boluses, whilst 10 (group CRI) received propofol as a CRI. Some physiological parameters were measured. Anaesthetic duration was 35 minutes. Groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results are median (range). Anaesthetic induction was smooth and tracheal intubation was achieved easily in all birds. Bolus dose in group BOLI was 2.9 (1.3-4.3) mg kg(-1); interval between and number of boluses required were 4 (1-8) minutes and 6 (4-11) boluses respectively. Total dose of propofol was 19 (12.3-37.1) mg kg(-1). Awakening between boluses was very abrupt. In group CRI, propofol infusion rate was 0.85 (0.8-0.9) mg kg(-1) minute(-1), and anaesthesia was stable. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation (by pulse oximeter) and reflexes did not differ between groups. Oxygen saturations (from pulse oximeter readings) were low in some birds. Following anaesthesia, all birds recovered within 40 minutes. In 55% of all, transient signs of central nervous system excitement occurred during recovery. 8 mg kg(-1) propofol appears an adequate induction dose for mute swans. For maintenance, a CRI of 0.85 mg kg(-1) minute(-1) produced stable anaesthesia suitable for painless clinical procedures. In contrast bolus administration, was unsatisfactory as birds awoke very suddenly, and the short intervals between bolus requirements hampered clinical procedures. Administration of additional oxygen throughout anaesthesia might reduce the incidence of low arterial haemoglobin saturation. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and

  9. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  10. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  11. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    150kgN/ha with a mean leaf area of 55.60cm2. A lower rate of 100kgN/ha was however, found to be optimum in. 2012 with an average leaf area of 51.70cm2, when ... Exchange Acidity. 3.32. 3.35. ECEC (cmol/kg). 7.27. 7.34. Number of Tillers per Plant. Nitrogen application significantly enhanced the tillering ability of the ...

  12. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examining the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-radiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. It was concluded that oligodendrocytes in irradiated cultures had significantly lower functional capacity than did unirradiated controls. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. At DIC 14, the group irradiated in a single fraction had significantly lower oligodendrocyte counts than any group given split doses; all irradiated cultures had marked depression of MBP synthesis, but to significant differences referable to time interval between doses. At DIC 21, cultures irradiated at intervals of 0 h to 2 h had similar oligodendrocyte counts to one another, but these counts were significantly lower than in cultures irradiated at intervals of 4 h to 6 h; MBP levels remained depressed at DIC 21 for all irradiated cultures. The oligodendrocyte response to dose rate (0.03 to 1.97 Gy/min) was evaluated at DIC 14 and DIC 21. Exposure at 0.03 Gy/min suppressed oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 21 less than did higher dose rates in 5-Gy irradiated cultures

  13. Pretreatment red blood cell total folate is associated with response to pemetrexed in stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J.; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L.; Alley, Evan W.; Cohen, Roger B.; Langer, Corey J.; Blair, Ian A.; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Prior studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic marker of cellular folate status, was associated with response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV non-squamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. Pretreatment RBC total folate was quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We then compared objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations above and below an optimal cut-off value determined from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab. Results The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). ROC analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and non-responders. Patients with RBC total folate below 364.5 nM had an ORR of 27%, compared to 71% in patients with RBC total folate above this value (p=0.01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.57, p=0.01). Conclusions Low pretreatment RBC total folate is associated with inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV non-squamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. PMID:27863923

  14. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  15. Response rate of fibrosarcoma cells to cytotoxic drugs on the expression level correlates to the therapeutic response rate of fibrosarcomas and is mediated by regulation of apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnhardt, Marcus; Mueller, Oliver; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kuhnen, Cornelius; Homann, Heinz Herbert; Daigeler, Adrien; Steinau, Hans Ulrich; Roehrs, Sonja; Schnoor, Laura; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high resistance rate of fibrosarcomas against cytotoxic agents clinical chemotherapy of these tumors is not established. A better understanding of the diverse modes of tumor cell death following cytotoxic therapies will provide a molecular basis for new chemotherapeutic strategies. In this study we elucidated the response of a fibrosarcoma cell line to clinically used cytostatic agents on the level of gene expression. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were exposed to the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, actinomycin D or vincristine. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression patterns were analyzed by microarray analysis. Expression levels for 46 selected candidate genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The analysis of the microarray data resulted in 3.309 (actinomycin D), 1.019 (doxorubicin) and 134 (vincristine) probesets that showed significant expression changes. For the RNA synthesis blocker actinomycin D, 99.4% of all differentially expressed probesets were under-represented. In comparison, probesets down-regulated by doxorubicin comprised only 37.4% of all genes effected by this agent. Closer analysis of the differentially regulated genes revealed that doxorubicin induced cell death of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells mainly by regulating the abundance of factors mediating the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptosis pathway. Furthermore doxorubicin influences other pathways and crosstalk to other pathways (including to the death receptor pathway) at multiple levels. We found increased levels of cytochrome c, APAF-1 and members of the STAT-family (STAT1, STAT3), while Bcl-2 expression was decreased. Caspase-1, -3, -6, -8, and -9 were increased indicating that these proteases are key factors in the execution of doxorubicin mediated apoptosis. This study demonstrates that chemotherapy regulates the expression of apoptosis-related factors in fibrosarcoma cells. The number and the specific pattern of the genes depend on the used cytotoxic drug

  16. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  17. Comparison of pregnancy rates in pre-treatment male infertility and low total motile sperm count at insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng Wei; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine insemination (IUI), total motile sperm count (TMSC) is an important predictor of pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of a poor TMSC on the day of IUI in a patient with prior normal semen analysis (SA) is unclear. We performed this study to determine if these patients perform as poorly as those who had male factor infertility diagnosed prior to commencing treatment. 147 males with two abnormal SA based on the 2010 World Health Organization criteria underwent 356 IUI with controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH). Their pregnancy rates were compared to 120 males who had abnormal TMSC at the time of 265 IUI with COH, in a retrospective university-based study. The two groups were comparable in female age (p = 0.11), duration of infertility (p = 0.17), previous pregnancies (p = 0.13), female basal serum FSH level (p = 0.54) and number of mature follicles on the day of ovulation trigger (p = 0.27). Despite better semen parameters on the day of IUI in the pre-treatment male factor infertility group (TMSC mean ± SD: 61 ± 30 million vs. 3.5 ± 2 million, p male factor infertility. More studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  18. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah P. Shutt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges.

  19. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, Deborah P; Manore, Carrie A; Pankavich, Stephen; Porter, Aaron T; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-12-01

    As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seismicity rate surge on faults after shut-in: poroelastic response to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. W.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface energy activities such as geological CO2 storage and wastewater injection require injecting large amounts of fluid into the subsurface, which will alter the states of pore pressure and stress in the storage formation. One of the main issues for injection-induced seismicity is the post shut-in increases in the seismicity rate, often observed in the fluid-injection operation sites. The rate surge can be driven by the following mechanisms: (1) pore-pressure propagation into distant faults after shut-in and (2) poroelastic stressing caused by well operations, depending on fault geometry, hydraulic and mechanical properties of the formation, and injection history. We simulate the aerial view of the target reservoir intersected by strike-slip faults, in which injection-induced pressure buildup encounters the faults directly. We examine the poroelastic response of the faults to fluid injection and perform a series of sensitivity tests considering: (1) permeability of the fault zone, (2) locations and the number of faults with respect to the injection point, and (3) well operations with varying the injection rate. Our analysis of the Coulomb stress change suggests that the sealing fault confines pressure diffusion which stabilizes or weakens the nearby conductive fault depending on the injection location. We perform the sensitivity test by changing injection scenarios (time-dependent rates), while keeping the total amount of injected fluids. Sensitivity analysis shows that gradual reduction of the injection rate minimizes the Coulomb stress change and the least seismicity rates are predicted. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  1. Pretreatment Red Blood Cell Total Folate Concentration Is Associated With Response to Pemetrexed in Stage IV Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L; Alley, Evan W; Cohen, Roger B; Langer, Corey J; Blair, Ian A; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2017-03-01

    Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Previous studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic, marker of cellular folate status was associated with the response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. The pretreatment RBC total folate level was quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We then compared the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations greater than and less than an optimal cutoff value determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab. The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and nonresponders. Patients with RBC total folate  364.5 nM (P = .01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.57; P = .01). A low pretreatment RBC total folate was associated with an inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  3. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  4. Effect of radiation doses rate on SOS response induction in irradiated Escherichia coli Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuetara Lugo, Elizabeth B.; Fuentes Lorenzo, Jorge L.; Almeida Varela, Eliseo; Prieto Miranda, Enrique F.; Sanchez Lamar, Angel; Llagostera Casal, Montserrat

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to study the effect of radiation dose rate on the induction of SOS response in Escherichia coli cells. We measured the induction of sul A reporter gene in PQ-37 (SOS Chromotest) cells. Lead devises were built with different diameter and these were used for diminishing the dose rate of PX- -30M irradiator. Our results show that radiation doses rate significantly modifies the induction of SOS response. Induction factor increases proportionally to doses rate in Escherichia coli cells defective to nucleotide excision repair (uvrA), but not in wild type cells. We conclude that the dose rate affects the level of induction of SOS response

  5. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-11-23

    In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement. We interviewed 53 selected key informants from research, policy and practice in the Netherlands and observed the assessment of 12 interventions. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 94 interventions were submitted to the ERS, of which 23 were rejected, 58 were rated as 'theoretically sound', 10 were rated as 'probably effective' and 3 were rated as 'proven effective'. According to participants, the ERS was intended to facilitate both the improvement of available interventions and the improvement of health promotion in practice. While participants expected that describing and rating interventions promoted learning and enhanced the transferability of interventions, they were concerned that the ERS approach was not suitable for guiding intervention development and improving health promotion in practice. The expert committees that assessed the interventions struggled with a lack of norms for the relevance of effects and questions about how effects should be studied and rated. Health promotion practitioners were concerned that the ERS neglected the local adaptation of interventions and did not encourage the improvement of aspects like applicability and costs. Policy-makers and practitioners were worried that the lack of proven effectiveness legitimised cutbacks rather than learning and advancing health promotion. While measuring and centrally rating the effectiveness of interventions can be

  6. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  7. Effects of Postacute Settings on Readmission Rates and Reasons for Readmission Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Rodney Laine; Graham, James E; Karmarkar, Amol M; Leland, Natalie E; Baillargeon, Jacques G; Wild, Dana L; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2017-04-01

    Examine the effects of postacute discharge setting on unplanned hospital readmissions following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in older adults. Secondary analyses of 100% Medicare (inpatient) claims files. Acute hospitals across the United States. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ≥66 years of age who were discharged from an acute hospital following TKA in 2009-2011 (n = 608,031). The outcome measure was unplanned readmissions at 30, 60, and 90 days. The independent variable of interest was postacute discharge setting: inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), skilled nursing facility (SNF), or community. Covariates included demographic, clinical, and facility-level factors. The top 10 reasons for readmission were tabulated for each discharge setting across the 3 consecutive 30-day time periods. A total of 32,226 patients (5.3%) were re-admitted within 30 days. Compared with community discharge, patients discharged to IRF and SNF had 44% and 40% higher odds of 30-day readmission, respectively. IRF and SNF discharge settings were also associated with 48% and 45% higher odds of 90-day readmission, respectively, compared with community discharge. The largest increase in readmission rates occurred within the first 30 days of hospital discharge for each discharge setting. From 1 to 30 days, postoperative and post-traumatic infections were among the top causes for readmission in all 3 discharge settings. From 31 to 60 days, postoperative or traumatic infections remained in the top 5-7 reasons for readmission in all settings, but they were not in the top 10 at 61 to 90 days. Patients discharged to either SNF or IRF, in comparison with those discharged to the community, had greater likelihood of readmission within 30 and 90 days. The reasons for readmission were relatively consistent across discharge settings and time periods. These findings provide new information relevant to the delivery of postacute care to older adults following TKA. Copyright © 2017

  8. Direct and correlated responses to selection for total weight of lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    productivity and that each of these components can be used as a selection criterion, as each has a direct impact on total ewe ... of lamb weaned per ewe joined is more efficient than selection for number of lambs born, number of lambs weaned or weaning ... The estimated grazing capacity is 5.5 ha per small stock unit.

  9. The response of the 11 August 1999 total solar eclipse in the geomagnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    85-86, 1/3 (2001), s. 561-566 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : geomagnetic pulsations * geomagnetic variations * total solar eclipse Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2001

  10. Response rate of bricklayers and supervisors on an internet or a paper-and-pencil questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether or not internet surveys yield response rates comparable to paper-and-pencil surveys for specific occupational groups, such as construction workers. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in response rates between a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an

  11. Response Rates in Studies of Couples Coping With Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. Method: A systematic

  12. Applications of the absolute reaction rate theory to biological responses in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, J.P.; Wayland, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical foundation for the study of biological responses of electric and magnetic fields. The basis of the development is the absolute reaction rate theory and the effects of fields on reaction rates. A simple application to the response of Bacillus subtilis var niger in a microwave field is made. Potential areas of application are discussed

  13. Delayed Cardiomyocyte Response to Total Body Particle Radiation Exposure - Identification of Regulatory Gene Network [proton

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We examined molecular responses using transcriptome profiling in isolated left ventricular murine cardiomyocytes to 90 cGy 1 GeV proton (1H) and 15 cGy 1 GeV/nucleon...

  14. Delayed Cardiomyocyte Response to Total Body Particle Radiation Exposure - Identification of Regulatory Gene Network [iron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We examined molecular responses using transcriptome profiling in isolated left ventricular murine cardiomyocytes to 90 cGy 1 GeV proton (1H) and 15 cGy 1 GeV/nucleon...

  15. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative pain response to heat stimulation in total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict postopera......It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict...... and logistic regressions analyses were carried out including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety, depression, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as independent predictor for postoperative pain. 100 patients...... by the linear and logistic regression analyses, where only anxiety, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-Squares;0.05-0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinical relevant predictors for postoperative...

  16. Hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS)--validity and responsiveness in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, Anna K; Lohmander, L Stefan; Klässbo, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if physical functions usually associated with a younger population were of importance for an older population, and to construct an outcome measure for hip osteoarthritis with improved responsiveness compared to the Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis score...

  17. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  18. Level of response to telematic questionnaires on Health Related Quality of Life on total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalduch-Balaguer, M; Aguilera-Roig, X; Urrútia-Cuchí, G; Puntonet-Bruch, A; Jordan-Sales, M; González-Osuna, A; Celaya-Ibáñez, F; Colomina-Morales, J

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaires measuring health-related quality of life are difficult to perform and obtain for patients and professionals. Computerised tools are now available to collect this information. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of patients undergoing total knee replacement to fill in health-related quality-of-life questionnaires using a telematic platform. Ninety eight consecutive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were included. Participants were given an access code to enter the website where they had to respond to 2 questionnaires (SF8 and the reduced WOMAC), and 3 additional questions about the difficulty in completing the questionnaires. A total of 98 patients agreed to participate: 45 males and 53 females (mean age 72.7 years). Fourteen did not agree to participate due to lack of internet access. Of the final 84 participants, 50% entered the website, and only 36 answered all questions correctly. Of the patients who answered the questionnaire, 80% were helped by a relative or friend, and 22% reported difficulty accessing internet. The use of telematic systems to respond to health-related quality of life questionnaires should be used cautiously, especially in elderly population. It is likely that the population they are directed at is not prepared to use this type of technology. Therefore, before designing telematics questionnaires it must be ensured that they are completed properly. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionospheric response to the total solar eclipse in India on 22 July, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vishal; Agrawal, Shikha; Singh, O. P.; Singh, Birbal

    2010-10-01

    Since The variations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and amplitude of the fixed frequency VLF transmitter signal (f = 19.8 kHz, NWC, Australia) are studied at Agra (Geographic Lat. 27.2°N, Long. 78°E), India during the total solar eclipse of 22 July, 2009 which was longest seen in India ever since 18 August, 1968. The equipment used for the study are a dual frequency GPS receiver (GSV 4004V) and a Soft PAL (Software based phase and amplitude logger) receiver. The data for a period of fifteen days (+/-7 days from the date of the event) are analysed and it is found that the TEC decreased by about 30% from normal days during the total solar eclipse, and the amplitude of the VLF signal also decreased likewise. The period of the data analysis is characterised by a low level of geomagnetic activity, hence the decrease in TEC and amplitude of the VLF signal is unlikely to be influenced by geomagnetic disturbances. The results are interpreted in terms of depression in electron densities at all ionospheric heights and are consistent with those obtained by earlier workers during similar eclipse events.

  20. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  3. Impulse Response of the Exchange Rate Volatility to a Foreign Exchange Intervention Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...

  4. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  5. Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry manure application and time of planting in a derived savannah ecology of south eastern Nigeria. ... The interaction of time of planting and manure rates showed a trend of increased seed yield as planting was done early with high manure rate, hence, the ...

  6. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  7. Does the brake response time of the right leg change after left total knee arthroplasty? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos J; Barreiros, João; Cabri, Jan; Carita, Ana I; Friesecke, Christian; Loehr, Jochen F

    2008-08-01

    Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty often ask when they can safely resume car driving. There is little evidence available on which physicians can rely when advising patients on this issue. In a prospective study we assessed the brake response time of 24 patients admitted to the clinic for left total knee arthroplasty preoperatively and then 10 days after surgery. On each measurement day the patients performed two tasks, a simple and a complex brake response time task in a car simulator. Ten days after left TKA the brake response time for the simple task had decreased by 3.6% (p=0.24), the reaction time by 3.1% (p=0.34) and the movement time by 6.6% (p=0.07). However, the performance improvement was not statistically significant. Task complexity increased brake response time at both time points. A 5.8% increase was significant (p=0.01) at 10 days after surgery. Based on our results, we suggest that patients who have undergone left total knee arthroplasty may resume car driving 10 days after surgery as long as they drive a car with automatic transmission.

  8. Trochanteric bursitis after total hip arthroplasty: incidence and evaluation of response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kevin W; Jones, Lynne C; Brownson, Kirstyn E; Khanuja, Harpal S; Hungerford, Marc W

    2010-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of corticosteroid injection as treatment for postarthroplasty trochanteric bursitis and the risk factors for failure of nonoperative treatment. There were 32 (4.6%) cases of postsurgical trochanteric bursitis in 689 primary total hip arthroplasties. Of the 25 hips with follow-up, 11 (45%) required multiple injections. Symptoms resolved in 20 (80%) but persisted in 5. We found no statistically significant differences between patients who did and did not develop trochanteric bursitis, or between those who did and did not respond to treatment. There was a trend toward younger age and greater limb-length discrepancy in nonresponders. In conclusion, (1) corticosteroid injection(s) for postoperative trochanteric bursitis is effective; and (2) nonoperative management may be more likely to fail in young patients and those with leg-length discrepancy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Edwards, Teresa

    2012-03-07

    Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. © 2011 Viera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  11. Total dose and dose-rate effects on start-up current in anti-fuse FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Wong, W.; McCollum, J.; Cronquist, B.; Katz, R.; Kleyner, I.; Kleyner, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation enhanced start-up current (RESC) in an anti-fuse FPGA, A1280A, is thoroughly investigated and a comprehensive transistor-level mechanism is proposed. Low dose-rate testing, appropriate for civilian space applications, and annealing at room temperature shows RESC to be negligible for the lot of parts tested with a fixed power supply slew rate. (authors)

  12. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  13. [Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from leaves of the Artocarpus heterophyllus by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-wu; Liu, Yan-qing; Wang, Yuan-hong

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the ultrasonic-assisted extract on of total flavonoids from leaves of the Artocarpus heterophyllus. Investigated the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and liquid-solid ratio on flavonoids yield. A 17-run response surface design involving three factors at three levels was generated by the Design-Expert software and experimental data obtained were subjected to quadratic regression analysis to create a mathematical model describing flavonoids extraction. The optimum ultrasonic assisted extraction conditions were: ethanol volume fraction 69.4% and liquid-solid ratio of 22.6:1 for 32 min. Under these optimized conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 7.55 mg/g. The Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

  14. Enhanced MODIS Atmospheric Total Water Vapour Content Trends in Response to Arctic Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Alraddawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the strength of the water vapour feedback within Arctic climate change, 15 years of the total column-integrated density of water vapour (TCWV from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS are analysed. Arctic TCWV distribution, trends, and anomalies for the 2001–2015 period, broken down into seasons and months, are analysed. Enhanced local spring TCWV trends above the terrestrial Arctic regions are discussed in relation to land snow cover and vegetation changes. Upward TCWV trends above the oceanic areas are discussed in lien with sea ice extent and sea surface temperature changes. Increased winter TCWV (up to 40% south of the Svalbard archipelago are observed; these trends are probably driven by a local warming and sea ice extent decline. Similarly, the Barents/Kara regions underwent wet trends (up to 40%, also associated with winter/fall local sea ice loss. Positive late summer TCWV trends above the western Greenland and Beaufort seas (about 20% result from enhanced upper ocean warming and thereby a local coastal decline in ice extent. The Mackenzie and Siberia enhanced TCWV trends (about 25% during spring are found to be associated with coincident decreased snow cover and increased vegetation, as a result of the earlier melt onset. Results show drier summers in the Eurasia and western Alaska regions, thought to be affected by changes in albedo from changing vegetation. Other TCWV anomalies are also presented and discussed in relation to the dramatic decline in sea ice extent and the exceptional rise in sea surface temperature.

  15. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Lø nborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes

  16. Comment Response on the Final Report: Peer Review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    ), updated where appropriate, as well as new findings that the Panel developed during its review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). In the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999), the Panel notes that the objective of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a) was to describe the probable behavior of the potential repository. This report documents the comments provided in the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) and the Management and Operating Contractor responses to these comments. The responses were based on input from a number of scientists from the Management and Operating Contractor, several national laboratories, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The comments and responses are organized to be consistent with the major headings in the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999). Excerpts from the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) are in italics; the Management and Operating Contractor responses to the comments are in straight text

  17. Growth rate regulated genes and their wide involvement in the Lactococcus lactis stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redon Emma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of transcriptomic tools has allowed exhaustive description of stress responses. These responses always superimpose a general response associated to growth rate decrease and a specific one corresponding to the stress. The exclusive growth rate response can be achieved through chemostat cultivation, enabling all parameters to remain constant except the growth rate. Results We analysed metabolic and transcriptomic responses of Lactococcus lactis in continuous cultures at different growth rates ranging from 0.09 to 0.47 h-1. Growth rate was conditioned by isoleucine supply. Although carbon metabolism was constant and homolactic, a widespread transcriptomic response involving 30% of the genome was observed. The expression of genes encoding physiological functions associated with biogenesis increased with growth rate (transcription, translation, fatty acid and phospholipids metabolism. Many phages, prophages and transposon related genes were down regulated as growth rate increased. The growth rate response was compared to carbon and amino-acid starvation transcriptomic responses, revealing constant and significant involvement of growth rate regulations in these two stressful conditions (overlap 27%. Two regulators potentially involved in the growth rate regulations, llrE and yabB, have been identified. Moreover it was established that genes positively regulated by growth rate are preferentially located in the vicinity of replication origin while those negatively regulated are mainly encountered at the opposite, thus indicating the relationship between genes expression and their location on chromosome. Although stringent response mechanism is considered as the one governing growth deceleration in bacteria, the rigorous comparison of the two transcriptomic responses clearly indicated the mechanisms are distinct. Conclusion This work of integrative biology was performed at the global level using transcriptomic analysis

  18. Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma with 2-Stage Total en bloc Spondylectomy after Marked Response to Molecular Target Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Inoue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the bone occurs at a high rate, and the prognosis is poor. In general, total en bloc spondylectomy is considered when there is only one vertebral metastasis and the primary disease is treated. However, palliative surgery is selected when the primary disease is not being treated or metastasis occurs to an important organ. We encountered a patient in whom lung and vertebra metastases were already present at the time of the first examination at our department and the prognosis was considered poor. However, molecular targeted therapy was markedly effective and enabled 2-stage total en bloc spondylectomy. As of one year after total en bloc spondylectomy, the condition has improved to cane gait, and surgery for lung metastasis is planned. Molecular target drugs might markedly change the current therapeutic strategy for renal cell carcinoma.

  19. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Nudurupati, Saibaba [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C. [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Vakil, E-mail: vsingh.met@itbhu.ac.in [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10{sup −2}, 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  20. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10 −2 , 10 −3 , and 10 −4 s −1 . Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C

  1. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.J.; Steele, M.A.; DeVries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding

  2. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits under paragraph (a) of this section receives any money or property pursuant to a judicial... amount of money received and the fair market value of the property received. The provisions of this... veteran. The amount to be reported is the total of the amount of money received and the fair market value...

  3. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  4. Effect of hypoxia on BOLD fMRI response and total cerebral blood flow in migraine with aura patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2018-01-01

    was measured in the visual cortex ROIs V1-V5. Total cerebral blood flow (CBF) was calculated by measuring the blood velocity in the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery using phase-contrast mapping (PCM) MRI. Hypoxia induced a greater decrease in BOLD response to visual stimulation in V1-V4 in MA......Experimentally induced hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura (MA). We investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal response to visual stimulation during hypoxia in MA patients and healthy volunteers. In a randomized double......-blind crossover study design, 15 MA patients were allocated to 180 min of normobaric poikilocapnic hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham (normoxia) on two separate days and 14 healthy volunteers were exposed to hypoxia. The BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) signal response to visual stimulation...

  5. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  6. Recovery of balance function among individuals with total knee arthroplasty: Comparison of responsiveness among four balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andy C M; Ouyang, Xi H; Jehu, Deborah A M; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C

    2018-01-01

    Balance deficits are common after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however the responsiveness of commonly used balance measurement tools has not been well defined. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness of four measurement tools in assessing recovery of balance function following TKA. A total of 134 individuals with TKA (95 women; age: 66.3±6.6years) completed the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), Mini-BESTest, Brief-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-TKA. The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) served as the anchor measure, and was also measured across these time points. Internal responsiveness was indicated by the standardized response mean (SRM), while external responsiveness was reflected by the degree of association of the changes of balance scores with those of FGA. The SRM ranged from 0.60-1.14 for the BESTest, 0.40-0.94 for the Mini-BESTest, 0.27-0.91 for the Brief-BESTest, and 0.19-0.70 for the BBS, over time. The change in BESTest and Mini-BESTest scores predicted the change in the FGA scores across all time periods, except for the Mini-BESTest between weeks 12-24, accounting for 13-27%, and 12-24% of the variance, respectively. The Brief-BESTest scores only predicted FGA scores between the weeks 2-4 (R 2 =20%). The changes in BBS scores were not associated with the FGA. The BESTest is the most responsive in measuring recovery of balance among individuals with TKA. The Mini-BESTest is a reasonable option during time constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  8. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  9. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  11. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  12. A comparison of post-op haemoglobin levels and allogeneic blood transfusion rates following total knee arthroplasty without drainage or with reinfusion drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Shariff; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhavikatti, Mainudden; Dawson, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The effects of re-infusion drains on the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and post-op haemoglobin levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty were examined. A group of 22 patients undergoing primary Total Knee Arthroplasty using a CBCII Constavac Stryker re-infusion drainage system were compared with a group of 30 patients, matched for age, sex and type of prosthesis but without any drain usage. The re-infusion drain.group had a significantly lower day 1 and day 3 post-operative haemoglobin compared to the non-drainage group. The re-infusion drain group had a higher allogenic transfusion rate compared to the non-drainage group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the rate of wound and transfusion related complications and mean length of post-operative stay. We found that reinfusion drains were ineffective in reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements as compared with non-drainage in total knee arthroplasty.

  13. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain

  14. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Richard P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  15. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  16. [Ventricular tachycardia in a patient with rate-responsive cardiac pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himbert, C; Lascault, G; Tonet, J; Coutte, R; Busquet, P; Frank, R; Grosgogeat, Y

    1992-11-01

    The authors report a case of syncopal ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a respiratory-dependent rate responsive pacemaker, followed-up for valvular heart disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction and sustained atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The introduction of low dose betablocker therapy with reinforcement of the treatment of cardiac failure controlled the ventricular arrhythmia, after suppression of the data responsive function had been shown to be ineffective. The authors discuss the role of the rate responsive function in the triggering of the ventricular tachycardias.

  17. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally......GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  18. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  19. The Impact of use of Double Set-up on Infection Rates in Revision Total Knee Replacement and Limb Salvage Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Waterman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the impact of utilizing a double set-up procedure on reducing infection rates revision total knee and limb salvage procedures in patients with known joint infection.  Eighteen cases fit selection criteria.  The recurrence rate of infection was 5.5% which is less than reported recent literature review.   This suggests the use of a double set-up in combination with other infection reducing protocols may help further reduce recurrent infection.  Keywords: double set-up, infection, revision total knee arthroplasty, limb-salvage

  20. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  1. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengchao; Alper, Howard E; Nguyen, Angela-Maithy; Brackbill, Robert M; Turner, Lennon; Walker, Deborah J; Maslow, Carey B; Zweig, Kimberly C

    2017-04-26

    Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2-4) every 3-4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13-14 years after 9/11. We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4), and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a monetary incentive as an additional refusal conversion strategy. Our

  2. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  3. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  4. The contribution of staff call light response time to fall and injurious fall rates: an exploratory study in four US hospitals using archived hospital data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Huey-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention programs for hospitalized patients have had limited success, and the effect of programs on decreasing total falls and fall-related injuries is still inconclusive. This exploratory multi-hospital study examined the unique contribution of call light response time to predicting total fall rates and injurious fall rates in inpatient acute care settings. The conceptual model was based on Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and health-care outcomes. The covariates included the hospital, unit type, total nursing hours per patient-day (HPPDs, percentage of the total nursing HPPDs supplied by registered nurses, percentage of patients aged 65 years or older, average case mix index, percentage of patients with altered mental status, percentage of patients with hearing problems, and call light use rate per patient-day. Methods We analyzed data from 28 units from 4 Michigan hospitals, using archived data and chart reviews from January 2004 to May 2009. The patient care unit-month, defined as data aggregated by month for each patient care unit, was the unit of analysis (N = 1063. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used. Results Faster call light response time was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. Units with a higher call light use rate had lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of productive nursing hours provided by registered nurses was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of patients with altered mental status was associated with a higher total fall rate but not a higher injurious fall rate. Units with a higher percentage of patients aged 65 years or older had lower injurious fall rates. Conclusions Faster call light response time appeared to contribute to lower total fall and injurious fall rates, after controlling for the covariates. For practical relevance, hospital and nursing executives should consider

  5. A new constitutive model for prediction of impact rates response of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley C.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new constitutive model for predicting the impact rates response of polypropylene. Impact rates, as used here, refer to strain rates greater than 1000 1/s. The model is a physically based, three-dimensional constitutive model which incorporates the contributions of the amorphous, crystalline, pseudo-amorphous and entanglement networks to the constitutive response of polypropylene. The model mathematics is based on the well-known Glass-Rubber model originally developed for glassy polymers but the arguments have herein been extended to semi-crystalline polymers. In order to predict the impact rates behaviour of polypropylene, the model exploits the well-known framework of multiple processes yielding of polymers. This work argues that two dominant viscoelastic relaxation processes – the alpha- and beta-processes – can be associated with the yield responses of polypropylene observed at low-rate-dominant and impact-rates dominant loading regimes. Compression test data on polypropylene have been used to validate the model. The study has found that the model predicts quite well the experimentally observed nonlinear rate-dependent impact response of polypropylene.

  6. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  7. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media.......7, p = 0.017) models. Cardiac adipose tissue (p = 0.033) was associated with baseline coronary artery calcium (model 1) and interleukin-8 (models 1-3, all p type 2 diabetes patients without coronary artery disease, high cardiac adipose tissue levels were associated...

  9. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2006-03-01

    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  10. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  11. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  12. The stress response and anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia for total Hip Replacement in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Tian, Chun; Li, Min; Peng, Ming-Qing; Ma, Kun-Long; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Ding, Jia-Hui; Cai, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Recently, some scholars suggested that it is important to keep a stablehemodynamic state and prevent the stress responses in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). We conducted this randomized prospective study to observe anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia and stress response to it in geriatric patients during THR. We compared the effect of unilateral spinal and bilateral spinal on inhibition of stress response through measuring Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and cortisol (CORT). Plasma concentrations of NE, E and CORT were determined in blood samples using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) at three time points: To (prior to anesthesia) T1 (at the time point of skin closure), T2 (twenty-four hours after the operation). Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (unilateral spinal anesthesia) and group B (conventional bilateral spinal anesthesia). 7.5tymg of hypobaric bupivacaine were injected into subarachnoid cavity at group A and 12mg hypobaric bupivacaine were given at group B. The onset time of sensory and motor block, loss of pinprick sensation, degree of motor block, regression of sensory and motor blocks and hemodynamic changes were also recorded. These data were used to evaluate anesthetic potency of spinal anesthesia. The results of this experiment show that unilateral spinal anesthesia can provide restriction of sensory and motor block, minimize the incidence of hypotension and prevent the stress responses undergoing THR. It is optimal anesthesia procedure for geriatric patients by rapid subarachnoid injection of small doses of bupivacaine.

  13. Seasonal soil VOC exchange rates in a Mediterranean holm oak forest and their responses to drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep; Ogaya, Romà; Llusià, Joan

    Available information on soil volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange, emissions and uptake, is very scarce. We here describe the amounts and seasonality of soil VOC exchange during a year in a natural Mediterranean holm oak forest growing in Southern Catalonia. We investigated changes in soil VOC dynamics in drought conditions by decreasing the soil moisture to 30% of ambient conditions by artificially excluding rainfall and water runoff, and predicted the response of VOC exchange to the drought forecasted in the Mediterranean region for the next decades by GCM and ecophysiological models. The annual average of the total (detected) soil VOC and total monoterpene exchange rates were 3.2±3.2 and -0.4±0.3 μg m -2 h -1, respectively, in control plots. These values represent 0.003% of the total C emitted by soil at the study site as CO 2 whereas the annual mean of soil monoterpene exchange represents 0.0004% of total C. Total soil VOC exchange rates in control plots showed seasonal variations following changes in soil moisture and phenology. Maximum values were found in spring (17±8 μg m -2 h -1). Although there was no significant global effect of drought treatment on the total soil VOC exchange rates, annual average of total VOC exchange rates in drought plots resulted in an uptake rate (-0.5±1.8 μg m -2 h -1) instead of positive net emission rates. Larger soil VOC and monoterpene exchanges were measured in drought plots than in control plots in summer, which might be mostly attributable to autotrophic (roots) metabolism. The results show that the diversity and magnitude of monoterpene and VOC soil emissions are low compared with plant emissions, that they are driven by soil moisture, that they represent a very small part of the soil-released carbon and that they may be strongly reduced or even reversed into net uptakes by the predicted decreases of soil water availability in the next decades. In all cases, it seems that VOC fluxes in soil might have greater

  14. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  15. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  16. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  17. Radiobiological responses for two cell lines following continuous low dose-rate (CLDR) and pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, Per Henrik; Furre, Torbjoern; Olsen, Dag Rune; Pettersen, Erik O.

    2007-01-01

    The iso-effective irradiation of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation was compared with that of various schedules of pulsed dose rate (PDR) irradiation for cells of two established human lines, T-47D and NHIK 3025. Complete single-dose response curves were obtained for determination of parameters α and β by fitting of the linear quadratic formula. Sublethal damage repair constants μ and T 1/2 were determined by split-dose recovery experiments. On basis of the acquired parameters of each cell type the relative effectiveness of the two regimens of irradiation (CLDR and PDR) was calculated by use of Fowler's radiobiological model for iso-effect irradiation for repeated fractions of dose delivered at medium dose rates. For both cell types the predicted and observed relative effectiveness was compared at low and high iso-effect levels. The results indicate that the effect of PDR irradiation predicted by Fowler's model is equal to that of CLDR irradiation for both small and large doses with T-47D cells. With NHIK 3025 cells PDR irradiation induces a larger effect than predicted by the model for small doses, while it induces the predicted effect for high doses. The underlying cause of this difference is unclear, but cell-cycle parameters, like G2-accumulation is tested and found to be the same for the two cell lines

  18. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Secretary Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the...

  19. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  20. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  1. Perceptual and Brain Response to Odors Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Postprandial Total Ghrelin Reactivity to a Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that olfactory sensitivity is greater when fasted than when fed. However, human research has generated inconsistent results. One possible explanation for these conflicting findings is metabolic health. Many metabolic peptides, including ghrelin, are moderated by adiposity and influence olfaction and olfactory-guided behaviors. We tested whether the effect of a meal on the perceived intensity of suprathreshold chemosensory stimuli is influenced by body mass index and/or metabolic response to a meal. We found that overweight or obese (n = 13), but not healthy weight (n = 20) subjects perceived odors, but not flavored solutions, as more intense when hungry than when sated. This effect was correlated with reduced postprandial total ghrelin suppression (n = 23) and differential brain response to odors in the cerebellum, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, it was unrelated to circulating leptin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or free fatty acids; or to odor pleasantness or sniffing (n = 24). These findings demonstrate that the effect of a meal on suprathreshold odor intensity perception is associated with metabolic measures such as body weight and total ghrelin reactivity, supporting endocrine influences on olfactory perception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E; Clusella-Trullas, S; Terblanche, J S

    2014-02-01

    Physiological responses to transient conditions may result in costly responses with little fitness benefits, and therefore, a trade-off must exist between the speed of response and the duration of exposure to new conditions. Here, using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, we examine this potential trade-off using a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model. Specifically, we explore and dissect the interactions between plastic physiological responses, treatment-duration and -intensity using an experimental approach. We then integrate these experimental results from organismal water-balance data and their plastic responses into a population dynamics model to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates. The results show evidence for the predicted trade-off for plasticity of water loss rate (WLR) and the duration of new environmental conditions. When altered environmental conditions lasted for longer durations, physiological responses could match the new environmental conditions, and this resulted in a lower WLR and lower rates of population decline. At shorter time-scales however, a mismatch between acclimation duration and physiological responses was reflected by reduced overall population growth rates. This may indicate a potential fitness cost due to insufficient time for physiological adjustments to take place. The outcomes of this work therefore suggest plastic water balance responses have both costs and benefits, and these depend on the time-scale and magnitude of variation in environmental conditions. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of plastic physiological responses and changes in population abundance in the context of environmental variability. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Increased mortality by septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis among bone marrow transplant recipients receiving an increased mean dose rate of total irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringden, O.; Baaryd, I.; Johansson, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seven bone marrow transplant recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving a mean dose rate of 0.07 Gy/min of total body irradiation towards the pelvic midpoint and the lungs had an increased (p<0.01) overall death rate of 86 per cent compared with 33 per cent among 27 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a mean dose rate of 0.04 Gy/min. Among the patients receiving the higher dose rate there was an increased mortality in causes related to radiation toxicity like early septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, compared with all patients receiving the lower dose rate (p<0.01) and also with 10 patients from this group with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p<0.02). (Auth.)

  4. Isotopic and chemical dilution effects on the vibrational relaxation rate of some totally symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, E.; Morresi, A.; Paliani, G.; Cataliotti, R.S.; Giorgini, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational dephasing of the ν 1 (C-H, C-D stretching) and ν 3 (C-H, C-D bending) symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile in its light and fully deuterated forms has been studied in the frame of the vibrational time correlation functions obtained as Fourier transforms of the isotropic Raman spectral distributions and interpreted within the Kubo theory. In addition, the experimental isotropic profiles have been analysed within the bandshape approach formulated by analytical Fourier transformation of the Kubo vibrational time correlation functions in order to derive the relaxation parameters in the frequency domain. The effects of the isotopic (CH 3 CN/CD 3 CN and vice versa) and chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution on the bandshapes and on the vibrational relaxation parameters have been studied. It was observed that the decay rate of ν 1 mode is insensitive to the isotopic dilution but varies appreciably with chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution. The vibrational dephasing of ν 3 mode is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, affected in the same way by chemical dilution and shows a slower modulation regime than that exhibited by the stretching mode. Unlikely from the latter, the ν 3 mode results are slightly affected by the isotopic dilution. Phase relaxation mechanisms of these two motions of acetonitrile in the liquid state are proposed on the basis of these data, and a comparison is made with the results earlier published. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Challenges in assessing hospital-level stroke mortality as a quality measure: comparison of ischemic, intracerebral hemorrhage, and total stroke mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Holloway, Robert G; Pan, Wenqin; Peterson, Eric D

    2012-06-01

    Public reporting efforts currently profile hospitals based on overall stroke mortality rates, yet the "mix" of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke cases may impact this rate. Using the 2005 to 2006 New York state data, we examined the degree to which hospital stroke mortality rankings varied regarding ischemic versus hemorrhagic versus total stroke. Observed/expected ratio was calculated using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Inpatient Quality Indicator software. The observed/expected ratio and outlier status based on stroke types across hospitals were examined using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and weighted κ. Overall 30-day stroke mortality rates were 15.2% and varied from 11.3% for ischemic stroke and 37.3% for intracerebral hemorrhage. Hospital risk-adjusted ischemic stroke observed/expected ratio was weakly correlated with its own intracerebral hemorrhage observed/expected ratio (r=0.38). When examining hospital performance group (mortality better, worse, or no different than average), disagreement was observed in 35 of 81 hospitals (κ=0.23). Total stroke mortality observed/expected ratio and rankings were correlated with intracerebral hemorrhage (r=0.61 and κ=0.36) and ischemic stroke (r=0.94 and κ=0.71), but many hospitals still switched classification depending on mortality metrics. However, hospitals treating a higher percent of hemorrhagic stroke did not have a statistically significant higher total stroke mortality rate relative to those treating fewer hemorrhagic strokes. Hospital stroke mortality ratings varied considerably depending on whether ischemic, hemorrhagic, or total stroke mortality rates were used. Public reporting of stroke mortality measures should consider providing risk-adjusted outcome on separate stroke types.

  6. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR and total sleep deprivation (TSD produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00 and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75. During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00 and TSD (22:00–06:00, such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01 and saturated fat (p = 0.02 during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12. Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03. Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001. Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  7. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Laura E; Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni

    2016-12-19

    Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34-0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00-04:00) and TSD (22:00-06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein ( p = 0.01) and saturated fat ( p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake ( p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD ( p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD ( p sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  8. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  9. Can a mathematical model predict an individual's trait-like response to both total and partial sleep loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Lu, Wei; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Rupp, Tracy L; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-06-01

    Humans display a trait-like response to sleep loss. However, it is not known whether this trait-like response can be captured by a mathematical model from only one sleep-loss condition to facilitate neurobehavioural performance prediction of the same individual during a different sleep-loss condition. In this paper, we investigated the extent to which the recently developed unified mathematical model of performance (UMP) captured such trait-like features for different sleep-loss conditions. We used the UMP to develop two sets of individual-specific models for 15 healthy adults who underwent two different sleep-loss challenges (order counterbalanced; separated by 2-4 weeks): (i) 64 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and (ii) chronic sleep restriction (CSR) of 7 days of 3 h nightly time in bed. We then quantified the extent to which models developed using psychomotor vigilance task data under TSD predicted performance data under CSR, and vice versa. The results showed that the models customized to an individual under one sleep-loss condition accurately predicted performance of the same individual under the other condition, yielding, on average, up to 50% improvement over non-individualized, group-average model predictions. This finding supports the notion that the UMP captures an individual's trait-like response to different sleep-loss conditions. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Growth and yield responses of broccoli cultivars to different rates of nitrogen at western Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Moha Datta; Shakya, Santa Man

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for effective growth and yield of two varieties of broccoli in southern plain of Nepal. The experiment was laid out with two-factorial completely random block design (RCBD) comprising two...... varieties of broccoli (Calabrese and Green Sprouting) and five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) with three replication in each treatment combinations. The effects of variety and N rate on total curd yield were significant but the interaction effect was non-significant. Green Sprouting produced 11...

  11. A review on the strain rate dependency of the dynamic viscoplastic response of FCC metals

    OpenAIRE

    Salvado, F.C.; Teixeira-Dias, Filipe; Walley, S.; Lea, L.J.; Cardoso, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The response of structures and materials subject to ballistic impacts or blast loads remains a field of intense research. In a blast or impact load a sharp pressure wave travelling at supersonic speed impinges on the structure surface where deformation will develop at very high strain rates and stress waves may form and travel through the continuum solid. Both the dynamic loading and the temperature increase will significantly affect the mechanical and failure response of the material. This r...

  12. Importance of heart rate during exercise for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Alexander H; Buck, Sandra; Nieuwland, Wybe; Brügemann, Johan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Van Gelder, Isabelle C

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with severe heart failure and mechanical dyssynchrony. Response is only achieved in 60-70% of patients. To study exercise-related factors predicting response to CRT. We retrospectively examined consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted. All underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to implantation and after 6 months. The occurrence of chronotropic incompetence and heart rates exceeding the upper rate of the device, thereby compromising biventricular stimulation, was studied. Response was defined as a decrease in LVESV of 10% or more after 6 months. We included 144 patients. After 6 months 86 (60%) patients were responders. Peak VO2 significantly increased in responders. Chronotropic incompetence was more frequently seen in nonresponders (21 [36%] vs 9 [10%], P = 0.03), mostly in patients in SR. At moderate exercise, defined as 25% of the maximal exercise tolerance, that is, comparable to daily life exercise, nonresponders more frequently went above the upper rate of the device (13 [22%] vs 2 [3%], P exercise (OR 15.8 [3.3-76.5], P = 0.001) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (OR 2.4 [1.0-5.7], P = 0.04) as predictive for response. Heart rate exceeding the upper rate during moderate exercise is an independent predictor for nonresponse to CRT in patients with AF, whereas chronotropic incompetence is a predictor for patients in SR.

  13. Response rates in studies of couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2014-08-01

    Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. A systematic review (1980-2011) was conducted, including 83 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals, describing quantitative findings using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Overall reporting was unsatisfactory in more than half of the included studies. As a consequence, the couples' response rate (CRR; all analyzed couples divided by the number of eligible partnered patients/couples approached) could be calculated for only 33 samples. This CRR varied considerably across studies from 25% to 90% (CRRM = 58%, SD = 17%). The rates reported in the articles (M = 65%) were often higher than the average CRR (CRRM = 57%) of these samples. This systematic review revealed incomplete reporting of response rate. Therefore, it cannot be firmly concluded that the average CRR reported is representative for all studies on couples coping with cancer. Finally, the figures presented, which are often more favorable than the CRR, may create the impression that the sample is more representative of the target population than it actually is. This has consequences for implementing the findings of such studies into practice. The results are critically discussed, and recommendations for improvement are provided.

  14. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  15. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  16. Barometric pressure change and heart rate response during sleeping at 3000 m altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Nose, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure ( P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively. P B gradually decreased during the night at the speed of approximately - 0.5 hPa/h. We found that HR during sleep decreased linearly as P B decreased in all subjects, with significance ( r = 0.492-0.893; all, P < 0.001). Moreover, cross correlation analysis revealed that HR started to decrease after 15 min following the decrease in P B, on average. SpO2 was 93.8 ± 1.7% at 2305 m before climbing, then decreased significantly to 90.2 ± 2.2% at the lodge before going to bed, and further decreased to 87.5 ± 2.7% after waking (all, P < 0.05). Four of the 19 subjects showed a symptom of AMS after waking (21%). Further, the decrease in HR in response to a given decrease in P B (ΔHR/ΔPB) was negatively related with a decrease in SpO2 from before going to bed to after waking at 3000 m ( r = - 0.579, P = 0.009) and with total AMS scores after waking ( r = 0.489, P = 0.033).

  17. Dose Response Model of Biological Reaction to Low Dose Rate Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furikawa, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Kawakami, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to use reproducible and stable indicators to evaluate biological responses to long term irradiation at low dose-rate. They should be simple and quantitative enough to produce the results statistically accurate, because we have to analyze the subtle changes of biological responses around background level at low dose. For these purposes we chose micronucleus formation of U2OS, a human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological responses. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation rom bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and prospidium iodide, respectively. the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was counted under a fluorescence microscope. Dose rate in the irradiation room was measured with PLD. Dose response of PLD is linear between 1 mGy to 10 Gy, and standard deviation of triplicate count was several percent of mean value. We fitted statistically dose response curves to the data, and they were plotted on the coordinate of linearly scale response and dose. The results followed to the straight line passing through the origin of the coordinate axes between 0.1-5 Gy, and dose and does rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) was less than 2 when cells were irradiated for 1-10 min. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose above 0.1 Gy when 5,000 binuclear cells were analyzed. In contrast, dose response curves never followed LNT, when cells were irradiated for 7 to 124 days. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose below 6 Gy, when cells were continuously irradiated for 124 days. These results suggest that dose response curve of biological reaction is remarkably affected by exposure

  18. Radiographic and metabolic response rates following image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Grills, Inga S.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Galerani, Ana Paula; Chao, Kenneth; Welsh, Robert; Chmielewski, Gary; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiographic and metabolic response after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early lung tumors. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine tumors were treated prospectively with SBRT (dose = 48-60 Gy, 4-5 Fx). Thirty-six cases were primary NSCLC (T1N0 = 67%; T2N0 = 25%); three cases were solitary metastases. Patients were followed using CT and PET at 6, 16, and 52 weeks post-SBRT, with CT follow-up thereafter. RECIST and EORTC criteria were used to evaluate CT and PET responses. Results: At median follow-up of 9 months (0.4-26), RECIST complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and stable disease (SD) rates were 3%, 43%, 54% at 6 weeks; 15%, 38%, 46% at 16 weeks; 27%, 64%, 9% at 52 weeks. Mean baseline tumor volume was reduced by 46%, 70%, 87%, and 96%, respectively at 6, 16, 52, and 72 weeks. Mean baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was 8.3 (1.1-20.3) and reduced to 3.4, 3.0, and 3.7 at 6, 16, and 52 weeks after SBRT. EORTC metabolic CR/PR, SD, and progressive disease rates were 67%, 22%, 11% at 6 weeks; 86%, 10%, 3% at 16 weeks; 95%, 5%, 0% at 52 weeks. Conclusions: SBRT yields excellent RECIST and EORTC based response. Metabolic response is rapid however radiographic response occurs even after 1-year post treatment.

  19. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  20. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  1. Optimization of dynamic-microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of total ginsenosides from stems and leaves of panax ginseng by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Hui

    2018-03-21

    Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD). The experimental results indicated that optimal extraction conditions of TG from GSAL were as follows: ethanol concentration of 75%, microwave temperature of 60°C, microwave time of 20 min and pump flow rate of 38 r/min. After experimental verification, the experimental yields of TG was 60.62 ± 0.85 mg g -1 , which were well agreement with the predicted by the model. In general, the present results demonstrated that DMAE-EH method was successfully used to extract total ginsenosides in GSAL.

  2. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  3. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  4. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter...

  5. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  6. Avoidance of Timeout from Response-Independent Food: Effects of Delivery Rate and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph V.; Baron, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, a rat's lever presses could postpone timeouts from food pellets delivered on response-independent schedules. In Experiment 1, the pellets were delivered at variable-time (VT) rates ranging from VT 0.5 to VT 8 min. Experiment 2 replicated the VT 1 min and VT 8 min conditions of Experiment 1 with new subjects. Finally, subjects…

  7. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  8. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goss-Custard, John D.; West, Andrew D.; Yates, Michael G.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Stillman, Richard A.; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E. A. Le V. Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P. U.; Ferns, Peter N.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A.; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P. F.; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J.; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H.; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an

  9. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the ob...

  10. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  11. Extra Credit Micro-Incentives and Response Rates for Online Course Evaluations: Two Quasi-Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Eric D.; Hardin, Erin E.; Shaffer, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    To extend prior findings on the motivational value of tiny, nonfinancial incentives, we conducted two quasi-experiments on the relationship of extra credit micro-incentives (ECMIs, worth =1% of course grade) and response rates for online course evaluations. Study 1 involved two advanced undergraduate psychology courses taught by the same…

  12. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Ferguson, R. M.; Krishnan, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  13. The heart rate response to nintendo wii boxing in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pamela R; Poloni, Joseph; Thornton, Andrew; Lynskey, James V

    2012-06-01

    To determine if 30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides cardiorespiratory benefits and contributes to the daily exercise recommendations for healthy young adults. Twenty healthy 23- to 27-year-olds participated in two sessions to measure maximum heart rate (HR(max)) via a treadmill test and heart rate (HR) response to 30 minutes of Wii Sports boxing. Heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) was measured continuously, and exercise intensity during each minute of play was stratified as a percentage of HR(max). Mixed designs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the data. Mean (SD) HR response to boxing was 143 (15) bpm or 77.5% (10.0%) of HR(max). The mean HR response for experienced participants was significantly lower than inexperienced participants, P = .007. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between experience and time spent at various intensities, P = .009. Experienced participants spent more time in light to vigorous intensities, inexperienced participants in moderate to very hard intensities. Fitness was not correlated with mean HR response to boxing, P = .49. Thirty minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides a moderate to vigorous aerobic response in healthy young adults and can contribute to daily recommendations for physical activity.

  14. Strontium-89 in palliative treatment of widespread painful bone metastases: Response rate and duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Peiman; Ghadiri, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Intravenous injection of Strontium-89 (Sr-89) is an accepted palliative treatment for bone metastases. We evaluated the pain relief achieved with this radiopharmaceutical in patients with widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers. Pain intensity on a 9-grade scale and use of narcotics was recorded before and after Sr-89 injection, and the ensuing palliative effect was divided into complete, partial and no response. The duration of response was also recorded. Thirty-five patients with widespread painful bone metastases were treated with Sr-89, of whom 22 had prostate and 13 breast cancers. Mean follow-up was 227 days, during which death was recorded for 32 patients. Fourteen patients (40%) had a complete response, 9 (26%) partial and 12 (34%) no response. In the 23 responding patients, mean duration of response was 6 months. In 17 patients the response was present until death. There was no significant relationship between pain response and patients' age or type of primary cancer. No side effects were recorded other than mild and temporary drop in white blood cell and platelet counts. Three patients with a complete response had a second injection of Sr-89 after progression of pain. One of these patients had a second partial response; the other 2 did not show a response to the second injection. The use of Sr-89 for treatment of widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers in our department showed a 66% rate of response and a mean response duration of 6 months, with no significant side effects. (author)

  15. Revision rates for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ras Sørensen, Sofie-amalie L.; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Sporing, Sune L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare revision rates of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing (HRS) and MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA), as well as the primary causes for revisions. Methods The PubMed database was queried for potentially relevant articles addressing MoMTHA and MoMHRS, a total of 51 articles were....... The odds ratio was 1.25 (1.03:1.53) 95% CI (p = 0.03) (MoMHRS vs. MoMTHA). The studies of hip prostheses were separated into 2 categories of short- and long-term (more or less than 5 years). Short-term revision rate for MoMTHA was 4.5% after 4.8 years, and for MoMHRS 4.0% after 4.2 years. The odds ratio...

  16. Fitness-related differences in the rate of whole-body total heat loss in exercising young healthy women are heat-load dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Dallon T; Notley, Sean R; Poirier, Martin P; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Aerobic fitness modulates heat loss, albeit the heat load at which fitness-related differences occur in young healthy women remains unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate using direct calorimetry that fitness modulates heat loss in a heat-load dependent manner, with differences occurring between young women of low and high fitness and matched physical characteristics when the metabolic heat load is at least 400 W in hot, dry conditions. Although fitness has been known for some time to modulate heat loss, our findings define the metabolic heat load at which fitness-related differences occur. Aerobic fitness has recently been shown to alter heat loss capacity in a heat-load dependent manner in young men. However, given that sex-related differences in heat loss capacity exist, it is unclear whether this response is consistent in women. We therefore assessed whole-body total heat loss in young (21 ± 3 years old) healthy women matched for physical characteristics, but with low (low-fit; 35.8 ± 4.5 ml O 2  kg -1  min -1 ) or high aerobic fitness (high-fit; 53.1 ± 5.1 ml O 2  kg -1  min -1 ; both n = 8; indexed by peak oxygen consumption), during three 30 min bouts of cycling performed at increasing rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 W (Ex3), each separated by a 15 min recovery, in hot, dry conditions (40°C, 11% relative humidity). Whole-body total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat content was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss. Total heat loss did not differ during Ex1 (low-fit, 215 ± 16 W; high-fit, 231 ± 20 W; P > 0.05) and Ex2 (low-fit, 278 ± 15 W; high-fit, 301 ± 20 W; P > 0.05), but was lower in the low-fit (316 ± 21 W) compared with the high-fit women (359 ± 32

  17. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (poral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  18. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.

    2017-01-01

    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)

  19. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  20. Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Methods Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6–12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8–11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12–15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. Results During weeks 8–11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Discussion Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Conclusions Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. PMID:25332355

  1. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Tran, Tuan Kiet [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, 01 Vo Van Ngan, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  2. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  3. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongqiang; Nunez, Felipe; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is incr...

  4. Heart Rate Responses to Unaided Orion Side Hatch Egress in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hwang Emma Y.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Kelly, Cody; Walker, Thomas; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion capsule as a vehicle for transporting crewmembers to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and for future human space exploration missions. Orion and other commercial vehicles are designed to splash down in the ocean where nominally support personnel will assist crewmembers in egressing the vehicle. However, off-nominal scenarios will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle unaided, deploy survival equipment, and ingress a life raft. PURPOSE: To determine the heart rate (HR) responses to unaided Orion side hatch egress and raft ingress as a part of the NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team's evaluation of the PORT Orion mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL). METHODS: Nineteen test subjects, including four astronauts (N=19, 14 males/5 females, 38.6+/-8.4 y, 174.4+/-9.6 cm, 75.7+/-13.1 kg), completed a graded maximal test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2peak and HRpeak and were divided into five crews of four members each; one subject served on two crews. Each crew was required to deploy a life raft, egress the Orion vehicle from the side hatch, and ingress the life raft with two 8 kg emergency packs per crew. Each crew performed this activity one to three times; a total of ten full egresses were completed. Subjects wore a suit that was similar in form, mass, and function to the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) including helmet, gloves, boots, supplemental O2 bottles, and a CO2-inflated life preserver (approx.18 kg); subjects began each trial seated supine in the PORT Orion mockup with seat belts and mockup O2 and communication connections and ended each trial with all four crewmembers inside the life raft. RESULTS: VO2peak was 40.8+/-6.8 mL/kg/min (3.1+/-0.7 L/min); HRpeak was 181+/-10 bpm. Total egress time across trials was 5.0+/-1.6 min (range: 2.8-8.0 min); all subjects were able to successfully complete all trials. Average maximum HR at activity start, at the hatch opening, in the water, and in the

  5. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  7. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  8. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  9. A randomized trial of the impact of survey design characteristics on response rates among nursing home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Rogers, Michelle; Foster, Andrew; Dvorchak, Faye; Saadeh, Frances; Weaver, Jessica; Mor, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to maximize participation of both the Director of Nursing (DoN) and the Administrator (ADMIN) in long-term care facilities. Providers in each of the 224 randomly selected facilities were randomly assigned to 1 of 16 conditions based on the combination of data collection mode (web vs. mail), questionnaire length (short vs. long), and incentive structure. Incentive structures were determined by amount compensated if the individual completed and an additional amount per individual if the pair completed (a) $30 individual/$5 pair/$35 total; (b) $10 individual/$25 pair/$35 total; (c) $30 individual/$20 pair/$50 total; and (d) $10 individual/$40 pair/$50 total. Overall, 47.4% of eligible respondents participated; both respondents participated in 29.3% of facilities. In multivariable analyses, there were no differences in the likelihood of both respondents participating by mode, questionnaire length, or incentive structure. Providing incentives contingent on participation by both providers of a facility was an ineffective strategy for significantly increasing response rates.

  10. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  11. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  12. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  13. Reshaping of bulbar odor response by nasal flow rate in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Courtiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of respiratory dynamics on odor response has been poorly studied at the olfactory bulb level. However, it has been shown that sniffing in the behaving rodent is highly dynamic and varies both in frequency and flow rate. Bulbar odor response could vary with these sniffing parameter variations. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how nasal airflow can modify and shape odor response at the olfactory bulb level.To assess this question, we used a double cannulation and simulated nasal airflow protocol on anesthetized rats to uncouple nasal airflow from animal respiration. Both mitral/tufted cell extracellular unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs were recorded. We found that airflow changes in the normal range were sufficient to substantially reorganize the response of the olfactory bulb. In particular, cellular odor-evoked activities, LFP oscillations and spike phase-locking to LFPs were strongly modified by nasal flow rate.Our results indicate the importance of reconsidering the notion of odor coding as odor response at the bulbar level is ceaselessly modified by respiratory dynamics.

  14. Use of Added Sugars Instead of Total Sugars May Improve the Capacity of the Health Star Rating System to Discriminate between Core and Discretionary Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menday, Hannah; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Baines, Surinder; Petersen, Kristina S

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610). The product categories included in the analyses were breakfast cereals (n=513), fruit (n=571), milk (n=309), non-alcoholic beverages (n=1,040), vegetables (n=787), and yogurt (n=390). Added sugar values were estimated for each product using a validated method. HSRs were then estimated for every product according to the established method using total sugar, and then by substituting added sugar for total sugar. The scoring system was not modified when added sugar was used in place of total sugar in the HSR calculation. Products were classified as core or discretionary based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. To investigate whether use of added sugar in the HSR algorithm improved the distinction between core and discretionary products as defined by the Australian Dietary Guidelines, the proportion of core products that received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and the proportion of discretionary products that received an HSR of added sugars were determined. There were 2,263 core and 1,347 discretionary foods; 1,684 of 3,610 (47%) products contained added sugar (median 8.4 g/100 g, interquartile range=5.0 to 12.2 g). When the HSR was calculated with added sugar instead of total sugar, an additional 166 (7.3%) core products received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and 103 (7.6%) discretionary products received a rating of ≥3.5 stars. The odds of correctly identifying a product as core vs discretionary were increased by 61% (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.06; Padded compared to total sugars. In the six

  15. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low

  16. Investigation of Catalase, Proxidase and Total Protein Level in Some Cold Treated Grapevine Cultivars Cold Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi Alavijeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling is an important environmental stress that influences the yield and quality of many agricultural crops. Different plants use different systems to endure this stress and minimize its effects. One of these systems is enzymatic reaction. To find out more about responses of different grapevine species and cultivars to the low temperature conditions, their enzymatic changes were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete design with 3 replication during different periods after chilling stress. Leaf samples of plants under cold stress had been taken and maintained in -80 °C until enzyme extraction. Low temperature around 4 °C is sufficient to induce genes that produce chilling acclimatization proteins. In the present study, leaf samples were collected from the plants that were kept at 4 °C during different time intervals, and then total proteins as well as two main antioxidant enzymes (catalase and guaiacolperoxidase activities were measured. Results showed that as temperature decreased, enzymatic activities were increased in six Iranian grapevine cultivars (‘Atabaki’, ‘Khalili-Danedar’, ‘Shahroodi’, ‘Rajabi-Siah’, ‘Askari’ and ‘Bidane-Sefid’ as well as ‘Riparia’, an American species. The highest enzymatic activities of catalase and ceroxidase were recorded in ‘Khalili-Danedar’ and ‘Riparia’. However,the lowest activities were recorded in ‘Rajabi-Siah’, ‘Bidane-Sefid’ and ‘Shahroodi’. For all studied cultivars, peroxidase showed its highest activity at 12 h after chilling stress, then remained constant, while, the highest activity of catalase were recorded at 8 h. In addition, cold stress increased the total protein content for all studied cultivars, in which ‘Khalili-Danedar’ had the highest protein content amongstudied cultivars. Also, the highest proteins content were recorded at 12 h after exposing plants to cold.

  17. China’s Foreign Trade: The Response to Changing the Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on official data of Chinese and international statistics assessment is given of the impact of the yuan revaluation on the parameters of China’s foreign trade by country (including in terms of crisis tendencies in the global economy. A regression analysis made it possible to obtain quantitative assessments of the responses of China’s foreign trade parameters by country, depending on different yuan revaluation (10% and 50% to the U.S. dollar. It is found that the yuan revaluation leads to reduction in the growth rates of both China’s exports and imports, with the responses by countries being different

  18. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-12-01

    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Heart rate response to a climber’s fall in sport climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupsky, David

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with response of heart rate to a climber’s simulated fall in a leading position when indoor climbing. Heart rate of climbers was recorded during ascents of an overhanging route in the leading position, to the given point high above the ground, followed by falling into the last protection. The length of the free fall was defined by the place of the last belay anchor, which was at the height of climber’s ankles. The length of the fall was about two meters of free fall plus th...

  20. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  1. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  2. Dose rate and total dose dependence of the 1/f noise performance of a GaAs operational amplifier during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    A pictorial of a sectioned view of the torus of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is shown. Maintenance and inspection of the reactor are required to be performed remotely. This is due to the high gamma radiation environment in vessel during inspection and maintenance activities. The custom GaAs operational amplifier is to be used to readout sensors on the in-vessel manipulator and inspection equipment. The gamma dose rate during maintenance and inspection is anticipated to be 3 Mrad(GaAs)/hour. Here, dose rate and total dose dependence of the 1/f noise performance of a custom GaAs MESFET operational amplifier during irradiation are presented. Dose rate dependent 1/f noise degradation during irradiation is believed to be due to electron trapping in deep levels, enhanced by backgating and shallow traps excited during irradiation. The reduction of this affect with accumulated total dose is believed to be due a reduction of deep level site concentration associated with substitutional oxygen. Post irradiation 1/f noise degradation is also presented.The generation-recombination noise observed post irradiation can be attributed to the production of shallow traps due to ionizing radiation

  3. Global and Local Mechanical Responses for Necking of Rectangular Bars Using Updated and Total Lagrangian Finite Element Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Careglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In simulations of forged and stamping processes using the finite element method, load displacement paths and three-dimensional stress and strains states should be well and reliably represented. The simple tension test is a suitable and economical tool to calibrate constitutive equations with finite strains and plasticity for those simulations. A complex three-dimensional stress and strain states are developed when this test is done on rectangular bars and the necking phenomenon appears. In this work, global and local numerical results of the mechanical response of rectangular bars subjected to simple tension test obtained from two different finite element formulations are compared and discussed. To this end, Updated and Total Lagrangian formulations are used in order to get the three-dimensional stress and strain states. Geometric changes together with strain and stress distributions at the cross section where necking occurs are assessed. In particular, a detailed analysis of the effective plastic strain, stress components in axial and transverse directions and pressure, and deviatoric stress components is presented. Specific numerical results are also validated with experimental measurements comparing, in turn, the performance of the two numerical approaches used in this study.

  4. Tailored plasmon-induced transparency in attenuated total reflection response in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Hirai, Yusuke; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2017-12-19

    We demonstrated tailored plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metal (Au)-insulator (SiO 2 )-metal (Ag) (MIM) structure, where the Fano interference between the MIM waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode induced a transparency window in an otherwise opaque wavenumber (k) region. A series of structures with different thicknesses of the Ag layer were prepared and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response was examined. The height and width of the transparency window, as well as the relevant k-domain dispersion, were controlled by adjusting the Ag layer thickness. To confirm the dependency of PIT on Ag layer thickness, we performed numerical calculations to determine the electric field amplitude inside the layers. The steep k-domain dispersion in the transparency window is capable of creating a lateral beam shift known as the Goos-Hänchen shift, for optical device and sensor applications. We also discuss the Fano interference profiles in a ω - k two-dimensional domain on the basis of Akaike information criteria.

  5. Attenuated Heart Rate Response is Associated with Hypocretin Deficiency in Patients with Narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest. CITATION: Sorensen GL......; Knudsen S; Petersen ER; Kempfner J; Gammeltoft S; Sorensen HBD; Jennum P. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2013;36(1):91-98....

  6. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  7. Long-Term Primary Patency Rate After Nitinol Self-Expandable Stents Implantation in Long, Totally Occluded Femoropopliteal (TASC II C & D) Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahdy, Mahmoud Farouk; Buonamici, Piergiovanni; Trapani, Maurizio; Valenti, Renato; Migliorini, Angela; Parodi, Guido; Antoniucci, David

    2017-06-01

    Endovascular therapy for long femoropopliteal lesions using percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or first-generation of peripheral stents has been associated with unacceptable one-year restenosis rates. However, with recent advances in equipment and techniques, a better primary patency rate is expected. This study was conducted to detect the long-term primary patency rate of nitinol self-expandable stents implanted in long, totally occluded femoropopliteal lesions TransAtlantic Inter-Society Census (TASC II type C & D), and determine the predictors of reocclusion or restenosis in the stented segments. The demographics, clinical, anatomical, and procedural data of 213 patients with 240 de novo totally occluded femoropopliteal (TASC II type C & D) lesions treated with nitinol self-expandable stents were retrospectively analysed. Of these limbs, 159 (66.2%) presented with intermittent claudication, while 81 (33.8%) presented with critical limb ischaemia. The mean-time of follow-up was 36±22.6 months, (range: 6.3-106.2 months). Outcomes evaluated were, primary patency rate and predictors of reocclusion or restenosis in the stented segments. The mean age of the patients was 70.9±9.3 years, with male gender 66.2%. Mean pre-procedural ABI was 0.45±0.53. One-hundred-and-seventy-five (73%) lesions were TASC II type C, while 65 (27%) were type D lesions. The mean length of the lesions was 17.9±11.3mm. Procedure related complications occurred in 10 (4.1%) limbs. There was no periprocedural mortality. Reocclusion and restenosis were detected during follow-up in 45 and 30 limbs respectively, and all were re-treated by endovascular approach. None of the patients required major amputation. Primary patency rates were 81.4±1.1%, 77.7±1.9% and 74.4±2.8% at 12, 24, and 36 months respectively. Male gender, severe calcification, and TASC II D lesion were independent predictors for reocclusion, while predictors of restenosis were DM, smoking and TASC II D lesions

  8. Predictors of abnormal heart rate response to dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza Leao Lima, R.; Machado, L.; Azevedo, A.B.; De Lorenzo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of abnormal HR response to dipyridamole (DIP) in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). Patients with a reduced heart rate (HR) response to DIP have higher cardiac mortality, but the mechanism is unknown. We studied 432 patients who underwent dual-isotope gated MPS. DIP (0.56 mg/kg) was infused over 4 min, and Tc-99m tetrofosmin was injected 3 min after the end of the infusion. MPS was semiquantitatively interpreted. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were automatically calculated. The population was categorized into quartiles according to HR ratio, and characteristics in each quartile were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of abnormal HR response, using the lowest quartile as the independent variable. Patients with abnormal HR response were more frequently without chest pain, with a history of chronic renal failure and taking digoxin. Baseline HR was higher and had fewer symptoms during stress. The stress and rest perfusion defects were greater, but reversibility was not; in addition, LVEF was lower. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of abnormal HR response were baseline HR and low LVEF. LV dysfunction is an independent predictor of abnormal HR response to DIP, and the association between low LVEF and low HR ratio may explain the link between abnormal HR ratio and increased mortality. (author)

  9. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  10. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen D; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona J; Gillan, Maureen GC; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Orchard, Jo; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian T; Torgerson, David; Wadsworth, Valerie; Wilkinson, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105) compared with 88.0% (389 of 442) for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study. PMID:17326837

  11. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  12. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  14. The rate dependent response of a bistable chain at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Itamar; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.; Givli, Sefi

    2016-10-01

    We study the rate dependent response of a bistable chain subjected to thermal fluctuations. The study is motivated by the fact that the behavior of this model system is prototypical to a wide range of nonlinear processes in materials physics, biology and chemistry. To account for the stochastic nature of the system response, we formulate a set of governing equations for the evolution of the probability density of meta-stable configurations. Based on this approach, we calculate the behavior for a wide range of parametric values, such as rate, temperature, overall stiffness, and number of elements in the chain. Our results suggest that fundamental characteristics of the response, such as average transition stress and hysteresis, can be captured by a simple law which folds the influence of all these factors into a single non-dimensional quantity. We also show that the applicability of analytical results previously obtained for single-well systems can be extended to systems having multiple wells by proper definition of rate and of the transition stress.

  15. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  16. The Effect of Music Listening on Pain, Heart Rate Variability, and Range of Motion in Older Adults After Total Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Su-Ru; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Lin, Pi-Chu

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that listening and not listening to music had on pain relief, heart rate variability (HRV), and knee range of motion in total knee replacement (TKR) patients who underwent continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation. We adopted a single-group quasi-experimental design. A sample of 49 TKR patients listened to music for 25 min during one session of CPM and no music during another session of CPM the same day for a total of 2 days. Results indicated that during CPM, patients exhibited a significant decrease in the pain level ( p listening to music compared with no music. This study demonstrated that listening to music can effectively decrease pain during CPM rehabilitation and improve the joint range of motion in patients who underwent TKR surgery.

  17. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  18. Heart rate response to fear conditioning and virtual reality in subthreshold PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans.

  19. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  20. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma.

  1. Effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on resting energy production rate and total body substrate utilization in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, Matej; Voga, Gorazd

    2002-12-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) beta-blockers reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and improve myocardial efficiency by shifting myocardial substrate utilization from increased free fatty acid oxidation to increased glucose oxidation. The effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on total body resting energy production rate (EPR) and substrate utilization is not known. Twenty-six noncachectic patients with moderately severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III, left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.40) were treated with carvedilol (37.5 +/- 13.5 mg/12 h) or bisoprolol (5.4 +/- 3.0 mg/d) for 6 months. Indirect calorimetry was performed before and after 6 months of treatment. Resting EPR was decreased in carvedilol (5.021 +/- 0.803 to 4.552 +/- 0.615 kJ/min, P <.001) and bisoprolol group (5.230 +/- 0.828 to 4.978 +/- 0.640 kJ/min, P <.05; nonsignificant difference between groups). Lipid oxidation rate decreased in carvedilol and remained unchanged in bisoprolol group (2.4 +/- 1.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9 mg m(2)/kg min versus 2.7 +/- 1.1 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05). Glucose oxidation rate was increased only in carvedilol (2.6 +/- 1.4 to 4.4 +/- 1.6 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05), but did not change in bisoprolol group. Both selective and nonselective beta-blockers reduce total body resting EPR in noncachectic CHF patients. Carvedilol compared to bisoprolol shifts total body substrate utilization from lipid to glucose oxidation.

  2. Rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with open-angle glaucoma and high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Takaiko; Fukuchi, Takeo; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Seki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Ueda, Jun

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with high myopia (HM). Seventy eyes of 70 POAG patients with HM [≤-8 diopters (D)] were examined. The mean deviation (MD) slope and the upper and lower total deviation (upper TD, lower TD) slopes of the Humphrey Field Analyzer were calculated in patients with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) (>21 mmHg) versus normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) (≤21 mmHg). The mean age of all the patients (29 eyes with HTG and 41 eyes with NTG) was 48.5 ± 9.6 years. The MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes of the HM group were compared to those of the non-HM group (NHM) (>-8 D) selected from 544 eyes in 325 age-matched POAG patients. In all, 70 eyes with HM and NHM were examined. The mean MD slope was -0.33 ± 0.33 dB/year in the HM, and -0.38 ± 0.49 dB/year in the NHM. There were no statistical differences between the HM and NHM (p = 0.9565). In the comparison of HTG versus NTG patients in both groups, the MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes were similar. The rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects was similar among patients with HM and NHM. Although HM is a risk factor for the onset of glaucoma, HM may not be a risk factor for progression of visual field defects as assessed by the progression rate under treatment.

  3. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  4. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  5. A study on measurement on artificial radiation dose rate using the response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidachi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Konno, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We examined accuracy and stability of estimated artificial dose contribution which is distinguished from natural background gamma-ray dose rate using Response Matrix method. Irradiation experiments using artificial gamma-ray sources indicated that there was a linear relationship between observed dose rate and estimated artificial dose contribution, when irradiated artificial gamma-ray dose rate was higher than about 2 nGy/h. Statistical and time-series analyses of long term data made it clear that estimated artificial contribution showed almost constant values under no artificial influence from the nuclear power plants. However, variations of estimated artificial dose contribution were infrequently observed due to of rainfall, detector maintenance operation and occurrence of calibration error. Some considerations on the factors to these variations were made. (author)

  6. Radiation therapy in the management of symptomatic bone metastases: the effect of total dose and histology on pain relief and response duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Saracino, Biancamaria; D'Angelo, Luciano; Giannarelli, Diana; Arcangeli, Giancarlo; Micheli, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In order to better define variables and factors that may influence the pain response to radiation, and to look for a radiation regimen that can assure the highest percentage and the longest duration of pain relief, we performed a prospective, although not randomized, study on patients with bone metastases from various primary sites. Methods and Materials: From December 1988 to March 1994, 205 patients with a total of 255 solitary or multiple bone metastases from several primary tumors were treated in our radiotherapy center with palliative intent. Irradiation fields were treated with three main fractionation schedules: (1) Conventional fractionation: 40-46 Gy/20-23 fractions in 5-5.5 weeks; (2) Short course: 30-36 Gy/10-12 fractions in 2-2.3 weeks; (3) Fast course: 8-28 Gy/1-4 consecutive fractions. Pain intensity was self-assessed by patients using a visual analogic scale graduated from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the strongest pain one can experience). Analgesic requirement was assessed by using a five-point scale, scoring both analgesic strength and frequency (0 = no drug or occasional nonopioids; 1 = Nonopioids once daily; 2 = Nonopioids more than once daily; 3 = Mild opioids (oral codeine, pentazocine, etc.), once daily; 4 = Mild opioids more than once daily; 5 = Strong opioids (morphine, meperidine, etc.). Complete pain relief meant the achievement of a score ≤ 2 in the pain scale or 0 in the analgesic requirement scale. Partial pain relief indicated a score of 3 to 4 or of 1 to 2 on the former and latter scale, respectively. Results: Total pain relief (complete + partial) was observed in 195 (76%) sites, in 158 of which (62%) a complete response was obtained. Metastases from NSC lung tumors appeared to be the least responsive among all primary tumors, with 46% complete pain relief in comparison to 65% and 83% complete relief in breast (p = 0.04) and in prostate metastases (p 0.002), respectively. A significant difference in pain relief was detected among

  7. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  8. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Akechi

    Full Text Available Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect. Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish and East Asian (Japanese cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting, shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.. The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from

  9. Constraints on the ^22Ne(α,n)^25Mg reaction rate from ^natMg+n Total and ^25Mg(n,γ ) Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Paul

    2002-10-01

    The ^22Ne(α,n)^25Mg reaction is the neutron source during the s process in massive and intermediate mass stars as well as a secondary neutron source during the s process in low mass stars. Therefore, an accurate determination of this rate is important for a better understanding of the origin of nuclides heavier than iron as well as for improving s-process models. Also, because the s process produces seed nuclides for a later p process in massive stars, an accurate value for this rate is important for a better understanding of the p process. Because the lowest observed resonance in direct ^22Ne(α,n)^25Mg measurements is considerably above the most important energy range for s-process temperatures, the uncertainty in this rate is dominated by the poorly known properties of states in ^26Mg between this resonance and threshold. Neutron measurements can observe these states with much better sensitivity and determine their parameters much more accurately than direct ^22Ne(α,n)^25Mg measurements. I have analyzed previously reported Mg+n total and ^25Mg(n,γ ) cross sections to obtain a much improved set of resonance parameters for states in ^26Mg in this region, and an improved estimate of the uncertainty in the ^22Ne(α,n)^25Mg reaction rate. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battell, LLC.

  10. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William P.; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Gregory; Fernandez, Diego P.; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible ‘reactive’ Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values ofkmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation.

  12. Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Richardson, Lesley; Campbell, Sally; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. We also estimated response rates according to characteristics of study context. Median response rates among cases and population controls were between 75% and 80% in the 1970s. Between 1971 and 2010, study response rates declined by 0.31% per year for cases and 0.78% for population controls. Only a minority of studies reported reasons for nonparticipation; subject refusal was the most common reported reason. Studies conducted in North America had lower median response rates than studies conducted in Europe. In-person and telephone interviews elicited higher response rates than mail questionnaires. Response rates from case-control studies of cancer have declined, and this could threaten the validity of results derived from these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved survival and complete response rates in patients with advanced melanoma treated with concurrent ipilimumab and radiotherapy versus ipilimumab alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristian M; Mackley, Heath B; Liu, Jason; Wagner, Henry; Talamo, Giampaolo; Schell, Todd D; Pameijer, Colette; Neves, Rogerio I; Anderson, Bryan; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Mallon, Carol A; Drabick, Joseph J

    2017-01-02

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the synergistic roles of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of malignancy. Published case studies of the abscopal effect have been reported with the use of ipilimumab and radiotherapy in metastatic melanoma, but evidence supporting the routine use of this combination of therapy is limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate patients treated with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma at a single institution from May 2011 to June 2015. Patients were grouped into those who had received concurrent radiotherapy while on ipilimumab (Ipi-RT), and those who did not. We then evaluated the treatment response following completion of ipilimumab. A total of 101 patients received ipilimumab in the prespecified time frame. 70 received Ipi-RT and 31 received ipilimumab without concurrent radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly increased in the concurrent Ipi-RT arm at 19 months vs. 10 months for ipilimumab alone (p = 0.01). Median progression free survival (PFS) was marginally increased in the Ipi-RT group compare with the ipilimumab alone group (5 months vs. 3 months, p = 0.20). Rates of complete response (CR) were significantly increased in the Ipi-RT group vs. ipilimumab alone (25.7% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.04), and rates of overall response (OR) in the groups were 37.1% vs. 19.4% (p = 0.11). No increase in toxicities was observed in the Ipi-RT group compare with ipilimumab alone. Prospective trials are needed to further clarify the role of radiotherapy with ipilimumab, but these encouraging preliminary observations suggest that this combination can induce more durable responses to immunotherapy.

  14. High rates of clinically relevant incidental findings by total-body CT scanning in trauma patients; results of the REACT-2 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treskes, K.; Bos, S.A.; Sierink, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Goslings, J.C. [Academic Medical Center, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Edwards, M.J.R. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Trauma and emergency surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beuker, B.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); Muradin, G.S.R. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hohmann, J. [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Hollmann, M.W. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Anaesthesiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, M.G.W. [Academic Medical Center, Clinical Research Unit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: REACT-2 study group

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether there is a difference in frequency and clinical relevance of incidental findings detected by total-body computed tomography scanning (TBCT) compared to those by the standard work-up (STWU) with selective computed tomography (CT) scanning. Trauma patients from five trauma centres were randomized between April 2011 and January 2014 to TBCT imaging or STWU consisting of conventional imaging with selective CT scanning. Incidental findings were divided into three categories: 1) major finding, may cause mortality; 2) moderate finding, may cause morbidity; and 3) minor finding, hardly relevant. Generalized estimating equations were applied to assess differences in incidental findings. In total, 1083 patients were enrolled, of which 541 patients (49.9 %) were randomized for TBCT and 542 patients (50.1 %) for STWU. Major findings were detected in 23 patients (4.3 %) in the TBCT group compared to 9 patients (1.7 %) in the STWU group (adjusted rate ratio 2.851; 95%CI 1.337-6.077; p < 0.007). Findings of moderate relevance were detected in 120 patients (22.2 %) in the TBCT group compared to 86 patients (15.9 %) in the STWU group (adjusted rate ratio 1.421; 95%CI 1.088-1.854; p < 0.010). Compared to selective CT scanning, more patients with clinically relevant incidental findings can be expected by TBCT scanning. (orig.)

  15. Call-centre occupant response to new and used filters at two outdoor air supply rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Nielsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    A 2x2 replicaterd field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-centre providing a public telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was 8% or 80% of the total airflow of 430 L/s providing 3.5 h-1; and the supply air filters were either new or used (i.e. used in place for 6 mont......). Each of these 4 conditions was maintained for a full working week at a time. Room temperature and humidity averaged 24 deg.C and 27% RH. The 26 operators were blind to conditions and assessed perceived air quality (PAQ), the intensity of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symnptoms and self...

  16. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 x 10 -3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing

  17. Improving Rice Modeling Success Rate with Ternary Non-structural Fertilizer Response Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Mingqing; Chen, Fang; Yao, Baoquan

    2018-06-13

    Fertilizer response modelling is an important technical approach to realize metrological fertilization on rice. With the goal of solving the problems of a low success rate of a ternary quadratic polynomial model (TPFM) and to expand the model's applicability, this paper established a ternary non-structural fertilizer response model (TNFM) based on the experimental results from N, P and K fertilized rice fields. Our research results showed that the TNFM significantly improved the modelling success rate by addressing problems arising from setting the bias and multicollinearity in a TPFM. The results from 88 rice field trials in China indicated that the proportion of typical TNFMs that satisfy the general fertilizer response law of plant nutrition was 40.9%, while the analogous proportion of TPFMs was only 26.1%. The recommended fertilization showed a significant positive linear correlation between the two models, and the parameters N 0 , P 0 and K 0 that estimated the value of soil supplying nutrient equivalents can be used as better indicators of yield potential in plots where no N or P or K fertilizer was applied. The theoretical analysis showed that the new model has a higher fitting accuracy and a wider application range.

  18. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evoked response of heart rate variability using short-duration white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Chen, Mei-Ling; Wang, Gin-You

    2010-06-24

    To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and the electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. The cardiac autonomic responses were evaluated using power spectral analysis of the R-R contour obtained from digital signal processing of the ECG tracings. The result showed that the mean heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change significantly with the noises. However, the low-frequency power (LF) which represents cardiac autonomic modulations and the ratio (LHR) of LF to high-frequency power (HF) which reflects cardiac sympathetic modulations were significantly greater in the noise intensity of 50, 60, 70 and 80dBA (pnoise intensity (rho=0.90, pwhite noises can be detected using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and the evoked responses may provide a sensitive way to evaluate the instant effect of noise to humans.

  20. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  2. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  3. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  4. Disparities in total knee replacement: Population losses in quality-adjusted life years due to differential offer, acceptance, and complication rates for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Hannah M; Smith, Savannah R; Smith, Karen C; Collins, Jamie E; Suter, Lisa G; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2018-01-24

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). American racial minorities undergo fewer TKRs than Whites. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost for Black knee OA patients due to differences in TKR offer, acceptance, and complication rates. We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a computer simulation of knee OA, to predict QALY outcomes for Black and White knee OA patients with and without TKR. We estimated per-person QALYs gained from TKR as the difference between QALYs with current TKR use and QALYs when no TKR was performed. We estimated average, per-person QALY losses in Blacks as the difference between QALYs gained with White rates of TKR and QALYs gained with Black rates of TKR. We calculated population-level QALY losses by multiplying per-person QALY losses by the number of persons with advanced knee OA. Finally, we estimated QALYs lost specifically due to lower TKR offer and acceptance and higher complications among Black knee OA patients. Black men and women gain 64,100 QALYs from current TKR use. With white offer and complications rates, they would gain an additional 72,000 QALYs. Because these additional gains are unrealized, we call this a loss of 72,000 QALYs. Black Americans lose 67,500 QALYs because of lower offer, 15,800 QALYs because of lower acceptance, and 2,600 QALYs because of higher complications. Black Americans lose 72,000 QALYs due to disparities in TKR offer and complication rates. Programs to decrease disparities in TKR use are urgently needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  6. TU-CD-304-04: Scanning Field Total Body Irradiation Using Dynamic Arc with Variable Dose Rate and Gantry Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Xu, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enable a scanning field total body irradiation (TBI) technique, using dynamic arcs, which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. Methods: Patient is treated slightly above the floor and the treatment field scans across the patient by a moving gantry. MLC positions change during gantry motion to keep same field opening at the level of the treatment plane (170 cm). This is done to mimic the same geometry as the moving couch TBI technique which has been used in our institution for over 10 years. The dose rate and the gantry speed are determined considering a constant speed of the moving field, variations in SSD and slanted depths resulting from oblique gantry angles. An Eclipse (Varian) planning system is commissioned to accommodate the extended SSD. The dosimetric foundations of the technique have been thoroughly investigated using phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity better than 2% across 180 cm length at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Treatment range can be extended by increasing gantry range. No device such as a gravity-oriented compensator is needed to achieve a uniform dose. It is feasible to modify the dose distribution by adjusting the dose rate at each gantry angle to compensate for body thickness differences. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 100 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel yet transportable moving field technique enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. Treatment length can be extended per need, and. MLC-based thickness compensation and partial lung blocking are also possible.

  7. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  8. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  9. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  10. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  11. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Dependence of alanine gel dosimeter response as a function of photon clinical beams dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2013-01-01

    Gel dosimetry is a new area developed by Gore, it is ery useful for application in radiotherapy because using NMR imaging as evaluation technique is possible to evaluate three dimensional absorbed dose distribution. The measure technique is based on difference of ferrous (Fe 2+ ) and ferric (Fe 3+ ) ) ions concentration that can be measured also by spectrophotometry technique. The Alanine gel dosimeter was developed at IPEN. The alanine is an amino acid and tissue equivalent material that presents significant improvement on previous alanine dosimetry systems. The addition of Alanine increases the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to study the dose rate dependence of photon clinical beams radiation on the alanine gel dosimeter optical response, as well as the response repeatability and gel production reproducibility, since this property is very important for characterization and standardization of any dosimeter. (author)

  13. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  16. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andtbacka, Robert H I; Kaufman, Howard L; Collichio, Frances; Amatruda, Thomas; Senzer, Neil; Chesney, Jason; Delman, Keith A; Spitler, Lynn E; Puzanov, Igor; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Milhem, Mohammed; Cranmer, Lee; Curti, Brendan; Lewis, Karl; Ross, Merrick; Guthrie, Troy; Linette, Gerald P; Daniels, Gregory A; Harrington, Kevin; Middleton, Mark R; Miller, Wilson H; Zager, Jonathan S; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Li, Ai; Doleman, Susan; VanderWalde, Ari; Gansert, Jennifer; Coffin, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2015 by

  17. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P motor units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Radiation-induced attenuation in polarization maintaining fibers: low dose rate response, stress, and materials effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, M.E.; Friebele, E.J.; Hickey, S.J.; Brambani, L.A.; Onstott, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The loss induced in polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers by low dose rate <0.01 Gy/h, where 1 Gy = 100 rads(Si) radiation exposure has been found to vary from <0.4 to ∼6 dB/km-10 Gy, depending on the wavelength of measurement and the fiber. Correlations have been established between low dose rate response and the ''permanent'' induced loss determined by fitting the recovery of the induced loss following high dose rate exposure to nth-order kinetics. Using this technique, both 0.85- and 1.3-μm PM fibers have been found which show virtually no permanent incremental loss and would therefore appear to be resistant to low dose rate radiation environments. The asymmetric stress inherent in PM fibers has been shown to reduce the permanent induced loss, while the recovery of the radiation-induced attenuation was found to be enhanced in fibers with Ge-F-doped silica clads

  19. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Yuki, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Tachibana, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have studied whether the p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by acute radiation is interfered with chronic pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate in human cultured cells and whole body of mice. In squamous cell carcinoma cells, we found that a challenge irradiation with X-ray immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge irradiation alone. In addition, the induction of p53-centered apoptosis and the accumulation of its related proteins after the challenge irradiation were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena. In mouse spleen, the induction of apoptosis and the accumulation of p53 and Bax were observed dose-dependently at 12 h after a challenge irradiation. In contrast, we found significant suppression of them induced by challenge irradiation at a high dose-rate when mice were pre-irradiated with chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate. These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced p53-dependent signal transduction processes. There are numerous papers about p53 functions in apoptosis, radiosensitivity, genomic instability and cancer incidence in cultured cells or animals. According to our data and other findings, since p53 can prevent carcinogenesis, pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate might enhance the predisposition to cancer. Therefore, it is possible that different maximal permissible dose equivalents for the public populations are appropriate. Furthermore, concerning health of human beings, studies of the adaptive responses to radiation are quite important, because the radiation response strongly depends on experience of prior exposure to radiation

  20. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  1. Population-specific responses in physiological rates of Emiliania huxleyi to a broad CO2 range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although coccolithophore physiological responses to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have been widely studied in the past, there is limited knowledge on the variability of physiological responses between populations from different areas. In the present study, we investigated the specific responses of growth, particulate organic (POC and inorganic carbon (PIC production rates of three populations of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from three regions in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores: six strains, Canary Islands: five strains, and Norwegian coast near Bergen: six strains to a CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm. Physiological rates of each population and individual strain increased with rising pCO2 levels, reached a maximum and declined thereafter. Optimal pCO2 for growth, POC production rates, and tolerance to low pH (i.e., high proton concentration was significantly higher in an E. huxleyi population isolated from the Norwegian coast than in those isolated near the Azores and Canary Islands. This may be due to the large environmental variability including large pCO2 and pH fluctuations in coastal waters off Bergen compared to the rather stable oceanic conditions at the other two sites. Maximum growth and POC production rates of the Azores and Bergen populations were similar and significantly higher than that of the Canary Islands population. This pattern could be driven by temperature–CO2 interactions where the chosen incubation temperature (16 °C was slightly below what strains isolated near the Canary Islands normally experience. Our results indicate adaptation of E. huxleyi to their local environmental conditions and the existence of distinct E. huxleyi populations. Within each population, different growth, POC, and PIC production rates at different pCO2 levels indicated strain-specific phenotypic plasticity. Accounting for this variability is important to understand how or whether E

  2. A comparative analysis of signal processing methods for motion-based rate responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, S E; Shreve, E A; Lau, C P

    1996-08-01

    Pacemakers that augment heart rate (HR) by sensing body motion have been the most frequently prescribed rate responsive pacemakers. Many comparisons between motion-based rate responsive pacemaker models have been published. However, conclusions regarding specific signal processing methods used for rate response (e.g., filters and algorithms) can be affected by device-specific features. To objectively compare commonly used motion sensing filters and algorithms, acceleration and ECG signals were recorded from 16 normal subjects performing exercise and daily living activities. Acceleration signals were filtered (1-4 or 15-Hz band-pass), then processed using threshold crossing (TC) or integration (IN) algorithms creating four filter/algorithm combinations. Data were converted to an acceleration indicated rate and compared to intrinsic HR using root mean square difference (RMSd) and signed RMSd. Overall, the filters and algorithms performed similarly for most activities. The only differences between filters were for walking at an increasing grade (1-4 Hz superior to 15-Hz) and for rocking in a chair (15-Hz superior to 1-4 Hz). The only differences between algorithms were for bicycling (TC superior to IN), walking at an increasing grade (IN superior to TC), and holding a drill (IN superior to TC). Performance of the four filter/algorithm combinations was also similar over most activities. The 1-4/IN (filter [Hz]/algorithm) combination performed best for walking at a grade, while the 15/TC combination was best for bicycling. However, the 15/TC combination tended to be most sensitive to higher frequency artifact, such as automobile driving, downstairs walking, and hand drilling. Chair rocking artifact was highest for 1-4/IN. The RMSd for bicycling and upstairs walking were large for all combinations, reflecting the nonphysiological nature of the sensor. The 1-4/TC combination demonstrated the least intersubject variability, was the only filter/algorithm combination

  3. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  4. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  5. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J

    2012-07-25

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is increased even under a fixed transmission power. Given that energy consumption in synchronization is determined by the product of synchronization time and transformation power, the new strategy reduces energy consumption in clock synchronization. QualNet experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  7. Evaluation of treatment response in depression studies using a Bayesian parametric cure rate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santen, Gijs; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy trials with antidepressant drugs often fail to show significant treatment effect even though efficacious treatments are investigated. This failure can, amongst other factors, be attributed to the lack of sensitivity of the statistical method as well as of the endpoints to pharmacological activity. For regulatory purposes the most widely used efficacy endpoint is still the mean change in HAM-D score at the end of the study, despite evidence from literature showing that the HAM-D scale might not be a sensitive tool to assess drug effect and that changes from baseline at the end of treatment may not reflect the extent of response. In the current study, we evaluate the prospect of applying a Bayesian parametric cure rate model (CRM) to analyse antidepressant effect in efficacy trials with paroxetine. The model is based on a survival approach, which allows for a fraction of surviving patients indefinitely after completion of treatment. Data was extracted from GlaxoSmithKline's clinical databases. Response was defined as a 50% change from baseline HAM-D at any assessment time after start of therapy. Survival times were described by a log-normal distribution and drug effect was parameterised as a covariate on the fraction of non-responders. The model was able to fit the data from different studies accurately and results show that response to treatment does not lag for two weeks, as is mythically believed. In conclusion, we demonstrate how parameterisation of a survival model can be used to characterise treatment response in depression trials. The method contrasts with the long-established snapshot on changes from baseline, as it incorporates the time course of response throughout treatment.

  8. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha; Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Richter, Philipp; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Charlton, Jane C.; Westmeier, Tobias; Misawa, Toru; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg 2 , or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10 9 M ☉ (d/55 kpc) 2 , with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M ☉ yr –1 , potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  9. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Richter, Philipp [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Haus 28, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, D-14476, Potsdam (Germany); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Charlton, Jane C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Westmeier, Tobias [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Misawa, Toru [School of General Education, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg{sup 2}, or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} (d/55 kpc){sup 2}, with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  10. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  11. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  12. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non

  13. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  14. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  15. Heart-Rate Recovery After Warm-up in Swimming: A Useful Predictor of Training Heart-Rate Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzevles, Sander P M; de Haan, Arnold; Beek, Peter J; Daanen, Hein A M; Truijens, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    For training to be optimal, daily training load has to be adapted to the momentary status of the individual athlete, which is often difficult to establish. Therefore, the current study investigated the predictive value of heart-rate recovery (HRR) during a standardized warm-up for training load. Training load was quantified by the variation in heart rate during standardized training in competitive swimmers. Eight female and 5 male Dutch national-level swimmers participated in the study. They all performed 3 sessions consisting of a 300-m warm-up test and a 10 × 100-m training protocol. Both protocols were swum in front crawl at individually standardized velocities derived from an incremental step test. Velocity was related to 75% and 85% heart-rate reserve (% HR res ) for the warm-up and training, respectively. Relative HRR during the first 60 s after the warm-up (HR Rw-up ) and differences between the actual and intended heart rate for the warm-up and the training (ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr ) were determined. No significant relationship between HRR w-up and ΔHR tr was found (F 1,37 = 2.96, P = .09, R 2 = .07, SEE = 4.65). There was considerable daily variation in ΔHR tr at a given swimming velocity (73-93% HR res ). ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr were clearly related (F 1,37 = 74.31, P warm-up does not predict heart rate during a directly subsequent and standardized training session. Instead, heart rate during the warm-up protocol seems a promising alternative for coaches to make daily individual-specific adjustments to training programs.

  16. System analysis of the dynamic response of the coronary circulation to a sudden change in heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Stassen, H. G.; Spaan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the response of driving pressure/flow ration on an abrupt change in heart rate was analysed. The difference between the response obtained with constant pressure and constant flow perfusion was also studied. The responses show a fast initial reversed phase followed by a slow phase

  17. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  18. Theoretical analysis of the distribution of isolated particles in totally asymmetric exclusion processes: Application to mRNA translation rate estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao Duc, Khanh; Saleem, Zain H.; Song, Yun S.

    2018-01-01

    The Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP) is a classical stochastic model for describing the transport of interacting particles, such as ribosomes moving along the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) during translation. Although this model has been widely studied in the past, the extent of collision between particles and the average distance between a particle to its nearest neighbor have not been quantified explicitly. We provide here a theoretical analysis of such quantities via the distribution of isolated particles. In the classical form of the model in which each particle occupies only a single site, we obtain an exact analytic solution using the matrix ansatz. We then employ a refined mean-field approach to extend the analysis to a generalized TASEP with particles of an arbitrary size. Our theoretical study has direct applications in mRNA translation and the interpretation of experimental ribosome profiling data. In particular, our analysis of data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests a potential bias against the detection of nearby ribosomes with a gap distance of less than approximately three codons, which leads to some ambiguity in estimating the initiation rate and protein production flux for a substantial fraction of genes. Despite such ambiguity, however, we demonstrate theoretically that the interference rate associated with collisions can be robustly estimated and show that approximately 1% of the translating ribosomes get obstructed.

  19. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  20. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (pheart rates (HR avg ) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HR max , respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HR max ). HR peak was also significantly (pexpenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (pexpenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of breathing frequency and flow rate on the total inward leakage of an elastomeric half-mask donned on an advanced manikin headform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Bergman, Michael S; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of breathing frequency and flow rate on the total inward leakage (TIL) of an elastomeric half-mask donned on an advanced manikin headform and challenged with combustion aerosols. An elastomeric half-mask respirator equipped with P100 filters was donned on an advanced manikin headform covered with life-like soft skin and challenged with aerosols originated by burning three materials: wood, paper, and plastic (polyethylene). TIL was determined as the ratio of aerosol concentrations inside (C in) and outside (C out) of the respirator (C in/C out) measured with a nanoparticle spectrometer operating in the particle size range of 20-200nm. The testing was performed under three cyclic breathing flows [mean inspiratory flow (MIF) of 30, 55, and 85 l/min] and five breathing frequencies (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 breaths/min). A completely randomized factorial study design was chosen with four replicates for each combination of breathing flow rate and frequency. Particle size, MIF, and combustion material had significant (P plastic aerosol produced higher mean TIL values than wood and paper aerosols. The effect of the breathing frequency was complex. When analyzed using all combustion aerosols and MIFs (pooled data), breathing frequency did not significantly (P = 0.08) affect TIL. However, once the data were stratified according to combustion aerosol and MIF, the effect of breathing frequency became significant (P plastic combustion aerosol. The effect of breathing frequency on TIL is less significant than the effects of combustion aerosol and breathing flow rate for the tested elastomeric half-mask respirator. The greatest TIL occurred when challenged with plastic aerosol at 30 l/min and at a breathing frequency of 30 breaths/min.

  2. Dose-response relationship of physical activity to premature and total all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in walkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. METHODS: The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min, which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤ 1.07 MET-hours/d, category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d, category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d, and category 4 (≥ 3.6 MET-hours/d. Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. RESULTS: 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04, 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10(-12 and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10(-11 than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008, 35.2% (P<10(-5, and 34.9% (P = 0.0001 for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18, 20.6% (P = 0.07, and 31.4% (P = 0.009 for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18, 63.8% (P = 0.005, and 90.6% (P = 0.002 for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22, 42.5% (P = 0.001, and 57.5% (P = 0.0001 for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56, 44.3% (P = 0.0004, and 33.5% (P = 0.02 for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38, 41.0% (P<10(-4, and 35.5% (P = 0.001 for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13, 45.8% (P = 0.0002, and 41.1% (P

  3. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  4. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  5. Dam Breach Release of Non-Cohesive Sediments: Channel Response and Recovery Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Boardman, G.; Banks, W.; Andrews, M.; Conlon, M.; Dillow, J. J. A.; Gellis, A.; Lowe, S.; McClain, S.; Miller, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removals featuring unchecked releases of non-cohesive sediments are excellent opportunities to learn more about stream channel response to abrupt increases in bed material supply that can occur deliberately or by natural processes like landslides and volcanic eruptions. Understanding channel response to sediment pulses, including response rates, is essential because human uses of river channels and floodplains are impacted by these events as are aquatic habitats. We had the opportunity to study a dam removal site at the Simkins Dam in Maryland, USA, that shares many important geophysical attributes of another well-studied dam removal in the humid northeast United States [Merrimack Village Dam, New Hampshire; Pearson et al., 2011]. The watershed sizes are the same order of magnitude (102 km2), and at both sites relatively low head dams were removed (~ 3-4 m) and ~60,000 m3 of dominantly sand-sized sediments discharged to low-gradient reaches immediately downstream. Analyzing four years of repeat morphometry and bed sediment grain size surveys at the Simkins site on the Patapsco River, as well as continuous discharge and suspended sediment gaging data, we clearly document a two-phase response in the upstream reach as described by Pearson et al. [2011] for their New Hampshire site and noted at other dam removals [e.g., Major et al., 2012]. In the early phase, approximately 50% of the impounded sediment mass was eroded rapidly over a period of about three months when flows were very modest (Figure 1). After incision to base level and channel widening in the former impoundment, a second phase began when further erosion depended on floods large enough to access impounded sediments more distant from the newly-formed channel. We also found important differences in the upstream responses at the Maryland and New Hampshire sites that appear to be related to valley type (non-glaciated versus glaciated, respectively). Response variances immediately downstream between the

  6. Heart rate and lactate response of junior handball players (Under 18 during competitive match play

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    Subir Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study highlights the heart rate (HR and blood lactate (La response of junior handball players of two positions – wings and backs, during competitive matches. Methods: Heart rate and blood lactate of twelve handball players – 6 Backs (B and 6 Wingers (W] – were recorded in quarter- and semifinal matches of the tournament. HR was recorded continuously by heart rate telemeter whereas La was measured at rest, after warm up and immediately after the end of first- and second halves of the matches. Results: Average HR and Maximum Heart Rate Reserve (MHRR of the players were similar in each half of play. No significant difference (p<0.05 in average HR and MHRR were observed between B (169±17.5 beats/min and 74.3±9.4% and W (169.5±16.3 beats/min and 74.1±8.5%. W and B played about 1/5th of their playing time above the Anerobic Threshold level. Average HR of the players in each 5 min of play could vary significantly but no such difference per 15 min of play was found. Lactate of W and B after the first half of play were 7.4±1.6 and 7.2±1.5 mM and after the end of the matches were 7.9±0.4 and 7.6±1.4 mM respectively. No significant difference in La was found between W and B. Conclusion: (a Handball play is a high intensity game, (b the workload does not vary between W and B, (c the intensity of play could vary in every 5 min of play but there is no difference in average intensity for each 15 min, and (d handball is played aerobically for majority of the time.

  7. The therapeutic effect of clinical trials: understanding placebo response rates in clinical trials – A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walach Harald

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvement in the placebo groups. We wanted to clarify, what elements of clinical trials determine placebo variability. Methods We analysed a representative sample of 141 published long-term trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; duration > 12 weeks to find out what study characteristics predict placebo response rates in various diseases. Correlational and regression analyses with study characteristics and placebo response rates were carried out. Results We found a high and significant correlation between placebo and treatment response rate across diseases (r = .78; p Conclusion Medication response rates and placebo response rates in clinical trials are highly correlated. Trial characteristics can explain some portion of the variance in placebo healing rates in RCTs. Placebo response in trials is only partially due to methodological artefacts and only partially dependent on the diagnoses treated.

  8. The effect of sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters on high-frequency response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Goulet, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using

  9. Adding Postal Follow-Up to a Web-Based Survey of Primary Care and Gastroenterology Clinic Physician Chiefs Improved Response Rates but not Response Quality or Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Melissa R; Powell, Adam A; Burgess, Diana J; Haggstrom, David A; Gravely, Amy A; Halek, Krysten; Bangerter, Ann; Shaukat, Aasma; Nelson, David B

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed whether postal follow-up to a web-based physician survey improves response rates, response quality, and representativeness. We recruited primary care and gastroenterology chiefs at 125 Veterans Affairs medical facilities to complete a 10-min web-based survey on colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic practices in 2010. We compared response rates, response errors, and representativeness in the primary care and gastroenterology samples before and after adding postal follow-up. Adding postal follow-up increased response rates by 20-25 percentage points; markedly greater increases than predicted from a third e-mail reminder. In the gastroenterology sample, the mean number of response errors made by web responders (0.25) was significantly smaller than the mean number made by postal responders (2.18), and web responders provided significantly longer responses to open-ended questions. There were no significant differences in these outcomes in the primary care sample. Adequate representativeness was achieved before postal follow-up in both samples, as indicated by the lack of significant differences between web responders and the recruitment population on facility characteristics. We conclude adding postal follow-up to this web-based physician leader survey improved response rates but not response quality or representativeness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Dose-rate and humidity effects upon the gamma-radiation response of nylon-based radiachromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.; Proksch, E.

    1979-10-01

    At dose-rates typical for 60 Co gamma irradiation sources, the radiation response of hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide/ 50μm nylon radiachromic films is dependent upon dose-rate as well as upon the moisture content of the films, or the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere, respectively. Under equilibrium moisture conditions, the response measured at 606 nm 24 hours after end of irradiation shows its highest dose-rate dependence at about 32 % r.h. A decrease in dose-rate from 2.8 to 0.039 Gy.s -1 results in a decrease in response by 17%. At higher humidities, the sensitivity of the film as well as the rate dependence decreases and at 86% r.h. no discernible dose-rate effect could be found. At lower humidities than 32% a flat maximum in response follows. At nominal 0% r.h. a second absorption band at 412 nm appears which is converted completely to an additional 606 nm absorption by exposure to a humid atmosphere. After that procedure the resultant response is somewhat lower than but shows almost the same dose-rate dependence as at 32% r.h. or else to eliminate the dose-rate effect by an extrapolation procedure based on the fact that the rate dependence vanishes at zero dose. (author)

  11. "The stone which the builders rejected...": Delay of reinforcement and response rate on fixed-interval and related schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearden, J H; Lejeune, Helga

    2006-02-28

    The article deals with response rates (mainly running and peak or terminal rates) on simple and on some mixed-FI schedules and explores the idea that these rates are determined by the average delay of reinforcement for responses occurring during the response periods that the schedules generate. The effects of reinforcement delay are assumed to be mediated by a hyperbolic delay of reinforcement gradient. The account predicts that (a) running rates on simple FI schedules should increase with increasing rate of reinforcement, in a manner close to that required by Herrnstein's equation, (b) improving temporal control during acquisition should be associated with increasing running rates, (c) two-valued mixed-FI schedules with equiprobable components should produce complex results, with peak rates sometimes being higher on the longer component schedule, and (d) that effects of reinforcement probability on mixed-FI should affect the response rate at the time of the shorter component only. All these predictions were confirmed by data, although effects in some experiments remain outside the scope of the model. In general, delay of reinforcement as a determinant of response rate on FI and related schedules (rather than temporal control on such schedules) seems a useful starting point for a more thorough analysis of some neglected questions about performance on FI and related schedules.

  12. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

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    IMTAWIL, V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  13. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in the patients' home preoperatively, during hospitalization on the first postoperative night, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. HRR was reduced (P REM stage 2 sleep on the first postoperative night, and was still reduced on the fourth postoperative night compared...... to preoperative level (P = 0.01). HRR during arousal from REM sleep was not different between the preoperative and fourth postoperative night (P = 0.92), while this could not be determined on the first postoperative night where REM sleep disappeared. The reduced HRR during sleep arousal after major arthroplasty......Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals...

  14. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  15. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  16. Trends in primary total hip arthroplasty in Spain from 2001 to 2008: Evaluating changes in demographics, comorbidity, incidence rates, length of stay, costs and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Trujillo Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip arthroplasties is one of the most frequent surgical procedures in Spain and are conducted mainly in elderly subjects. We aim to analyze changes in incidence, co-morbidity profile, length of hospital stay (LOHS, costs and in-hospital mortality (IHM of patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA over an 8-year study period in Spain. Methods We selected all surgical admissions in individuals aged ≥40 years who had received a primary THA (ICD-9-CM procedure code 81.51 between 2001 and 2008 from the National Hospital Discharge Database. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates, LOHS, costs and IHM were estimated for each year. Co-morbidity was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index. Multivariate analysis of time trends was conducted using Poisson regression. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze IHM. Results We identified a total of 161,791 discharges of patients having undergone THA from 2001 to 2008. Overall crude incidence had increased from 99 to 105 THA per 100.000 inhabitants from 2001 to 2008 (p 2 and in 2008, the prevalence of 1-2 or >2 had increased to 20.4% and 1.1% respectively (p Conclusions The current study provides clear and valid data indicating increased incidence of primary THA in Spain from 2001 to 2008 with concomitant reductions in LOHS, slight reduction IHM, but a significant increase in cost per patient. The health profile of the patient undergoing a THA seems to be worsening in Spain.

  17. Combined intravenous, topical and oral tranexamic acid administration in total knee replacement: Evaluation of safety in patients with previous thromboembolism and effect on hemoglobin level and transfusion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Joris A; Lameijer, Joost R C; Snoeker, Barbara A M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety of combined intravenous, oral and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total knee replacement. We assessed dose-related efficacy on hemoglobin level, transfusion, length of stay and thromboembolic complications. In addition, TXA safety in patients with previous history of thromboembolism >12months ago was monitored specifically. From January 2013 until January 2016, 922 patients were included who received TXA after primary total knee replacement. Patients without TXA administration or with thromboembolic events 10-25mg/kg and >25-50mg/kg. Between the three TXA groups no significant difference was found in thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)), wound leakage and transfusion rate. For patients with DVT or PE in their history >12months ago specifically, no more complications were noted in higher-TXA-dosage groups compared to the low-dosage group. Length of stay was shorter in the highest-TXA-dosage group compared with lower-dosage groups (median two vs three days). With high TXA dose a smaller difference between pre- and postoperative Hb was found: the >25-50mg/kg TXA group had a 0.419mmol/l smaller decrease in postoperative hemoglobin compared to the lowest-dosage group (Ptopical TXA is effective in knee replacement and can safely be given to patients with a thromboembolic history >12months ago. High dosage (>25-50mg/kg) TXA resulted in the smallest decrease in postoperative hemoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Total body irradiation (TBI) in pediatric patients. A single-center experience after 30 years of low-dose rate irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmeier, Claudia; Thoennessen, Daniel; Negretti, Laura; Streller, Tino; Luetolf, Urs Martin [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre [University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Hemato-Oncology; Oertel, Susanne [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2010-11-15

    To retrospectively analyze patient characteristics, treatment, and treatment outcome of pediatric patients with hematologic diseases treated with total body irradiation (TBI) between 1978 and 2006. 32 pediatric patients were referred to the Department of Radiation-Oncology at the University of Zurich for TBI. Records of regular follow-up of 28 patients were available for review. Patient characteristics as well as treatment outcome regarding local control and overall survival were assessed. A total of 18 patients suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 5 from acute and 2 from chronic myelogenous leukemia, 1 from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 2 from anaplastic anemia. The cohort consisted of 15 patients referred after first remission and 13 patients with relapsed leukemia. Mean follow-up was 34 months (2-196 months) with 15 patients alive at the time of last follow-up. Eight patients died of recurrent disease, 1 of graft vs. host reaction, 2 of sepsis, and 2 patients died of a secondary malignancy. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was 60%. Overall survival was significantly inferior in patients treated after relapse compared to those treated for newly diagnosed leukemia (24% versus 74%; p=0.004). At the time of last follow-up, 11 patients survived for more than 36 months following TBI. Late effects (RTOG {>=}3) were pneumonitis in 1 patient, chronic bronchitis in 1 patient, cardiomyopathy in 2 patients, severe cataractogenesis in 1 patient (48 months after TBI with 10 Gy in a single dose) and secondary malignancies in 2 patients (36 and 190 months after TBI). Growth disturbances were observed in all patients treated prepubertally. In 2 patients with identical twins treated at ages 2 and 7, a loss of 8% in final height of the treated twin was observed. As severe late sequelae after TBI, we observed 2 secondary malignancies in 11 patients who survived in excess of 36 months. However, long-term morbidity is moderate following treatment with the fractionated

  20. Age-related differences in signaling efficiency of human lens cells underpin differential wound healing response rates following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Lucy Jean; Duncan, George; Wormstone, Ian Michael

    2013-01-14

    Cataract surgery is blighted by posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is more severe and frequent in the young than the elderly (>60 years). Our aim was to understand the biological basis for these age-related differences in PCO/wound healing rates. Human capsular bags were prepared by cataract surgery on donor lenses (young [60 years] groups) and maintained in serum-free Eagle's minimum essential medium. Cell growth was determined using the MTS assay. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels were determined using ELISA. Protein synthesis rates were elucidated by 35S-methionine incorporation. U0126, SB203580, and SP600125 were used to disrupt ERK-, p38-, and JNK-mediated signaling, respectively. Level of total and phospho-ERK, -c-jun, -P38, and -JNK plus cytokines were detected using a BIOPLEX array system. Following a 2-day culture period, significant decreases in IL-1β and IL-6, and increases in IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and VEGF in the >60 years group were observed compared with their younger counterparts. Capsular bags (cells and capsule) from aged donors contained greater than or equal levels of HGF and FGF than younger counterparts and had greater rates of protein synthesis. Inhibition of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling significantly suppressed cell coverage on the posterior capsule. pERK, p-c-jun, p-p38, and pJNK were consistently lower in aged cell populations; total signaling protein expression was unaffected by age. Serum stimulation increased pERK, p-c-jun, and pJNK levels in cells of all ages; p-p38 was significantly increased in the >60 years group only. Ligand availability to cells is not a limiting factor as we age, but the ability to convert this resource into signaling activity is. We therefore propose that overall signaling efficiency is reduced as a function of age, which consequently limits wound-healing response rates after injury.

  1. A novel multi-responsive polyampholyte composite hydrogel with excellent mechanical strength and rapid shrinking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Tan, Ying; Chen, Qiang; An, Huiyong; Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lisong; Wang, Pixin

    2010-05-15

    Series of hydrophilic core-shell microgels with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as core and poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) as shell are synthesized via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Then, the microgels are treated with a small amount of potassium persulfate (KPS) to generate free radicals on the amine nitrogens of PVAm, which subsequently initiate the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and acrylamide (AAm) onto microgels to prepare multi-responsive composite hydrogels. The composite hydrogels consist of cross-linked ungrafted polyampholyte chains as the first network and microgels with grafted polyampholyte chains as graft point and second network and show surprising mechanical strength and rapid response rate. The investigation shows the compress strength of composite hydrogels is up to 17-30 MPa, which is 60-100 times higher than that of the hydrogel matrix. The composite hydrogel shows reversible switch of transmittance when traveling the lowest critical temperature (LCST) of microgels. When the composite hydrogel swollen in pH 2.86 solution at ambient condition is immersed into the pH 7.00 solution at 45 °C, a rapid dynamic shrinking can be observed. And the character time (τ) of shrinking dynamic of composite hydrogel is 251.9 min, which is less than that of hydrogel matrix (τ=2273.7 min). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cineradiographic Analysis of Mouse Postural Response to Alteration of Gravity and Jerk (Gravity Deceleration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hasegawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maintain the body relative to the external environment is important for adaptation to altered gravity. However, the physiological limits for adaptation or the disruption of body orientation are not known. In this study, we analyzed postural changes in mice upon exposure to various low gravities. Male C57BL6/J mice (n = 6 were exposed to various gravity-deceleration conditions by customized parabolic flight-maneuvers targeting the partial-gravity levels of 0.60, 0.30, 0.15 and μ g (<0.001 g. Video recordings of postural responses were analyzed frame-by-frame by high-definition cineradiography and with exact instantaneous values of gravity and jerk. As a result, the coordinated extension of the neck, spine and hindlimbs was observed during the initial phase of gravity deceleration. Joint angles widened to 120%–200% of the reference g level, and the magnitude of the thoracic-curvature stretching was correlated with gravity and jerk, i.e., the gravity deceleration rate. A certain range of jerk facilitated mouse skeletal stretching efficiently, and a jerk of −0.3~−0.4 j (g/s induced the maximum extension of the thoracic-curvature. The postural response of animals to low gravity may undergo differential regulation by gravity and jerk.

  3. Dropout Rates and Response Times of an Occupation Search Tree in a Web Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijdens Kea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupation is key in socioeconomic research. As in other survey modes, most web surveys use an open-ended question for occupation, though the absence of interviewers elicits unidentifiable or aggregated responses. Unlike other modes, web surveys can use a search tree with an occupation database. They are hardly ever used, but this may change due to technical advancements. This article evaluates a three-step search tree with 1,700 occupational titles, used in the 2010 multilingual WageIndicator web survey for UK, Belgium and Netherlands (22,990 observations. Dropout rates are high; in Step 1 due to unemployed respondents judging the question not to be adequate, and in Step 3 due to search tree item length. Median response times are substantial due to search tree item length, dropout in the next step and invalid occupations ticked. Overall the validity of the occupation data is rather good, 1.7-7.5% of the respondents completing the search tree have ticked an invalid occupation.

  4. The contribution of large trees to total transpiration rates in a pre-montane tropical forest and its implications for selective logging practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, G.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    In the humid tropics, conservationists generally prefer selective logging practices over clearcutting. Large valuable timber is removed while the remaining forest is left relatively undisturbed. However, little is known about the impact of selective logging on site water balance. Because large trees have very deep sapwood and exposed canopies, they tend to have high transpiration. The first objective was to evaluate the methods used for scaling sap flow measurements to the watershed with particular emphasis on large trees. The second objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of large trees to site water balance. Our study was conducted in a pre-montane transitional forest at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center in north-central Costa Rica. During the period between January and July 2012, sap flux was monitored in a 30-m diameter plot within a 10-ha watershed. Two pairs of heat dissipation sensors were installed in the outer 0-20 mm of each of 15 trees selected to represent the full range of tree sizes. In six of the largest trees, depth profiles were recorded at 10-mm intervals to a depth of 60 mm using compensation heat pulse sensors. To estimate sapwood basal area of the entire watershed, a stand survey was conducted in three 30-m-diameter plots. In each plot, we measured basal area of all trees and estimated sapwood basal area from sapwood depth measured in nearly half of the trees. An estimated 36.5% of the total sapwood area in this watershed comes from the outer 20 mm of sapwood, with the remaining 63.5% of sapwood from depths deeper than 20 mm. Nearly 13% of sapwood is from depths beyond 60 mm. Sap velocity profiles indicate the highest flow rates occurred in the 0-2 cm depths, with declines of 17% and 25% in the 20-40 mm and 40-60 mm ranges, respectively. Our results demonstrate the need to measure sap velocity profiles in large tropical trees. If total transpiration had been estimated solely from the 0-20 mm heat dissipation

  5. Modeling Long Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Alejandra Puntel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L. can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L. yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1 applied to corn. Our objectives were to: a quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; b compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and c utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simultaneously simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration, which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration. For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-yr mean differences in EONR’s were within the historical N rate error range (40 to 50 kg N ha-1. However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching with precipitation. We concluded that long term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add

  6. Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntel, Laila A; Sawyer, John E; Barker, Daniel W; Dietzel, Ranae; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Castellano, Michael J; Moore, Kenneth J; Thorburn, Peter; Archontoulis, Sotirios V

    2016-01-01

    Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn ( Zea mays L. ) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean ( Glycine max L. ) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha -1 ) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration), which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration). For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-year mean differences in EONR's were within the historical N rate error range (40-50 kg N ha -1 ). However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching) with precipitation. We concluded that long-term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add value toward

  7. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and VT2. However, ballet set workloads may be higher when based on HR responses, due to the intermittent and isometric components of dance.

  8. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  9. Growth and Yield Responses of Green Pepper (Capsicum annum L. to Manure Rates under Field and High Tunnel Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima-obong I. DOMINIC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine growth and yield responses of green pepper to varying manure rates under field and high tunnel conditions. Experiment 1 was a pot experiment to evaluate three rates (0.5 and 10 t/ha of poultry manure (PM on green pepper production under high tunnel and open field conditions. Experiment 2 was to determine the performance of green pepper as influenced by different manure rates (0, 5 and 10 t/ha of PM, 300 kg/ha of NPK, 5 t/ha of PM + 200 kg of NPK and 10 t/ha of PM + 100 kg of NPK on the field. High tunnel produced about 3.1 fruits/plant that weighted 102.8 g, which was significantly higher than open field experiment in which 1.7 fruits/plant, with a medium weight of 32.3 g were noted. High tunnel enhanced successful production of green pepper during rainy season, whereas the open field production during the same season was near failure. Application of 10 t/ha of PM produced significantly larger fruits in the pot experiment. Good fertilizer effects on growth and yield components were recorded for the field study. Plant height, number of leaves and branches, number and weight of harvested fruit followed similar trend in 5 and 10 t/ha of PM which gave statistically similar results, and provided the best performance during the experiment. Application of 5 t/ha of PM produced the highest total fruits yield.

  10. Nonlinear response of hail precipitation rate to environmental moisture content: A real case modeling study of an episodic midlatitude severe convective event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxin; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Kumjian, Matthew R.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of hail production on initial moisture content in a simulated midlatitude episodic convective event occurred in northeast China on 10-11 June 2005 was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a double-moment microphysics scheme where both graupel and hail are considered. Three sensitivity experiments were performed by modifying the initial water vapor mixing ratio profile to 90% ("Q-10%"), 105% ("Q+5%"), and 110% ("Q+10%") of the initial conditions used for the control simulation. It was found that increasing the initial water vapor content caused the hail and total precipitation rates to increase during the first 5 h. The precipitation response to increasing water vapor content was monotonic for this first episode; however, for the event's second episode, the hail precipitation rate responds to the initial water vapor profile nonlinearly, while the total precipitation rate responds mostly monotonically. In particular, simulation Q+5% achieves the largest hail production rate while simulation Q+10% has the largest total precipitation rate. In contrast, during the second episode simulation Q-10% has the strongest vertical motion, produces the most cloud ice and snow, but has the lowest hail production. Analysis shows that increasing the initial moisture content directly increases the precipitation during the first episode, which subsequently induces a stronger, longer-lasting cold pool that limits the development of deep convection during the second episode.

  11. 32 CFR 37.520 - What is my responsibility for determining that the total project funding is reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Additional guidance follows for: (a) Labor. Much of the budget likely will involve direct labor and associated indirect costs, which may be represented together as a “loaded” labor rate. The program official... official may have knowledge about customary levels of direct labor charges in the particular industry that...

  12. Overall response rates to radiation therapy for patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hoskin, Peter; Chow, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy has been shown to successfully palliate bone metastases. A number of systematic reviews and large clinical trials have reported response rates for initial treatment and retreatment. Objective: To determine overall response rates of patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment. Methods: Intent-to-treat and evaluable patient statistics from a systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for initial treatment of bone metastases and a randomized clinical trial of retreatment were pooled and analyzed to determine the overall response rates for patients receiving initial treatment and retreatment. Results: In the intent-to-treat calculation, 71–73% of patients had an overall response to radiation treatment and in the evaluable patient population; 85–87% of patients did so. Response rates varied slightly whether patients underwent single or multiple fractions in initial treatment or retreatment. Conclusions: Single and multiple fraction radiation treatment yielded very similar overall response rates. Patients treated with a single fraction for both initial and repeat radiation experience almost identical overall response to those patients treated with multiple fraction treatment. It is therefore recommended that patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases be treated with a single 8 Gy fraction of radiation at both the initial treatment and retreatment

  13. Use of BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 in radiation risk assessment: Lifetime total cancer mortality risk estimates at low doses and low dose rates for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In November 1986, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to develop a coordinated Federal position on risk assessment for low levels of ionizing radiation. Since Federal risk assessment activities are based primarily on the scientific data and analyses in authoritative review documents prepared by groups like the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations' Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), DoD proposed that the CIRRPC Science Panel undertake the task of providing coordinated interagency positions on the use of information in the reports of such groups. The practice has been for individual Federal agencies to interpret and decide independently how to use the information provided in such reports. As a result of its deliberations, the Subpanel recommends two nominal risk estimates for lifetime total cancer mortality following whole-body exposure to low levels of low-LET ionizing radiation, one for the general population and one for the working-age population (see Section II). The recommended risk estimates reflect the general agreement of information in BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 for total cancer mortality. The Subpanel's risk estimates and associated statements are intended to meet the needs of the Federal agencies for: (a) values that are current; (b) values that are relevant to the low-dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposures principally encountered in carrying out Federal responsibilities; (c) a statement of the change in the estimates of lifetime total cancer mortality relative to estimates in previous authoritative review documents; and (d) a practical statement on the scientific uncertainty associated with applying the lifetime total cancer mortality values at very low doses

  14. Relict Mountain Permafrost Area (Loess Plateau, China) Exhibits High Ecosystem Respiration Rates and Accelerating Rates in Response to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cuicui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qian; Smoak, Joseph M.; Yang, Yulong; Hu, Lian; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Guimin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingjun

    2017-10-01

    Relict permafrost regions are characterized by thin permafrost and relatively high temperatures. Understanding the ecosystem respiration rate (ERR) and its relationship with soil hydrothermal conditions in these areas can provide knowledge regarding the permafrost carbon cycle in a warming world. In this study, we examined a permafrost area, a boundary area, and a seasonally frozen ground area within a relict permafrost region on the east edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Measurements from July 2015 to September 2016 showed that the mean annual ecosystem CO2 emissions for the boundary area were greater than the permafrost area. The Q10 value of the ERRs in the seasonally frozen ground area was greater than the permafrost area, indicating that the carbon emissions in the nonpermafrost areas were more sensitive to warming. The 1 year open-top chamber (OTC) warming increased soil temperatures in both the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas throughout the year, and the warming increased the ERRs by 1.18 (0.99-1.38, with interquartile range) and 1.13 (0.75-1.54, with interquartile range) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas, respectively. The OTC warming increased annual ERRs by approximately 50% for both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas with half the increase occurring during the nongrowing seasons. These results suggest that the ERRs in relict permafrost are high in comparison with arctic regions, and the carbon balance in relict permafrost areas could be greatly changed by climate warming.

  15. On a problematic procedure to manipulate response biases in recognition experiments: the case of "implied" base rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröder, Arndt; Malejka, Simone

    2017-07-01

    The experimental manipulation of response biases in recognition-memory tests is an important means for testing recognition models and for estimating their parameters. The textbook manipulations for binary-response formats either vary the payoff scheme or the base rate of targets in the recognition test, with the latter being the more frequently applied procedure. However, some published studies reverted to implying different base rates by instruction rather than actually changing them. Aside from unnecessarily deceiving participants, this procedure may lead to cognitive conflicts that prompt response strategies unknown to the experimenter. To test our objection, implied base rates were compared to actual base rates in a recognition experiment followed by a post-experimental interview to assess participants' response strategies. The behavioural data show that recognition-memory performance was estimated to be lower in the implied base-rate condition. The interview data demonstrate that participants used various second-order response strategies that jeopardise the interpretability of the recognition data. We thus advice researchers against substituting actual base rates with implied base rates.

  16. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Response surface modeling for optimization heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of persistence organic pollution in high total dissolved solid containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P; Gupta, V K; Anandan, C

    2014-01-01

    The rice-husk-based mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) used in this study was precarbonized and activated using phosphoric acid. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (29)Si-NMR spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the MAC. The tannery wastewater carrying high total dissolved solids (TDS) discharged from leather industry lacks biodegradability despite the presence of dissolved protein. This paper demonstrates the application of free electron-rich MAC as heterogeneous catalyst along with Fenton reagent for the oxidation of persistence organic compounds in high TDS wastewater. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of the pretreated wastewater at optimum pH (3.5), H2O2 (4 mmol/L), FeSO4[Symbol: see text]7H2O (0.2 mmol/L), and time (4 h) removed chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and dissolved protein by 86, 91, 83, and 90%, respectively.

  18. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major): body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C.; Van Oers, K.

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  20. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major) : body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C; van Oers, K

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  1. Gamma Low-Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation Stimulates Adaptive Functional and Molecular Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells in a Threshold-, Dose-, and Dose Rate-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dias, Juliana; Gloaguen, Celine; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Manens, Line; Tack, Karine; Ebrahimian, Teni G

    2018-01-01

    A central question in radiation protection research is whether low-dose and low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures to ionizing radiation play a role in progression of cardiovascular disease. The response of endothelial cells to different LDR exposures may help estimate risk of cardiovascular disease by providing the biological mechanism involved. We investigated the effect of chronic LDR radiation on functional and molecular responses of human aorta endothelial cells (HAoECs). Human aorta endothelial cells were continuously irradiated at LDR (6 mGy/h) for 15 days and analyzed at time points when the cumulative dose reached 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. The same doses were administered acutely at high-dose rate (HDR; 1 Gy/min). The threshold for the loss of angiogenic capacity for both LDR and HDR radiations was between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. At 2.0 Gy, angiogenic capacity returned to normal only for HAoEC exposed to LDR radiation, associated with increased expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. Pre-LDR, but not pre-HDR, radiation, followed by a single acute 2.0 Gy challenge dose sustained the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes and stimulated angiogenesis. Our results suggest that dose rate is important in cellular response and that a radioadaptive response is involved for a 2.0 Gy dose at LDR.

  2. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  3. Intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine alters the intraoperative haemodynamic responses and heart rate variability in male cats undergoing castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldal, E.R.; Eriksen, T.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Nødtvedt, A.; Kristensen, A.T.; Sparta, F.M.; Haga, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine in alleviating the intraoperative nociceptive response to castration, measured by pulse rate (PR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and to test the applicability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in

  4. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  5. A model for inverse dose-rate effects - low dose-rate hyper-sensibility in response to targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, I.; Mather, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model of cell survival, developed for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), could be extended to targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) in order to predict dose-response relationships in a cell line exhibiting low dose hypersensitivity (LDH). Methods: aliquots of the PC-3 cancer cell line were treated with either EBRT or an in-vitro model of TRT (Irradiation of cell culture with Y-90 EDTA over 24, 48, 72 or 96 hours). Dosimetry for the TRT was calculated using radiation transport simulations with the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Clonogenic as well as functional biological assays were used to assess cell response. An extension of the LQ model was developed which incorporated a dose-rate threshold for activation of repair mechanisms. Results: accurate dosimetry for in-vitro exposures of cell cultures to radioactivity was established. LQ parameters of cell survival were established for the PC-3 cell line in response to EBRT. The standard LQ model did not predict survival in PC-3 cells exposed to Y 90 irradiation over periods of up to 96 hours. In fact cells were more sensitive to the same dose when irradiation was carried out over 96 hours than 24 hours. I.e. at a lower dose-rate. Deviations from the LQ predictions were most pronounced below a threshold dose-rate of 0.5 Gy/hr. These results led to an extension of the LQ model based upon a dose-rate dependent sigmoid model of single strand DNA repair. This extension to the model resulted in predicted cell survival curves that closely matched the experimental data. Conclusion: the LQ model of cell survival to radiation has been shown to be largely predictive of response to low dose-rate irradiation. However, in cells displaying LDH, further adaptation of the model was required. (authors)

  6. Modelling strategic interventions in a population with a total fertility rate of 8.3: a cross-sectional study of Idjwi Island, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Dana R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idjwi, an island of approximately 220,000 people, is located in eastern DRC and functions semi-autonomously under the governance of two kings (mwamis. At more than 8 live births per woman, Idjwi has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFRs in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable. Methods At the invitation of local leaders, we conducted a representative survey of 2,078 households in accordance with MEASURE DHS protocols, and performed ethnographic interviews and focus groups with key informants and vulnerable subpopulations. Modelling proximate determinates of fertility, we evaluated how the introduction of contraceptives and/or extended periods of breastfeeding could reduce the TFR. Results Over half of all women reported an unmet need for spacing or limiting births, and nearly 70% named a specific modern method of contraception they would prefer to use; pills (25.4% and injectables (26.5% were most desired. We predicted that an increased length of breastfeeding (from 10 to 21 months or an increase in contraceptive prevalence (from 1% to 30%, or a combination of both could reduce TFR on Idjwi to 6, the average desired number of children. Increasing contraceptive prevalence to 15% could reduce unmet need for contraception by 8%. Conclusions To meet women’s need and desire for fertility control, we recommend adding family planning services at health centers with NGO support, pursuing a community health worker program, promoting extended breastfeeding, and implementing programs to end sexual- and gender-based violence toward women.

  7. Patient-Reported Outcomes, Quality of Life, and Satisfaction Rates in Young Patients Aged 50 Years or Younger After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Graham Seow-Hng; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Tay, Darren Keng-Jin; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Yeo, Seng-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown a discrepancy between traditional functional outcomes and patient satisfaction, with some reporting less than 85% satisfaction in older patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). As native knee biomechanics are not completely replicated, the resulting functional limitations may cause dissatisfaction in higher-demand individuals. Few studies have recorded patient-reported outcomes, health-related quality of life scores, and patient satisfaction in a young population undergoing TKA. One hundred thirty-six primary TKAs were performed in 114 patients aged 50 years or younger (mean age, 47.0 years; range, 30-50 years) at a single institution. The main diagnoses were osteoarthritis (85%) and rheumatoid arthritis (10%). The range of motion, Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and Physical and Mental Component Scores of Short Form-36 increased significantly (P patients had good/excellent knee scores, 71.3% had good/excellent function scores, 94.9% met the minimal clinically important difference for the Oxford Knee Score, and 84.6% met the minimal clinically important difference for the Physical Component Score. We found that 88.8% of patients were satisfied with their surgeries, whereas 86.8% had their expectations fulfilled. Survivorship using revision as an end point was 97.8% at a mean of 7 years (range, 3-16 years). Patients aged 50 years or younger undergoing TKA can experience significant improvements in their quality of life, have their expectations met, and be satisfied with their surgeries, at rates similar to those of non-age-restricted populations. Surgeons should inform them of these benefits and the potential risk of revision surgery in the future, albeit increasingly shown to be low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION VS. SOCIAL POLITICS: AN ASSESSMENT WITH REGARD TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Sozer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of business administration has close relations with the disciplines of economics, law, behavioral sciences, statistics and mathematics. The manager of an enterprise should not only manage the sources of capital securing the maximum profit, but also he/she should have knowledge on how to manage the people working for the enterprise (workers and other personnel. Social politics is the discipline which analyses the human relations arising from economic affairs. Thus the main concern of this discipline is the influence of economics on human beings and society as well as the social problems arising from economic affairs. The aim is the general harmony between all the segments of the society, i.e. creation and maintenance of social balance. Globalization has shown its effects also on the existing disciplines. For instance business administration has adopted the concept of social responsibility enlarging its field of interest. As a result of this enlargement, social politics and social responsibility have largely corresponded to each other in terms of scope. However this correspondence is valid only for partners, but not for actors and instruments involved.

  9. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing responses to different external portable drivers in a patient with a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Vincenzo; Braccioni, Fausto; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Buratto, Edward; Gallo, Michele; Bottio, Tomaso; Vianello, Andrea; Gerosa, Gino

    2016-06-01

    Management of patients treated with CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (CW-TAH) as a bridge to heart transplantation (HTx) is complicated by difficulties in determining the optimal timing of transplantation. We present a case of a 53-year-old man supported as an outpatient with a CW-TAH, whose condition deteriorated following exchange of the portable driver. The patient was followed-up with serial cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which demonstrated a fall of peak VO2 to below 12 ml/kg/min following driver substitution, and the patient was subsequently treated with urgent orthotopic HTx. This case highlights the potential utility of CPET as a means for monitoring and indicating timing of HTx in patients with CW-TAH, as well as the potential for clinical deterioration following portable driver substitution.

  10. Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Heldrup, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.......To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course....

  11. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.M.M.; Huque, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  12. Enhanced response rates in pancreatic cancer with concurrent continuous infusion(CI) low dose chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronn, Donald G.; Franklin, Roman; Krishnan, Rajan S.; Richardson, Ralph W.; Conlin, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer are not offered any therapeutic intervention other than surgical bypass due to very poor prognosis, poor patient tolerance to current therapeutic regimens, and a dismal tumor response to therapy. In view of these circumstances, an acceptable treatment regimen for pancreatic cancer must first demonstrate an ability to obtain a rapid tumor response with a regimen that will be well tolerated enabling the patient to maintain a good quality of life with full ambulatory status. Materials and Methods: Nine unresectable pancreatic cancer patients ((4(9)) had liver metastases) with an average age of 62 (range: 41-79) were treated with a concurrent regimen consisting of 5-Fluorouracil (CI 200-250 mg/m 2 /24 hrs) and Cisplatin (CI 5mg/24 hrs: 2 weeks on, 1 week off) given simultaneously with 3-D planned BID hyperfractionated radiotherapy to the pancreas (5940 cGy/66 fractions/6.5 weeks), and whole liver (1980 cGy/22 fractions/2 weeks), plus additional dose to the partial liver in metastatic disease. Continuous infusion combination chemotherapy was continued alone after radiotherapy for a total of six months. Chemotherapy was delivered by dual light weight portable external pumps. Hyperalimentation was used as needed to maintain nutritional status and warfarin thromboembolic prophylaxis was also utilized. Tumor response was monitored by monthly abdominal CAT scans, serum markers (CEA, CA 19-9), weight gain, and symptomatology. Full radiographic resolution of tumor mass was considered to be a complete response (CR), whereas 50% or greater radiographic decrease in size was considered a partial response (PR). Evaluation was done by independent diagnostic radiologists. Results: CR and PR of the pancreatic mass was achieved in 88% of all patients ((8(9))). CR was achieved in 44% of all patients ((4(9))). Patients with liver metastases exhibited 75% ((3(4))) PR in liver masses and either CR or PR in the primary site. All

  13. IMMUNOMETABOLIC RESPONSES AFTER SHORT AND MODERATE REST INTERVALS TO STRENGTH EXERCISE WITH AND WITHOUT SIMILAR TOTAL VOLUME.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Agostinete

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of short and moderate intervals of recovery with and without equated volume during an acute bout exhaustive strength exercise on metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory responses in healthy adults. Eight physically active men (23.5 ±3.1 performed three randomized sequences: Short (70% of 1RM with 30 seconds of rest; Moderate (70% of 1RM with 90 seconds of rest; and Volume-Equated Short (70% of 1 RM with 30 seconds of rest between sets with a repetition volume equal to that performed in Moderate. All sequences of exercises were performed until movement failure in the squat, bench press and T-bar row exercises, respectively. Glucose, lactate, testosterone, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and MCP-1 levels were assessed at rest, immediate post-exercise, and 1 hour post. There was a main effect of time for testosterone (p<0.001. The post hoc indicated differences between post-exercise and rest and post-1 hour and post-exercise (p<0.001. Lactate increased post-exercise when compared to pre and post-1 hour (p<0.001 and maintained higher post-1 hour in relation to rest. IL-6 was greater post-exercise than rest (p= 0.045 and post-1 hour and rest (p= 0.020. IL-10 was greater post-exercise (p= 0.007 and post-1 hour (p=0.002 than rest. IL-1ra increased post-exercise in relation to rest (p=0.003 and MCP-1 was greater post-exercise than rest (p<0.001 and post-1 hour (p=0.043. There were no significant differences between conditions or interaction. Thus, both short and moderate intervals of recovery induced greater metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory responses after acute bout of exhaustive strength exercise in healthy adult.

  14. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  15. Win some, lose some: parental hypertension and heart rate change in an incentive versus response cost paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Johnson, C A; Hotchkiss, A P; Kraemer, D L

    1986-11-01

    Fowles (1983), citing evidence from separate studies, suggests that both incentive and response cost paradigms increase heart rate and should be subsumed under Gray's (1975) 'appetitive motivational system'. Shock avoidance and loss of reward (response cost) contingencies, while aversive, appear to evoke this motivational system; consequently both should elicit heart rate increases independent of anxiety. The present investigation compared magnitude of heart rate changes observed under conditions of winning and losing money. Results showed: no differences between incentive and response cost conditions; no effect of state anxiety on heart rate in these conditions, despite an elevation of state anxiety on the task day relative to a subsequent relaxation day assessment; and some evidence for the presence under both such appetitive conditions of cardiovascular hyperresponsivity among offspring of hypertensive parents. The results suggest a need for systematic parametric studies of experimental conditions.

  16. The responses of net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage for the continental United States to changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate, and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, D.A. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We extrapolated 3 biogeochemistry models (BIOME-BGC, CENTURY, and TEM) across the continental US with the vegetation distributions of 3 biogeography models (BIOME2, DOLY, and MAPSS) for contemporary climate at 355 ppmv CO{sub 2} and each of 3 GCM climate scenarios at 710 ppmv. For contemporary conditions, continental NPP range