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Sample records for total response rate

  1. Utilizing the Total Design Method in medicine: maximizing response rates in long, non-incentivized, personal questionnaire postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Haggie, Rebecca; Forouhi, Parto; Kazzazi, Nazar; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Maximizing response rates in questionnaires can improve their validity and quality by reducing non-response bias. A comprehensive analysis is essential for producing reasonable conclusions in patient-reported outcome research particularly for topics of a sensitive nature. This often makes long (≥7 pages) questionnaires necessary but these have been shown to reduce response rates in mail surveys. Our work adapted the "Total Design Method," initially produced for commercial markets, to raise response rates in a long (total: 11 pages, 116 questions), non-incentivized, very personal postal survey sent to almost 350 women. A total of 346 women who had undergone mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 2008-2014 (inclusive) at Addenbrooke's University Hospital were sent our study pack (Breast-Q satisfaction questionnaire and support documents) using our modified "Total Design Method." Participants were sent packs and reminders according to our designed schedule. Of the 346 participants, we received 258 responses, an overall response rate of 74.5% with a useable response rate of 72.3%. One hundred and six responses were received before the week 1 reminder (30.6%), 120 before week 3 (34.6%), 225 before the week 7 reminder (64.6%) and the remainder within 3 weeks of the final pack being sent. The median age of patients that the survey was sent to, and the median age of the respondents, was 54 years. In this study, we have demonstrated the successful implementation of a novel approach to postal surveys. Despite the length of the questionnaire (nine pages, 116 questions) and limitations of expenses to mail a survey to ~350 women, we were able to attain a response rate of 74.6%.

  2. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  3. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  4. Dependence of total dose response of bipolar linear microcircuits on applied dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, S.; Will, W.; Perry, G.; Pease, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dose rate on the total dose radiation hardness of three commercial bipolar linear microcircuits is investigated. Total dose tests of linear bipolar microcircuits show larger degradation at 0.167 rad/s than at 90 rad/s even after the high dose rate test is followed by a room temperature plus a 100 C anneal. No systematic correlation could be found for degradation at low dose rate versus high dose rate and anneal. Comparison of the low dose rate with the high dose rate anneal data indicates that MIL-STD-883, method 1019.4 is not a worst-case test method when applied to bipolar microcircuits for low dose rate space applications

  5. Water cut measurement of oil–water flow in vertical well by combining total flow rate and the response of a conductance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a conductance probe-based well logging instrument was developed and the total flow rate is combined with the response of the conductance probe to estimate the water cut of the oil–water flow in a vertical well. The conductance probe records the time-varying electrical characteristics of the oil–water flow. Linear least squares regression (LSR) and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) were used to establish models to map the total flow rate and features extracted from the probe response onto the water cut, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares analysis (PLSA) techniques were employed to reduce data redundancy within the extracted features. An experiment was carried out in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 125 mm and a height of 24 m in an experimental multi-phase flow setup, Daqing Oilfield, China. In the experiment, oil–water flow was used and the total flow rate varied from 10 to 200 m 3 per day and the water cut varied from 0% to 100%. As a direct comparison, the cases were also studied when the total flow rate was not used as an independent input to the models. The results obtained demonstrate that: (1) the addition of the total flow rate as an input to the regression models can greatly improve the accuracy of water cut prediction, (2) the nonlinear SVR model performs much better than the linear LSR model, and (3) for the SVR model with the total flow rate as an input, the adoption of PCA or PLSA not only decreases the dimensions of inputs, but also increases prediction accuracy. The SVR model with five PCA-treated features plus the total flow rate achieves the best performance in water cut prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) as high as 0.9970. The corresponding root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean quoted error (MQE) are 0.0312% and 1.99%, respectively. (paper)

  6. Theoretic simulation for CMOS device on total dose radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Baoping; Zhou Heqin; Guo Hongxia; He Chaohui; Zhou Hui; Luo Yinhong; Zhang Fengqi

    2006-01-01

    Total dose effect is simulated for C4007B, CC4007RH and CC4011 devices at different absorbed dose rate by using linear system theory. When irradiation response and dose are linear, total dose radiation and post-irradiation annealing at room temperature are determined for one random by choosing absorbed dose rate, and total dose effect at other absorbed dose rate can be predicted by using linear system theory. The simulating results agree with the experimental results at different absorbed dose rate. (authors)

  7. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  8. Maximising nurses' and midwives' response rates to surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alannah Louise; Brown, Janie

    2017-12-18

    Low response rates to surveys have been a long-standing issue in research. This includes research involving nurses and midwives. To gain representative samples, appropriate measures to maximise response rates need to be used. To explore ways to maximise response rates from nurses and midwives, using a hospital-wide survey as an example. All nurses and midwives at the study hospital were invited to participate in a survey. To encourage participation and elicit an adequate response rate, several strategies were used. A total of 1,000 surveys were distributed and 319 (32%) were returned. All the required age groups, levels of experience and types of nursing registration were represented in the responses and data saturation was achieved. It is important to pay attention to obtaining a representative sample. Further investigation of response rates to surveys by nurses and midwives is warranted. Strategies to maximise response rates from a target population should be used when conducting surveys. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  9. Low-dose-rate total lymphoid irradiation: a new method of rapid immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.; de Silva, S.M.; Rachman, D.B.; Order, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) has been successful in inducing immunosuppression in experimental and clinical applications. However, both the experimental and clinical utility of TLI are hampered by the prolonged treatment courses required (23 days in rats and 30-60 days in humans). Low-dose-rate TLI has the potential of reducing overall treatment time while achieving comparable immunosuppression. This study examines the immunosuppressive activity and treatment toxicity of conventional-dose-rate (23 days) vs low-dose-rate (2-7 days) TLI. Seven groups of Lewis rats were given TLI with 60Co. One group was treated at conventional-dose-rates (80-110 cGy/min) and received 3400 cGy in 17 fractions over 23 days. Six groups were treated at low-dose-rate (7 cGy/min) and received total doses of 800, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3000, and 3400 cGy over 2-7 days. Rats treated at conventional-dose-rates over 23 days and at low-dose-rate over 2-7 days tolerated radiation with minimal toxicity. The level of immunosuppression was tested using allogeneic (Brown-Norway) skin graft survival. Control animals retained allogeneic skin grafts for a mean of 14 days (range 8-21 days). Conventional-dose-rate treated animals (3400 cGy in 23 days) kept their grafts 60 days (range 50-66 days) (p less than .001). Low-dose-rate treated rats (800 to 3400 cGy total dose over 2-7 days) also had prolongation of allogeneic graft survival times following TLI with a dose-response curve established. The graft survival time for the 3400 cGy low-dose-rate group (66 days, range 52-78 days) was not significantly different from the 3400 cGy conventional-dose-rate group (p less than 0.10). When the total dose given was equivalent, low-dose-rate TLI demonstrated an advantage of reduced overall treatment time compared to conventional-dose-rate TLI (7 days vs. 23 days) with no increase in toxicity

  10. Reducing questionnaire length did not improve physician response rate: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Eva E; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of reducing questionnaire length on the response rate in a physician survey. A postal four double-page questionnaire on end-of-life decision making was sent to a random sample of 1,100 general practitioners, 400 elderly care physicians, and 500 medical specialists. Another random sample of 500 medical specialists received a shorter questionnaire of two double pages. After 3 months and one reminder, all nonresponding physicians received an even shorter questionnaire of one double page. Total response was 64% (1,456 of 2,269 eligible respondents). Response rate of medical specialists for the four double-page questionnaire was equal to that of the two double-page questionnaire (190 and 191 questionnaires were returned, respectively). The total response rate increased from 53% to 64% after sending a short one double-page questionnaire (1,203-1,456 respondents). The results of our study suggest that reducing the length of a long questionnaire in a physician survey does not necessarily improve response rate. To improve response rate and gather more information, researchers could decide to send a drastically shortened version of the questionnaire to nonresponders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative analysis of biological responses to low dose-rate γ-radiation, including dose, irradiation time, and dose-rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Because biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose, it is necessary to include dose, dose-rate and irradiation time simultaneously to predict the risk of low dose-rate irradiation. In this study, we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, irradiation time and dose-rate, using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells. For evaluation of chromosome breakage we assessed micronuclei induced by radiation. U2OS cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were exposed to gamma-ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60 Co. After the irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide, and the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was determined by fluorescent microscopy. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and [3H] thymidine was pulsed for 4 h before harvesting. Dose-rate in the irradiation room was measured with photoluminescence dosimeter. While irradiation time less than 24 h did not affect dose-response curves for both biological responses, they were remarkably attenuated as exposure time increased to more than 7 days. These biological responses were dependent on dose-rate rather than dose when cells were irradiated for 30 days. Moreover, percentage of micronucleus-forming cells cultured continuously for more than 60 days at the constant dose-rate, was gradually decreased in spite of the total dose accumulation. These results suggest that biological responses at low dose-rate, are remarkably affected by exposure time, that they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in the case of long-term irradiation, and that cells are getting resistant to radiation after the continuous irradiation for 2 months. It is necessary to include effect of irradiation time and dose-rate sufficiently to evaluate risk

  12. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  13. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  14. Implementation of total responsibility management into corporate strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gorenak, Štefka; Bobek, Vito

    2012-01-01

    This contribution reports about relationship and potential synergies between the total quality management (TQM) and total responsibility management (TRM) as well as corporate citizenship. TRM principles and standards reflect the raising public expectations about corporate social responsibility. Many companies develop TRM as requisitely holistically and hence successfully manage their responsibilities toward their stakeholders and natural environment. The evolution and implementation of TRM in...

  15. Airborne and total gamma absorbed dose rates at Patiala - India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfaye, Tilahun; Sahota, H.S.; Singh, K.

    1999-01-01

    The external gamma absorbed dose rate due to gamma rays originating from gamma emitting aerosols in air, is compared with the total external gamma absorbed dose rate at the Physics Department of Punjabi University, Patiala. It has been found out that the contribution, to the total external gamma absorbed dose rate, of radionuclides on particulate matter suspended in air is about 20% of the overall gamma absorbed dose rate. (author)

  16. An Analysis of Total Lightning Flash Rates Over Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Thomas O.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    2017-12-01

    Although Florida is known as the "Sunshine State", it also contains the greatest lightning flash densities in the United States. Flash density has received considerable attention in the literature, but lightning flash rate has received much less attention. We use data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) to produce a 5 year (2010-2014) set of statistics regarding total flash rates over Florida and adjacent regions. Instead of tracking individual storms, we superimpose a 0.2° × 0.2° grid over the study region and count both cloud-to-ground (CG) and in-cloud (IC) flashes over 5 min intervals. Results show that the distribution of total flash rates is highly skewed toward small values, whereas the greatest rate is 185 flashes min-1. Greatest average annual flash rates ( 3 flashes min-1) are located near Orlando. The southernmost peninsula, North Florida, and the Florida Panhandle exhibit smaller average annual flash rates ( 1.5 flashes min-1). Large flash rates > 100 flashes min-1 can occur during any season, at any time during the 24 h period, and at any location within the domain. However, they are most likely during the afternoon and early evening in East Central Florida during the spring and summer months.

  17. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  18. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  19. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkaer, D.M.; Dey, D.B.; Heron, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm/sup -2/sub((DNA)) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm/sup -2/sub((DNA)). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation.

  20. Quantitative estimation of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in neuroblastoma. Usefulness of the total body retention rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio; Ushijima, Yo; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nishimura, Tunehiko

    2000-01-01

    A new method of easily and simply quantifying 123 I-MIBG accumulation as a criterion for curative effect of chemotherapy in infants with neuroblastoma was developed. This method uses the data from two images: an early image (at 5-7.5 hr) and a delayed image (at 25-32 hr). Twenty infants with untreated neuroblastoma which showed clear accumulation of 123 I-MIBG at the primary site were examined. The differences between the accumulation counts on the early image and the delayed image showed that washout of 123 I-MIBG in the neuroblastomas was delayed in tumor regions. This finding indicated that the total body 123 I-MIBG retention rate reflects the total volume of the neuroblastoma. The 123 I-MIBG retention rate was significantly higher in patients with advanced stage neuroblastoma with systemic metastases, and there was a good correlation between the retention rate and tumor markers (VMA and HVA values in urine). The response to chemotherapy paralleled the change in markers. These results suggested that the total body 123 I-MIBG retention rate is useful as a criterion for curative effect in advanced neuroblastoma. (K.H.)

  1. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  2. Sex differences in obesity associated with total fertility rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brooks

    Full Text Available The identification of biological and ecological factors that contribute to obesity may help in combating the spreading obesity crisis. Sex differences in obesity rates are particularly poorly understood. Here we show that the strong female bias in obesity in many countries is associated with high total fertility rate, which is well known to be correlated with factors such as low average income, infant mortality and female education. We also document effects of reduced access to contraception and increased inequality of income among households on obesity rates. These results are consistent with studies that implicate reproduction as a risk factor for obesity in women and that suggest the effects of reproduction interact with socioeconomic and educational factors. We discuss our results in the light of recent research in dietary ecology and the suggestion that insulin resistance during pregnancy is due to historic adaptation to protect the developing foetus during famine. Increased access to contraception and education in countries with high total fertility rate might have the additional benefit of reducing the rates of obesity in women.

  3. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize extraction of total triterpene acids from loquat leaf and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant activities. Methods: The independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction time, and solvent ratio, while the dependent variable was content of total triterpene acids. Composite design and response ...

  5. Mathematical model for evaluation of dose-rate effect on biological responses to low dose γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose, dose-rate and irradiation time. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and [ 3 H] thymidine uptake in human cells as indices of biological response to gamma radiation, and analyzed mathematically and statistically the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/low dose-rate. Effective dose (ED x ) was mathematically estimated by fitting a general function of logistic model to the dose-response relationship. Assuming that biological response depends on not only cumulative dose but also dose-rate and irradiation time, a multiple logistic function was applied to express the relationship of the three variables. Moreover, to estimate the effect of radiation at very low dose, we proposed a modified exponential model. From the results of fitting curves to the inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, it was obvious that ED 50 in proportion of inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake increased with longer irradiation time. As for the micronuclei, ED 30 also increased with longer irradiation times. These results suggest that the biological response depends on not only total dose but also irradiation time. The estimated response surface using the three variables showed that the biological response declined sharply when the dose-rate was less than 0.01 Gy/h. These results suggest that the response does not depend on total cumulative dose at very low dose-rates. Further, to investigate the effect of dose-rate within a wider range, we analyzed the relationship between ED x and dose-rate. Fitted curves indicated that ED x increased sharply when dose-rate was less than 10 -2 Gy/h. The increase of ED x signifies the decline of the response or the risk and suggests that the risk approaches to 0 at infinitely low dose-rate

  6. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    to both mixed modes. The total cost of the online survey was 38% lower than simultaneous mixed mode and 22% lower than sequential mixed mode. The cost of the sequential mixed mode was 14% lower than simultaneous mixed mode. Compared to the online mode, the sequential mixed mode was the most cost-effective, although exhibiting some evidence of response bias. Conclusions Decisions on which survey mode to use depend on response rates, response bias, item non-response and costs. The sequential mixed mode appears to be the most cost-effective mode of survey administration for surveys of the population of doctors, if one is prepared to accept a degree of response bias. Online surveys are not yet suitable to be used exclusively for surveys of the doctor population.

  7. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  8. Immunological Responses to Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kenny; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Foster, Richard; Yang, Xuebin B

    2017-08-01

    The use of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has been continuously rising to meet the demands of the increasingly ageing population. To date, this procedure has been highly successful in relieving pain and restoring the functionality of patients' joints, and has significantly improved their quality of life. However, these implants are expected to eventually fail after 15-25 years in situ due to slow progressive inflammatory responses at the bone-implant interface. Such inflammatory responses are primarily mediated by immune cells such as macrophages, triggered by implant wear particles. As a result, aseptic loosening is the main cause for revision surgery over the mid and long-term and is responsible for more than 70% of hip revisions. In some patients with a metal-on-metal (MoM) implant, metallic implant wear particles can give rise to metal sensitivity. Therefore, engineering biomaterials, which are immunologically inert or support the healing process, require an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound-healing response to implanted materials. This review discusses the immunological response initiated by biomaterials extensively used in THA, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), cobalt chromium (CoCr), and alumina ceramics. The biological responses of these biomaterials in bulk and particulate forms are also discussed. In conclusion, the immunological responses to bulk and particulate biomaterials vary greatly depending on the implant material types, the size of particulate and its volume, and where the response to bulk forms of differing biomaterials are relatively acute and similar, while wear particles can initiate a variety of responses such as osteolysis, metal sensitivity, and so on.

  9. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  10. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  11. Effects of various methodologic strategies: survey response rates among Canadian physicians and physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava-Gubins, Inese; Scott, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    To increase the overall 2007 response rate of the National Physician Survey (NPS) from the survey's 2004 rate of response with the implementation of various methodologic strategies. Physicians were stratified to receive either a long version (12 pages) or a short version (6 pages) of the survey (38% and 62%, respectively). Mixed modes of contact were used-58% were contacted by e-mail and 42% by regular mail-with multiple modes of contact attempted for nonrespondents. The self-administered, confidential surveys were distributed in either English or French. Medical residents and students received e-mail surveys only and were offered a substantial monetary lottery incentive for completing their surveys. A professional communications firm assisted in marketing the survey and delivered advance notification of its impending distribution. Canada. A total of 62 441 practising physicians, 2627 second-year medical residents, and 9162 medical students in Canada. Of the practising physicians group, 60 811 participants were eligible and 19 239 replied, for an overall 2007 study response rate of 31.64% (compared with 35.85% in 2004). No difference in rate of response was found between the longer and shorter versions of the survey. If contacted by regular mail, the response rate was 34.1%; the e-mail group had a response rate of 29.9%. Medical student and resident response rates were 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively (compared with 31.2% and 35.6% in 2004). Despite shortening the questionnaires, contacting more physicians by e-mail, and enhancing marketing and follow-up, the 2007 NPS response rate for practising physicians did not surpass the 2004 NPS response rate. Offering a monetary lottery incentive to medical residents and students was also unsuccessful in increasing their response rates. The role of surveys in gathering information from physicians and physicians-in-training remains problematic. Researchers need to investigate alternative strategies for achieving higher rates of

  12. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa; Kempfner, Jacob; Gammeltoft, Steen; Sorensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that hypocretin-1 may influence the cerebral control of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed whether hypocretin-1 deficiency in narcolepsy patients may result in a reduced heart rate response. We analyzed the heart rate response during various sleep stages from a 1-night polysomnography in patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. The narcolepsy group was subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 67 narcolepsy patients and 22 control subjects were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 46 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency in 38 patients. None. All patients with narcolepsy had a significantly reduced heart rate response associated with arousals and leg movements (P hypocretin-1 deficiency and cataplexy groups compared with patients with normal hypocretin-1 levels (P hypocretin-1 deficiency significantly predicted the heart rate response associated with arousals in both REM and non-REM in a multivariate linear regression. Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest.

  13. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  14. The contribution of staff call light response time to fall and injurious fall rates: an exploratory study in four US hospitals using archived hospital data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Huey-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention programs for hospitalized patients have had limited success, and the effect of programs on decreasing total falls and fall-related injuries is still inconclusive. This exploratory multi-hospital study examined the unique contribution of call light response time to predicting total fall rates and injurious fall rates in inpatient acute care settings. The conceptual model was based on Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and health-care outcomes. The covariates included the hospital, unit type, total nursing hours per patient-day (HPPDs, percentage of the total nursing HPPDs supplied by registered nurses, percentage of patients aged 65 years or older, average case mix index, percentage of patients with altered mental status, percentage of patients with hearing problems, and call light use rate per patient-day. Methods We analyzed data from 28 units from 4 Michigan hospitals, using archived data and chart reviews from January 2004 to May 2009. The patient care unit-month, defined as data aggregated by month for each patient care unit, was the unit of analysis (N = 1063. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used. Results Faster call light response time was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. Units with a higher call light use rate had lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of productive nursing hours provided by registered nurses was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of patients with altered mental status was associated with a higher total fall rate but not a higher injurious fall rate. Units with a higher percentage of patients aged 65 years or older had lower injurious fall rates. Conclusions Faster call light response time appeared to contribute to lower total fall and injurious fall rates, after controlling for the covariates. For practical relevance, hospital and nursing executives should consider

  15. Failure rate of cemented and uncemented total hip replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makela, K. T.; Matilainen, M.; Pulkkinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    ). Participants 347 899 total hip replacements performed during 1995-2011. Main outcome measures Probability of implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis) along with implant survival with revision for any reason as endpoint (Cox multiple regression) adjusted for age, sex, and diagnosis in age groups 55-64, 65......Objective To assess the failure rate of cemented, uncemented, hybrid, and reverse hybrid total hip replacements in patients aged 55 years or older. Design Register study. Setting Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database (combined data from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland......-74, and 75 years or older. Results The proportion of total hip replacements using uncemented implants increased rapidly towards the end of the study period. The 10 year survival of cemented implants in patients aged 65 to 74 and 75 or older (93.8%, 95% confidence interval 93.6% to 94.0% and 95.9%, 95...

  16. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  17. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  18. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Edwards, Teresa

    2012-03-07

    Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. © 2011 Viera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  20. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-11-11

    Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p total peroxide level and mean oxidative stress index were higher (all p total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  1. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  2. Atmospheric Responses from Radiosonde Observations of the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Responses from Radiosonde Observations project during the August 21st, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse was to observe the atmospheric response under the shadow of the Moon using both research and operational earth science instruments run primarily by undergraduate students not formally trained in atmospheric science. During the eclipse, approximately 15 teams across the path of totality launched radiosonde balloon platforms in very rapid, serial sonde deployment. Our strategy was to combine a dense ground observation network with multiple radiosonde sites, located within and along the margins of the path of totality. This can demonstrate how dense observation networks leveraged among various programs can "fill the gaps" in data sparse regions allowing research ideas and questions that previously could not be approached with courser resolution data and improving the scientific understanding and prediction of geophysical and hazardous phenomenon. The core scientific objectives are (1) to make high-resolution surface and upper air observations in several sites along the eclipse path (2) to quantitatively study atmospheric responses to the rapid disappearance of the Sun across the United States, and (3) to assess the performance of high-resolution weather forecasting models in simulating the observed response. Such a scientific campaign, especially unique during a total solar eclipse, provides a rare but life-altering opportunity to attract and enable next-generation of observational scientists. It was an ideal "laboratory" for graduate, undergraduate, citizen scientists and k-12 students and staff to learn, explore and research in STEM.

  3. Wenckebach upper rate response in single chamber pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S S

    2000-07-01

    The Medtronic Minix pacemaker during normal function in the VVT mode was found to exhibit a Wenckenbach upper rate response similar to that of dual chamber devices. This behavior occurred only when the upper rate interval was longer than the pacemaker refractory period. In a single chamber device this response may simulate pacemaker malfunction.

  4. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav Agarwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence that monetary incentives are effective in increasing survey response rates in the general population as well as with physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a monetary incentive intended for administrative assistants on the survey response rate of physicians in leadership positions. Methods This was an ancillary study to a national survey of chairs of academic Departments of Medicine in the United States about measuring faculty productivity. We randomized survey participants to receive or not receive a $5 gift card enclosed in the survey package. The cover letter explained that the gift card was intended for the administrative assistants as a “thank you for their time.” We compared the response rates between the 2 study arms using the Chi-square test. Results Out of 152 participants to whom survey packages were mailed to, a total of 78 responses were received (51 % response rate. The response rates were 59 % in the incentive arm and 46 % in the no incentive arm. The relative effect of the incentive compared to no monetary incentive was borderline statistically significant (relative risk (RR = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.99 to 1.87; p = 0.055. Conclusion Monetary incentives intended for administrative assistants likely increase the response rate of physicians in leadership positions.

  5. High bacterial contamination rate of electrocautery tips during total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Hussein; Zahar, Akos; Lausmann, Christian; Gehrke, Thorsten; Fickenscher, Helmut; Suero, Eduardo M; Gebauer, Matthias; Citak, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the bacterial contamination rate of electrocautery tips during primary total joint replacement (TJR), as well as during aseptic and septic revision TJR. A total of 150 electrocautery tips were collected between April and July 2017. TJR surgeries were divided into three groups: (1) primary, (2) aseptic and (3) septic revisions. In each group, a total of 50 electrocautery tips were collected. A monopolar electrocautery with a reusable stainless-steel blade tip was used in all cases. The rate of bacterial contamination was determined for all groups. Correlation of exposure time and type of surgery was analyzed. The overall bacterial contamination rate was 14.7% (95% CI 9.4 to 21.4%). The highest contamination rate occurred in the septic revision group (30.0%; 95% CI 17.9 to 44.6%), followed by the primary cases group (10.0%; 95% CI 3.3 to 21.8%) and the aseptic revision group (4.0%; 95% CI 0.5 to 13.7%). Exposure time did not affect the bacterial contamination rate. In 12 out of 15 (80%) contaminations identified in the septic group, we found the same causative microorganism of the prosthetic joint infection on the electrocautery tip. The bacterial contamination of the electrocautery tips is relatively high, especially during septic hip revision arthroplasty. Electrocautery tips should be changed after debridement of infected tissue.

  6. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  7. Dose rate and dose fractionation studies in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Schaffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) with 800-900 rads and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation according to the regimen designated by the Seattle group has induced remissions in patients with otherwise refractory acute leukemias. Relapse of leukemia after bone marrow transplantation remains the major problem, when the Seattle set up of two opposing 60 Co-sources and a low dose rate is used in TBI. Studies in dogs with TBI at various dose rates confirmed observations in mice that gastrointestinal toxicity is unlike toxicity against hemopoietic stem cells and possibly also leukemic stem cells depending on the dose rate. However, following very high single doses (2400 R) and marrow infusion acute gastrointestinal toxicity was not prevented by the lowest dose rate studied (0.5 R/min). Fractionated TBI with fractions of 600 R in addition to 1200 R (1000 rads) permitted the application of total doses up to 300 R followed by marrow infusion without irreversible toxicity. 26 dogs given 2400-3000 R have been observed for presently up to 2 years with regard to delayed radiation toxicity. This toxicity was mild in dogs given single doses at a low dose rate or fractionated TBI. Fractionated TBI is presently evaluated with allogeneic transplants in the dog before being applied to leukemic patients

  8. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifakiogullari Serpil

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Results Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p In subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis score was significantly correlated with total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05. Conclusion Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  9. Comparing 30-day all-cause readmission rates between tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; Ferrandino, Rocco M; Hoffman, Ryan; Ndu, Anthony; Shaffer, Gene W

    2018-01-12

    End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating condition that negatively impacts patient quality of life. Tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement are treatment options for managing ankle arthritis. Few studies have examined short term readmission rates of these two procedures. The objective of this study was compare all-cause 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing tibiotalar fusion vs. total ankle replacement. This study queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) from 2013-2014 and used international classification of disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) procedure codes to identify all patients who underwent a tibiotalar fusion or a total ankle replacement. Comorbidities, insurance status, hospital characteristics, and readmission rates were statistically compared between the two cohorts. Risk factors were then identified for 30-day readmission. A total of 5660 patients were analyzed with 2667 in the tibiotalar fusion cohort and 2993 in the total ankle replacement cohort. Univariate analysis revealed that the readmission rate after tibiotalar fusion (4.4%) was statistically greater than after total ankle replacement (1.4%). Multivariable regression analysis indicated that deficiency anemia (OR 2.18), coagulopathy (OR 3.51), renal failure (OR 2.83), other insurance relative to private (OR 3.40), and tibiotalar fusion (OR 2.51) were all statistically significant independent risk factors for having a readmission within 30-days. These findings suggest that during the short-term period following discharge from the hospital, patients who received a tibiotalar fusion are more likely to experience a 30-day readmission. These findings are important for decision making when a surgeon encounters a patient with end stage ankle arthritis. Level III, cohort study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Using "Total Physical Response" with Young Learners in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harrasi, Kothar Talib Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Among several approaches to teaching and learning a foreign language, Total Physical Response, or TPR, is one that simulates the way children naturally acquire their mother tongue. Instructors give commands to students in the new language, and students respond through gestures. This article showcases a language learning project that the Ministry…

  11. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  12. The impact of the total tax rate reduction on public services provided in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TRANDAFIR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic globalization, governments tend to take tax measures disadvantageous to society in order to increase the attractiveness of the business environment. A common measures for this purpose is the reduction in tax rate. According to the classical theory of tax competition such measure leads to under the provision of public goods. This article aims to show, through an econometric analysis, whether in Romania, in the period 2006-2013, reducing total tax rate had a negative impact on public services. For this, using linear regression technique, the article analysed the correlation between total tax rate and the variation in the share of the main public service spending in GDP.

  13. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery by Using Total Physical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrurrozi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe how Total Physical Response improves students' vocabulary learning outcomes at the third-grade elementary school Guntur 03 South Jakarta, Indonesia. This research was conducted in the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 with the number of students as many as 40 students. The method used in this research is a…

  14. Relationship Between Partial and Total Responses to Advertising with Application to U.S. Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Myrland, Oystein

    2002-01-01

    Buse’s concept of total response is extended to advertising effects. Results suggest that partial advertising elasticities overstate advertising’s ability to increase market demand. One implication is that advertising bans (e.g., for alcohol and tobacco) are apt to be less effective than indicated by partial advertising elasticities estimated from econometric models. Extending the concept of total response to price effects, the total advertising “flexibility” sets the lower bound on the optim...

  15. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  16. A note on total muon capture rates in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.

    1978-03-01

    The results of calculations of the total capture rates in heavy nuclei, into account the nucleon velocity-dependent terms in the Fujii-Primakoff Hamiltonian and the effective mass of nucleons inside the nucleus, are presented along with the recent experimental data. The results are in general agreement with experiment. However, they indicate a possible deviation from SU(4) symmetry and, in some nuclei, support the Salam-Strathdee idea of the vanishing of the Cabibbo angle at large magnetic fields.

  17. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL -1 (control), 50 BqL -1 and 100 BqL -1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh -1 , the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh -1 ) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  18. Nurses' responsibilities in postoperative pain management following total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Dumolard, Pierre; Gök, Mustafa; Le, Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is the replacement of a hip joint that has been severely damaged. The operation is recommended if other treatments have not responded adequately. As the nurses are the professionals who spend the most time with patients after the surgery, they play an important role in the patient’s pain management. The aim of the thesis is to define the nurse’s responsibilities in the care of total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze existing research, which may s...

  19. Pretreatment Red Blood Cell Total Folate Concentration Is Associated With Response to Pemetrexed in Stage IV Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L; Alley, Evan W; Cohen, Roger B; Langer, Corey J; Blair, Ian A; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2017-03-01

    Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Previous studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic, marker of cellular folate status was associated with the response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. The pretreatment RBC total folate level was quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We then compared the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations greater than and less than an optimal cutoff value determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab. The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and nonresponders. Patients with RBC total folate  364.5 nM (P = .01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.57; P = .01). A low pretreatment RBC total folate was associated with an inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  1. Pretreatment red blood cell total folate is associated with response to pemetrexed in stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J.; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L.; Alley, Evan W.; Cohen, Roger B.; Langer, Corey J.; Blair, Ian A.; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Prior studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic marker of cellular folate status, was associated with response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV non-squamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. Pretreatment RBC total folate was quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We then compared objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations above and below an optimal cut-off value determined from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab. Results The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). ROC analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and non-responders. Patients with RBC total folate below 364.5 nM had an ORR of 27%, compared to 71% in patients with RBC total folate above this value (p=0.01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.57, p=0.01). Conclusions Low pretreatment RBC total folate is associated with inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV non-squamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. PMID:27863923

  2. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  3. The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Mak, Tytus D.; Chen, Congju; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics has been shown to have utility in assessing responses to exposure by ionizing radiation (IR) in easily accessible biofluids such as urine. Most studies to date from our laboratory and others have employed γ-irradiation at relatively high dose rates (HDR), but many environmental exposure scenarios will probably be at relatively low dose rates (LDR). There are well-documented differences in the biologic responses to LDR compared to HDR, so an important question is to assess LDR effects at the metabolomics level. Our study took advantage of a modern mass spectrometry approach in exploring the effects of dose rate on the urinary excretion levels of metabolites 2 days after IR in mice. A wide variety of statistical tools were employed to further focus on metabolites, which showed responses to LDR IR exposure (0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, which also have been implicated in our previous IR studies. However, it is important to note that dose rate did affect the levels of particular metabolites. Differences in urinary excretion levels of such metabolites could potentially be used to assess an individual's exposure in a radiobiological event and thus would have utility for both triage and injury assessment. (orig.)

  4. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  5. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  6. Relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculation of total muon capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketin, T.; Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of total muon capture rates on a large set of nuclei from 12 C to 244 Pu, for which experimental values are available. The microscopic theoretical framework is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model for the nuclear ground state, and transitions to excited states are calculated using the pn-RQRPA. The calculation is fully consistent, i.e., the same interactions are used both in the RHB equations that determine the quasiparticle basis, and in the matrix equations of the pn-RQRPA. The calculated capture rates are sensitive to the in-medium quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant. By reducing this constant from its free-nucleon value g A =1.262 by 10% for all multipole transitions, the calculation reproduces the experimental muon capture rates to better than 10% accuracy.

  7. Increasing the Response Rate of the Patient Satisfaction Survey of Inpatients at National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    identify a method to improve the effectiveness of the current survey process to increase the response rate of the patients being sampled. As health care... consumer must have adequate representation to provide meaningful information for decision making by the health care organization. Background of the...the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy into the health care industry has increased the importance of listening to the customer (Matthews, 1992

  8. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions (a... loan cost rate for various transactions, as well as instructions, explanations, and examples for.... (2) Term of the transaction. For purposes of total annual loan cost disclosures, the term of a...

  9. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  10. Impact of Total, Internal and External Government Debt on Interest Rate in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Asma; Munir, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine impact of total, internal and external government debt on nominal interest rate in Pakistan. To attain these objectives, the study used annual time series data from 1973 to 2016. The study used loanable fund theory as theoretical model and ARDL bound testing approach for cointegration and Granger causality test to estimate the results. The results of the study found negative relation between total government debt, external debt and nominal interest rat...

  11. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  12. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative pain response to heat stimulation in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-09-01

    It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. This study aimed to explore whether 2 heat test paradigms could predict postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients scheduled for elective, unilateral, primary TKA under spinal anesthesia were consecutively included in this prospective, observational study. Perioperative analgesia was standardized for all patients. Outcomes were postoperative pain during walk: from 6 to 24 hours (primary), from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 7 (secondary), and from POD 14 to 30 (tertiary). Two preoperative tonic heat stimuli with 47°C were used; short (5 seconds) and long (7 minutes) stimulation upon which patients rated their pain response on an electronic visual analog scale. Multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regressions analyses were carried out, including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety, depression, preoperative pain, and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as an independent predictor for postoperative pain. A total of 100 patients were included, and 3 were later excluded. A weak correlation [rho (95% confidence interval); P value] was observed between pain from POD 1 to 7 and pain response to short [rho=0.25(0.04 to 0.44); P=.02] and to long [rho=0.27 (0.07 to 0.46); P=.01] heat pain stimulation. However, these positive correlations were not supported by the linear and logistic regression analyses, in which only anxiety, preoperative pain, and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-squares; 0.05 to 0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinically relevant predictors for postoperative pain after TKA. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of

  13. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response......PURPOSE: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments...... or a very good partial response rate (response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. CONCLUSIONS...

  14. Seasonal soil VOC exchange rates in a Mediterranean holm oak forest and their responses to drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep; Ogaya, Romà; Llusià, Joan

    Available information on soil volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange, emissions and uptake, is very scarce. We here describe the amounts and seasonality of soil VOC exchange during a year in a natural Mediterranean holm oak forest growing in Southern Catalonia. We investigated changes in soil VOC dynamics in drought conditions by decreasing the soil moisture to 30% of ambient conditions by artificially excluding rainfall and water runoff, and predicted the response of VOC exchange to the drought forecasted in the Mediterranean region for the next decades by GCM and ecophysiological models. The annual average of the total (detected) soil VOC and total monoterpene exchange rates were 3.2±3.2 and -0.4±0.3 μg m -2 h -1, respectively, in control plots. These values represent 0.003% of the total C emitted by soil at the study site as CO 2 whereas the annual mean of soil monoterpene exchange represents 0.0004% of total C. Total soil VOC exchange rates in control plots showed seasonal variations following changes in soil moisture and phenology. Maximum values were found in spring (17±8 μg m -2 h -1). Although there was no significant global effect of drought treatment on the total soil VOC exchange rates, annual average of total VOC exchange rates in drought plots resulted in an uptake rate (-0.5±1.8 μg m -2 h -1) instead of positive net emission rates. Larger soil VOC and monoterpene exchanges were measured in drought plots than in control plots in summer, which might be mostly attributable to autotrophic (roots) metabolism. The results show that the diversity and magnitude of monoterpene and VOC soil emissions are low compared with plant emissions, that they are driven by soil moisture, that they represent a very small part of the soil-released carbon and that they may be strongly reduced or even reversed into net uptakes by the predicted decreases of soil water availability in the next decades. In all cases, it seems that VOC fluxes in soil might have greater

  15. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... offer a cost-effective alternative for gas treatment. In this study, the OLAND application thus was broadened toward ammonia loaded gaseous streams. A down flow, oxygen-saturated biofilter (height of 1.5 m; diameter of 0.11 m) was fed with an ammonia gas stream (248 ± 10 ppmv) at a loading rate of 0...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  16. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  17. [Ventricular tachycardia in a patient with rate-responsive cardiac pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himbert, C; Lascault, G; Tonet, J; Coutte, R; Busquet, P; Frank, R; Grosgogeat, Y

    1992-11-01

    The authors report a case of syncopal ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a respiratory-dependent rate responsive pacemaker, followed-up for valvular heart disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction and sustained atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The introduction of low dose betablocker therapy with reinforcement of the treatment of cardiac failure controlled the ventricular arrhythmia, after suppression of the data responsive function had been shown to be ineffective. The authors discuss the role of the rate responsive function in the triggering of the ventricular tachycardias.

  18. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  19. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  1. Effect of radiation dose rate and cyclophosphamide on pulmonary toxicity after total body irradiation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Nielsen, Ole S.; El-Badawy, Samy; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is still a major complication after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). It is difficult to determine the exact role of radiation in this multifactorial complication, especially because most of the experimental work on lung damage was done using localized lung irradiation and not TBI. We have thus tested the effect of radiation dose rate and combining cyclophosphamide (CTX) with single fraction TBI on lung damage in a mouse model for BMT. Methods and Materials: TBI was given as a single fraction at a high dose rate (HDR, 0.71 Gy/min) or a low dose rate (LDR, 0.08 Gy/min). CTX (250 mg/kg) was given 24 h before TBI. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed 4-6 h after the last treatment. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days (LD (50(28))-180 ). Results: The LD 50 for lung damage, ± standard error (SE), increased from 12.0 (± 0.2) Gy using single fraction HDR to 15.8 (± 0.6) Gy using LDR. Adding CTX shifted the dose-response curves towards lower doses. The LD 50 values for the combined treatment were 5.3 (± 0.2) and 3.5 (± 0.2) Gy for HDR and LDR, respectively. This indicates that the combined effect of CTX and LDR was more toxic than that of combined CTX and HDR. Lung damage evaluated by VR demonstrated two waves of VR increase. The first wave of VR increase occurred after 6 weeks using TBI only and after 3 weeks in the combined CTX-TBI treatment, irrespective of total dose or dose rate. The second wave of VR elevation resembled the IP that follows localized thoracic irradiation in its time of occurrence. Conclusions: Lung damage following TBI could be spared using LDR. However, CTX markedly enhances TBI-induced lung damage. The combination of CTX and LDR is more toxic to the lungs than combining CTX and HDR

  2. Estimates of the Tempo-adjusted Total Fertility Rate in Western and Eastern Germany, 1955-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Luy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present estimates of the tempo-adjusted total fertility rate in Western and Eastern Germany from 1955 to 2008. Tempo adjustment of the total fertility rate (TFR requires data on the annual number of births by parity and age of the mother. Since official statistics do not provide such data for West Germany as well as Eastern Germany from 1990 on we used alternative data sources which include these specific characteristics. The combined picture of conventional TFR and tempo-adjusted TFR* provides interesting information about the trends in period fertility in Western and Eastern Germany, above all with regard to the differences between the two regions and the enormous extent of tempo effects in Eastern Germany during the 1990s. Compared to corresponding data for populations from other countries, our estimates of the tempo-adjusted TFR* for Eastern and Western Germany show plausible trends. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the estimates of the tempo-adjusted total fertility rate presented in this paper should not be seen as being on the level of or equivalent to official statistics since they are based on different kinds of data with different degrees of quality.

  3. Predicting temporal trends in total absenteeism rates for civil service employees of a federal public health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, D Ross; McNeil, Carrie; Warnock, Eli; Trapp, Jonathan; Oyinloye, Oluremi; Whitehurst, Vanessa; Decker, K C; Chapman, Sandy; Campbell, Morris; Meechan, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluates the predictability in temporal absences trends due to all causes (total absenteeism) among employees at a federal agency. The objective is to determine how leave trends vary within the year, and determine whether trends are predictable. Ten years of absenteeism data from an attendance system were analyzed for rates of total absence. Trends over a 10-year period followed predictable and regular patterns during a given year that correspond to major holiday periods. Temporal trends in leave among small, medium, and large facilities compared favorably with the agency as a whole. Temporal trends in total absenteeism rates for an organization can be determined using its attendance system. The ability to predict employee absenteeism rates can be extremely helpful for management in optimizing business performance and ensuring that an organization meets its mission.

  4. Improving completion rates in adult education through social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... of reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  5. Total skin high-dose-rate electron therapy dosimetry using TG-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Sharma, Subhash C.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to dosimetry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) is discussed using the currently accepted TG-51 high-energy calibration protocol. The methodology incorporates water phantom data for absolute calibration and plastic phantom data for efficient reference dosimetry. The scheme is simplified to include the high-dose-rate mode conversion and provides support for its use, as it becomes more available on newer linear accelerators. Using a 6-field, modified Stanford technique, one may follow the process for accurate determination of absorbed dose

  6. Abnormal heart rate recovery and deficient chronotropic response after submaximal exercise in young Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Paulo; Carvalho, Antônio C; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Medeiros, Wladimir M

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise. A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration. Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001). Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.

  7. A new constitutive model for prediction of impact rates response of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley C.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new constitutive model for predicting the impact rates response of polypropylene. Impact rates, as used here, refer to strain rates greater than 1000 1/s. The model is a physically based, three-dimensional constitutive model which incorporates the contributions of the amorphous, crystalline, pseudo-amorphous and entanglement networks to the constitutive response of polypropylene. The model mathematics is based on the well-known Glass-Rubber model originally developed for glassy polymers but the arguments have herein been extended to semi-crystalline polymers. In order to predict the impact rates behaviour of polypropylene, the model exploits the well-known framework of multiple processes yielding of polymers. This work argues that two dominant viscoelastic relaxation processes – the alpha- and beta-processes – can be associated with the yield responses of polypropylene observed at low-rate-dominant and impact-rates dominant loading regimes. Compression test data on polypropylene have been used to validate the model. The study has found that the model predicts quite well the experimentally observed nonlinear rate-dependent impact response of polypropylene.

  8. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  9. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  10. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  11. Total-dielectric-function approach to electron and phonon response in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, D.R.; Lewis, S.P.; Cohen, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between two test charges, the response of a solid to an external field, and the normal modes of the solid can be determined from a total dielectric function that includes both electronic and lattice polarizabilities as well as local-field effects. In this paper we examine the relationship between superconductivity and the stability of a solid and derive sum rules for the electronic part of the dielectric function. It is also shown that there are negative eigenvalues of the total static dielectric function, implying the possibility of an attractive interaction between test charges. An attractive interaction is required for superconductivity

  12. TRANC - a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, O.; Brümmer, C.; Ammann, C.; Wolff, V.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-05-01

    The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (reactive nitrogen: Nr) from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter), which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen compounds (∑Nr) in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of all Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO) within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced Nr compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised Nr compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate Nr is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher nitrogen oxides or those generated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD) for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3-, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in ∑Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all individual Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal and catalytic

  13. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  14. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  15. Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Carpenter, Joanne S

    2011-10-01

    Four experiments used delay conditioning of magazine approach in rats to investigate the relationship between the rate of responding, R, to a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the rate, r, at which the CS is reinforced with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats were concurrently trained with four variable-duration CSs with different rs, either as a result of differences in the mean CS-US interval or in the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US. In each case, R was systematically related to r, and the relationship was very accurately characterized by a hyperbolic function, R = Ar/(r +c). Accordingly, the reciprocal of these two variables-response interval, I (= 1/R), and CS-US interval, i (= 1/r) - were related by a simple affine (straight line) transformation, I = mi+b. This latter relationship shows that each increment in the time that the rats had to wait for food produced a linear increment in the time they waited between magazine entries. We discuss the close agreement between our findings and the Matching Law (Herrnstein, 1970) and consider their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000) of conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  17. Opioids Consumed in the Immediate Post-Operative Period Do Not Influence How Patients Rate Their Experience of Care After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheson, Jennifer I; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; George, Nicole E; Virani, Sana; Mont, Michael A; Delanois, Ronald E

    2018-04-01

    Patient perception of care, commonly measured with Press Ganey (PG) surveys, is an important metric used to determine hospital and provider reimbursement. However, post-operative pain following total hip arthroplasty (THA) may negatively affect patient satisfaction. As a result, over-administration of opioids may occur, even without marked evidence of pain. Therefore, this study evaluated whether opioid consumption in the immediate postoperative period bears any influence on satisfaction scores after THA. Specifically, this study assessed the correlation between post-operative opioid consumption and 7 PG domains: (1) Overall hospital rating; (2) Communication with nurses; (3) Responsiveness of hospital staff; (4) Communication with doctors; (5) Hospital environment; (6) Pain Management; and (7) Communication about medicines. Our institutional PG database was reviewed for patients who received THA from 2011 to 2014. A total of 322 patients (mean age = 65 years; 61% female) were analyzed. Patient's opioid consumption was measured using a morphine milli-equivalent conversion algorithm. Bivariate correlation analysis assessed the association between opioid consumption and Press-Ganey survey elements. Pearson's r assessed the strength of the association. No correlation was found between total opioid consumption and Overall hospital rating (r = 0.004; P = .710), Communication with nurses (r = 0.093; P = .425), Responsiveness of hospital staff (r = 0.104; P = .381), Communication with doctors (r = 0.009; P = .940), Hospital environment (r = 0.081; P = .485), and Pain management (r = 0.075; P = .536). However, there was a positive correlation between total opioid consumption and "Communication about medicines" (r = 0.262; P = .043). Our report demonstrates that PG patient satisfaction scores are not influenced by post-operative opioid use, with the exception of PG domain, "Communication about medications." These results suggest that opioid medications should be

  18. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  19. Comparative responsiveness of measures of pain and function after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A K; Roos, Ewa M.; Westerlund, J P

    2001-01-01

    To compare the responsiveness of the Functional Assessment System (FAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for total hip replacement....

  20. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  1. [Rates of total and free PSA prescriptions in France (2012-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Leboucher, Claire; Peyre-Lanquar, Gabrielle; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gabach, Pierre; Rébillard, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    In 2010, the French Haute Autorité de santé (National Health Authority) confirmed the limited value of prostate cancer (PCa) screening by total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay. This study was designed to determine the modalities of ordering total PSA or free PSA assays (in the absence of PCa) according to various parameters and the corresponding sums reimbursed. Men aged 40 years and older covered by the national health insurance general scheme (73% of the French population) between 2012 and 2014 were selected. Data were derived from the Système national d'information inter-régimes de l'assurance maladie (Sniiram) (National health insurance information system) database. In 2014, 27% of the 11.6 million men 40 years and older underwent at least one total PSA assay and 5.6% underwent at least one free PSA assay, with marked variations according to the presence or absence of treated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (53% and 15% vs 24% and 5%) and from one administrative department to another. The peak total PSA assay rate was observed between the ages of 65 and 74 years: 64% of men with LUTS, 46% without LUTS. Between 2012 and 2014, men in whom at least one PSA assay had been performed underwent a mean of 1.8 total PSA assays and 1.7 free PSA assays, with means of 2.3 and 2, respectively, in the presence of LUTS. General practice specialists ordered 91% of the PSA tests reimbursed in 2014 (92% for total PSA and 87% for free PSA) and urologists ordered 4% of reimbursed tests. The total sum reimbursed was €28.5 million, comprising €8.7 million for free PSA. An average of 10 laboratory tests was performed at the same time as the PSA assay in the absence of treated LUTS. Total PSA and free PSA assays are performed in a large number of men, although the value of these tests as first-line test before biopsy remains controversial. These PSA assays are associated with many other laboratory tests looking for possible abnormalities, especially in younger

  2. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Growth rate regulated genes and their wide involvement in the Lactococcus lactis stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redon Emma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of transcriptomic tools has allowed exhaustive description of stress responses. These responses always superimpose a general response associated to growth rate decrease and a specific one corresponding to the stress. The exclusive growth rate response can be achieved through chemostat cultivation, enabling all parameters to remain constant except the growth rate. Results We analysed metabolic and transcriptomic responses of Lactococcus lactis in continuous cultures at different growth rates ranging from 0.09 to 0.47 h-1. Growth rate was conditioned by isoleucine supply. Although carbon metabolism was constant and homolactic, a widespread transcriptomic response involving 30% of the genome was observed. The expression of genes encoding physiological functions associated with biogenesis increased with growth rate (transcription, translation, fatty acid and phospholipids metabolism. Many phages, prophages and transposon related genes were down regulated as growth rate increased. The growth rate response was compared to carbon and amino-acid starvation transcriptomic responses, revealing constant and significant involvement of growth rate regulations in these two stressful conditions (overlap 27%. Two regulators potentially involved in the growth rate regulations, llrE and yabB, have been identified. Moreover it was established that genes positively regulated by growth rate are preferentially located in the vicinity of replication origin while those negatively regulated are mainly encountered at the opposite, thus indicating the relationship between genes expression and their location on chromosome. Although stringent response mechanism is considered as the one governing growth deceleration in bacteria, the rigorous comparison of the two transcriptomic responses clearly indicated the mechanisms are distinct. Conclusion This work of integrative biology was performed at the global level using transcriptomic analysis

  5. Response Rates in Studies of Couples Coping With Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. Method: A systematic

  6. A randomized trial of the impact of survey design characteristics on response rates among nursing home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Rogers, Michelle; Foster, Andrew; Dvorchak, Faye; Saadeh, Frances; Weaver, Jessica; Mor, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to maximize participation of both the Director of Nursing (DoN) and the Administrator (ADMIN) in long-term care facilities. Providers in each of the 224 randomly selected facilities were randomly assigned to 1 of 16 conditions based on the combination of data collection mode (web vs. mail), questionnaire length (short vs. long), and incentive structure. Incentive structures were determined by amount compensated if the individual completed and an additional amount per individual if the pair completed (a) $30 individual/$5 pair/$35 total; (b) $10 individual/$25 pair/$35 total; (c) $30 individual/$20 pair/$50 total; and (d) $10 individual/$40 pair/$50 total. Overall, 47.4% of eligible respondents participated; both respondents participated in 29.3% of facilities. In multivariable analyses, there were no differences in the likelihood of both respondents participating by mode, questionnaire length, or incentive structure. Providing incentives contingent on participation by both providers of a facility was an ineffective strategy for significantly increasing response rates.

  7. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  8. Determination of total flow rate and flow rate of every operating branch in commissioning of heavy water loop for ARR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yan

    1997-01-01

    The heavy water loop (i,e, RCS) for ARR-2 in Algeria is a complex loop. Flow regulating means are not provided by the design in order to operate the reactor safely and simplify operating processes. How to determine precisely the orifice diameters of resistance parts for the loop is a key point for decreasing deviation between practical and design flow rates. Commissioning tests shall ensure that under every one of combined operating modes for the pumps, total coolant flow rate is about the same (the number of pumps operating in parallel is the same) and is consistent with design requirement, as well as the distribution of coolant flow rate to every branch is uniform. The flow Determination is divided into two steps. First and foremost, corresponding resistance part at each pump outlet is determined in commissioning test of shorted heavy water loop with light water, so that the problem about uniform distribution of the flow rate to each branch is solved, Secondly, resistance part at the reactor inlet is determined in commissioning test of heavy water loop connected with the vessel, so that the problem about that total heavy water flow rate is within optimal range is solved. According to practical requirements of the project, a computer program of hydraulic calculation and analysis for heavy water loop has been developed, and hydraulic characteristics test for a part of loop has been conducted in order to correct calculation error. By means of program calculation combining with tests in site, orifice diameters of 9 resistance parts has been determined rapidly and precisely and requirements of design and operation has been met adequately

  9. Direct and correlated responses to selection for total weight of lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimated selection responses indicate that direct selection for TWW would be the most suitable selection criterion for improving reproductive performance in flocks with a high reproduction rate where an increase in the number of lambs would be undesirable. (South African Journal of Animal Science, 2001, 31(2): ...

  10. Rate and Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Among 36,494 Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios K; Soranoglou, Vasileios G; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Sculco, Thomas P; Poultsides, Lazaros A

    2018-04-01

    As periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can have tremendous health and socioeconomic implications, recognizing patients at risk before surgery is of great importance. Therefore, we sought to determine the rate of and risk factors for deep PJI in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical characteristics of patients treated with primary THA between January 1999 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. These included patient demographics, comorbidities (including the Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index), length of stay, primary diagnosis, total/allogeneic transfusion rate, and in-hospital complications, which were grouped into local and systemic (minor and major). We determined the overall deep PJI rate, as well as the rates for early-onset (occurring within 2 years after index surgery) and late-onset PJI (occurring more than 2 years after surgery). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for developing deep PJI. Significance level was set at 0.05. A deep PJI developed in 154 of 36,494 primary THAs (0.4%) during the study period. Early onset PJI was found in 122 patients (0.3%), whereas late PJI occurred in 32 patients (0.1%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary hypertension were identified as independent risk factors for deep PJI after primary THA. The rate of deep PJIs of the hip is relatively low, with the majority occurring within 2 years after THA. If the optimization of modifiable risk factors before THA can reduce the rate of this complication remains unknown, but should be attempted as part of good practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  12. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Nudurupati, Saibaba [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C. [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Vakil, E-mail: vsingh.met@itbhu.ac.in [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10{sup −2}, 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  13. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10 −2 , 10 −3 , and 10 −4 s −1 . Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C

  14. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  15. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures.

  16. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengchao; Alper, Howard E; Nguyen, Angela-Maithy; Brackbill, Robert M; Turner, Lennon; Walker, Deborah J; Maslow, Carey B; Zweig, Kimberly C

    2017-04-26

    Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2-4) every 3-4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13-14 years after 9/11. We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4), and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a monetary incentive as an additional refusal conversion strategy. Our

  17. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  18. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  19. The heart rate response to nintendo wii boxing in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pamela R; Poloni, Joseph; Thornton, Andrew; Lynskey, James V

    2012-06-01

    To determine if 30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides cardiorespiratory benefits and contributes to the daily exercise recommendations for healthy young adults. Twenty healthy 23- to 27-year-olds participated in two sessions to measure maximum heart rate (HR(max)) via a treadmill test and heart rate (HR) response to 30 minutes of Wii Sports boxing. Heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) was measured continuously, and exercise intensity during each minute of play was stratified as a percentage of HR(max). Mixed designs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the data. Mean (SD) HR response to boxing was 143 (15) bpm or 77.5% (10.0%) of HR(max). The mean HR response for experienced participants was significantly lower than inexperienced participants, P = .007. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between experience and time spent at various intensities, P = .009. Experienced participants spent more time in light to vigorous intensities, inexperienced participants in moderate to very hard intensities. Fitness was not correlated with mean HR response to boxing, P = .49. Thirty minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides a moderate to vigorous aerobic response in healthy young adults and can contribute to daily recommendations for physical activity.

  20. Rate Dependence of the Compressive Response of Ti Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Petrinic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium foams of relative density ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 were produced by titanium powder sintering procedures and tested in uniaxial compression at strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 2,000 s−1. The material microstructure was examined by X-ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observations. The foams investigated are strain rate sensitive, with both the yield stress and the strain hardening increasing with applied strain rate, and the strain rate sensitivity is more pronounced in foams of lower relative density. Finite element simulations were conducted modelling explicitly the material’s microstructure at the micron level, via a 3D Voronoi tessellation. Low and high strain rate simulations were conducted in order to predict the material’s compressive response, employing both rate-dependant and rate-independent constitutive models. Results from numerical analyses suggest that the primary source of rate sensitivity is represented by the intrinsic sensitivity of the foam’s parent material.

  1. TOTAL HEMOCYTE COUNT AND HEMOLYMPH GLUCOSE CONCENRATION RESPONSE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus homarus ON RATIO OF SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiba Djai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to assess the physiological response of the lobster Panulirus homarus for the ratio of the shelters. The method used completely randomized design with two replicates of each treatments with shelter ratio (A 1 : 5, (B 3 : 5, (C 4 : 5, (D 5 : 5. Weight average for 184 lobsters with the stocking density of 23 lobsters for each treatment was 32.64 ± 0.58 g. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The lobster was fed with trash fish and acclimatized for 7 days before the experiment. Observations on the physiologycal of every 10 days. The physiological responses that observed were total hemocyte count (THC and hemolymph glucose concentration. The results showed that 4:5 was the best lobster shelter ratio because it could reduce stress levels. This is indicated by the stable values of THC and hemolymph glucose level during the experiment and supported by the growth of 57.28 ± 0.15 g and survival rate of 91.31 ± 2.60%. Keywords: lobster, Panulirus homarus, ratio, shelter, THC, glucose

  2. Total dose and dose rate radiation characterization of EPI-CMOS radiation hardened memory and microprocessor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, B.L.; Hermsen, J.M.; Lee, J.C.; Schroeder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The process, circuit discription, and total dose radiation characteristics are presented for two second generation hardened 4K EPI-CMOS RAMs and a first generation 80C85 microprocessor. Total dose radiation performance is presented to 10M rad-Si and effects of biasing and operating conditions are discussed. The dose rate sensitivity of the 4K RAMs is also presented along with single event upset (SEU) test data

  3. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examining the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-radiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. It was concluded that oligodendrocytes in irradiated cultures had significantly lower functional capacity than did unirradiated controls. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. At DIC 14, the group irradiated in a single fraction had significantly lower oligodendrocyte counts than any group given split doses; all irradiated cultures had marked depression of MBP synthesis, but to significant differences referable to time interval between doses. At DIC 21, cultures irradiated at intervals of 0 h to 2 h had similar oligodendrocyte counts to one another, but these counts were significantly lower than in cultures irradiated at intervals of 4 h to 6 h; MBP levels remained depressed at DIC 21 for all irradiated cultures. The oligodendrocyte response to dose rate (0.03 to 1.97 Gy/min) was evaluated at DIC 14 and DIC 21. Exposure at 0.03 Gy/min suppressed oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 21 less than did higher dose rates in 5-Gy irradiated cultures

  4. Optimization of Total Flavonoids Extraction from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, X. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to predict optimum conditions for extraction of flavonoid from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effect of extraction temperature, extraction time, and water-to-material ratio on yield of total flavonoids. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained as water-to-material ratio of 55 ml g−1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and extraction time of 70 minutes. Under these conditions, the average total flavonoids yield, according to the mass of raw material, was 9.0 ± 0.6 %, which corresponds to the predicted value of 8.9 %. Thus, the extraction method was applied successfully to extract total flavonoids from C. tinctoria.

  5. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Dose Response Model of Biological Reaction to Low Dose Rate Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furikawa, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Kawakami, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to use reproducible and stable indicators to evaluate biological responses to long term irradiation at low dose-rate. They should be simple and quantitative enough to produce the results statistically accurate, because we have to analyze the subtle changes of biological responses around background level at low dose. For these purposes we chose micronucleus formation of U2OS, a human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological responses. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation rom bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and prospidium iodide, respectively. the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was counted under a fluorescence microscope. Dose rate in the irradiation room was measured with PLD. Dose response of PLD is linear between 1 mGy to 10 Gy, and standard deviation of triplicate count was several percent of mean value. We fitted statistically dose response curves to the data, and they were plotted on the coordinate of linearly scale response and dose. The results followed to the straight line passing through the origin of the coordinate axes between 0.1-5 Gy, and dose and does rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) was less than 2 when cells were irradiated for 1-10 min. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose above 0.1 Gy when 5,000 binuclear cells were analyzed. In contrast, dose response curves never followed LNT, when cells were irradiated for 7 to 124 days. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose below 6 Gy, when cells were continuously irradiated for 124 days. These results suggest that dose response curve of biological reaction is remarkably affected by exposure

  7. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  8. Effect of radiation doses rate on SOS response induction in irradiated Escherichia coli Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuetara Lugo, Elizabeth B.; Fuentes Lorenzo, Jorge L.; Almeida Varela, Eliseo; Prieto Miranda, Enrique F.; Sanchez Lamar, Angel; Llagostera Casal, Montserrat

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to study the effect of radiation dose rate on the induction of SOS response in Escherichia coli cells. We measured the induction of sul A reporter gene in PQ-37 (SOS Chromotest) cells. Lead devises were built with different diameter and these were used for diminishing the dose rate of PX- -30M irradiator. Our results show that radiation doses rate significantly modifies the induction of SOS response. Induction factor increases proportionally to doses rate in Escherichia coli cells defective to nucleotide excision repair (uvrA), but not in wild type cells. We conclude that the dose rate affects the level of induction of SOS response

  9. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of the total antioxidant response in preeclampsia with a novel automated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harma, Mehmet; Harma, Muge; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-10

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications of pregnancy. Free radical damage has been implicated in the pathophysiology of this condition. In this study, we aimed to measure the antioxidant capacity in plasma samples from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women to evaluate their antioxidant status using a more recently developed automated measurement method. Our study group contained 42 women, 24 of whom had preeclampsia, while 18 had normotensive pregnancies. We measured the total plasma antioxidant capacity for all patients, as well as the levels of four major individual plasma antioxidant components; albumin, uric acid, ascorbic acid and bilirubin, and as a reciprocal measure, their total plasma peroxide levels. Statistically significant differences (determined using Student's t-test) were noted between the normotensive and the preeclamptic groups for their total antioxidant responses and their vitamin C levels (1.31 +/- 0.12 mmol versus 1.06 +/- 0.41 mmol Trolox eq./L; 30.2 +/- 17.83 micromol/L versus 18.1 +/- 11.37 micromol/L, respectively), which were both considerably reduced in the preeclamptic patients. In contrast, the total plasma peroxide levels were significantly elevated in this group (49.8 +/- 14.3 micromol/L versus 38.8 +/- 9.6 micromol/L). We found a decreased total antioxidant response in preeclamptic patients using a simple, rapid and reliable automated colorimetric assay, which may suitable for use in any routine clinical biochemistry laboratory, and considerably facilitates the assessment of this useful clinical parameter. We suggest that this novel method may be used as a routine test to evaluate and follow up of the levels of oxidative stress in preeclampsia.

  11. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  12. Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry manure application and time of planting in a derived savannah ecology of south eastern Nigeria. ... The interaction of time of planting and manure rates showed a trend of increased seed yield as planting was done early with high manure rate, hence, the ...

  13. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Do illness rating systems predict discharge location, length of stay, and cost after total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Rudasill, BA

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

  15. Increasing response rates to follow-up questionnaires in health intervention research: Randomized controlled trial of a gift card prize incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Bayer, Jordana K

    2017-08-01

    Background/aims Achieving a high response rate to follow-up questionnaires in randomized controlled trials of interventions is important for study validity. Few studies have tested the value of incentives in increasing response rates to online questionnaires in clinical trials of health interventions. This study evaluated the effect of a gift card prize-draw incentive on response rates to follow-up questionnaires within a trial of an online health intervention. Method The study was embedded in a host randomized controlled trial of an online parenting program for child anxiety. A total of 433 participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: (1) being informed that they would enter a gift card prize-draw if they completed the final study questionnaire (24-week follow-up) and (2) not informed about the prize-draw. All participants had a 1 in 20 chance of winning an AUD50 gift card after they completed the online questionnaire. Results The odds of the informed group completing the follow-up questionnaire were significantly higher than the uninformed group, (79.6% vs 68.5%, odds ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.79). This response rate increase of 11.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.8-19.1) occurred in both intervention and control groups in the host randomized controlled trial. The incentive was also effective in increasing questionnaire commencement (84.6% vs 75.9%, odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.84) and reducing the delay in completing the questionnaire (19.9 vs 22.6 days, hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.67). Conclusion This study adds to evidence for the effectiveness of incentives to increase response rates to follow-up questionnaires in health intervention trials.

  16. Importance of heart rate during exercise for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Alexander H; Buck, Sandra; Nieuwland, Wybe; Brügemann, Johan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Van Gelder, Isabelle C

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with severe heart failure and mechanical dyssynchrony. Response is only achieved in 60-70% of patients. To study exercise-related factors predicting response to CRT. We retrospectively examined consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted. All underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to implantation and after 6 months. The occurrence of chronotropic incompetence and heart rates exceeding the upper rate of the device, thereby compromising biventricular stimulation, was studied. Response was defined as a decrease in LVESV of 10% or more after 6 months. We included 144 patients. After 6 months 86 (60%) patients were responders. Peak VO2 significantly increased in responders. Chronotropic incompetence was more frequently seen in nonresponders (21 [36%] vs 9 [10%], P = 0.03), mostly in patients in SR. At moderate exercise, defined as 25% of the maximal exercise tolerance, that is, comparable to daily life exercise, nonresponders more frequently went above the upper rate of the device (13 [22%] vs 2 [3%], P exercise (OR 15.8 [3.3-76.5], P = 0.001) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (OR 2.4 [1.0-5.7], P = 0.04) as predictive for response. Heart rate exceeding the upper rate during moderate exercise is an independent predictor for nonresponse to CRT in patients with AF, whereas chronotropic incompetence is a predictor for patients in SR.

  17. Response rates in studies of couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2014-08-01

    Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. A systematic review (1980-2011) was conducted, including 83 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals, describing quantitative findings using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Overall reporting was unsatisfactory in more than half of the included studies. As a consequence, the couples' response rate (CRR; all analyzed couples divided by the number of eligible partnered patients/couples approached) could be calculated for only 33 samples. This CRR varied considerably across studies from 25% to 90% (CRRM = 58%, SD = 17%). The rates reported in the articles (M = 65%) were often higher than the average CRR (CRRM = 57%) of these samples. This systematic review revealed incomplete reporting of response rate. Therefore, it cannot be firmly concluded that the average CRR reported is representative for all studies on couples coping with cancer. Finally, the figures presented, which are often more favorable than the CRR, may create the impression that the sample is more representative of the target population than it actually is. This has consequences for implementing the findings of such studies into practice. The results are critically discussed, and recommendations for improvement are provided.

  18. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  19. Optimization of dynamic-microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of total ginsenosides from stems and leaves of panax ginseng by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Hui

    2018-03-21

    Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD). The experimental results indicated that optimal extraction conditions of TG from GSAL were as follows: ethanol concentration of 75%, microwave temperature of 60°C, microwave time of 20 min and pump flow rate of 38 r/min. After experimental verification, the experimental yields of TG was 60.62 ± 0.85 mg g -1 , which were well agreement with the predicted by the model. In general, the present results demonstrated that DMAE-EH method was successfully used to extract total ginsenosides in GSAL.

  20. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (reactive nitrogen: Nr from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen compounds (∑Nr in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of all Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced Nr compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised Nr compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate Nr is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher nitrogen oxides or those generated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3−, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in ∑Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all individual Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal

  1. New insights into fully-depleted SOI transistor response during total-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Burns, J.A.; Keast, C.L.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present irradiation results on 2-fully depleted processes (HYSOI6, RKSOI) that show SOI (silicon on insulator) device response can be more complicated than originally suggested by others. The major difference between the 2 process versions is that the RKSOI process incorporates special techniques to minimize pre-irradiation parasitic leakage current from trench sidewalls. Transistors were irradiated at room temperature using 10 keV X-ray source. Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. It appears that the worst-case bias for HYPOI6 process is the bias that causes the largest increase in sidewall leakage. The RKSOI process shows a different response during irradiation, the transition response appears to be dominated by charge trapping in the buried oxide. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing. (A.C.)

  2. Impulse Response of the Exchange Rate Volatility to a Foreign Exchange Intervention Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...

  3. Nonlinear response of hail precipitation rate to environmental moisture content: A real case modeling study of an episodic midlatitude severe convective event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxin; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Kumjian, Matthew R.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of hail production on initial moisture content in a simulated midlatitude episodic convective event occurred in northeast China on 10-11 June 2005 was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a double-moment microphysics scheme where both graupel and hail are considered. Three sensitivity experiments were performed by modifying the initial water vapor mixing ratio profile to 90% ("Q-10%"), 105% ("Q+5%"), and 110% ("Q+10%") of the initial conditions used for the control simulation. It was found that increasing the initial water vapor content caused the hail and total precipitation rates to increase during the first 5 h. The precipitation response to increasing water vapor content was monotonic for this first episode; however, for the event's second episode, the hail precipitation rate responds to the initial water vapor profile nonlinearly, while the total precipitation rate responds mostly monotonically. In particular, simulation Q+5% achieves the largest hail production rate while simulation Q+10% has the largest total precipitation rate. In contrast, during the second episode simulation Q-10% has the strongest vertical motion, produces the most cloud ice and snow, but has the lowest hail production. Analysis shows that increasing the initial moisture content directly increases the precipitation during the first episode, which subsequently induces a stronger, longer-lasting cold pool that limits the development of deep convection during the second episode.

  4. The rate dependent response of a bistable chain at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Itamar; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.; Givli, Sefi

    2016-10-01

    We study the rate dependent response of a bistable chain subjected to thermal fluctuations. The study is motivated by the fact that the behavior of this model system is prototypical to a wide range of nonlinear processes in materials physics, biology and chemistry. To account for the stochastic nature of the system response, we formulate a set of governing equations for the evolution of the probability density of meta-stable configurations. Based on this approach, we calculate the behavior for a wide range of parametric values, such as rate, temperature, overall stiffness, and number of elements in the chain. Our results suggest that fundamental characteristics of the response, such as average transition stress and hysteresis, can be captured by a simple law which folds the influence of all these factors into a single non-dimensional quantity. We also show that the applicability of analytical results previously obtained for single-well systems can be extended to systems having multiple wells by proper definition of rate and of the transition stress.

  5. Order of current variance and diffusivity in the rate one totally asymmetric zero range process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balázs, M.; Komjáthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the variance of the current across a characteristic is of order t 2/3 in a stationary constant rate totally asymmetric zero range process, and that the diffusivity has order t 1/3. This is a step towards proving universality of this scaling behavior in the class of one-dimensional

  6. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  7. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Ferguson, R. M.; Krishnan, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  8. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  10. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  11. Seismicity rate surge on faults after shut-in: poroelastic response to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. W.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface energy activities such as geological CO2 storage and wastewater injection require injecting large amounts of fluid into the subsurface, which will alter the states of pore pressure and stress in the storage formation. One of the main issues for injection-induced seismicity is the post shut-in increases in the seismicity rate, often observed in the fluid-injection operation sites. The rate surge can be driven by the following mechanisms: (1) pore-pressure propagation into distant faults after shut-in and (2) poroelastic stressing caused by well operations, depending on fault geometry, hydraulic and mechanical properties of the formation, and injection history. We simulate the aerial view of the target reservoir intersected by strike-slip faults, in which injection-induced pressure buildup encounters the faults directly. We examine the poroelastic response of the faults to fluid injection and perform a series of sensitivity tests considering: (1) permeability of the fault zone, (2) locations and the number of faults with respect to the injection point, and (3) well operations with varying the injection rate. Our analysis of the Coulomb stress change suggests that the sealing fault confines pressure diffusion which stabilizes or weakens the nearby conductive fault depending on the injection location. We perform the sensitivity test by changing injection scenarios (time-dependent rates), while keeping the total amount of injected fluids. Sensitivity analysis shows that gradual reduction of the injection rate minimizes the Coulomb stress change and the least seismicity rates are predicted. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  12. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  13. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  14. Interference in the gg→h→γγ On-Shell Rate and the Higgs Boson Total Width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John; Carena, Marcela; Harnik, Roni; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-03

    We consider interference between the Higgs signal and QCD background in gg→h→γγ and its effect on the on-shell Higgs rate. The existence of sizable strong phases leads to destructive interference of about 2% of the on-shell cross section in the standard model. This effect can be enhanced by beyond the standard model physics. In particular, since it scales differently from the usual rates, the presence of interference allows indirect limits to be placed on the Higgs width in a novel way, using on-shell rate measurements. Our study motivates further QCD calculations to reduce uncertainties. We discuss possible width-sensitive observables, both using total and differential rates and find that the HL-LHC can potentially indirectly constrain widths of order tens of MeV.

  15. 38 CFR 4.15 - Total disability ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be given to unusual physical or mental effects in individual cases, to peculiar effects of occupational activities, to defects in physical or mental endowment preventing the usual amount of success in overcoming the handicap of disability and to the effect of combinations of disability. Total disability will...

  16. Response rate of fibrosarcoma cells to cytotoxic drugs on the expression level correlates to the therapeutic response rate of fibrosarcomas and is mediated by regulation of apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnhardt, Marcus; Mueller, Oliver; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kuhnen, Cornelius; Homann, Heinz Herbert; Daigeler, Adrien; Steinau, Hans Ulrich; Roehrs, Sonja; Schnoor, Laura; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high resistance rate of fibrosarcomas against cytotoxic agents clinical chemotherapy of these tumors is not established. A better understanding of the diverse modes of tumor cell death following cytotoxic therapies will provide a molecular basis for new chemotherapeutic strategies. In this study we elucidated the response of a fibrosarcoma cell line to clinically used cytostatic agents on the level of gene expression. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were exposed to the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, actinomycin D or vincristine. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression patterns were analyzed by microarray analysis. Expression levels for 46 selected candidate genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The analysis of the microarray data resulted in 3.309 (actinomycin D), 1.019 (doxorubicin) and 134 (vincristine) probesets that showed significant expression changes. For the RNA synthesis blocker actinomycin D, 99.4% of all differentially expressed probesets were under-represented. In comparison, probesets down-regulated by doxorubicin comprised only 37.4% of all genes effected by this agent. Closer analysis of the differentially regulated genes revealed that doxorubicin induced cell death of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells mainly by regulating the abundance of factors mediating the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptosis pathway. Furthermore doxorubicin influences other pathways and crosstalk to other pathways (including to the death receptor pathway) at multiple levels. We found increased levels of cytochrome c, APAF-1 and members of the STAT-family (STAT1, STAT3), while Bcl-2 expression was decreased. Caspase-1, -3, -6, -8, and -9 were increased indicating that these proteases are key factors in the execution of doxorubicin mediated apoptosis. This study demonstrates that chemotherapy regulates the expression of apoptosis-related factors in fibrosarcoma cells. The number and the specific pattern of the genes depend on the used cytotoxic drug

  17. A model for inverse dose-rate effects - low dose-rate hyper-sensibility in response to targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, I.; Mather, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model of cell survival, developed for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), could be extended to targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) in order to predict dose-response relationships in a cell line exhibiting low dose hypersensitivity (LDH). Methods: aliquots of the PC-3 cancer cell line were treated with either EBRT or an in-vitro model of TRT (Irradiation of cell culture with Y-90 EDTA over 24, 48, 72 or 96 hours). Dosimetry for the TRT was calculated using radiation transport simulations with the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Clonogenic as well as functional biological assays were used to assess cell response. An extension of the LQ model was developed which incorporated a dose-rate threshold for activation of repair mechanisms. Results: accurate dosimetry for in-vitro exposures of cell cultures to radioactivity was established. LQ parameters of cell survival were established for the PC-3 cell line in response to EBRT. The standard LQ model did not predict survival in PC-3 cells exposed to Y 90 irradiation over periods of up to 96 hours. In fact cells were more sensitive to the same dose when irradiation was carried out over 96 hours than 24 hours. I.e. at a lower dose-rate. Deviations from the LQ predictions were most pronounced below a threshold dose-rate of 0.5 Gy/hr. These results led to an extension of the LQ model based upon a dose-rate dependent sigmoid model of single strand DNA repair. This extension to the model resulted in predicted cell survival curves that closely matched the experimental data. Conclusion: the LQ model of cell survival to radiation has been shown to be largely predictive of response to low dose-rate irradiation. However, in cells displaying LDH, further adaptation of the model was required. (authors)

  18. Callous-unemotional, impulsive-irresponsible, and grandiose-manipulative traits: Distinct associations with heart rate, skin conductance, and startle responses to violent and erotic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kyranides, Melina N; Georgiou, Giorgos; Petridou, Maria; Colins, Olivier F; Tuvblad, Catherine; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes. Callous-unemotional traits were uniquely associated with lower levels of sympathy toward victims and lower ratings of fear and sadness during violent scenes. All three psychopathy dimensions and the total psychopathy scale showed negative zero-order correlations with heart rate at baseline, but regression analyses revealed that only grandiose manipulation was uniquely predictive of lower baseline heart rate. Grandiose manipulation was also significantly associated with lower baseline skin conductance. Regarding autonomic activity, findings resulted in a unique negative association between grandiose manipulation and heart rate activity in response to violent scenes. In contrast, the impulsive-irresponsible dimension was positively related with heart rate activity to violent scenes. Finally, findings revealed that only callous-unemotional traits were negatively associated with startle potentiation in response to violent scenes. No associations during erotic scenes were identified. These findings point to unique associations between the three assessed dimensions of psychopathy with physiological measures, indicating that grandiose manipulation is associated with hypoarousal, impulsive irresponsibility with hyperarousal, and callous-unemotional traits with low emotional and fear responses to violent scenes. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  20. The therapeutic effect of clinical trials: understanding placebo response rates in clinical trials – A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walach Harald

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvement in the placebo groups. We wanted to clarify, what elements of clinical trials determine placebo variability. Methods We analysed a representative sample of 141 published long-term trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; duration > 12 weeks to find out what study characteristics predict placebo response rates in various diseases. Correlational and regression analyses with study characteristics and placebo response rates were carried out. Results We found a high and significant correlation between placebo and treatment response rate across diseases (r = .78; p Conclusion Medication response rates and placebo response rates in clinical trials are highly correlated. Trial characteristics can explain some portion of the variance in placebo healing rates in RCTs. Placebo response in trials is only partially due to methodological artefacts and only partially dependent on the diagnoses treated.

  1. A parsimonious characterization of change in global age-specific and total fertility rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand trends in global fertility from 1950-2010 though the analysis of age-specific fertility rates. This approach incorporates both the overall level, as when the total fertility rate is modeled, and different patterns of age-specific fertility to examine the relationship between changes in age-specific fertility and fertility decline. Singular value decomposition is used to capture the variation in age-specific fertility curves while reducing the number of dimensions, allowing curves to be described nearly fully with three parameters. Regional patterns and trends over time are evident in parameter values, suggesting this method provides a useful tool for considering fertility decline globally. The second and third parameters were analyzed using model-based clustering to examine patterns of age-specific fertility over time and place; four clusters were obtained. A country’s demographic transition can be traced through time by membership in the different clusters, and regional patterns in the trajectories through time and with fertility decline are identified. PMID:29377899

  2. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  3. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  4. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  5. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  6. Dose-rate and humidity effects upon the gamma-radiation response of nylon-based radiachromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.; Proksch, E.

    1979-10-01

    At dose-rates typical for 60 Co gamma irradiation sources, the radiation response of hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide/ 50μm nylon radiachromic films is dependent upon dose-rate as well as upon the moisture content of the films, or the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere, respectively. Under equilibrium moisture conditions, the response measured at 606 nm 24 hours after end of irradiation shows its highest dose-rate dependence at about 32 % r.h. A decrease in dose-rate from 2.8 to 0.039 Gy.s -1 results in a decrease in response by 17%. At higher humidities, the sensitivity of the film as well as the rate dependence decreases and at 86% r.h. no discernible dose-rate effect could be found. At lower humidities than 32% a flat maximum in response follows. At nominal 0% r.h. a second absorption band at 412 nm appears which is converted completely to an additional 606 nm absorption by exposure to a humid atmosphere. After that procedure the resultant response is somewhat lower than but shows almost the same dose-rate dependence as at 32% r.h. or else to eliminate the dose-rate effect by an extrapolation procedure based on the fact that the rate dependence vanishes at zero dose. (author)

  7. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  8. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  9. Automatic postural response systems in individuals with congenital total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Yabe, K

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the absence of vision from birth on automatic postural responses to platform displacements during stance. Postural responses were induced by producing randomly four types of perturbations which consisted of forward and backward translations, and toe up and down rotations. Nine congenitally totally blind and nine sighted adults served as subjects. EMG signals were recorded from four muscles in the right leg, and reaction time to somatosensory stimuli generated by platform displacements was measured by pushing a hand-held button. To assess the ability to control postural balance, the root mean square (RMS) values for lateral and antero-posterior sway before, during, and after perturbations were calculated. The EMG amplitude in the gastrocnemius muscle of a blind subject was smaller than that of a sighted subject with eyes closed. No significant differences were found between blind and sighted subjects in EMG latencies of the lower extremity muscles in response to perturbations. The blind subjects had significantly faster reaction times to somatosensory stimuli triggered by platform displacements, but in toe down rotations no significant difference was found between blind and sighted subjects. The difference in the EMG latencies and reaction times between the two groups suggests that blindness from birth may not affect the spinal stretch reflex, but may affect a volitional act mediated through the motor cortex. There were also no significant differences in the RMS values for postural sway between blind and sighted subjects with eyes open or closed, although blind subjects swayed more after backward translations than did sighted subjects with eyes open. Results suggest that the ability to control postural balance during perturbations was not affected by vision loss from birth. Our findings suggest that the automatic postural response systems of humans are unaffected by the absence of vision from birth and are rather hard wired.

  10. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  11. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  12. Response of human fibroblasts to low dose rate gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritschilo, A.; Brennan, T.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Cells from 11 human strains, including fibroblasts from patients with the genetic diseases of ataxia telangiectasia (AT), xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and Fanconi's anemia (FA), were exposed to γ radiation at high (1.6-2.2 Gy/min) and at low (0.03-0.07 Gy/min) dose rates. Survival curves reveal an increase inthe terminal slope (D 0 ) when cells are irradiated at low dose rates compared to high dose rates. This was true for all cell lines tested, although the AT, FA, and XP cells are reported or postulated to have radiation repair deficiencies. From the response of these cells, it is apparent that radiation sensitivities differ; however, at low dose rate, all tested human cells are able to repair injury

  13. The Biologic Response to Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Wear Particles in Total Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Powell, Ashley A; Pasko, Kinga M; Brockett, Claire L; Tipper, Joanne L

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composites are polymers resistant to fatigue strain, radiologically transparent, and have mechanical properties suitable for a range of orthopaedic applications. In bulk form, PEEK composites are generally accepted as biocompatible. In particulate form, however, the biologic response relevant to joint replacement devices remains unclear. The biologic response to wear particles affects the longevity of total joint arthroplasties. Particles in the phagocytozable size range of 0.1 µm to 10 µm are considered the most biologically reactive, particularly particles with a mean size of PEEK-based wear debris from total joint arthroplasties. (1) What are the quantitative characteristics of PEEK-based wear particles produced by total joint arthroplasties? (2) Do PEEK wear particles cause an adverse biologic response when compared with UHMWPE or a similar negative control biomaterial? (3) Is the biologic response affected by particle characteristics? Embase and Ovid Medline databases were searched for studies that quantified PEEK-based particle characteristics and/or investigated the biologic response to PEEK-based particles relevant to total joint arthroplasties. The keyword search included brands of PEEK (eg, MITCH, MOTIS) or variations of PEEK types and nomenclature (eg, PAEK, CFR-PEEK) in combination with types of joint (eg, hip, knee) and synonyms for wear debris or immunologic response (eg, particles, cytotoxicity). Peer-reviewed studies, published in English, investigating total joint arthroplasty devices and cytotoxic effects of PEEK particulates were included. Studies investigating devices without articulating bearings (eg, spinal instrumentation devices) and bulk material or contact cytotoxicity were excluded. Of 129 studies, 15 were selected for analysis and interpretation. No studies were found that isolated and characterized PEEK wear particles from retrieved periprosthetic human tissue samples. In the four studies that

  14. Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Richardson, Lesley; Campbell, Sally; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. We also estimated response rates according to characteristics of study context. Median response rates among cases and population controls were between 75% and 80% in the 1970s. Between 1971 and 2010, study response rates declined by 0.31% per year for cases and 0.78% for population controls. Only a minority of studies reported reasons for nonparticipation; subject refusal was the most common reported reason. Studies conducted in North America had lower median response rates than studies conducted in Europe. In-person and telephone interviews elicited higher response rates than mail questionnaires. Response rates from case-control studies of cancer have declined, and this could threaten the validity of results derived from these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect Of Adding Sago Flour In Yoghurt Based On Viscosity, Overrun, Melting Rate And Total Solid Of Yoghurt Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Ayu Wijayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replication. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  16. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-11-23

    In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement. We interviewed 53 selected key informants from research, policy and practice in the Netherlands and observed the assessment of 12 interventions. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 94 interventions were submitted to the ERS, of which 23 were rejected, 58 were rated as 'theoretically sound', 10 were rated as 'probably effective' and 3 were rated as 'proven effective'. According to participants, the ERS was intended to facilitate both the improvement of available interventions and the improvement of health promotion in practice. While participants expected that describing and rating interventions promoted learning and enhanced the transferability of interventions, they were concerned that the ERS approach was not suitable for guiding intervention development and improving health promotion in practice. The expert committees that assessed the interventions struggled with a lack of norms for the relevance of effects and questions about how effects should be studied and rated. Health promotion practitioners were concerned that the ERS neglected the local adaptation of interventions and did not encourage the improvement of aspects like applicability and costs. Policy-makers and practitioners were worried that the lack of proven effectiveness legitimised cutbacks rather than learning and advancing health promotion. While measuring and centrally rating the effectiveness of interventions can be

  17. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  18. Reshaping of bulbar odor response by nasal flow rate in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Courtiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of respiratory dynamics on odor response has been poorly studied at the olfactory bulb level. However, it has been shown that sniffing in the behaving rodent is highly dynamic and varies both in frequency and flow rate. Bulbar odor response could vary with these sniffing parameter variations. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how nasal airflow can modify and shape odor response at the olfactory bulb level.To assess this question, we used a double cannulation and simulated nasal airflow protocol on anesthetized rats to uncouple nasal airflow from animal respiration. Both mitral/tufted cell extracellular unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs were recorded. We found that airflow changes in the normal range were sufficient to substantially reorganize the response of the olfactory bulb. In particular, cellular odor-evoked activities, LFP oscillations and spike phase-locking to LFPs were strongly modified by nasal flow rate.Our results indicate the importance of reconsidering the notion of odor coding as odor response at the bulbar level is ceaselessly modified by respiratory dynamics.

  19. Challenges in assessing hospital-level stroke mortality as a quality measure: comparison of ischemic, intracerebral hemorrhage, and total stroke mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Holloway, Robert G; Pan, Wenqin; Peterson, Eric D

    2012-06-01

    Public reporting efforts currently profile hospitals based on overall stroke mortality rates, yet the "mix" of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke cases may impact this rate. Using the 2005 to 2006 New York state data, we examined the degree to which hospital stroke mortality rankings varied regarding ischemic versus hemorrhagic versus total stroke. Observed/expected ratio was calculated using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Inpatient Quality Indicator software. The observed/expected ratio and outlier status based on stroke types across hospitals were examined using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and weighted κ. Overall 30-day stroke mortality rates were 15.2% and varied from 11.3% for ischemic stroke and 37.3% for intracerebral hemorrhage. Hospital risk-adjusted ischemic stroke observed/expected ratio was weakly correlated with its own intracerebral hemorrhage observed/expected ratio (r=0.38). When examining hospital performance group (mortality better, worse, or no different than average), disagreement was observed in 35 of 81 hospitals (κ=0.23). Total stroke mortality observed/expected ratio and rankings were correlated with intracerebral hemorrhage (r=0.61 and κ=0.36) and ischemic stroke (r=0.94 and κ=0.71), but many hospitals still switched classification depending on mortality metrics. However, hospitals treating a higher percent of hemorrhagic stroke did not have a statistically significant higher total stroke mortality rate relative to those treating fewer hemorrhagic strokes. Hospital stroke mortality ratings varied considerably depending on whether ischemic, hemorrhagic, or total stroke mortality rates were used. Public reporting of stroke mortality measures should consider providing risk-adjusted outcome on separate stroke types.

  20. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  1. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.

    2017-01-01

    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)

  2. Effect of Eucalyptus Oil Inhalation on Pain and Inflammatory Responses after Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Suk Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR surgery. Participants were randomized 1 : 1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group or control group (almond oil inhalation group. Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM on 3 consecutive days. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS, blood pressure, heart rate, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, and white blood cell (WBC count were measured before and after inhalation. Pain VAS on all three days (P<.001 and systolic (P<.05 and diastolic (P=.03 blood pressure on the second day were significantly lower in the group inhaling eucalyptus than that inhaling almond oil. Heart rate, CRP, and WBC, however, did not differ significantly in the two groups. In conclusion, inhalation of eucalyptus oil was effective in decreasing patient's pain and blood pressure following TKR, suggesting that eucalyptus oil inhalation may be a nursing intervention for the relief of pain after TKR.

  3. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  4. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  5. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Tran, Tuan Kiet [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, 01 Vo Van Ngan, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  6. Does the brake response time of the right leg change after left total knee arthroplasty? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos J; Barreiros, João; Cabri, Jan; Carita, Ana I; Friesecke, Christian; Loehr, Jochen F

    2008-08-01

    Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty often ask when they can safely resume car driving. There is little evidence available on which physicians can rely when advising patients on this issue. In a prospective study we assessed the brake response time of 24 patients admitted to the clinic for left total knee arthroplasty preoperatively and then 10 days after surgery. On each measurement day the patients performed two tasks, a simple and a complex brake response time task in a car simulator. Ten days after left TKA the brake response time for the simple task had decreased by 3.6% (p=0.24), the reaction time by 3.1% (p=0.34) and the movement time by 6.6% (p=0.07). However, the performance improvement was not statistically significant. Task complexity increased brake response time at both time points. A 5.8% increase was significant (p=0.01) at 10 days after surgery. Based on our results, we suggest that patients who have undergone left total knee arthroplasty may resume car driving 10 days after surgery as long as they drive a car with automatic transmission.

  7. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  8. The Impact of use of Double Set-up on Infection Rates in Revision Total Knee Replacement and Limb Salvage Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Waterman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the impact of utilizing a double set-up procedure on reducing infection rates revision total knee and limb salvage procedures in patients with known joint infection.  Eighteen cases fit selection criteria.  The recurrence rate of infection was 5.5% which is less than reported recent literature review.   This suggests the use of a double set-up in combination with other infection reducing protocols may help further reduce recurrent infection.  Keywords: double set-up, infection, revision total knee arthroplasty, limb-salvage

  9. Dose-rate effects of low-dropout voltage regulator at various biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiyuan; Zheng Yuzhan; Gao Bo; Chen Rui; Fei Wuxiong; Lu Wu; Ren Diyuan

    2010-01-01

    A low-dropout voltage regulator, LM2941, was irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at various dose rates and biases for investigating the total dose and dose rate effects. The radiation responses show that the key electrical parameters, including its output and dropout voltage, and the maximum output current, are sensitive to total dose and dose rates, and are significantly degraded at low dose rate and zero bias. The integrated circuits damage change with the dose rates and biases, and the dose-rate effects are relative to its electric field. (authors)

  10. Oil flow rate measurements using 198Au and total count technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Eduardo R.; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2013-01-01

    In industrial plants, oil and oil compounds are usually transported by closed pipelines with circular cross-section. The use of radiotracers in oil transport and processing industrial facilities allows calibrating flowmeters, measuring mean residence time in cracking columns, locate points of obstruction or leak in underground ducts, as well as investigating flow behavior or industrial processes such as in distillation towers. Inspection techniques using radiotracers are non-destructive, simple, economic and highly accurate. Among them, Total Count, which uses a small amount of radiotracer with known activity, is acknowledged as an absolute technique for flow rate measurement. A viscous fluid transport system, composed by four PVC pipelines with 13m length (12m horizontal and 1m vertical) and 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 2-inch gauges, respectively, interconnected by maneuvering valves was designed and assembled in order to conduct the research. This system was used to simulate different flow conditions of petroleum compounds and for experimental studies of flow profile in the horizontal and upward directions. As 198 Au presents a single photopeak (411,8 keV), it was the radioisotope chosen for oil labeling, in small amounts (6 ml) or around 200 kBq activity, and it was injected in the oil transport lines. A NaI scintillation detector 2'x 2', with well-defined geometry, was used to measure total activity, determine the calibration factor F and, positioned after a homogenization distance and interconnected to a standardized electronic set of nuclear instrumentation modules (NIM), to detect the radioactive cloud. (author)

  11. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalco...

  12. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  13. On a problematic procedure to manipulate response biases in recognition experiments: the case of "implied" base rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröder, Arndt; Malejka, Simone

    2017-07-01

    The experimental manipulation of response biases in recognition-memory tests is an important means for testing recognition models and for estimating their parameters. The textbook manipulations for binary-response formats either vary the payoff scheme or the base rate of targets in the recognition test, with the latter being the more frequently applied procedure. However, some published studies reverted to implying different base rates by instruction rather than actually changing them. Aside from unnecessarily deceiving participants, this procedure may lead to cognitive conflicts that prompt response strategies unknown to the experimenter. To test our objection, implied base rates were compared to actual base rates in a recognition experiment followed by a post-experimental interview to assess participants' response strategies. The behavioural data show that recognition-memory performance was estimated to be lower in the implied base-rate condition. The interview data demonstrate that participants used various second-order response strategies that jeopardise the interpretability of the recognition data. We thus advice researchers against substituting actual base rates with implied base rates.

  14. Response rate of bricklayers and supervisors on an internet or a paper-and-pencil questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether or not internet surveys yield response rates comparable to paper-and-pencil surveys for specific occupational groups, such as construction workers. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in response rates between a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an

  15. Effect of γ-dose rate and total dose interrelation on the polymeric hydrogel: A novel injectable male contraceptive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pradeep K.; Jha, Rakhi; Gupta, B.L.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2010-01-01

    Functional necessity to use a particular range of dose rate and total dose of γ-initiated polymerization to manufacture a novel polymeric hydrogel RISUG (reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance) made of styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), for its broad biomedical application explores new dimension of research. The present work involves 16 irradiated samples. They were tested by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, etc. to see the interrelation effect of gamma dose rates (8.25, 17.29, 20.01 and 25.00 Gy/min) and four sets of doses (1.8, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4 kGy) on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and porosity analysis of the biopolymeric drug RISUG. The results of randomized experiment indicated that a range of 18-24 Gy/min γ-dose rate and 2.0-2.4 kGy γ-total doses is suitable for the desirable in vivo performance of the contraceptive copolymer.

  16. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  17. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  18. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally......GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  19. Impact of Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Joint Arthroplasty on 30-Day Hospital Readmission Rates and Unplanned Episodes of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Vegari, David N; Mokris, Jeffrey G; Beaver, Walter B

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study comparing 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing outpatient versus inpatient total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. A retrospective review of 137 patients undergoing outpatient total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and 106 patients undergoing inpatient (minimum 2-day hospital stay) TJA was conducted. Unplanned hospital readmissions and unplanned episodes of care were recorded. All patients completed a telephone survey. Seven inpatients and 16 outpatients required hospital readmission or an unplanned episode of care following hospital discharge. Readmission rates were higher for TKA than THA. The authors found no statistical differences in 30-day readmission or unplanned care episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comment Response on the Final Report: Peer Review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    ), updated where appropriate, as well as new findings that the Panel developed during its review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). In the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999), the Panel notes that the objective of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a) was to describe the probable behavior of the potential repository. This report documents the comments provided in the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) and the Management and Operating Contractor responses to these comments. The responses were based on input from a number of scientists from the Management and Operating Contractor, several national laboratories, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The comments and responses are organized to be consistent with the major headings in the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999). Excerpts from the Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) are in italics; the Management and Operating Contractor responses to the comments are in straight text

  1. Predictors of Total Mortality and Echocardiographic Response for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Gazzoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Clinical studies demonstrate that up to 40% of patients do not respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, thus, appropriate patient selection is critical to the success of CRT in heart failure. Objective: Evaluation of mortality predictors and response to CRT in the Brazilian scenario. Methods: Retrospective cohort study including patients submitted to CRT in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil from 2008 to 2014. Survival was assessed through a database of the State Department of Health (RS. Predictors of echocardiographic response were evaluated using Poisson regression. Survival analysis was performed by Cox regression and Kaplan Meyer curves. A two-tailed p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 170 patients with an average follow-up of 1011 ± 632 days were included. The total mortality was 30%. The independent predictors of mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.05, p = 0.027, previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI (HR of 2.17, p = 0.049 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (HR of 3.13, p = 0.015. The percentage of biventricular stimulation at 6 months was identified as protective factor of mortality ([HR] 0.97, p = 0.048. The independent predictors associated with the echocardiographic response were absence of mitral insufficiency, presence of left bundle branch block and percentage of biventricular stimulation. Conclusion: Mortality in patients submitted to CRT in a tertiary hospital was independently associated with age, presence of COPD and previous AMI. The percentage of biventricular pacing evaluated 6 months after resynchronizer implantation was independently associated with improved survival and echocardiographic response.

  2. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  3. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  4. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  5. Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E; Clusella-Trullas, S; Terblanche, J S

    2014-02-01

    Physiological responses to transient conditions may result in costly responses with little fitness benefits, and therefore, a trade-off must exist between the speed of response and the duration of exposure to new conditions. Here, using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, we examine this potential trade-off using a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model. Specifically, we explore and dissect the interactions between plastic physiological responses, treatment-duration and -intensity using an experimental approach. We then integrate these experimental results from organismal water-balance data and their plastic responses into a population dynamics model to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates. The results show evidence for the predicted trade-off for plasticity of water loss rate (WLR) and the duration of new environmental conditions. When altered environmental conditions lasted for longer durations, physiological responses could match the new environmental conditions, and this resulted in a lower WLR and lower rates of population decline. At shorter time-scales however, a mismatch between acclimation duration and physiological responses was reflected by reduced overall population growth rates. This may indicate a potential fitness cost due to insufficient time for physiological adjustments to take place. The outcomes of this work therefore suggest plastic water balance responses have both costs and benefits, and these depend on the time-scale and magnitude of variation in environmental conditions. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of plastic physiological responses and changes in population abundance in the context of environmental variability. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  7. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  8. Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Methods Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6–12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8–11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12–15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. Results During weeks 8–11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Discussion Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Conclusions Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. PMID:25332355

  9. Revision rates for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ras Sørensen, Sofie-amalie L.; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Sporing, Sune L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare revision rates of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing (HRS) and MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA), as well as the primary causes for revisions. Methods The PubMed database was queried for potentially relevant articles addressing MoMTHA and MoMHRS, a total of 51 articles were....... The odds ratio was 1.25 (1.03:1.53) 95% CI (p = 0.03) (MoMHRS vs. MoMTHA). The studies of hip prostheses were separated into 2 categories of short- and long-term (more or less than 5 years). Short-term revision rate for MoMTHA was 4.5% after 4.8 years, and for MoMHRS 4.0% after 4.2 years. The odds ratio...

  10. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongqiang; Nunez, Felipe; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is incr...

  11. Total Leishmania antigens with Poly(I:C) induce Th1 protective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M V; Eliçabe, R J; Di Genaro, M S; Germanó, M J; Gea, S; García Bustos, M F; Salomón, M C; Scodeller, E A; Cargnelutti, D E

    2017-11-01

    Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at 3-week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad. Mice vaccinated with TLA-Poly(I:C) showed a high anti-Leishmania IgG titre, as well as increased IgG1 and IgG2a subclass titres compared with mice vaccinated with the TLA alone. The high IgG2a indicated a Th1 bias response induced by the TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization. Accordingly, the cellular immune response elicited by the formulation was characterized by an increased production of IFN-γ and no significant production of IL-4. The TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization elicited good protection, which was associated with decreased footpad swelling, a lower parasite load and a reduced histopathological alteration in the footpad. Our findings demonstrate a promising vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis that is relatively economic and easy to develop and which should be taken into account for preventing leishmaniasis in developing countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  13. Applications of the absolute reaction rate theory to biological responses in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, J.P.; Wayland, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical foundation for the study of biological responses of electric and magnetic fields. The basis of the development is the absolute reaction rate theory and the effects of fields on reaction rates. A simple application to the response of Bacillus subtilis var niger in a microwave field is made. Potential areas of application are discussed

  14. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  15. Evoked response of heart rate variability using short-duration white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Chen, Mei-Ling; Wang, Gin-You

    2010-06-24

    To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and the electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. The cardiac autonomic responses were evaluated using power spectral analysis of the R-R contour obtained from digital signal processing of the ECG tracings. The result showed that the mean heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change significantly with the noises. However, the low-frequency power (LF) which represents cardiac autonomic modulations and the ratio (LHR) of LF to high-frequency power (HF) which reflects cardiac sympathetic modulations were significantly greater in the noise intensity of 50, 60, 70 and 80dBA (pnoise intensity (rho=0.90, pwhite noises can be detected using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and the evoked responses may provide a sensitive way to evaluate the instant effect of noise to humans.

  16. A comparison of post-op haemoglobin levels and allogeneic blood transfusion rates following total knee arthroplasty without drainage or with reinfusion drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Shariff; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhavikatti, Mainudden; Dawson, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The effects of re-infusion drains on the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and post-op haemoglobin levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty were examined. A group of 22 patients undergoing primary Total Knee Arthroplasty using a CBCII Constavac Stryker re-infusion drainage system were compared with a group of 30 patients, matched for age, sex and type of prosthesis but without any drain usage. The re-infusion drain.group had a significantly lower day 1 and day 3 post-operative haemoglobin compared to the non-drainage group. The re-infusion drain group had a higher allogenic transfusion rate compared to the non-drainage group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the rate of wound and transfusion related complications and mean length of post-operative stay. We found that reinfusion drains were ineffective in reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements as compared with non-drainage in total knee arthroplasty.

  17. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  18. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  19. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  20. "The stone which the builders rejected...": Delay of reinforcement and response rate on fixed-interval and related schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearden, J H; Lejeune, Helga

    2006-02-28

    The article deals with response rates (mainly running and peak or terminal rates) on simple and on some mixed-FI schedules and explores the idea that these rates are determined by the average delay of reinforcement for responses occurring during the response periods that the schedules generate. The effects of reinforcement delay are assumed to be mediated by a hyperbolic delay of reinforcement gradient. The account predicts that (a) running rates on simple FI schedules should increase with increasing rate of reinforcement, in a manner close to that required by Herrnstein's equation, (b) improving temporal control during acquisition should be associated with increasing running rates, (c) two-valued mixed-FI schedules with equiprobable components should produce complex results, with peak rates sometimes being higher on the longer component schedule, and (d) that effects of reinforcement probability on mixed-FI should affect the response rate at the time of the shorter component only. All these predictions were confirmed by data, although effects in some experiments remain outside the scope of the model. In general, delay of reinforcement as a determinant of response rate on FI and related schedules (rather than temporal control on such schedules) seems a useful starting point for a more thorough analysis of some neglected questions about performance on FI and related schedules.

  1. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  2. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  3. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  4. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andtbacka, Robert H I; Kaufman, Howard L; Collichio, Frances; Amatruda, Thomas; Senzer, Neil; Chesney, Jason; Delman, Keith A; Spitler, Lynn E; Puzanov, Igor; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Milhem, Mohammed; Cranmer, Lee; Curti, Brendan; Lewis, Karl; Ross, Merrick; Guthrie, Troy; Linette, Gerald P; Daniels, Gregory A; Harrington, Kevin; Middleton, Mark R; Miller, Wilson H; Zager, Jonathan S; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Li, Ai; Doleman, Susan; VanderWalde, Ari; Gansert, Jennifer; Coffin, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2015 by

  5. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Cirba, C.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Turflinger, T.; Krieg, J.F.; Maher, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N ot ) and interface traps (N it ) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations

  6. Adding Postal Follow-Up to a Web-Based Survey of Primary Care and Gastroenterology Clinic Physician Chiefs Improved Response Rates but not Response Quality or Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Melissa R; Powell, Adam A; Burgess, Diana J; Haggstrom, David A; Gravely, Amy A; Halek, Krysten; Bangerter, Ann; Shaukat, Aasma; Nelson, David B

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed whether postal follow-up to a web-based physician survey improves response rates, response quality, and representativeness. We recruited primary care and gastroenterology chiefs at 125 Veterans Affairs medical facilities to complete a 10-min web-based survey on colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic practices in 2010. We compared response rates, response errors, and representativeness in the primary care and gastroenterology samples before and after adding postal follow-up. Adding postal follow-up increased response rates by 20-25 percentage points; markedly greater increases than predicted from a third e-mail reminder. In the gastroenterology sample, the mean number of response errors made by web responders (0.25) was significantly smaller than the mean number made by postal responders (2.18), and web responders provided significantly longer responses to open-ended questions. There were no significant differences in these outcomes in the primary care sample. Adequate representativeness was achieved before postal follow-up in both samples, as indicated by the lack of significant differences between web responders and the recruitment population on facility characteristics. We conclude adding postal follow-up to this web-based physician leader survey improved response rates but not response quality or representativeness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Beta Decay of 60Mn to Constrain the Neutron Capture Rate of 60Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Debra; Spyrou, Artemis; Dombos, Alex; Couture, Aaron; e15034 Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Interest in 60Fe, a long lived radioisotope synthesized in massive stars, has recently peaked. The signature of its decay allows us to probe astrophysical processes, events such as the early formation of the solar system and nucleosynthesis. To understand these observations a complete understanding of the creation, destruction and nuclear properties of 60Fe in the astrophysical environment are required. Using the beta decay of 60Mn in conjunction with total absorption spectroscopy (TAS), made possible by the high efficiency gamma ray calorimeter SuN (Summing NaI detector) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), to study the distribution of beta-decay intensity over the daughter-nucleus 60Fe, provides information about the structure of the daughter and improves the predictive power of astrophysical models. In addition to the ongoing TAS analysis, The Beta-Oslo method will be used to extract the nuclear level density and gamma-strength function of 60Fe providing much needed constraints on the neutron capture reaction rate responsible for the creation of this nucleus.

  8. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  9. Heart rate response to a climber’s fall in sport climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupsky, David

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with response of heart rate to a climber’s simulated fall in a leading position when indoor climbing. Heart rate of climbers was recorded during ascents of an overhanging route in the leading position, to the given point high above the ground, followed by falling into the last protection. The length of the free fall was defined by the place of the last belay anchor, which was at the height of climber’s ankles. The length of the fall was about two meters of free fall plus th...

  10. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  11. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  12. Radiographic and metabolic response rates following image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Grills, Inga S.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Galerani, Ana Paula; Chao, Kenneth; Welsh, Robert; Chmielewski, Gary; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiographic and metabolic response after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early lung tumors. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine tumors were treated prospectively with SBRT (dose = 48-60 Gy, 4-5 Fx). Thirty-six cases were primary NSCLC (T1N0 = 67%; T2N0 = 25%); three cases were solitary metastases. Patients were followed using CT and PET at 6, 16, and 52 weeks post-SBRT, with CT follow-up thereafter. RECIST and EORTC criteria were used to evaluate CT and PET responses. Results: At median follow-up of 9 months (0.4-26), RECIST complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and stable disease (SD) rates were 3%, 43%, 54% at 6 weeks; 15%, 38%, 46% at 16 weeks; 27%, 64%, 9% at 52 weeks. Mean baseline tumor volume was reduced by 46%, 70%, 87%, and 96%, respectively at 6, 16, 52, and 72 weeks. Mean baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was 8.3 (1.1-20.3) and reduced to 3.4, 3.0, and 3.7 at 6, 16, and 52 weeks after SBRT. EORTC metabolic CR/PR, SD, and progressive disease rates were 67%, 22%, 11% at 6 weeks; 86%, 10%, 3% at 16 weeks; 95%, 5%, 0% at 52 weeks. Conclusions: SBRT yields excellent RECIST and EORTC based response. Metabolic response is rapid however radiographic response occurs even after 1-year post treatment.

  13. Multi-scale Modeling of the Impact Response of a Strain Rate Sensitive High-Manganese Austenitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun eÖnal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-scale modeling approach was applied to predict the impact response of a strain rate sensitive high-manganese austenitic steel. The roles of texture, geometry and strain rate sensitivity were successfully taken into account all at once by coupling crystal plasticity and finite element (FE analysis. Specifically, crystal plasticity was utilized to obtain the multi-axial flow rule at different strain rates based on the experimental deformation response under uniaxial tensile loading. The equivalent stress – equivalent strain response was then incorporated into the FE model for the sake of a more representative hardening rule under impact loading. The current results demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained by proper coupling of crystal plasticity and FE analysis even if the experimental flow rule of the material is acquired under uniaxial loading and at moderate strain rates that are significantly slower than those attained during impact loading. Furthermore, the current findings also demonstrate the need for an experiment-based multi-scale modeling approach for the sake of reliable predictions of the impact response.

  14. Total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a nationwide cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Lise M; Kamstrup, Maria Rørbæk; Petersen, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Background. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective palliative treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In the present study we reviewed the clinical response to TSEBT in Danish patients with CTCL. Material and methods. This retrospective study included 35 patients with CTCL...... to treatment compared to patients treated with high-dose. Consequently the study with low-dose was discontinued and published. In patients treated with high-dose the overall response rate was 100%. Complete response (CR) rate was 68% and CR occurred after a median time of 2.1 months (range 1.8 months-2.0 years...

  15. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Physicians Respond to Web-Based Patient Ratings? An Analysis of Physicians' Responses to More Than One Million Web-Based Ratings Over a Six-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Martin; Sauter, Lisa; Jablonski, Lisa; Sander, Uwe; Taheri-Zadeh, Fatemeh

    2017-07-26

    Physician-rating websites (PRWs) may lead to quality improvements in case they enable and establish a peer-to-peer communication between patients and physicians. Yet, we know little about whether and how physicians respond on the Web to patient ratings. The objective of this study was to describe trends in physicians' Web-based responses to patient ratings over time, to identify what physician characteristics influence Web-based responses, and to examine the topics physicians are likely to respond to. We analyzed physician responses to more than 1 million patient ratings displayed on the German PRW, jameda, from 2010 to 2015. Quantitative analysis contained chi-square analyses and the Mann-Whitney U test. Quantitative content techniques were applied to determine the topics physicians respond to based on a randomly selected sample of 600 Web-based ratings and corresponding physician responses. Overall, physicians responded to 1.58% (16,640/1,052,347) of all Web-based ratings, with an increasing trend over time from 0.70% (157/22,355) in 2010 to 1.88% (6377/339,919) in 2015. Web-based ratings that were responded to had significantly worse rating results than ratings that were not responded to (2.15 vs 1.74, PWeb to patient ratings differ significantly from nonresponders regarding several characteristics such as gender and patient recommendation results (PWeb to patient ratings. This is likely because of (1) the low awareness of PRWs among physicians, (2) the fact that only a few PRWs enable physicians to respond on the Web to patient ratings, and (3) the lack of an active moderator to establish peer-to-peer communication. PRW providers should foster more frequent communication between the patient and the physician and encourage physicians to respond on the Web to patient ratings. Further research is needed to learn more about the motivation of physicians to respond or not respond to Web-based patient ratings. ©Martin Emmert, Lisa Sauter, Lisa Jablonski, Uwe Sander

  17. Overall response rates to radiation therapy for patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hoskin, Peter; Chow, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy has been shown to successfully palliate bone metastases. A number of systematic reviews and large clinical trials have reported response rates for initial treatment and retreatment. Objective: To determine overall response rates of patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment. Methods: Intent-to-treat and evaluable patient statistics from a systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for initial treatment of bone metastases and a randomized clinical trial of retreatment were pooled and analyzed to determine the overall response rates for patients receiving initial treatment and retreatment. Results: In the intent-to-treat calculation, 71–73% of patients had an overall response to radiation treatment and in the evaluable patient population; 85–87% of patients did so. Response rates varied slightly whether patients underwent single or multiple fractions in initial treatment or retreatment. Conclusions: Single and multiple fraction radiation treatment yielded very similar overall response rates. Patients treated with a single fraction for both initial and repeat radiation experience almost identical overall response to those patients treated with multiple fraction treatment. It is therefore recommended that patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases be treated with a single 8 Gy fraction of radiation at both the initial treatment and retreatment

  18. Comparison of reconstructed radial pin total fission rates with experimental results in full scale BWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter; Jatuff, Fabian [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This work presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates in two configurations, I-1A and I-2A. Both configurations contain, in the central test zone, an array of 3x3 SVEA-96+ fuel elements moderated with light water at 20 deg. C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the NW corner of the central fuel element. To minimize the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3x3 experimental configuration was modeled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group albedos calculated at the test zone boundary using a full-core 3D MCNPX model. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratios of the total fission rates have a standard deviation of 1.3% in configuration I-1A (uncontrolled) and 3.2% in configuration I-2A (controlled). Sensitivity cases are analyzed to show the impact of certain parameters on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. It is shown that the relative pin fission rate is only weakly dependent on these parameters. In cases without a control blade, the pin power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, significant deviations, that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations, are observed in cases when the control blade is inserted. (authors)

  19. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  20. Radiobiological aspects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The biological effects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation in interstitial and intracavitary radiotherapy and total body irradiation are discussed in terms of dose-rate fractionation sensitivity for various tissues. A scaling between dose-rate and fraction size was established for acute and late normal-tissue effects which can serve as a guideline for local treatment in the range of dose rates between 0.02 and 0.005 Gy/min and fraction sizes between 8.5 and 2.5 Gy. This is valid provided cell-cycle progression and proliferation can be ignored. Assuming that the acute and late tissue responses are characterized by α/β values of about 10 and 3 Gy and a mono-exponential repair half-time of about 3 h, the same total doses given with either of the two methods are approximately equivalent. The equivalence for acute and late non-hemopoietic normal tissue damage is 0.02 Gy/min and 8.5 Gy per fraction; 0.01 Gy/min and 5.5 Gy per fraction; and 0.005 Gy/min and 2.5Gy per fraction. A very low dose rate, below 0.005 Gy/min, is thus necessary to simulate high dose-rate radiotherapy with fraction sizes of about 2Gy. The scaling factor is, however, dependent on the repair half-time of the tissue. A review of published data on dose-rate effects for normal tissue response showed a significantly stronger dose-rate dependence for late than for acute effects below 0.02 Gy/min. There was no significant difference in dose-rate dependence between various acute non-hemopoietic effects or between various late effects. The consistent dose-rate dependence, which justifies the use of a general scaling factor between fraction size and dose rate, contrasts with the wide range of values for repair half-time calculated for various normal-tissue effects. This indicates that the model currently used for repair kinetics is not satisfactory. There are also few experimental data in the clinical dose-rate range, below 0.02 Gy/min. It is therefore

  1. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  2. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  3. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from leaves of the Artocarpus heterophyllus by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-wu; Liu, Yan-qing; Wang, Yuan-hong

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the ultrasonic-assisted extract on of total flavonoids from leaves of the Artocarpus heterophyllus. Investigated the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and liquid-solid ratio on flavonoids yield. A 17-run response surface design involving three factors at three levels was generated by the Design-Expert software and experimental data obtained were subjected to quadratic regression analysis to create a mathematical model describing flavonoids extraction. The optimum ultrasonic assisted extraction conditions were: ethanol volume fraction 69.4% and liquid-solid ratio of 22.6:1 for 32 min. Under these optimized conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 7.55 mg/g. The Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

  5. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  7. Recovery of balance function among individuals with total knee arthroplasty: Comparison of responsiveness among four balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andy C M; Ouyang, Xi H; Jehu, Deborah A M; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C

    2018-01-01

    Balance deficits are common after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however the responsiveness of commonly used balance measurement tools has not been well defined. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness of four measurement tools in assessing recovery of balance function following TKA. A total of 134 individuals with TKA (95 women; age: 66.3±6.6years) completed the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), Mini-BESTest, Brief-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-TKA. The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) served as the anchor measure, and was also measured across these time points. Internal responsiveness was indicated by the standardized response mean (SRM), while external responsiveness was reflected by the degree of association of the changes of balance scores with those of FGA. The SRM ranged from 0.60-1.14 for the BESTest, 0.40-0.94 for the Mini-BESTest, 0.27-0.91 for the Brief-BESTest, and 0.19-0.70 for the BBS, over time. The change in BESTest and Mini-BESTest scores predicted the change in the FGA scores across all time periods, except for the Mini-BESTest between weeks 12-24, accounting for 13-27%, and 12-24% of the variance, respectively. The Brief-BESTest scores only predicted FGA scores between the weeks 2-4 (R 2 =20%). The changes in BBS scores were not associated with the FGA. The BESTest is the most responsive in measuring recovery of balance among individuals with TKA. The Mini-BESTest is a reasonable option during time constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  9. Effects of music on psychophysiological responses and opioid dosage in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Ji; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2015-10-01

    The present authors examined the effects of listening to music on psychophysiological parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate) during preoperative and postoperative days and determined whether listening to music could lower pain intensity and opioid dosage during postoperative days in patients who underwent total knee replacements. This was a two group repeated measures design for 30 subjects aged 53-85 years who were scheduled for total knee replacement. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a music group or a control group. Psychophysiological parameters were obtained from patients' monitors. A visual analog scale was used to assess postoperative pain. Opioid dosage was recorded and converted to standardized units. Mann-Whitney U-test and generalized estimating equation analysis were used to compare groups. Respiratory rates while in the surgical waiting area were lower for the music group than for the control group (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between these groups for blood pressure, heart rate, pain intensity, or opioid dosage. However, a within-group comparison showed that systolic blood pressure in the music group was significantly and consistently decreased during postoperative recovery (Wald = 9.21, P = 0.007). These results suggest that listening to music stabilized systolic blood pressure in patients during postoperative recovery. However, the effects of music on psychophysiological parameters, pain intensity, and opioid dosage in a surgical setting require further research. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. Improving Rice Modeling Success Rate with Ternary Non-structural Fertilizer Response Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Mingqing; Chen, Fang; Yao, Baoquan

    2018-06-13

    Fertilizer response modelling is an important technical approach to realize metrological fertilization on rice. With the goal of solving the problems of a low success rate of a ternary quadratic polynomial model (TPFM) and to expand the model's applicability, this paper established a ternary non-structural fertilizer response model (TNFM) based on the experimental results from N, P and K fertilized rice fields. Our research results showed that the TNFM significantly improved the modelling success rate by addressing problems arising from setting the bias and multicollinearity in a TPFM. The results from 88 rice field trials in China indicated that the proportion of typical TNFMs that satisfy the general fertilizer response law of plant nutrition was 40.9%, while the analogous proportion of TPFMs was only 26.1%. The recommended fertilization showed a significant positive linear correlation between the two models, and the parameters N 0 , P 0 and K 0 that estimated the value of soil supplying nutrient equivalents can be used as better indicators of yield potential in plots where no N or P or K fertilizer was applied. The theoretical analysis showed that the new model has a higher fitting accuracy and a wider application range.

  11. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  12. Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy as a Debulking Agent for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An open-label prospective phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M R; Lindahl, Lise Maria; Gniadecki, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a powerful treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Based on the occurrence of relapses with low radiation doses, doses of 30-36 Gy are commonly used but most patients still eventually relapse and repeat treatment courses are limited...... due to the cumulative toxicity. Complete response rates are about 60-90% for T2-4 stages with a 5-year relapse-free survival of 10-25% for stages IB-III. Objectives: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of low-dose TSEBT (10 Gy) in terms of complete cutaneous response rate, overall response rate...... and response duration in CTCL. Methods: Ten patients with stage IB-IV mycosis fungoides (MF) were treated in an open-label manner with 4 fractions of 1 Gy/week TSEB to a total skin dose of 10 Gy. Treatment responses were assessed at 1 and 3 months after treatment and subsequently at least every 6 months...

  13. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Dogra, Vishal; Rani, Khushbu; Sahu, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53%) of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.

  14. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  15. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  16. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J

    2012-07-25

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is increased even under a fixed transmission power. Given that energy consumption in synchronization is determined by the product of synchronization time and transformation power, the new strategy reduces energy consumption in clock synchronization. QualNet experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  17. China’s Foreign Trade: The Response to Changing the Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on official data of Chinese and international statistics assessment is given of the impact of the yuan revaluation on the parameters of China’s foreign trade by country (including in terms of crisis tendencies in the global economy. A regression analysis made it possible to obtain quantitative assessments of the responses of China’s foreign trade parameters by country, depending on different yuan revaluation (10% and 50% to the U.S. dollar. It is found that the yuan revaluation leads to reduction in the growth rates of both China’s exports and imports, with the responses by countries being different

  18. Monitoring of German fertility: Estimation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates on the basis of preliminary monthly data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Doblhammer (Gabriele); Milewski, N. (Nadja); F. Peters (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR) on the basis of

  19. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Yuki, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Tachibana, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have studied whether the p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by acute radiation is interfered with chronic pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate in human cultured cells and whole body of mice. In squamous cell carcinoma cells, we found that a challenge irradiation with X-ray immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge irradiation alone. In addition, the induction of p53-centered apoptosis and the accumulation of its related proteins after the challenge irradiation were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena. In mouse spleen, the induction of apoptosis and the accumulation of p53 and Bax were observed dose-dependently at 12 h after a challenge irradiation. In contrast, we found significant suppression of them induced by challenge irradiation at a high dose-rate when mice were pre-irradiated with chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate. These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced p53-dependent signal transduction processes. There are numerous papers about p53 functions in apoptosis, radiosensitivity, genomic instability and cancer incidence in cultured cells or animals. According to our data and other findings, since p53 can prevent carcinogenesis, pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate might enhance the predisposition to cancer. Therefore, it is possible that different maximal permissible dose equivalents for the public populations are appropriate. Furthermore, concerning health of human beings, studies of the adaptive responses to radiation are quite important, because the radiation response strongly depends on experience of prior exposure to radiation

  20. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  1. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Keihani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects.Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25 and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35 were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1% was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1 yrs were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated.Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s. High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24% than simple patterns group (98.48%. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005. Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63. Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65] as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  2. Improved survival and complete response rates in patients with advanced melanoma treated with concurrent ipilimumab and radiotherapy versus ipilimumab alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristian M; Mackley, Heath B; Liu, Jason; Wagner, Henry; Talamo, Giampaolo; Schell, Todd D; Pameijer, Colette; Neves, Rogerio I; Anderson, Bryan; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Mallon, Carol A; Drabick, Joseph J

    2017-01-02

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the synergistic roles of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of malignancy. Published case studies of the abscopal effect have been reported with the use of ipilimumab and radiotherapy in metastatic melanoma, but evidence supporting the routine use of this combination of therapy is limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate patients treated with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma at a single institution from May 2011 to June 2015. Patients were grouped into those who had received concurrent radiotherapy while on ipilimumab (Ipi-RT), and those who did not. We then evaluated the treatment response following completion of ipilimumab. A total of 101 patients received ipilimumab in the prespecified time frame. 70 received Ipi-RT and 31 received ipilimumab without concurrent radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly increased in the concurrent Ipi-RT arm at 19 months vs. 10 months for ipilimumab alone (p = 0.01). Median progression free survival (PFS) was marginally increased in the Ipi-RT group compare with the ipilimumab alone group (5 months vs. 3 months, p = 0.20). Rates of complete response (CR) were significantly increased in the Ipi-RT group vs. ipilimumab alone (25.7% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.04), and rates of overall response (OR) in the groups were 37.1% vs. 19.4% (p = 0.11). No increase in toxicities was observed in the Ipi-RT group compare with ipilimumab alone. Prospective trials are needed to further clarify the role of radiotherapy with ipilimumab, but these encouraging preliminary observations suggest that this combination can induce more durable responses to immunotherapy.

  3. Impact of Drug Therapy, Radiation Dose, and Dose Rate on Renal Toxicity Following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a radiation dose response and to determine the dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influence the incidence of late renal toxicity following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: A comprehensive retrospective review was performed of articles reporting late renal toxicity, along with renal dose, fractionation, dose rate, chemotherapy regimens, and potential nephrotoxic agents. In the final analysis, 12 articles (n = 1,108 patients), consisting of 24 distinct TBI/chemotherapy conditioning regimens were included. Regimens were divided into three subgroups: adults (age ≥18 years), children (age <18 years), and mixed population (both adults and children). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors significantly associated with late renal complications. Results: Individual analysis was performed on each population subgroup. For the purely adult population, the only significant variable was total dose. For the mixed population, the significant variables included total dose, dose rate, and the use of fludarabine. For the pediatric population, only the use of cyclosporin or teniposide was significant; no dose response was noted. A logistic model was generated with the exclusion of the pediatric population because of its lack of dose response. This model yielded the following significant variables: total dose, dose rate, and number of fractions. Conclusion: A dose response for renal damage after TBI was identified. Fractionation and low dose rates are factors to consider when delivering TBI to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Drug therapy also has a major impact on kidney function and can modify the dose-response function

  4. Radiation therapy in the management of symptomatic bone metastases: the effect of total dose and histology on pain relief and response duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Saracino, Biancamaria; D'Angelo, Luciano; Giannarelli, Diana; Arcangeli, Giancarlo; Micheli, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In order to better define variables and factors that may influence the pain response to radiation, and to look for a radiation regimen that can assure the highest percentage and the longest duration of pain relief, we performed a prospective, although not randomized, study on patients with bone metastases from various primary sites. Methods and Materials: From December 1988 to March 1994, 205 patients with a total of 255 solitary or multiple bone metastases from several primary tumors were treated in our radiotherapy center with palliative intent. Irradiation fields were treated with three main fractionation schedules: (1) Conventional fractionation: 40-46 Gy/20-23 fractions in 5-5.5 weeks; (2) Short course: 30-36 Gy/10-12 fractions in 2-2.3 weeks; (3) Fast course: 8-28 Gy/1-4 consecutive fractions. Pain intensity was self-assessed by patients using a visual analogic scale graduated from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the strongest pain one can experience). Analgesic requirement was assessed by using a five-point scale, scoring both analgesic strength and frequency (0 = no drug or occasional nonopioids; 1 = Nonopioids once daily; 2 = Nonopioids more than once daily; 3 = Mild opioids (oral codeine, pentazocine, etc.), once daily; 4 = Mild opioids more than once daily; 5 = Strong opioids (morphine, meperidine, etc.). Complete pain relief meant the achievement of a score ≤ 2 in the pain scale or 0 in the analgesic requirement scale. Partial pain relief indicated a score of 3 to 4 or of 1 to 2 on the former and latter scale, respectively. Results: Total pain relief (complete + partial) was observed in 195 (76%) sites, in 158 of which (62%) a complete response was obtained. Metastases from NSC lung tumors appeared to be the least responsive among all primary tumors, with 46% complete pain relief in comparison to 65% and 83% complete relief in breast (p = 0.04) and in prostate metastases (p 0.002), respectively. A significant difference in pain relief was detected among

  5. Win some, lose some: parental hypertension and heart rate change in an incentive versus response cost paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Johnson, C A; Hotchkiss, A P; Kraemer, D L

    1986-11-01

    Fowles (1983), citing evidence from separate studies, suggests that both incentive and response cost paradigms increase heart rate and should be subsumed under Gray's (1975) 'appetitive motivational system'. Shock avoidance and loss of reward (response cost) contingencies, while aversive, appear to evoke this motivational system; consequently both should elicit heart rate increases independent of anxiety. The present investigation compared magnitude of heart rate changes observed under conditions of winning and losing money. Results showed: no differences between incentive and response cost conditions; no effect of state anxiety on heart rate in these conditions, despite an elevation of state anxiety on the task day relative to a subsequent relaxation day assessment; and some evidence for the presence under both such appetitive conditions of cardiovascular hyperresponsivity among offspring of hypertensive parents. The results suggest a need for systematic parametric studies of experimental conditions.

  6. Dose rate and total dose dependence of the 1/f noise performance of a GaAs operational amplifier during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    A pictorial of a sectioned view of the torus of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is shown. Maintenance and inspection of the reactor are required to be performed remotely. This is due to the high gamma radiation environment in vessel during inspection and maintenance activities. The custom GaAs operational amplifier is to be used to readout sensors on the in-vessel manipulator and inspection equipment. The gamma dose rate during maintenance and inspection is anticipated to be 3 Mrad(GaAs)/hour. Here, dose rate and total dose dependence of the 1/f noise performance of a custom GaAs MESFET operational amplifier during irradiation are presented. Dose rate dependent 1/f noise degradation during irradiation is believed to be due to electron trapping in deep levels, enhanced by backgating and shallow traps excited during irradiation. The reduction of this affect with accumulated total dose is believed to be due a reduction of deep level site concentration associated with substitutional oxygen. Post irradiation 1/f noise degradation is also presented.The generation-recombination noise observed post irradiation can be attributed to the production of shallow traps due to ionizing radiation

  7. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goss-Custard, John D.; West, Andrew D.; Yates, Michael G.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Stillman, Richard A.; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E. A. Le V. Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P. U.; Ferns, Peter N.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A.; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P. F.; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J.; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H.; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an

  8. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  9. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  10. Quality-of-life outcomes in Graves disease patients after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Lukas H; Hopman, Wilma M; Witterick, Ian J; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2017-01-01

    Historically, research into surgical treatment of Graves disease has assessed subtotal rather than total thyroidectomy. Most clinicians now recommend total thyroidectomy, but little information is available regarding quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes for this procedure. Our aim was to assess QOL after total thyroidectomy. This is a retrospective, pilot study of patients with Graves disease who underwent total thyroidectomy from 1991 to 2007 at a high-volume tertiary referral center in Toronto, Canada. Questionnaires addressing disease-specific symptoms and global QOL concerns were sent to 54 patients. Analyses included parametric and nonparametric tests to assess the differences between perception of symptoms and global QOL before and after surgery. Forty patients responded (response rate: 74%) at a median of 4.8 years postoperatively. On a 10-point scale, overall wellness improved from 4.1 preoperatively to 8.7 postoperatively (p total thyroidectomy. Patients experienced marked and rapid improvement in QOL postoperatively. These findings suggest that total thyroidectomy is a safe and effective treatment.

  11. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  12. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 x 10 -3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing

  13. A comparative analysis of signal processing methods for motion-based rate responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, S E; Shreve, E A; Lau, C P

    1996-08-01

    Pacemakers that augment heart rate (HR) by sensing body motion have been the most frequently prescribed rate responsive pacemakers. Many comparisons between motion-based rate responsive pacemaker models have been published. However, conclusions regarding specific signal processing methods used for rate response (e.g., filters and algorithms) can be affected by device-specific features. To objectively compare commonly used motion sensing filters and algorithms, acceleration and ECG signals were recorded from 16 normal subjects performing exercise and daily living activities. Acceleration signals were filtered (1-4 or 15-Hz band-pass), then processed using threshold crossing (TC) or integration (IN) algorithms creating four filter/algorithm combinations. Data were converted to an acceleration indicated rate and compared to intrinsic HR using root mean square difference (RMSd) and signed RMSd. Overall, the filters and algorithms performed similarly for most activities. The only differences between filters were for walking at an increasing grade (1-4 Hz superior to 15-Hz) and for rocking in a chair (15-Hz superior to 1-4 Hz). The only differences between algorithms were for bicycling (TC superior to IN), walking at an increasing grade (IN superior to TC), and holding a drill (IN superior to TC). Performance of the four filter/algorithm combinations was also similar over most activities. The 1-4/IN (filter [Hz]/algorithm) combination performed best for walking at a grade, while the 15/TC combination was best for bicycling. However, the 15/TC combination tended to be most sensitive to higher frequency artifact, such as automobile driving, downstairs walking, and hand drilling. Chair rocking artifact was highest for 1-4/IN. The RMSd for bicycling and upstairs walking were large for all combinations, reflecting the nonphysiological nature of the sensor. The 1-4/TC combination demonstrated the least intersubject variability, was the only filter/algorithm combination

  14. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Dogra, Vishal; Rani, Khushbu; Sahu, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53%) of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run. PMID:29416999

  16. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  17. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2006-03-01

    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  18. Impact of a new vaccine clinic on hepatitis B vaccine completion and immunological response rates in an HIV-positive cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; de Barra, Eoghan; Sadlier, Corinna; Kelly, Sinead; Dowling, Catherine; McNally, Cora; Bergin, Colm

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus vaccination (HBVV) in the HIV-infected population has poor reported completion rates and immunological response rates. At our HIV clinic, we established a vaccine clinic to improve HBVV outcomes using interventions such as SMS text reminders and double-dose (DD) HBVV for standard-dose non-responders (SD NRs). A five-year (2003-2008) retrospective review of the completion rates and immunological response rates for HBVV after the establishment of the dedicated vaccine clinic was conducted. Statistical significance was assumed at presponse rate to DD HBVV among SD NRs. On-treatment analysis showed an 88% (155/176) overall immunological response to SD HBVV and DD HBVV, if required. High HBVV completion and response rates in this HIV cohort were enabled through the use of multiple interventions, including the use of SMS text message reminders and routine referral for DD vaccination. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  20. Rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with open-angle glaucoma and high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Takaiko; Fukuchi, Takeo; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Seki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Ueda, Jun

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with high myopia (HM). Seventy eyes of 70 POAG patients with HM [≤-8 diopters (D)] were examined. The mean deviation (MD) slope and the upper and lower total deviation (upper TD, lower TD) slopes of the Humphrey Field Analyzer were calculated in patients with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) (>21 mmHg) versus normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) (≤21 mmHg). The mean age of all the patients (29 eyes with HTG and 41 eyes with NTG) was 48.5 ± 9.6 years. The MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes of the HM group were compared to those of the non-HM group (NHM) (>-8 D) selected from 544 eyes in 325 age-matched POAG patients. In all, 70 eyes with HM and NHM were examined. The mean MD slope was -0.33 ± 0.33 dB/year in the HM, and -0.38 ± 0.49 dB/year in the NHM. There were no statistical differences between the HM and NHM (p = 0.9565). In the comparison of HTG versus NTG patients in both groups, the MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes were similar. The rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects was similar among patients with HM and NHM. Although HM is a risk factor for the onset of glaucoma, HM may not be a risk factor for progression of visual field defects as assessed by the progression rate under treatment.

  1. Comparison of 3 Types of Readmission Rates for Measuring Hospital and Surgeon Performance After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle, Alex; Loeffler, Mark D; Aylin, Paul; Ali, Adam M

    2018-02-26

    All-cause 30-day hospital readmission is in widespread use for monitoring and incentivizing hospital performance for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, little is known on the extent to which all-cause readmission is influenced by hospital or surgeon performance and whether alternative measures may be more valid. This is an observational study using multilevel modeling on English administrative data to determine the interhospital and intersurgeon variation for 3 readmission metrics: all-cause, surgical, and return-to-theater. Power calculations estimated the likelihood of identifying whether the readmission rate for a surgeon or hospital differed from the national average by a factor of 1.25, 1.5, 2, or 3 times, for both average and high-volume providers. 259,980 THAs and 311,033 TKAs were analyzed. Variations by both surgeons and hospitals were smaller for the all-cause measure than for the surgical or return-to-theater metrics, although statistical power to detect differences was higher. Statistical power to detect surgeon-level rates of 1.25 or 1.5 times the average was consistently low. However, at the hospital level, the surgical readmission measure showed more variation by hospital while maintaining excellent power to detect differences in rates between hospitals performing the average number of THA or TKA cases per year in England. In practice, more outliers than expected from purely random variation were found for all-cause and surgical readmissions, especially at hospital level. The 30-day surgical readmission rate should be considered as an adjunctive measure to 30-day all-cause readmission rate when assessing hospital performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  3. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen D; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona J; Gillan, Maureen GC; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Orchard, Jo; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian T; Torgerson, David; Wadsworth, Valerie; Wilkinson, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105) compared with 88.0% (389 of 442) for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study. PMID:17326837

  4. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  5. Total dynamic response of a PSS vehicle negotiating asymmetric road excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-12-01

    A planar suspension system (PSS) is a novel automobile suspension system in which an individual spring-damper strut is implemented in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively. The wheels in a vehicle with such a suspension system can move back and forth relative to the chassis. When a PSS vehicle experiences asymmetric road excitations, the relative longitudinal motion of wheels with respect to the chassis in two sides of the same axle are not identical, and thus the two wheels at one axle will not be aligned in the same axis. The total dynamic responses, including those of the bounce, pitch and the roll of the PSS vehicle, to the asymmetric road excitation may exhibit different characteristics from those of a conventional vehicle. This paper presents an investigation into the comprehensive dynamic behaviour of a vehicle with the PSS, in such a road condition, on both the straight and curved roads. The study was carried out using an 18 DOF full-car model incorporating a radial-spring tyre-ground contact model and a 2D tyre-ground dynamic friction model. Results demonstrate that the total dynamic behaviour of a PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of the conventional vehicle, while PSS exhibits significant improvement in absorbing the impact forces along the longitudinal direction when compared to the conventional suspension system. The PSS vehicle is found to be more stable than the conventional vehicle in terms of the directional performance against the disturbance of the road potholes on a straight line manoeuvre, while exhibiting a very similar handling performance on a curved line.

  6. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Secretary Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the...

  7. Heart rate response to fear conditioning and virtual reality in subthreshold PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans.

  8. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  9. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  10. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12 was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53% of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR = 2.7. The next left side branch was again married illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR = 2.1. Conclusion: We conclude that female married illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.

  11. Age-related differences in signaling efficiency of human lens cells underpin differential wound healing response rates following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Lucy Jean; Duncan, George; Wormstone, Ian Michael

    2013-01-14

    Cataract surgery is blighted by posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is more severe and frequent in the young than the elderly (>60 years). Our aim was to understand the biological basis for these age-related differences in PCO/wound healing rates. Human capsular bags were prepared by cataract surgery on donor lenses (young [60 years] groups) and maintained in serum-free Eagle's minimum essential medium. Cell growth was determined using the MTS assay. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels were determined using ELISA. Protein synthesis rates were elucidated by 35S-methionine incorporation. U0126, SB203580, and SP600125 were used to disrupt ERK-, p38-, and JNK-mediated signaling, respectively. Level of total and phospho-ERK, -c-jun, -P38, and -JNK plus cytokines were detected using a BIOPLEX array system. Following a 2-day culture period, significant decreases in IL-1β and IL-6, and increases in IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and VEGF in the >60 years group were observed compared with their younger counterparts. Capsular bags (cells and capsule) from aged donors contained greater than or equal levels of HGF and FGF than younger counterparts and had greater rates of protein synthesis. Inhibition of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling significantly suppressed cell coverage on the posterior capsule. pERK, p-c-jun, p-p38, and pJNK were consistently lower in aged cell populations; total signaling protein expression was unaffected by age. Serum stimulation increased pERK, p-c-jun, and pJNK levels in cells of all ages; p-p38 was significantly increased in the >60 years group only. Ligand availability to cells is not a limiting factor as we age, but the ability to convert this resource into signaling activity is. We therefore propose that overall signaling efficiency is reduced as a function of age, which consequently limits wound-healing response rates after injury.

  12. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira Negreti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Total electron content (TEC is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE activity events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013 the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O ∕ N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from  ∼  25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to

  13. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    events during the initial four weeks of training. RESULTS: The majority of patients experienced only moderate hip pain during exercise (range in median across exercises and sessions: 5-35 mm Visual Analog Scale) and mild pain at rest (median: 1-18 mm Visual Analog Scale), both of which decreased over...... time ( p training load (67%-166 % across exercises, p training sessions, short term pain response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...

  14. Measurement Properties of Performance-Specific Pain Ratings of Patients Awaiting Total Joint Arthroplasty as a Consequence of Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Paul W.; Kennedy, Deborah M.; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Spadoni, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the test–retest reliability of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain sub-scale and performance-specific assessments of pain, as well as the association between these measures for patients awaiting primary total hip or knee arthroplasty as a consequence of osteoarthritis. Methods: A total of 164 patients awaiting unilateral primary hip or knee arthroplasty completed four performance measures (self-paced walk, timed up and go, stair test, six-minute walk) and the WOMAC. Scores for 22 of these patients provided test–retest reliability data. Estimates of test–retest reliability (Type 2,1 intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and standard error of measurement [SEM]) and the association between measures were examined. Results: ICC values for individual performance-specific pain ratings were between 0.70 and 0.86; SEM values were between 0.97 and 1.33 pain points. ICC estimates for the four-item performance pain ratings and the WOMAC pain sub-scale were 0.82 and 0.57 respectively. The correlation between the sum of the pain scores for the four performance measures and the WOMAC pain sub-scale was 0.62. Conclusion: Reliability estimates for the performance-specific assessments of pain using the numeric pain rating scale were consistent with values reported for patients with a spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions. The reliability estimate for the WOMAC pain sub-scale was lower than typically reported in the literature. The level of association between the WOMAC pain sub-scale and the various performance-specific pain scales suggests that the scores can be used interchangeably when applied to groups but not for individual patients. PMID:20145758

  15. Response-rate differences in variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules: An old problem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    In Experiment 1, a variable-ratio 10 schedule became, successively, a variable-interval schedule with only the minimum interreinforcement intervals yoked to the variable ratio, or a variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement intervals and reinforced interresponse times yoked to the variable ratio. Response rates in the variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement interval and reinforced interresponse time yoking fell between the higher rates maintained by the variable-...

  16. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  17. Smoking and immunomodulators do not influence the response or duration of response to infliximab in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, David S; Lodhavia, Parag J; Alsahli, Mazen; Falchuk, Kenneth R; Peppercorn, Mark A; Shah, Samir A; Farrell, Richard J

    2004-07-01

    Clinical predictors for infliximab response are still unknown. Identifying predictors of response to infliximab in Crohn's disease may improve our selection of patients. Two hundred patients with luminal (61%) or fistulous (39%) Crohn's disease and at least 6 months of follow-up following a total of 416 infliximab infusions were evaluated. Clinical response and duration of response were the primary endpoints. Patients with fistulous disease had a higher response rate (83% versus 70%, P = 0.044) and a significantly longer duration of response compared with patients with luminal disease (17.4 versus 10.1 wks, P = 0.017). For luminal disease, nonsmokers and smokers had similar response rates (74% versus 64%, P = 0.5) and similar durations of response (9.4 wks versus 8.4 wks P = 0.6) while patients taking concurrent immunomodulators had similar response rates compared with those not taking immunomodulators (74% versus 71%, P = 0.9) and similar durations of response (10.4 wks versus 10.6 wks, P = 0.9). For fistulous disease, response rates (89% versus 83% P = 0.9) and duration of response (16.9 wks versus 10.1 wks, P = 0.10) were similar between nonsmokers and smokers and concurrent immunomodulators had no effect on response (89% versus 86%, P = 0.9) or duration of response (19.8 wks versus 15.4 wks, P = 0.46). Multivariable analysis confirmed that neither smoking, corticosteroids, immunomodulator therapy, gender, age, age of disease onset, disease duration, nor luminal disease location significantly influenced response or duration of response. Patients with fistulous disease had a higher response rate and a significantly longer duration of response compared with patients with luminal disease. However, among patients with luminal or fistulous disease, neither smoking nor immunomodulators had any effect on response or duration of response.

  18. A Conceptual Model for Projecting Coccolithophorid Growth, Calcification and Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation Rates in Response to Global Ocean Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A. Gafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all influence the growth, calcification and photosynthetic rates of coccolithophores to a similar degree. There have been multiple attempts to project the responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry, but the interaction with light and temperature remains elusive. Here we devise a simple conceptual model to derive a fit equation for coccolithophorid growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates in response to simultaneous changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature and light conditions. The fit equation is able to account for up to 88% of the variability in measured metabolic rates. Equation projections indicate that temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all have different modulating effects on both optimal growth conditions and the sensitivity of responses to extreme environmental conditions. Calculations suggest that a single extreme environmental condition (CO2, temperature, light will reduce maximum rates regardless of how optimal the other environmental conditions may be. Thus, while the response of coccolithophores to ocean change depends on multiple variables, the one which is least optimal will have the most impact on overall rates. Finally, responses to ocean change are usually reported in terms of cellular rates. However, changes in cellular rates can be a poor predictor for assessing changes in production at the community level. We therefore introduce a new metric, the calcium carbonate production potential (CCPP, which combines the independent effects of changes in growth rate and cellular calcium carbonate content to assess how environmental changes will impact coccolith production. Direct comparison of CO2 impacts on cellular CaCO3 production rates and CCPP shows that while the former is still at 45% of its pre-industrial capacity at 1,000 μatm, the latter is reduced to 10%.

  19. System analysis of the dynamic response of the coronary circulation to a sudden change in heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Stassen, H. G.; Spaan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the response of driving pressure/flow ration on an abrupt change in heart rate was analysed. The difference between the response obtained with constant pressure and constant flow perfusion was also studied. The responses show a fast initial reversed phase followed by a slow phase

  20. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  1. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Henzler, Dietrich; Tacke, Josef

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied (γ = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  2. Effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on resting energy production rate and total body substrate utilization in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, Matej; Voga, Gorazd

    2002-12-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) beta-blockers reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and improve myocardial efficiency by shifting myocardial substrate utilization from increased free fatty acid oxidation to increased glucose oxidation. The effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on total body resting energy production rate (EPR) and substrate utilization is not known. Twenty-six noncachectic patients with moderately severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III, left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.40) were treated with carvedilol (37.5 +/- 13.5 mg/12 h) or bisoprolol (5.4 +/- 3.0 mg/d) for 6 months. Indirect calorimetry was performed before and after 6 months of treatment. Resting EPR was decreased in carvedilol (5.021 +/- 0.803 to 4.552 +/- 0.615 kJ/min, P <.001) and bisoprolol group (5.230 +/- 0.828 to 4.978 +/- 0.640 kJ/min, P <.05; nonsignificant difference between groups). Lipid oxidation rate decreased in carvedilol and remained unchanged in bisoprolol group (2.4 +/- 1.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9 mg m(2)/kg min versus 2.7 +/- 1.1 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05). Glucose oxidation rate was increased only in carvedilol (2.6 +/- 1.4 to 4.4 +/- 1.6 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05), but did not change in bisoprolol group. Both selective and nonselective beta-blockers reduce total body resting EPR in noncachectic CHF patients. Carvedilol compared to bisoprolol shifts total body substrate utilization from lipid to glucose oxidation.

  3. Controlling for Response Bias in Self-Ratings of Personality: A Comparison of Impression Management Scales and the Overclaiming Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sascha; Moshagen, Morten

    2018-04-12

    Self-serving response distortions pose a threat to the validity of personality scales. A common approach to deal with this issue is to rely on impression management (IM) scales. More recently, the overclaiming technique (OCT) has been proposed as an alternative and arguably superior measure of such biases. In this study (N = 162), we tested these approaches in the context of self- and other-ratings using the HEXACO personality inventory. To the extent that the OCT and IM scales can be considered valid measures of response distortions, they are expected to account for inflated self-ratings in particular for those personality dimensions that are prone to socially desirable responding. However, the results show that neither the OCT nor IM account for overly favorable self-ratings. The validity of IM as a measure of response biases was further scrutinized by a substantial correlation with other-rated honesty-humility. As such, this study questions the use of both the OCT and IM to assess self-serving response distortions.

  4. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  5. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-28

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  6. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  7. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  8. System analysis of the dynamic response of the coronary circulation to a sudden change in heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankelman, J; Stassen, H G; Spaan, J A

    1990-03-01

    In this study the response of driving pressure/flow ration on an abrupt change in heart rate was analysed. The difference between the response obtained with constant pressure and constant flow perfusion was also studied. The responses show a fast initial reversed phase followed by a slow phase caused by regulation. To test whether the initial phase could be the result of mechanical changes in the coronary circulation, a model for regulation was extended by the addition of four different mechanical models originating from the literature. These extended models were able to explain the fast initial phase. However, the mechanical model consisting of an intramyocardial compliance (C = 0.08 ml mm Hg-1 100 g-1) with a variable venous resistance, and the model consisting of a waterfall and a small compliance (C = 0.007 ml mm Hg-1 100g-1) both explained these responses best. The analysis showed that there is no direct relationship between rate of change of vascular tone and rate of change of pressure/flow ratio. However, on the basis of the two extended models, it can be predicted that the half-time for the response of regulation to be complete is about 9s with constant pressure perfusion and 15 s with constant flow perfusion.

  9. Exchange rate pass-through in Switzerland: Evidence from vector autoregressions

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Stulz

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the pass-through of exchange rate and import price shocks to different aggregated prices in Switzerland. The baseline analysis is carried out with recursively identified vector autoregressive (VAR) models. The data set comprises monthly observations, and pass-through effects are quantified by means of impulse response functions. Evidence shows that the exchange rate pass-through to import prices is substantial (although incomplete), but only moderate to total consumer ...

  10. An algorithm-based approach to first-episode schizophrenia: response rates over 3 prospective antipsychotic trials with a retrospective data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agid, Ofer; Arenovich, Tamara; Sajeev, Gautam; Zipursky, Robert B; Kapur, Shitij; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Early, effective treatment in first-episode schizophrenia is advocated, although evidence based on a systematic approach over multiple antipsychotic trials is lacking. Employing a naturalistic design, we examined response rates over 3 circumscribed antipsychotic trials. Between June 2003 and December 2008, 244 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were treated at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, following an algorithm that moved them through 2 antipsychotic trials, followed by a trial with clozapine. For the first 2 trials, treatment consisted of risperidone followed by olanzapine, or vice versa; each trial consisted of 3 stages (low-, full-, or high-dose) lasting up to 4 weeks at each level and adjusted according to response/tolerability. Clinical response was defined as a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score of 2 (much improved) or 1 (very much improved) and/or a Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Thought Disorder subscale score ≤ 6. Data were analyzed retrospectively, and publication of anonymized clinical data was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in May 2003. In trial 1, 74.5% of individuals responded, with rates significantly higher for olanzapine (82.1%, 115/140) versus risperidone (66.3%, 69/104; P = .005). With trial 2, response rate dropped dramatically to 16.6% but again was significantly higher for olanzapine (25.7%, 9/35) compared to risperidone (4.0%, 1/25; P = .04). Response rate climbed above 70% once more, specifically 75.0% (21/28), in those individuals who agreed to a third trial with clozapine. Results confirm a high response rate (75%) to initial antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. A considerably lower response rate (algorithm. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. SU-E-T-628: Effect of Dose Rate and Leakage Correction for Dosimetric Leaf Gap Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W [New York Presbyterian Hospital, Tenafly, NJ (United States); Chu, A [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Chi, Y [Winter Park Cancer Center, Winter Park, FL (United States); Hu, J [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the dose rate response of Mapcheck and quantify/correct dose rate/leakage effect on IMRT QA. Evaluate the dose rate/leakage effect on dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) measurement. Methods: Varian Truebeam Linac with HD120 MLC was used for all measurement, it is capable to adjust dose rate from 600MU/min to 5MU/min. Fluke Advanced Therapy Doisemter and PTW 30013 Farmer chamber for chamber measurement; SunNuclear Mapcheck2 with 5cm total buildup for diode measurement. DLG was measured with both chamber and diode.Diode response was measured by varies dose rate, while fixed mapcheck setup and total MU. MLC Leakage was measured with both chamber and diode. Mapcheck measurement was saved as movie file (mcm file), which include measurement updated every 50mSec. The difference between intervals can be converted to dose and dose rate and leakage response correction can be applied to them. Results: DLG measurement results with chamber and diode were showed as follows, the DLG value is 0.36 vs. 0.24mm respectively. Diode dose rate response drops from 100% at 600MU/min to 95.5% at 5MU/min as follows. MLC Leakage measured with diode is 1.021%, which is 9% smaller than 1.112% from chamber measurement. By apply the dose rate and leakage correction, the residue error reduced 2/3. Conclusions: Diode has lower response at lower dose rate, as low as 4.5% for 5MU/min; diode has lower energy response for low energy too, 5% lower for Co-60 than 6MV. It partially explains the leakage difference of 9% between chamber and diode. Lower DLG with diode is because of the lower response at narrower gap, in Eclipse however DLG need to increase to makeup lower response, which is over correction for chamber though. Correction can reduce error by 2/3, the rest 1/3 can be corrected by scatter effect, which is under study.

  12. Long-Term Primary Patency Rate After Nitinol Self-Expandable Stents Implantation in Long, Totally Occluded Femoropopliteal (TASC II C & D) Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahdy, Mahmoud Farouk; Buonamici, Piergiovanni; Trapani, Maurizio; Valenti, Renato; Migliorini, Angela; Parodi, Guido; Antoniucci, David

    2017-06-01

    Endovascular therapy for long femoropopliteal lesions using percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty or first-generation of peripheral stents has been associated with unacceptable one-year restenosis rates. However, with recent advances in equipment and techniques, a better primary patency rate is expected. This study was conducted to detect the long-term primary patency rate of nitinol self-expandable stents implanted in long, totally occluded femoropopliteal lesions TransAtlantic Inter-Society Census (TASC II type C & D), and determine the predictors of reocclusion or restenosis in the stented segments. The demographics, clinical, anatomical, and procedural data of 213 patients with 240 de novo totally occluded femoropopliteal (TASC II type C & D) lesions treated with nitinol self-expandable stents were retrospectively analysed. Of these limbs, 159 (66.2%) presented with intermittent claudication, while 81 (33.8%) presented with critical limb ischaemia. The mean-time of follow-up was 36±22.6 months, (range: 6.3-106.2 months). Outcomes evaluated were, primary patency rate and predictors of reocclusion or restenosis in the stented segments. The mean age of the patients was 70.9±9.3 years, with male gender 66.2%. Mean pre-procedural ABI was 0.45±0.53. One-hundred-and-seventy-five (73%) lesions were TASC II type C, while 65 (27%) were type D lesions. The mean length of the lesions was 17.9±11.3mm. Procedure related complications occurred in 10 (4.1%) limbs. There was no periprocedural mortality. Reocclusion and restenosis were detected during follow-up in 45 and 30 limbs respectively, and all were re-treated by endovascular approach. None of the patients required major amputation. Primary patency rates were 81.4±1.1%, 77.7±1.9% and 74.4±2.8% at 12, 24, and 36 months respectively. Male gender, severe calcification, and TASC II D lesion were independent predictors for reocclusion, while predictors of restenosis were DM, smoking and TASC II D lesions

  13. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  14. 38 CFR 3.342 - Permanent and total disability ratings for pension purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applied with other types of disabilities requiring hospitalization for indefinite periods. The need for... permanency of total disability contained in § 3.340, the following special considerations apply in pension... permanence of total disability will be established as of the earliest date consistent with the evidence in...

  15. Effect of chain wheel shape on crank torque, freely chosen pedal rate, and physiological responses during submaximal cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jensen, Kurt; Hallen, Jostein

    2009-01-01

    at preset pedal rates as well as resulting in lower pedal rate and metabolic response at freely chosen pedal rate. Ten trained cyclists (mean+/-SD: 27+/-3 years of age, 182+/-4 cm tall, 77.5+/-7.0 kg of body mass, and peak oxygen uptake of 61.7+/-4.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) cycled with a Biopace and a circular...... chain wheel at 180 W at 65 and 90 rpm for recording of crank torque profiles, and at their freely chosen pedal rate for recording of pedal rate and metabolic response, including oxygen uptake and blood lactate concentration. Crank torque profiles were similar between the two chain wheels during cycling...... at preset pedal rates. During cycling at the freely chosen pedal rate (being 93+/-6 and 93+/-4 rpm for the Biopace and circular chain wheel, respectively), blood lactate concentration was significantly different between the two chain wheels, being on average 0.2 mmol l(-1) lower with the Biopace chain wheel...

  16. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamstrup, Maria R., E-mail: mkam0004@bbh.regionh.dk [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gniadecki, Robert [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Iversen, Lars [Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Skov, Lone [Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter Meidahl [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Annika [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  17. Anesthesia Preoperative Clinic Referral for Elevated Hba1c Reduces Complication Rate in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Peter J; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncontrolled). Those evaluated between in subsequent two-year intervals were referred to primary care for HbA1c ≥ 10% and ≥ 8%, respectively, to improve DM control before surgery. Complications and mortality were quantified postoperatively and at three, six, and twelve months. Length of stay (LOS) and patients requiring a prolonged LOS (> 5 days) were recorded. Patients (197 men, 6 women) underwent 71, 131, and 1 total hip, knee, and shoulder replacements, respectively. Patients undergoing TJA with uncontrolled HbA1c and those with HbA1c patients without DM. An increase in complication rate was observed in DM patients with uncontrolled HbA1c versus patients without DM (P patients with preoperative HbA1c that was uncontrolled or ≥ 10% required prolonged LOS versus those without DM (P diabetics undergoing TJA.

  18. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-12-01

    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  20. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  1. Monitoring of German Fertility: Estimation of Monthly and Yearly Total Fertility Rates on the Basis of Preliminary Monthly Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of methods for estimating fertility indicators in the absence of recent and short-term birth statistics. For Germany, we propose a set of straightforward methods that allow for the computation of monthly and yearly total fertility rates (mTFR on the basis of preliminary monthly data, including a confidence interval. The method for estimating most current fertility rates can be applied when no information on the age structure and the number of women exposed to childbearing is available. The methods introduced in this study are useful for calculating monthly birth indicators, with minimal requirements for data quality and statistical effort. In addition, we suggest an approach for projecting the yearly TFR based on preliminary monthly information up to June.

  2. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  3. Dose-rate dependence of thermoluminescence response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Chen, R.; Groom, P.J.; Durrani, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The previously observed dose-rate effect of thermoluminescence in quartz at high dose-rates is given at theoretical formulation. Computer calculations simulating the experimental conditions yield similar results to the experimental ones. (orig.)

  4. Flattening the Energy Response of a Scintillator Based Gamma Dose Rate Meter Coupled to SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knafo, Y.; Manor, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Ellenbogen, M.; Osovizky, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Ghelman, M.; Seif, R.; Mazor, T.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Among the newest emerging technologies that are used in the design of personal gamma radiation detection instruments, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) light sensor is playing an important role. This type of photo sensor is characterized by low power consumption, small dimensions and high gain. These special characteristics present applicable alternatives for the replacement of traditional gamma sensors based on scintillator coupled to Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or on Geiger-Muller(G.M.) sensors. For health physics applications, flat energy response is required for a wide range of radio-nuclides emitting gamma rays of different energies. Scintillation based radiation instrumentation provides count rate and amplitude of the measured pulses. These pulses can be split in different bins corresponding to the energy of the measured isotopes and their intensity. The count rate and the energy of the measured events are related to the dose rate. The conversion algorithm applys a different calibration factor for each energy bin in order to provide an accurate dose rate response for a wide range of gamma energies. This work describes the utilization of an innovative approach for dose rate conversion by using the abilities of newest 32-bit microcontroller based ARM core architecture

  5. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  6. Response of CR39 detector to 5 A GeV Si14+ ions and measurement of total charge changing cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Renu; Kumar, Ashavani

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, response of CR39 track etch detector was obtained by cone-height measurement technique. CR39 track etch detector was used to identify the incident charged particles and their fragments by the measurements of cone-height of tracks using an optical microscope DM6000 M and automated image analyzer system installed with Leica QWin Plus software. The CR39 detector was calibrated and the response points were fitted with a linear relation and all the points are within the limits of the experimental errors. The charge resolution of the detector was calculated to be 0.2e. The response function is obtained and fitted with a linear relation which is good throughout Z/β=6.1–14.1. The experimental value of the total charge changing cross-section of 5 A GeV Si 14+ ion beam in polyethylene and CR39 combined target is σ tot =(734±128) mb. The total charge changing cross-section is compared with the experimental results of others based on cone base-area measurement technique and also fitted by the Bradt–Peters geometrical cross-section. - Highlights: • Charge resolution of 0.2e was obtained by cone-height measurement. • Consistency in manual measurements of cone-heights is presented. • Response of CR39 detector was obtained and fitted with first degree polynomial. • Total charge changing cross-section of 5 A GeV Si 14+ ions in CH 2 and CR39 as a combined target was calculated

  7. Gamma Low-Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation Stimulates Adaptive Functional and Molecular Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells in a Threshold-, Dose-, and Dose Rate-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dias, Juliana; Gloaguen, Celine; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Manens, Line; Tack, Karine; Ebrahimian, Teni G

    2018-01-01

    A central question in radiation protection research is whether low-dose and low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures to ionizing radiation play a role in progression of cardiovascular disease. The response of endothelial cells to different LDR exposures may help estimate risk of cardiovascular disease by providing the biological mechanism involved. We investigated the effect of chronic LDR radiation on functional and molecular responses of human aorta endothelial cells (HAoECs). Human aorta endothelial cells were continuously irradiated at LDR (6 mGy/h) for 15 days and analyzed at time points when the cumulative dose reached 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. The same doses were administered acutely at high-dose rate (HDR; 1 Gy/min). The threshold for the loss of angiogenic capacity for both LDR and HDR radiations was between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. At 2.0 Gy, angiogenic capacity returned to normal only for HAoEC exposed to LDR radiation, associated with increased expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. Pre-LDR, but not pre-HDR, radiation, followed by a single acute 2.0 Gy challenge dose sustained the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes and stimulated angiogenesis. Our results suggest that dose rate is important in cellular response and that a radioadaptive response is involved for a 2.0 Gy dose at LDR.

  8. Compression-rate-dependent nonlinear mechanics of normal and impaired porcine knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marcel Leonardo; Li, LePing

    2017-11-14

    The knee joint performs mechanical functions with various loading and unloading processes. Past studies have focused on the kinematics and elastic response of the joint with less understanding of the rate-dependent load response associated with viscoelastic and poromechanical behaviors. Forty-five fresh porcine knee joints were used in the present study to determine the loading-rate-dependent force-compression relationship, creep and relaxation of normal, dehydrated and meniscectomized joints. The mechanical tests of all normal intact joints showed similar strong compression-rate-dependent behavior: for a given compression-magnitude up to 1.2 mm, the reaction force varied 6 times over compression rates. While the static response was essentially linear, the nonlinear behavior was boosted with the increased compression rate to approach the asymptote or limit at approximately 2 mm/s. On the other hand, the joint stiffness varied approximately 3 times over different joints, when accounting for the maturity and breed of the animals. Both a loss of joint hydration and a total meniscectomy greatly compromised the load support in the joint, resulting in a reduction of load support as much as 60% from the corresponding intact joint. However, the former only weakened the transient load support, but the latter also greatly weakened the equilibrium load support. A total meniscectomy did not diminish the compression-rate-dependence of the joint though. These findings are consistent with the fluid-pressurization loading mechanism, which may have a significant implication in the joint mechanical function and cartilage mechanobiology.

  9. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma.

  10. Pupil responses and pain ratings to heat stimuli: Reliability and effects of expectations and a conditioning pain stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, James C; Curry, Regina; Aschenbrenner, Carol A; Coghill, Robert C; Houle, Timothy T

    2017-03-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus. Pupillometry was performed and a method developed to quantify the PDR relevant to these stimuli. The stimulus response, reliability, and effect of commonly used manipulations on pain experience were explored. A method of artifact removal and adjusting for lag from stimulus initiation to PDR response was developed, resulting in a close correlation between pain intensity rating and PDR across a large range of heat stimuli. A reliable assessment of PDR within an individual was achieved with fewer presentations as heat stimulus intensity increased. The correlation between pain rating and PDR was disrupted when cognitive load is increased by manipulating expectations or presenting a second pain stimulus. The PDR began later after skin heating than electrical stimuli and this is the first examination of the PDR using standard nociceptive testing and manipulations of expectations and competing noxious stimulation. A method is described applying PDR to standard heat nociceptive testing, demonstrating stimulus response, reliability, and disruption by cognitive manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avoidance of Timeout from Response-Independent Food: Effects of Delivery Rate and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph V.; Baron, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, a rat's lever presses could postpone timeouts from food pellets delivered on response-independent schedules. In Experiment 1, the pellets were delivered at variable-time (VT) rates ranging from VT 0.5 to VT 8 min. Experiment 2 replicated the VT 1 min and VT 8 min conditions of Experiment 1 with new subjects. Finally, subjects…

  13. Increased mortality by septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis among bone marrow transplant recipients receiving an increased mean dose rate of total irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringden, O.; Baaryd, I.; Johansson, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seven bone marrow transplant recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving a mean dose rate of 0.07 Gy/min of total body irradiation towards the pelvic midpoint and the lungs had an increased (p<0.01) overall death rate of 86 per cent compared with 33 per cent among 27 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a mean dose rate of 0.04 Gy/min. Among the patients receiving the higher dose rate there was an increased mortality in causes related to radiation toxicity like early septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, compared with all patients receiving the lower dose rate (p<0.01) and also with 10 patients from this group with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p<0.02). (Auth.)

  14. Differences Between Men and Women with Total Laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Popescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The larynx is one of the organs that is usually involved in the tumor growth in the head and neck region and it is the second site of malignant neoplasia of the respiratory tract after the lungs. It is a wellknown fact that larynx cancer is more often present in male population, with a ratio of 3:1 male/female because of the higher rate of tobacco and alcohol use. The issues related to total laryngectomy are the loss of voice, swallowing rehabilitation, reeducation of breathing through the tracheostomy, psychological alterations and social pressure. Women tend to be more affected by the presence of the tracheostomy, since general physical aspect is a major concern for modern women. Also, the emotional status of women is a plays a major role for the adherence to the therapy plan. The response to total laryngectomy by men and women is similar with slight differences in physical aspect and social reinsertion.

  15. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  16. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Akechi

    Full Text Available Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect. Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish and East Asian (Japanese cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting, shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.. The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from

  17. Effect of prize draw incentive on the response rate to a postal survey of obstetricians and gynaecologists: A randomised controlled trial. [ISRCTN32823119

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark T Justin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response rates to postal questionnaires are falling and this threatens the external validity of survey findings. We wanted to establish whether the incentive of being entered into a prize draw to win a personal digital assistant (PDA would increase the response rate for a national survey of consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted. This involved sending a postal questionnaire to all Consultant Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the United Kingdom. Recipients were randomised to receiving a questionnaire offering a prize draw incentive (on response or no such incentive. Results The response rate for recipients offered the prize incentive was 64% (461/716 and 62% (429/694 in the no incentive group (relative rate of response 1.04, 95% CI 0.96 – 1.13 Conclusion The offer of a prize draw incentive to win a PDA did not significantly increase response rates to a national questionnaire survey of consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists.

  18. Anesthesia Preoperative Clinic Referral for Elevated Hba1c Reduces Complication Rate in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Peter J.; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C.; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncon...

  19. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  20. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the ob...

  1. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Laura E; Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni

    2016-12-19

    Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34-0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00-04:00) and TSD (22:00-06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein ( p = 0.01) and saturated fat ( p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake ( p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD ( p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD ( p sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  2. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  3. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4 to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2 where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115. Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115. On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3] and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9] completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%, immediate survey access (62%, and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%. Most reluctant responders (89% indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.

  4. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  5. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2014; 13 (5): 787-792 ... surface method were used to optimize the extraction process, while antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using α ... Response surface methodology is increasingly.

  6. Growth and yield responses of broccoli cultivars to different rates of nitrogen at western Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Moha Datta; Shakya, Santa Man

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for effective growth and yield of two varieties of broccoli in southern plain of Nepal. The experiment was laid out with two-factorial completely random block design (RCBD) comprising two...... varieties of broccoli (Calabrese and Green Sprouting) and five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) with three replication in each treatment combinations. The effects of variety and N rate on total curd yield were significant but the interaction effect was non-significant. Green Sprouting produced 11...

  7. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major): body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C.; Van Oers, K.

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  8. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major) : body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C; van Oers, K

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  9. Total Body Photography as an Aid to Skin Self-examination: A Patient's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Lisanne J; Bergman, Wilma; Kukutsch, Nicole A

    2016-02-01

    Skin self-examination can help patients who are at high risk for developing melanoma to become more involved in their own surveillance and treatment. This study examined the use of total body photography as an aid to skin self-examination from the patients' perspective. A total of 179 individuals at high risk for developing melanoma who had undergone total body photography (60.5% response rate) completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing the frequency of skin self-examination, perceived usefulness of total body photography, and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychological factors. Only approximately half of the participants indicated skin self-examination as useful and 78.9% preferred clinical skin examination by a specialist. Finding total body photography useful was associated with having received instructions on how to perform skin self-examination, the use of a (hand)mirror, and confidence to detect changing moles. These findings allow us to develop strategies to further improve patients' self-screening behaviours.

  10. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  11. A review on the strain rate dependency of the dynamic viscoplastic response of FCC metals

    OpenAIRE

    Salvado, F.C.; Teixeira-Dias, Filipe; Walley, S.; Lea, L.J.; Cardoso, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The response of structures and materials subject to ballistic impacts or blast loads remains a field of intense research. In a blast or impact load a sharp pressure wave travelling at supersonic speed impinges on the structure surface where deformation will develop at very high strain rates and stress waves may form and travel through the continuum solid. Both the dynamic loading and the temperature increase will significantly affect the mechanical and failure response of the material. This r...

  12. Effect of hypoxia on BOLD fMRI response and total cerebral blood flow in migraine with aura patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2018-01-01

    was measured in the visual cortex ROIs V1-V5. Total cerebral blood flow (CBF) was calculated by measuring the blood velocity in the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery using phase-contrast mapping (PCM) MRI. Hypoxia induced a greater decrease in BOLD response to visual stimulation in V1-V4 in MA......Experimentally induced hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura (MA). We investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal response to visual stimulation during hypoxia in MA patients and healthy volunteers. In a randomized double......-blind crossover study design, 15 MA patients were allocated to 180 min of normobaric poikilocapnic hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham (normoxia) on two separate days and 14 healthy volunteers were exposed to hypoxia. The BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) signal response to visual stimulation...

  13. TU-CD-304-04: Scanning Field Total Body Irradiation Using Dynamic Arc with Variable Dose Rate and Gantry Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Xu, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enable a scanning field total body irradiation (TBI) technique, using dynamic arcs, which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. Methods: Patient is treated slightly above the floor and the treatment field scans across the patient by a moving gantry. MLC positions change during gantry motion to keep same field opening at the level of the treatment plane (170 cm). This is done to mimic the same geometry as the moving couch TBI technique which has been used in our institution for over 10 years. The dose rate and the gantry speed are determined considering a constant speed of the moving field, variations in SSD and slanted depths resulting from oblique gantry angles. An Eclipse (Varian) planning system is commissioned to accommodate the extended SSD. The dosimetric foundations of the technique have been thoroughly investigated using phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity better than 2% across 180 cm length at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Treatment range can be extended by increasing gantry range. No device such as a gravity-oriented compensator is needed to achieve a uniform dose. It is feasible to modify the dose distribution by adjusting the dose rate at each gantry angle to compensate for body thickness differences. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 100 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel yet transportable moving field technique enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. Treatment length can be extended per need, and. MLC-based thickness compensation and partial lung blocking are also possible.

  14. Population-specific responses in physiological rates of Emiliania huxleyi to a broad CO2 range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although coccolithophore physiological responses to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have been widely studied in the past, there is limited knowledge on the variability of physiological responses between populations from different areas. In the present study, we investigated the specific responses of growth, particulate organic (POC and inorganic carbon (PIC production rates of three populations of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from three regions in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores: six strains, Canary Islands: five strains, and Norwegian coast near Bergen: six strains to a CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm. Physiological rates of each population and individual strain increased with rising pCO2 levels, reached a maximum and declined thereafter. Optimal pCO2 for growth, POC production rates, and tolerance to low pH (i.e., high proton concentration was significantly higher in an E. huxleyi population isolated from the Norwegian coast than in those isolated near the Azores and Canary Islands. This may be due to the large environmental variability including large pCO2 and pH fluctuations in coastal waters off Bergen compared to the rather stable oceanic conditions at the other two sites. Maximum growth and POC production rates of the Azores and Bergen populations were similar and significantly higher than that of the Canary Islands population. This pattern could be driven by temperature–CO2 interactions where the chosen incubation temperature (16 °C was slightly below what strains isolated near the Canary Islands normally experience. Our results indicate adaptation of E. huxleyi to their local environmental conditions and the existence of distinct E. huxleyi populations. Within each population, different growth, POC, and PIC production rates at different pCO2 levels indicated strain-specific phenotypic plasticity. Accounting for this variability is important to understand how or whether E

  15. Total and Envelope Protein-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response in Pediatric Dengue Is Highly Modulated by Age and Subsequent Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F Toro

    Full Text Available The response of antibody-secreting cells (ASC induced by dengue has only recently started to be characterized. We propose that young age and previous infections could be simple factors that affect this response. Here, we evaluated the primary and secondary responses of circulating ASC in infants (6-12 months old and children (1-14 years old infected with dengue showing different degrees of clinical severity. The ASC response was delayed and of lower magnitude in infants, compared with older children. In primary infection (PI, the total and envelope (E protein-specific IgM ASC were dominant in infants but not in children, and a negative correlation was found between age and the number of IgM ASC (rho = -0.59, P = 0.03. However, infants with plasma dengue-specific IgG detectable in the acute phase developed an intense ASC response largely dominated by IgG and comparable to that of children with secondary infection (SI. IgM and IgG produced by ASC circulating in PI or SI were highly cross-reactive among the four serotypes. Dengue infection caused the disturbance of B cell subsets, particularly a decrease in the relative frequency of naïve B cells. Higher frequencies of total and E protein-specific IgM ASC in the infants and IgG in the children were associated with clinically severe forms of infection. Therefore, the ASC response induced by dengue is highly influenced by the age at which infection occurs and previous immune status, and its magnitude is a relevant element in the clinical outcome. These results are important in the search for correlates of protection and for determining the ideal age for vaccinating against dengue.

  16. A study on measurement on artificial radiation dose rate using the response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidachi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Konno, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We examined accuracy and stability of estimated artificial dose contribution which is distinguished from natural background gamma-ray dose rate using Response Matrix method. Irradiation experiments using artificial gamma-ray sources indicated that there was a linear relationship between observed dose rate and estimated artificial dose contribution, when irradiated artificial gamma-ray dose rate was higher than about 2 nGy/h. Statistical and time-series analyses of long term data made it clear that estimated artificial contribution showed almost constant values under no artificial influence from the nuclear power plants. However, variations of estimated artificial dose contribution were infrequently observed due to of rainfall, detector maintenance operation and occurrence of calibration error. Some considerations on the factors to these variations were made. (author)

  17. TOTAL FINA ELF. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is the annual report 2002 of Total-Fina-Elf society, great company on the hydrocarbons market. According to the company objective (set the standard not only with the financial performance, but also with stringent requirements in terms of social and environmental responsibility), it presents the Chairman message, the corporate governance, the social and environmental responsibility, the future of energy, the human resources policy, the investor relations, the overview of Total-Fina-Elf fiscal year with financial information and 2002 industrial events. (A.L.B.)

  18. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  19. Extra Credit Micro-Incentives and Response Rates for Online Course Evaluations: Two Quasi-Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Eric D.; Hardin, Erin E.; Shaffer, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    To extend prior findings on the motivational value of tiny, nonfinancial incentives, we conducted two quasi-experiments on the relationship of extra credit micro-incentives (ECMIs, worth =1% of course grade) and response rates for online course evaluations. Study 1 involved two advanced undergraduate psychology courses taught by the same…

  20. Strontium-89 in palliative treatment of widespread painful bone metastases: Response rate and duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Peiman; Ghadiri, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Intravenous injection of Strontium-89 (Sr-89) is an accepted palliative treatment for bone metastases. We evaluated the pain relief achieved with this radiopharmaceutical in patients with widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers. Pain intensity on a 9-grade scale and use of narcotics was recorded before and after Sr-89 injection, and the ensuing palliative effect was divided into complete, partial and no response. The duration of response was also recorded. Thirty-five patients with widespread painful bone metastases were treated with Sr-89, of whom 22 had prostate and 13 breast cancers. Mean follow-up was 227 days, during which death was recorded for 32 patients. Fourteen patients (40%) had a complete response, 9 (26%) partial and 12 (34%) no response. In the 23 responding patients, mean duration of response was 6 months. In 17 patients the response was present until death. There was no significant relationship between pain response and patients' age or type of primary cancer. No side effects were recorded other than mild and temporary drop in white blood cell and platelet counts. Three patients with a complete response had a second injection of Sr-89 after progression of pain. One of these patients had a second partial response; the other 2 did not show a response to the second injection. The use of Sr-89 for treatment of widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers in our department showed a 66% rate of response and a mean response duration of 6 months, with no significant side effects. (author)

  1. Intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine alters the intraoperative haemodynamic responses and heart rate variability in male cats undergoing castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldal, E.R.; Eriksen, T.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Nødtvedt, A.; Kristensen, A.T.; Sparta, F.M.; Haga, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine in alleviating the intraoperative nociceptive response to castration, measured by pulse rate (PR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and to test the applicability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in

  2. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  3. A small unconditional non-financial incentive suggests an increase in survey response rates amongst older general practitioners (GPs): a randomised controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke; Ewald, Dan

    2013-07-30

    Few studies have investigated the effect of small unconditional non-monetary incentives on survey response rates amongst GPs or medical practitioners. This study assessed the effectiveness of offering a small unconditional non-financial incentive to increase survey response rates amongst general practitioners within a randomised controlled trial (RCT). An RCT was conducted within a general practice survey that investigated how to prolong working lives amongst ageing GPs in Australia. GPs (n = 125) were randomised to receive an attractive pen or no pen during their first invitation for participation in a survey. GPs could elect to complete the survey online or via mail. Two follow up reminders were sent without a pen to both groups. The main outcome measure was response rates. The response rate for GPs who received a pen was higher in the intervention group (61.9%) compared to the control group (46.8%). This study did not find a statistically significant effect of a small unconditional non-financial incentive (in the form of a pen) on survey response rates amongst GPs (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.85 (0.91 to 3.77). No GPs completed the online version. A small unconditional non-financial incentives, in the form of a pen, may improve response rates for GPs.

  4. Rate response of neurons subject to fast or frozen noise: from stochastic and homogeneous to deterministic and heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Azadeh Khajeh; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2011-07-01

    The response of a neuronal population to afferent drive can be expected to be sensitive to both the distribution and dynamics of membrane voltages within the population. Voltage fluctuations can be driven by synaptic noise, neuromodulators, or cellular inhomogeneities: processes ranging from millisecond autocorrelation times to effectively static or "frozen" noise. Here we extend previous studies of filtered fluctuations to the experimentally verified exponential integrate-and-fire model. How fast or frozen fluctuations affect the steady-state rate and firing-rate response are both examined using perturbative solutions and limits of a 1 + 2 dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The central finding is that, under conditions of a more-or-less constant population voltage variance, the firing-rate response is only weakly dependent on the fluctuation filter constant: The voltage distribution is the principal determinant of the population response. This result is unexpected given the nature of the systems underlying the extreme limits of fast and frozen fluctuations; the first limit represents a homogeneous population of neurons firing stochastically, whereas the second limit is equivalent to a heterogeneous population of neurons firing deterministically.

  5. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  6. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR and total sleep deprivation (TSD produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00 and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75. During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00 and TSD (22:00–06:00, such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01 and saturated fat (p = 0.02 during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12. Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03. Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001. Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  7. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate ( 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.

  9. No Correlation Between Press Ganey Survey Responses and Outcomes in Post-Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Khlopas, Anton; Sodhi, Nipun; Delanois, Ronald E; Spindler, Kurt P; Mont, Michael A

    2018-03-01

    In the era of the online orthopedic market, patients tend to equate publicly available online satisfaction surveys with what they presume their ultimate surgical outcome will be. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether there is a correlation between Press Ganey (PG) scores and (1) Hip Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Harris Hip Score; (2) Short Form-12 and Short Form-36 scores; (3) University of California Los Angeles and Visual Analog Scale scores assessed at a mean of 3 years (range, 1 to 6 years) after surgery. In addition, we assessed whether (4) these correlations persist in patients who were evaluated under 2 years and 3 or more years after surgery. Six-hundred ninety-two patients from November 2009 to January 2015 were identified from our institutional PG database. One-hundred ninety (27%) responded to the survey. One-hundred forty-nine (78%) patients were given the total hip arthroplasty assessment tools at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, and 33 patients (17%) completed their survey before 2 years after surgery. We assessed whether overall hospital rating scores correlated with the above assessment tools. Pearson correlation analysis revealed no correlation between the PG survey score and the assessment tools. HHS had the highest correlation coefficient (r = .120; P = .316); however, this was not significant. After removing the patients who had their follow-up survey administered under 2 years after surgery (33 patients), there was still no statistically significant correlation between the above-mentioned outcome scores and PG overall hospital rating (P > .05). No statistically significant relationship was found between commonly used total hip arthroplasty assessment tools and the PG overall hospital rating. Based on these results, PG surveys may not be a suitable implementation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid services. A set of measures that can be widely collected and reported by hospitals for

  10. Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma with 2-Stage Total en bloc Spondylectomy after Marked Response to Molecular Target Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Inoue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the bone occurs at a high rate, and the prognosis is poor. In general, total en bloc spondylectomy is considered when there is only one vertebral metastasis and the primary disease is treated. However, palliative surgery is selected when the primary disease is not being treated or metastasis occurs to an important organ. We encountered a patient in whom lung and vertebra metastases were already present at the time of the first examination at our department and the prognosis was considered poor. However, molecular targeted therapy was markedly effective and enabled 2-stage total en bloc spondylectomy. As of one year after total en bloc spondylectomy, the condition has improved to cane gait, and surgery for lung metastasis is planned. Molecular target drugs might markedly change the current therapeutic strategy for renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Radiobiological responses for two cell lines following continuous low dose-rate (CLDR) and pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, Per Henrik; Furre, Torbjoern; Olsen, Dag Rune; Pettersen, Erik O.

    2007-01-01

    The iso-effective irradiation of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation was compared with that of various schedules of pulsed dose rate (PDR) irradiation for cells of two established human lines, T-47D and NHIK 3025. Complete single-dose response curves were obtained for determination of parameters α and β by fitting of the linear quadratic formula. Sublethal damage repair constants μ and T 1/2 were determined by split-dose recovery experiments. On basis of the acquired parameters of each cell type the relative effectiveness of the two regimens of irradiation (CLDR and PDR) was calculated by use of Fowler's radiobiological model for iso-effect irradiation for repeated fractions of dose delivered at medium dose rates. For both cell types the predicted and observed relative effectiveness was compared at low and high iso-effect levels. The results indicate that the effect of PDR irradiation predicted by Fowler's model is equal to that of CLDR irradiation for both small and large doses with T-47D cells. With NHIK 3025 cells PDR irradiation induces a larger effect than predicted by the model for small doses, while it induces the predicted effect for high doses. The underlying cause of this difference is unclear, but cell-cycle parameters, like G2-accumulation is tested and found to be the same for the two cell lines

  12. The effect of pulse pile-up on threshold crossing rates in a system with a known impulse response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.V.; Davidchack, R.L.; Armstrong, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of counting rates in a counting detection system is viewed as a stochastic problem of mean threshold crossing rates for a dynamic system driven by a stationary random force. We present a general formula for calculating the rates of such a system at an arbitrary threshold for all values of event occurrence rates, given that the amplitude distribution of the incoming events and the impulse response of the detection system are known. From a single general formula we derive asymptotic expressions for counting rates at both limits of high and low incoming rates. We give a simple expression for the saturation counting rate of a detection system and show that for a high-order pile-up the average intensity and variation of the incoming signal can be determined by measuring the counting rates at two thresholds. For low incoming rates, we show how the unknown incoming distribution can be computed from the measured pulse-height spectrum. Based on the asymptotic results, we demonstrate how to construct an approximation to the impulse response function of the detection system, which facilitates numerical evaluation of the general formula. In each case, we present a comparison with numerical experiments. Throughout the paper, we illustrate how well-known experimental facts can be deduced from a single general formula. (orig.)

  13. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    employment were positively related to the birth rate. The birth rate is higher in rural areas. Mortality of professional, engineering, and administrative workers was slightly lower than the total working population, while sales workers, those in farming, fishing, and forestry, and in personal and domestic service had significantly higher mortality. The mortality of the nonworking population was 6-8 times higher than sales, transportation, and communication, and personal and domestic service as well as the total population.

  14. Results of a 5-Week Schedule of Modern Total Skin Electron Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Stephen Lloyd, E-mail: stephen.morris@gstt.nhs.uk [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McGovern, Mark; Bayne, Sally; Wain, Mary; Child, Fiona; Whittaker, Sean [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a 5-week schedule of total skin electron beam radiation therapy (TSEB) for mycosis fungoides (MF). Methods: Over 5 years, 41 patients with confirmed MF were treated with a modern TSEB technique delivering 30 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks to the whole skin surface. Data were collected prospectively and entered into the skin tumor unit research database. Skin modified skin weighted assessment tool score data were collected to determine response, duration of response, survival, and toxicity. The outcomes were analyzed according to the patient's stage before TSEB, prognostic factors, and adjuvant treatments. Results: Seventeen patients were stage 1B, 19 were stage IIB, 3 were stage III, and 2 were stage IV. The overall response rate was 95%, with a complete response rate of 51%. Seventy-six percent of patients had relapsed at median follow-up of 18 months. The median time to relapse was 12 months, to systemic therapy was 15 months, and to modified skin weighted assessment tool progression above baseline was 44 months. The complete response rate was 59% in stage IB and 47% in stage IIB patients. The median time to skin relapse was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, 18 months versus 9 months. The median time to systemic therapy was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, >56 months versus 8 months. The median overall survival was 35 months: >56 months for stage IB, 25 months for stage IIB, 46 months for stage III, and 23.5 months for stage IV. Fifteen patients received adjuvant psoralen + ultraviolet A treatment with no difference seen in the time to relapse. Conclusions: This 5-week schedule of TSEB for MF has a high response rate with comparable duration of response to other regimens. Future studies are needed to find adjuvant and combination treatments to improve the duration of response.

  15. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  16. HPA and SAM axis responses as correlates of self- vs parental ratings of anxiety in boys with an Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; McFarlane, James R

    2014-03-29

    Anxiety and Autistic Disorder (AD) are both neurological conditions and both disorders share some features that make it difficult to precisely allocate specific symptoms to each disorder. HPA and SAM axis activities have been conclusively associated with anxiety, and may provide a method of validating anxiety rating scale assessments given by parents and their children with AD about those children. Data from HPA axis (salivary cortisol) and SAM axis (salivary alpha amylase) responses were collected from a sample of 32 high-functioning boys (M age=11yr) with an Autistic Disorder (AD) and were compared with the boys' and their mothers' ratings of the boys' anxiety. There was a significant difference between the self-ratings given by the boys and ratings given about them by their mothers. Further, only the boys' self-ratings of their anxiety significantly predicted the HPA axis responses and neither were significantly related to SAM axis responses. Some boys showed cortisol responses which were similar to that previously reported in children who had suffered chronic and severe anxiety arising from stressful social interactions. As well as suggesting that some boys with an AD can provide valid self-assessments of their anxiety, these data also point to the presence of very high levels of chronic HPA-axis arousal and consequent chronic anxiety in these boys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: pathologic complete response rate, predictive and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.C. Buzatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the pathologic complete response (pCR rate from patients (n=86 with stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution from 2008 to 2013 and to determine possible predictive and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry for hormone receptors and Ki-67 was carried out. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed as predictive factors of response to therapy. For survival analysis, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate 5-year survival rates and the log-rank test to compare the curves. The addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved pCR rate from 4.8 to 46.8%, regardless of the number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles (P=0.0012. Stage II patients achieved a higher response rate compared to stage III (P=0.03. The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different between the group of patients that received trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting (56.3 and 70% at 5 years, respectively and the group that initiated it post-operatively (75.8 and 88.7% at 5 years, respectively. Axillary pCR post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR=0.34; P=0.03 and death (HR=0.21; P=0.02. In conclusion, we confirmed that trastuzumab improves pCR rates and verified that this improvement occurs even with less than four cycles of the drug. Hormone receptors and Ki-67 expressions were not predictive of response in this subset of patients. Axillary pCR clearly denotes prognosis after neoadjuvant target therapy and should be considered to be a marker of resistance, providing an opportunity to investigate new strategies for HER2-positive treatment.

  18. [Awareness rate, treatment rate and control rate of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Wang, Li-min; Mi, Sheng-quan; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yi-chong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Yu; Dai, Meng; Wang, Lin-hong

    2012-08-01

    To explore the awareness, treatment and control rates of dyslipidemia among Chinese adults aged over 18 in 2010, and to analyze the prevalent features. 97 409 subjects aged over 18 were recruited from 162 monitoring sites around 31 provinces in China mainland in 2010, applying multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Information about subjects' history of dyslipidemia, treatment and control were collected by face-to-face interview; and each subject's fasting venous blood was drawn in the morning before having food, to test total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In total, 51 818 cases of dyslipidemia ever or now, including 2235 subjects who once suffered from dyslipidemia but had their blood lipid controlled to normal, were screened out. And the awareness, treatment and control rates were calculated by complex weighting. The awareness rate of dyslipidemia among Chinese adults was 10.93%, while the stratified rates were 6.00%, 16.75% and 18.74% in the groups of subjects aged 18 - 44, 45 - 59 and over 60 years old, respectively (χ² = 1293.02, P China, respectively (χ² = 117.04, P China, respectively (χ² = 50.71, P control rate of dyslipidemia was 3.53% among total subjects, while whose stratified rates were 1.64%, 5.49% and 6.94% in the groups of subjects aged 18 - 44, 45 - 59 and over 60 years old, respectively (χ² = 554.12, P China, respectively (χ² = 91.45, P control rates of dyslipidemia have been comparatively low among Chinese adults, especially among the population who were young, or who were from rural area or western China.

  19. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen......This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...

  20. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  1. Maturation of cortical mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: effects of presentation rate and magnitude of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported two types of event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses in infants to infrequent auditory changes: a broad discriminative positivity in younger infants and a negativity resembling adult mismatch negativity (MMN) in older infants. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive discriminative slow wave and the adult-like MMN are functionally distinct by examining how they are affected by presentation rate and magnitude of change. We measured ERPs from adults, 2-month-olds, and 4-month-olds to a repeating piano tone (standard) that occasionally changed in pitch (deviant). The pitch changes between standards and deviants were either small (1/12 octave) or large (1/2 octave) in magnitude, and the stimulus presentation rate was either slow (800 ms SOA) or fast (400 ms SOA). As the presentation rate increased, both adults and 4-month-olds showed an MMN response that decreased in latency, but was unaffected in amplitude. As the magnitude of the pitch change increased, MMN increased in amplitude. On the other hand, only a broad positive mismatch response was seen in 2-month-olds. As the presentation rate increased, 2-month-olds' responses to standard tones decreased in amplitude while their responses to deviant tones were unaffected. The magnitude of the pitch change did not affect 2-month-olds' responses. These results suggest that pitch is processed differently in auditory cortex by 2-month-olds and 4-month-olds, and that a cortical change-detection mechanism for pitch discrimination similar to that of adults emerges between 2 and 4 months of age.

  2. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter...

  3. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  4. Attenuated Heart Rate Response is Associated with Hypocretin Deficiency in Patients with Narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest. CITATION: Sorensen GL......; Knudsen S; Petersen ER; Kempfner J; Gammeltoft S; Sorensen HBD; Jennum P. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2013;36(1):91-98....

  5. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  6. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A.; Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A.; Villarreal B, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  7. The Effects of Rate and Placement of Boma Manure on Maize Yield in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watiki, J.M.; Gichangi, E.M.; Itabari, J.K.; Karuka, A.M.; Nguluu, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A six session study on the response of maize to boma manure was conducted on farmer's field in Wamuyu, Machakos District in the Eastern province of Kenya to; a) determine the yield response of maize to application of boma manure in the 0 -1 00 t ha -1 range, b)evaluate the benefits of banding of boma manure as compared with broadcasting, c)determine the residual response to boma manure application; d)compare the response of boma manure with that of inorganic fertiliser. The soil on the experimental site was a well drained ,dark red, loamy sand with an average of 16.64 mg kg -1 extractable P and 0.065 % total N in the 0 -1 cm depth. Maize grain yield and total dry matter markedly increased with increasing rates of boma manure while placement method and interaction between placement and rate of application effect. A combined analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in grain yield above the rate of 40 t ha -1 of manure. Using inorganic fertiliser at the rate of 20 kg N ha -1 + 20 kg P ha -1 was found to be the best option in terms of economic benefits. The residual effects of the manure were, however, still very evident in the last season, indicating that more benefits would have been obtained from manure over a number of succeeding seasons, especially from the high rates (60 -1 00 t ha -1 )

  8. Growth and Yield Responses of Green Pepper (Capsicum annum L. to Manure Rates under Field and High Tunnel Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima-obong I. DOMINIC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine growth and yield responses of green pepper to varying manure rates under field and high tunnel conditions. Experiment 1 was a pot experiment to evaluate three rates (0.5 and 10 t/ha of poultry manure (PM on green pepper production under high tunnel and open field conditions. Experiment 2 was to determine the performance of green pepper as influenced by different manure rates (0, 5 and 10 t/ha of PM, 300 kg/ha of NPK, 5 t/ha of PM + 200 kg of NPK and 10 t/ha of PM + 100 kg of NPK on the field. High tunnel produced about 3.1 fruits/plant that weighted 102.8 g, which was significantly higher than open field experiment in which 1.7 fruits/plant, with a medium weight of 32.3 g were noted. High tunnel enhanced successful production of green pepper during rainy season, whereas the open field production during the same season was near failure. Application of 10 t/ha of PM produced significantly larger fruits in the pot experiment. Good fertilizer effects on growth and yield components were recorded for the field study. Plant height, number of leaves and branches, number and weight of harvested fruit followed similar trend in 5 and 10 t/ha of PM which gave statistically similar results, and provided the best performance during the experiment. Application of 5 t/ha of PM produced the highest total fruits yield.

  9. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A combination of high dose rate (10X FFF/2400 MU/min/10 MV X-rays) and total low dose (0.5 Gy) induces a higher rate of apoptosis in melanoma cells in vitro and superior preservation of normal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Sreeja; Pecora, Andrew; Milinovikj, Natasha; Barbiere, Joseph; Gupta, Saakshi; Hussain, Zeenathual M; Tuna, Mehmet; Jiang, Jennifer; Adrianzen, Laura; Jun, Jaewook; Catello, Laurice; Sanchez, Diana; Agarwal, Neha; Jeong, Stephanie; Jin, Youngjin; Remache, Yvonne; Goy, Andre; Ndlovu, Alois; Ingenito, Anthony; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic effects, toxicity, and radiosensitization of total low dose irradiation delivered at a high dose rate in vitro to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEM), or normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and to study the effect of mitochondrial inhibition in combination with radiation to enhance apoptosis in melanoma cells. Cells irradiated using 10X flattening filter-free (FFF) 10 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 400 or 2400 MU/min and a total dose of 0.25-8 Gy were analyzed by cell/colony counting, MitoTracker, MTT, and DNA-damage assays, as well as by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in the presence or absence of mitochondrial respiration inhibitors. A dose rate of 2400 MU/min killed on average five-fold more melanoma cells than a dose rate 400 MU/min at a total dose of 0.5 Gy and preserved 80% survival of HEM and 90% survival of HDF. Increased apoptosis at the 2400 MU/min dose rate is mediated by greater DNA damage, reduced cell proliferation, upregulation of apoptotic genes, and downregulation of cell cycle genes. HEM and HDF were relatively unharmed at 2400 MU/min. Radiation induced upregulation of mitochondrial respiration in both normal and cancer cells, and blocking the respiration with inhibitors enhanced apoptosis only in melanoma cells. A high dose rate with a low total dose (2400 MU/min, 0.5 Gy/10X FFF 10 MV X-rays) enhances radiosensitivity of melanoma cells while reducing radiotoxicity toward HEM and HDF. Selective cytotoxicity of melanoma cells is increased by blocking mitochondrial respiration.

  11. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  12. Inducing rat brain CYP2D with nicotine increases the rate of codeine tolerance; predicting the rate of tolerance from acute analgesic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Douglas M; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-12-01

    Repeated opioid administration produces analgesic tolerance, which may lead to dose escalation. Brain CYP2D metabolizes codeine to morphine, a bioactivation step required for codeine analgesia. Higher brain, but not liver, CYP2D is found in smokers and nicotine induces rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D expression and activity. Nicotine induction of rat brain CYP2D increases acute codeine conversion to morphine, and analgesia, however the role of brain CYP2D on the effects of repeated codeine exposure and tolerance is unknown. Rats were pretreated with nicotine (brain CYP2D inducer; 1mg/kg subcutaneously) or vehicle (saline; 1ml/kg subcutaneously). Codeine (40-60mg/kg oral-gavage) or morphine (20-30mg/kg oral-gavage) was administered daily and analgesia was assessed daily using the tail-flick reflex assay. Nicotine (versus saline) pretreatment increased acute codeine analgesia (1.32-fold change in AUC 0-60 min ; pnicotine did not alter acute morphine analgesia (1.03-fold; p>0.8), or the rate of morphine tolerance (8.1%/day versus 7.6%; p>0.9). The rate of both codeine and morphine tolerance (loss in peak analgesia from day 1 to day 4) correlated with initial analgesic response on day 1 (R=0.97, p<001). Increasing brain CYP2D altered initial analgesia and subsequent rate of tolerance. Variation in an individual's initial response to analgesic (e.g. high initial dose, smoking) may affect the rate of tolerance, and thereby the risk for dose escalation and/or opioid dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  14. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  15. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  16. Interferon alpha therapy for hepatitis C: treatment completion and response rates among patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftis Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs are at increased risk for hepatitis C viral infection (HCV, and few studies have explored their treatment responses empirically. The objective of this study was to assess interferon alpha therapy (IFN completion and response rates among patients with HCV who had a history of comorbid SUDs. More data is needed to inform treatment strategies and guidelines for these patients. Using a medical record database, information was retrospectively collected on 307,437 veterans seen in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 20 (VISN 20 of the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA between 1998 and 2003. For patients treated with any type of IFN (including regular or pegylated IFN or combination therapy (IFN and ribavirin who had a known HCV genotype, IFN completion and response rates were compared among patients with a history of SUD (SUD+ Group and patients without a history of SUD (SUD- Group. Results Odds ratio analyses revealed that compared with the SUD- Group, the SUD+ Group was equally likely to complete IFN therapy if they had genotypes 2 and 3 (73.1% vs. 68.0%, and if they had genotypes 1 and 4 (39.5% vs. 39.9%. Within the sample of all patients who began IFN therapy, the SUD- and SUD+ groups were similarly likely to achieve an end of treatment response (genotypes 2 and 3, 52.8% vs. 54.3%; genotypes 1 and 4, 24.5% vs. 24.8% and a sustained viral response (genotypes 2 and 3, 42.6% vs. 41.1%; genotypes 1 and 4: 16.0% vs. 22.3%. Conclusion Individuals with and without a history of SUD responded to antiviral therapy for HCV at similar rates. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients who have co-morbid SUD and HCV diagnoses can successfully complete a course of antiviral therapy.

  17. Analysis of bias effects on the total ionizing dose response in a 180 nm technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhangli; Hu Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan; Shao Hua; Chen Ming; Bi Dawei; Ning Bingxu; Zou Shichang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the shallow trench isolation (STI) leakage current in a 180 nm technology are investigated. The radiation response is strongly influenced by the bias modes, gate bias during irradiation, substrate bias during irradiation and operating substrate bias after irradiation. We found that the worst case occurs under the ON bias condition for the ON, OFF and PASS bias mode. A positive gate bias during irradiation significantly enhances the STI leakage current, indicating the electric field influence on the charge buildup process during radiation. Also, a negative substrate bias during irradiation enhances the STI leakage current. However a negative operating substrate bias effectively suppresses the STI leakage current, and can be used to eliminate the leakage current produced by the charge trapped in the deep STI oxide. Appropriate substrate bias should be introduced to alleviate the total ionizing dose (TID) response, and lead to acceptable threshold voltage shift and subthreshold hump effect. Depending on the simulation results, we believe that the electric field distribution in the STI oxide is the key parameter influencing bias effects on the radiation response of transistor. - Highlights: → ON bias is the worst bias condition for the ON, PASS and OFF bias modes. → Larger gate bias during irradiation leads to more pronounced characteristic degradation. → TID induced STI leakage can be suppressed by negative operating substrate bias voltage. → Negative substrate bias during irradiation leads to larger increase of off-state leakage. → Electric field in the STI oxide greatly influences the device's radiation effect.

  18. Critical target and dose and dose-rate responses for the induction of chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoli, C. L.; Corcoran, J. J.; Milligan, J. R.; Ward, J. F.; Morgan, W. F.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the critical target, dose response and dose-rate response for the induction of chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-substituted and unsubstituted GM10115 cells were exposed to a range of doses (0.1-10 Gy) and different dose rates (0.092-17.45 Gy min(-1)). The status of chromosomal stability was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization approximately 20 generations after irradiation in clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving acute exposure. Overall, nearly 700 individual clones representing over 140,000 metaphases were analyzed. In cells unsubstituted with BrdU, a dose response was found, where the probability of observing delayed chromosomal instability in any given clone was 3% per gray of X rays. For cells substituted with 25-66% BrdU, however, a dose response was observed only at low doses (1.0 Gy), the incidence of chromosomal instability leveled off. There was an increase in the frequency and complexity of chromosomal instability per unit dose compared to cells unsubstituted with BrdU. The frequency of chromosomal instability appeared to saturate around approximately 30%, an effect which occurred at much lower doses in the presence of BrdU. Changing the gamma-ray dose rate by a factor of 190 (0.092 to 17.45 Gy min(-1)) produced no significant differences in the frequency of chromosomal instability. The enhancement of chromosomal instability promoted by the presence of the BrdU argues that DNA comprises at least one of the critical targets important for the induction of this end point of genomic instability.

  19. Use of BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 in radiation risk assessment: Lifetime total cancer mortality risk estimates at low doses and low dose rates for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In November 1986, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to develop a coordinated Federal position on risk assessment for low levels of ionizing radiation. Since Federal risk assessment activities are based primarily on the scientific data and analyses in authoritative review documents prepared by groups like the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations' Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), DoD proposed that the CIRRPC Science Panel undertake the task of providing coordinated interagency positions on the use of information in the reports of such groups. The practice has been for individual Federal agencies to interpret and decide independently how to use the information provided in such reports. As a result of its deliberations, the Subpanel recommends two nominal risk estimates for lifetime total cancer mortality following whole-body exposure to low levels of low-LET ionizing radiation, one for the general population and one for the working-age population (see Section II). The recommended risk estimates reflect the general agreement of information in BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 for total cancer mortality. The Subpanel's risk estimates and associated statements are intended to meet the needs of the Federal agencies for: (a) values that are current; (b) values that are relevant to the low-dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposures principally encountered in carrying out Federal responsibilities; (c) a statement of the change in the estimates of lifetime total cancer mortality relative to estimates in previous authoritative review documents; and (d) a practical statement on the scientific uncertainty associated with applying the lifetime total cancer mortality values at very low doses

  20. Female married illiteracy as the most important continual determinant of total fertility rate among districts of Empowered Action Group States of India: Evidence from Annual Health Survey 2011–12

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Vishal Dogra; Khushbu Rani; Kanti Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models...

  1. An improved standard total dose test for CMOS space electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Pease, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The postirradiation response of hardened and commercial CMOS devices is investigated as a function of total dose, dose rate, and annealing time and temperature. Cobalt-60 irradiation at ≅ 200 rad(SiO 2 )/s followed by a 1-week 100 degrees C biased anneal and testing is shown to be an effective screen of hardened devices for space use. However, a similar screen and single-point test performed after Co-60 irradiation and elevated temperature anneal cannot be generally defined for commercial devices. In the absence of detailed knowledge about device and circuit radiation response, a two-point standard test is proposed to ensure space surviability of CMOS circuits: a Co-60 irradiation and test to screen against oxide-trapped charge related failures, and an additional rebound test to screen against interface-trap related failures. Testing implications for bipolar technologies are also discussed

  2. Transcriptional responses in the adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion injury: a study of the effect of ischaemic preconditioning in total knee arthroplasty patients

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Terence

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) has emerged as a method of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury. However, the complex mechanism through which IPC elicits this protection is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic response induced by IPC in muscle biopsies taken from the operative leg of total knee arthroplasty patients in order to gain insight into the IPC mechanism. Methods Twenty patients, undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty, were randomly assigned to IPC (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. Patients in the IPC group received ischaemic preconditioning immediately prior to surgery. IPC was induced by three five-minute cycles of tourniquet insufflation interrupted by five-minute cycles of reperfusion. A muscle biopsy was taken from the operative knee of control and IPC-treated patients at the onset of surgery and, again, at one hour into surgery. The gene expression profile of muscle biopsies was determined using the Affymetrix Human U113 2.0 microarray system and validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR), white cell count (WCC), cytokines and haemoglobin were also made pre- and post-operatively. Results Microarray analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of important oxidative stress defence genes, immediate early response genes and mitochondrial genes. Upregulation of pro-survival genes was also observed and correlated with a downregulation of pro-apoptotic gene expression. CRP, ESR, WCC, cytokine and haemoglobin levels were not significantly different between control and IPC patients. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that IPC of the lower limb in total knee arthroplasty patients induces a protective genomic response, which results in increased expression of immediate early response genes, oxidative stress defence genes and pro-survival genes. These findings indicate that

  3. The Effect of Music Listening on Pain, Heart Rate Variability, and Range of Motion in Older Adults After Total Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Su-Ru; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Lin, Pi-Chu

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that listening and not listening to music had on pain relief, heart rate variability (HRV), and knee range of motion in total knee replacement (TKR) patients who underwent continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation. We adopted a single-group quasi-experimental design. A sample of 49 TKR patients listened to music for 25 min during one session of CPM and no music during another session of CPM the same day for a total of 2 days. Results indicated that during CPM, patients exhibited a significant decrease in the pain level ( p listening to music compared with no music. This study demonstrated that listening to music can effectively decrease pain during CPM rehabilitation and improve the joint range of motion in patients who underwent TKR surgery.

  4. Predictors of abnormal heart rate response to dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza Leao Lima, R.; Machado, L.; Azevedo, A.B.; De Lorenzo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of abnormal HR response to dipyridamole (DIP) in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). Patients with a reduced heart rate (HR) response to DIP have higher cardiac mortality, but the mechanism is unknown. We studied 432 patients who underwent dual-isotope gated MPS. DIP (0.56 mg/kg) was infused over 4 min, and Tc-99m tetrofosmin was injected 3 min after the end of the infusion. MPS was semiquantitatively interpreted. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were automatically calculated. The population was categorized into quartiles according to HR ratio, and characteristics in each quartile were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of abnormal HR response, using the lowest quartile as the independent variable. Patients with abnormal HR response were more frequently without chest pain, with a history of chronic renal failure and taking digoxin. Baseline HR was higher and had fewer symptoms during stress. The stress and rest perfusion defects were greater, but reversibility was not; in addition, LVEF was lower. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of abnormal HR response were baseline HR and low LVEF. LV dysfunction is an independent predictor of abnormal HR response to DIP, and the association between low LVEF and low HR ratio may explain the link between abnormal HR ratio and increased mortality. (author)

  5. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates : Transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, L.G.M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; De Hulster, E.A.F.; Almering, M.J.H.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Veenhuis, M.; De Winde, J.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h?1) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at

  6. Medicaid payment rates, case-mix reimbursement, and nursing home staffing--1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Grabowski, David C; Intrator, Orna; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    We examined the impact of state Medicaid payment rates and case-mix reimbursement on direct care staffing levels in US nursing homes. We used a recent time series of national nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system for 1996-2004, merged with annual state Medicaid payment rates and case-mix reimbursement information. A 5-category response measure of total staffing levels was defined according to expert recommended thresholds, and examined in a multinomial logistic regression model. Facility fixed-effects models were estimated separately for Registered Nurse (RN), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), and Certified Nurse Aide (CNA) staffing levels measured as average hours per resident day. Higher Medicaid payment rates were associated with increases in total staffing levels to meet a higher recommended threshold. However, these gains in overall staffing were accompanied by a reduction of RN staffing and an increase in both LPN and CNA staffing levels. Under case-mix reimbursement, the likelihood of nursing homes achieving higher recommended staffing thresholds decreased, as did levels of professional staffing. Independent of the effects of state, market, and facility characteristics, there was a significant downward trend in RN staffing and an upward trend in both LPN and CNA staffing. Although overall staffing may increase in response to more generous Medicaid reimbursement, it may not translate into improvements in the skill mix of staff. Adjusting for reimbursement levels and resident acuity, total staffing has not increased after the implementation of case-mix reimbursement.

  7. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  8. Provider-Initiated Patient Satisfaction Reporting Yields Improved Physician Ratings Relative to Online Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-09-01

    Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses

  9. The stress response and anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia for total Hip Replacement in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Tian, Chun; Li, Min; Peng, Ming-Qing; Ma, Kun-Long; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Ding, Jia-Hui; Cai, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Recently, some scholars suggested that it is important to keep a stablehemodynamic state and prevent the stress responses in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). We conducted this randomized prospective study to observe anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia and stress response to it in geriatric patients during THR. We compared the effect of unilateral spinal and bilateral spinal on inhibition of stress response through measuring Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and cortisol (CORT). Plasma concentrations of NE, E and CORT were determined in blood samples using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) at three time points: To (prior to anesthesia) T1 (at the time point of skin closure), T2 (twenty-four hours after the operation). Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (unilateral spinal anesthesia) and group B (conventional bilateral spinal anesthesia). 7.5tymg of hypobaric bupivacaine were injected into subarachnoid cavity at group A and 12mg hypobaric bupivacaine were given at group B. The onset time of sensory and motor block, loss of pinprick sensation, degree of motor block, regression of sensory and motor blocks and hemodynamic changes were also recorded. These data were used to evaluate anesthetic potency of spinal anesthesia. The results of this experiment show that unilateral spinal anesthesia can provide restriction of sensory and motor block, minimize the incidence of hypotension and prevent the stress responses undergoing THR. It is optimal anesthesia procedure for geriatric patients by rapid subarachnoid injection of small doses of bupivacaine.

  10. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an open clinical study and pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Barometric pressure change and heart rate response during sleeping at 3000 m altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Nose, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure ( P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively. P B gradually decreased during the night at the speed of approximately - 0.5 hPa/h. We found that HR during sleep decreased linearly as P B decreased in all subjects, with significance ( r = 0.492-0.893; all, P < 0.001). Moreover, cross correlation analysis revealed that HR started to decrease after 15 min following the decrease in P B, on average. SpO2 was 93.8 ± 1.7% at 2305 m before climbing, then decreased significantly to 90.2 ± 2.2% at the lodge before going to bed, and further decreased to 87.5 ± 2.7% after waking (all, P < 0.05). Four of the 19 subjects showed a symptom of AMS after waking (21%). Further, the decrease in HR in response to a given decrease in P B (ΔHR/ΔPB) was negatively related with a decrease in SpO2 from before going to bed to after waking at 3000 m ( r = - 0.579, P = 0.009) and with total AMS scores after waking ( r = 0.489, P = 0.033).

  12. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain

  13. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Richard P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  14. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  15. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  16. Dam Breach Release of Non-Cohesive Sediments: Channel Response and Recovery Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Boardman, G.; Banks, W.; Andrews, M.; Conlon, M.; Dillow, J. J. A.; Gellis, A.; Lowe, S.; McClain, S.; Miller, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removals featuring unchecked releases of non-cohesive sediments are excellent opportunities to learn more about stream channel response to abrupt increases in bed material supply that can occur deliberately or by natural processes like landslides and volcanic eruptions. Understanding channel response to sediment pulses, including response rates, is essential because human uses of river channels and floodplains are impacted by these events as are aquatic habitats. We had the opportunity to study a dam removal site at the Simkins Dam in Maryland, USA, that shares many important geophysical attributes of another well-studied dam removal in the humid northeast United States [Merrimack Village Dam, New Hampshire; Pearson et al., 2011]. The watershed sizes are the same order of magnitude (102 km2), and at both sites relatively low head dams were removed (~ 3-4 m) and ~60,000 m3 of dominantly sand-sized sediments discharged to low-gradient reaches immediately downstream. Analyzing four years of repeat morphometry and bed sediment grain size surveys at the Simkins site on the Patapsco River, as well as continuous discharge and suspended sediment gaging data, we clearly document a two-phase response in the upstream reach as described by Pearson et al. [2011] for their New Hampshire site and noted at other dam removals [e.g., Major et al., 2012]. In the early phase, approximately 50% of the impounded sediment mass was eroded rapidly over a period of about three months when flows were very modest (Figure 1). After incision to base level and channel widening in the former impoundment, a second phase began when further erosion depended on floods large enough to access impounded sediments more distant from the newly-formed channel. We also found important differences in the upstream responses at the Maryland and New Hampshire sites that appear to be related to valley type (non-glaciated versus glaciated, respectively). Response variances immediately downstream between the

  17. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Enhanced response rates in pancreatic cancer with concurrent continuous infusion(CI) low dose chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronn, Donald G.; Franklin, Roman; Krishnan, Rajan S.; Richardson, Ralph W.; Conlin, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer are not offered any therapeutic intervention other than surgical bypass due to very poor prognosis, poor patient tolerance to current therapeutic regimens, and a dismal tumor response to therapy. In view of these circumstances, an acceptable treatment regimen for pancreatic cancer must first demonstrate an ability to obtain a rapid tumor response with a regimen that will be well tolerated enabling the patient to maintain a good quality of life with full ambulatory status. Materials and Methods: Nine unresectable pancreatic cancer patients ((4(9)) had liver metastases) with an average age of 62 (range: 41-79) were treated with a concurrent regimen consisting of 5-Fluorouracil (CI 200-250 mg/m 2 /24 hrs) and Cisplatin (CI 5mg/24 hrs: 2 weeks on, 1 week off) given simultaneously with 3-D planned BID hyperfractionated radiotherapy to the pancreas (5940 cGy/66 fractions/6.5 weeks), and whole liver (1980 cGy/22 fractions/2 weeks), plus additional dose to the partial liver in metastatic disease. Continuous infusion combination chemotherapy was continued alone after radiotherapy for a total of six months. Chemotherapy was delivered by dual light weight portable external pumps. Hyperalimentation was used as needed to maintain nutritional status and warfarin thromboembolic prophylaxis was also utilized. Tumor response was monitored by monthly abdominal CAT scans, serum markers (CEA, CA 19-9), weight gain, and symptomatology. Full radiographic resolution of tumor mass was considered to be a complete response (CR), whereas 50% or greater radiographic decrease in size was considered a partial response (PR). Evaluation was done by independent diagnostic radiologists. Results: CR and PR of the pancreatic mass was achieved in 88% of all patients ((8(9))). CR was achieved in 44% of all patients ((4(9))). Patients with liver metastases exhibited 75% ((3(4))) PR in liver masses and either CR or PR in the primary site. All

  19. IIVP salvage regimen induces high response rates in patients with relapsed lymphoma before autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abali, Huseyin; Oyan, Basak; Koc, Yener; Kars, Ayse; Barista, Ibrahim; Uner, Aysegul; Turker, Alev; Demirkazik, Figen; Tekin, Fatma; Tekuzman, Gulten; Kansu, Emin

    2005-06-01

    Patients with relapsed lymphoma can be cured with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). New therapeutic approaches with better cytoreductive capacity are needed for relapsed patients to keep their chance for cure with transplantation. We report 30 patients with relapsed lymphoma, median age 43 years, treated with IIVP salvage regimen consisting of ifosfamide, mesna, idarubicin, and etoposide for 2 or 3 cycles. Seventeen patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 13 patients had Hodgkin disease (HD). Fourteen (47%) patients were at their first relapse. Overall response rate was 86.6% (n = 26) with 19 patients (63.3%) achieving complete response. Overall response rate was 92% in patients with HD and 82% in NHL. The most frequent side effects observed were grade III-IV neutropenia (87%) and thrombocytopenia (73%). IIVP regimen is a highly effective salvage therapy for patients with relapsed HD or NHL who are candidates for autologous HSCT. Close follow up is necessary because of the high incidence of grade III-IV hematologic toxicity.

  20. Radiation-induced attenuation in polarization maintaining fibers: low dose rate response, stress, and materials effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, M.E.; Friebele, E.J.; Hickey, S.J.; Brambani, L.A.; Onstott, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The loss induced in polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers by low dose rate <0.01 Gy/h, where 1 Gy = 100 rads(Si) radiation exposure has been found to vary from <0.4 to ∼6 dB/km-10 Gy, depending on the wavelength of measurement and the fiber. Correlations have been established between low dose rate response and the ''permanent'' induced loss determined by fitting the recovery of the induced loss following high dose rate exposure to nth-order kinetics. Using this technique, both 0.85- and 1.3-μm PM fibers have been found which show virtually no permanent incremental loss and would therefore appear to be resistant to low dose rate radiation environments. The asymmetric stress inherent in PM fibers has been shown to reduce the permanent induced loss, while the recovery of the radiation-induced attenuation was found to be enhanced in fibers with Ge-F-doped silica clads

  1. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  2. Dose response relationship for unstable-type chromosome aberration rate of spleen cells from mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Khoda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that people who are chronically exposed to radiation such as nuclear facility workers and medical radiologists have slightly higher incidences of chromosome aberrations than non-exposed people. However, chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates related to accumulated doses and dose-rates for low dose-rate radiation exposures have not been well studied. Precise analyses of human populations are quite limited because confounding factors influence the results. For this reason, animal experiments are important for analyses. Mice were continuously exposed to gamma-rays at 400 mGy/22 hr/day for 10 days, 20 mGy/22 hr/day for about 400 days, and 1 mGy/22 hr/day for about 615 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of unstable-type chromosome aberration rates of spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at the middle dose rate and the two low-dose rates by conventional Giemsa-staining method. Aberrations such as dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and fragment increased in a two-phase manner within 0-1.2 Gy and 2-8 Gy at 20 mGy/22 hr/day. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day. Aberration rates for 1, 2, 8 Gy at the 20 mGy/22 hr/day and for 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day were 5.1, 9.6, 13.9 and 2.2 times higher than those of age-matched, non-irradiated control mice, respectively. Chromosome aberration rates at 400 mGy/22 hr/day were 2.7 times higher than that of 20 mGy/22 hr/day for the same total dose of 1.2 Gy. The results that unstable-type chromosome aberrations increased with accumulated dose of the low-dose rate radiation will be important to establish biological dosimetry for people who are chronically exposed to radiation. (author)

  3. Modified Exponential (MOE) Models: statistical Models for Risk Estimation of Low dose Rate Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous inclusion of dose and dose-rate is required to evaluate the risk of long term irradiation at low dose-rates, since biological responses to radiation are complex processes that depend both on irradiation time and total dose. Consequently, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose,dose-rate and irradiation time to estimate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and (3H) thymidine uptake in U2OS, human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological response to gamma radiation. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide. The number of binuclear cells bearing a micronucleus was counted under a florescence microscope. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and (3h) thymidine was pulsed for 4h before harvesting. We statistically analyzed the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/dose-rate. (Author)

  4. Radiation response of high speed CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, H.; Davison, D.; Jennings, R.F.; Lothongkam, P.; Rinerson, D.; Wyland, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper studies the total dose and dose rate radiation response of the FCT family of high speed CMOS integrated circuits. Data taken on the devices is used to establish the dominant failure modes, and this data is further analyzed using one-sided tolerance factors for normal distribution statistical analysis

  5. Quantitative radiation dose-response relationships for normal tissues in man. II. Response of the salivary glands during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative dose-response curve for salivary gland function in patients during radiotherapy is presented. Salivary-function data used in this study were obtained from four previously published reports. All patients were treated with 60 Co teletherapy to the head and neck using conventional treatment techniques. Salivary dysfunction was determined at specific dose levels by comparing salivary flow rates before therapy with flow rates at specific dose intervals during radiotherapy up to a total dose of 6000 cGy. Fifty percent salivary dysfunction occurred after 1000 cGy and eighty percent dysfunction was observed by the end of the therapy course (6000 cGy). The salivary-function curve was also compared to the previously published dose-response curve for taste function. Comparisons of the two curves indicate that salivary dysfunction precedes taste loss and that the shapes of the dose-response curves are different. A new term, tissue tolerance ratio, defined as the ratio of responses of two tissues given the same radiation dose, was used to make the comparisons between gustatory and salivary gland tissue effects. Measurements of salivary gland function and analysis of dose-response curves may be useful in evaluating chemical modifiers of radiation response

  6. Total gas pressure and biological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.; Prince, A.

    1999-01-01

    The total gas pressure (TGP) is a possible threat to fish populations, having a potentially lethal effect on them, but if they dive below certain depths they can avoid these effects. The spatial and temporal depth distribution of adult rainbow trout in the Columbia River below the Hugh Keenleyside (HLK) Dam was monitored, and twenty one adult rainbow trout had depth sensitive electronic tags attached to them to allow their spatial and temporal depth behavior to be tracked and recorded. Nineteen of the fish were consistently relocated after release into the Columbia River, and fish were monitored during the numerous day and night 12 hour observation periods to provide a cross section of fish behavior. With a depth benchmark determined, an experiment was carried out to manipulate TGP production levels from the HLK dam and monitor the fish behavior. TGP levels were manipulated while keeping flows downstream of the dam constant. Two groups of fish were monitored and each group of fish was monitored continuously during the specific 12 hour observation periods within each experimental session. The first session recorded fish behavior when TGP was less than 110%, the second session when TGP was elevated to over 110%, and finally, when the TGP levels were lowered back below 110%. Neither temporal nor spatial fish behavior patterns of the rainbow trout monitored appeared to be influenced by the changes in TGP, compared to that of the benchmark observations. Fish continued to hold at and feed at, or within, a 5 m depth of the surface regardless of the TGP

  7. High rates of clinically relevant incidental findings by total-body CT scanning in trauma patients; results of the REACT-2 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treskes, K.; Bos, S.A.; Sierink, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Goslings, J.C. [Academic Medical Center, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Edwards, M.J.R. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Trauma and emergency surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beuker, B.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); Muradin, G.S.R. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hohmann, J. [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Hollmann, M.W. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Anaesthesiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, M.G.W. [Academic Medical Center, Clinical Research Unit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: REACT-2 study group

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether there is a difference in frequency and clinical relevance of incidental findings detected by total-body computed tomography scanning (TBCT) compared to those by the standard work-up (STWU) with selective computed tomography (CT) scanning. Trauma patients from five trauma centres were randomized between April 2011 and January 2014 to TBCT imaging or STWU consisting of conventional imaging with selective CT scanning. Incidental findings were divided into three categories: 1) major finding, may cause mortality; 2) moderate finding, may cause morbidity; and 3) minor finding, hardly relevant. Generalized estimating equations were applied to assess differences in incidental findings. In total, 1083 patients were enrolled, of which 541 patients (49.9 %) were randomized for TBCT and 542 patients (50.1 %) for STWU. Major findings were detected in 23 patients (4.3 %) in the TBCT group compared to 9 patients (1.7 %) in the STWU group (adjusted rate ratio 2.851; 95%CI 1.337-6.077; p < 0.007). Findings of moderate relevance were detected in 120 patients (22.2 %) in the TBCT group compared to 86 patients (15.9 %) in the STWU group (adjusted rate ratio 1.421; 95%CI 1.088-1.854; p < 0.010). Compared to selective CT scanning, more patients with clinically relevant incidental findings can be expected by TBCT scanning. (orig.)

  8. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  9. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  10. Mind the rate. Why rate global climate change matters, and how much

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    To assess climate policies in a cost-efficiency framework with constraints on the magnitude and rate of global climate change we have built RESPONSE, an optimal control integrated assessment model. Our results show that the uncertainty about climate sensitivity leads to significant short-term mitigation efforts all the more as the arrival of information regarding this parameter is belated. There exists thus a high opportunity cost to know before 2030 the true value of this parameter, which is not totally granted so far. Given this uncertainty, a +2 deg C objective could lead to rather stringent policy recommendations for the coming decades and might prove unacceptable. Furthermore, the uncertainty about climate sensitivity magnifies the influence of the rate constraint on short-term decision, leading to rather stringent policy recommendations for the coming decades. This result is particularly robust to the choice of discount rate and to the beliefs of the decision-maker about climate sensitivity. We finally show that the uncertainty about the rate constraint is even more important for short-term decision than the uncertainty about climate sensitivity or magnitude of warming. This means that the critical rate of climate change, i.e. a transient characteristic of climate risks, matters much more than the long-term objective of climate policy, i.e. the critical magnitude of climate change. Therefore, research should be aimed at better characterising climate change risks in view to help decision-makers in agreeing on a safe guardrail to limit the rate of global warming. (author)

  11. Nutritional management after total laryngectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted .... status, leading to improved quality of life and better response to treatment.4.

  12. The homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery responses after total sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersyn, Garance; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Ciret, Sylvain; Drogou, Catherine; Leger, Damien; Gallopin, Thierry; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration. During TSD mice were awake at least 97% of the time, with a consecutive sleep rebound during D1 that persisted during D2. This was characterized by increases of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (44.2 ± 6.9% for D1 and 43.0 ± 7.7% for D2 versus 33.8 ± 9.2% for BSL) and the relative delta band power (179.2 ± 34.4% for D1 and 81.9 ± 11.2% for D2). Greater NREM and REM sleep amounts were observed during the 'light' periods. Temperature and locomotor activity characteristics were unchanged during D1 and D2 versus BSL. In non-implanted mice, corticosterone levels as well as adrenal gland and overall body weights did not differ between TSD and ad libitum sleep groups. In conclusion, 24 h of TSD in an activity wheel without stress responses influence homeostatic sleep regulation with no effect on the circadian regulation over at least 2 days of recovery in mice. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  14. Infestation of froghopper nymphs changes the amounts of total phenolics in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rafael José Navas da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased rate of sugarcane harvest without previous burn has provided a very favorable environment to the froghopper Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854, with high moisture and low temperature variation. Few works have studied the response of sugarcane to this pest, so little is known about resistant cultivars. Plant phenolics are widely studied compounds because of their known antiherbivore effect. This research aims to determine if the attack of M. fimbriolata nymphs stimulates the accumulation of total phenolics in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and arranged in completely randomized design, in a 3 X 2 X 4 factorial with three replications. Second instar nymphs of M. fimbriolata were infested at the following rates: control, 2-4 and 4-8 nymphs per pot (first-second infestations, respectively. Pots were covered with nylon net and monitored daily to isolate the effect of leaf sucking adults. Leaf and root samples were collected and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analyses. Infested plants showed higher levels of phenolics in both root and leaf tissues. In roots, the cultivar SP80-1816 accumulated more phenolic compounds in response to the infestation of M. fimbriolata. On the other hand, higher levels were found in leaves and roots of control plants of SP86-42, which might be an indication of a non-preference mechanism. The increase of total phenolics in sugarcane infested with root-sucking froghopper nymphs does not seem to be useful to detect the resistance to this pest.

  15. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  16. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-02-01

    In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.

  17. Effect of pre-operative methylprednisolone on orthostatic hypotension during early mobilization after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, V; Petersen, P B; Jans, Ø

    2018-01-01

    a standardized mobilization protocol pre-operatively, 6, and 24 h after surgery. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured non-invasively (Nexfin® ). The systemic inflammation was monitored by the C-reactive protein (CRP) response. RESULTS: At 6 h post-operatively, 11 (38%) versus 11......BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and intolerance (OI) are common after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and may delay early mobilization. The pathology of OH and OI includes a dysregulated post-operative vasopressor response, by a hitherto unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that OI could...... be related to the inflammatory stress response which is inhibited by steroid administration. Consequently, this study evaluated the effect of a pre-operative high-dose methylprednisolone on OH and OI early after THA. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 59 patients undergoing...

  18. Evaluation bias in objective response rate and disease control rate between blinded independent central review and local assessment: a study-level pooled analysis of phase III randomized control trials in the past seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianrong; Zhang, Yiyin; Tang, Shiyan; Liang, Hengrui; Chen, Difei; Jiang, Long; He, Qihua; Huang, Yu; Wang, Xinyu; Deng, Kexin; Jiang, Shuhan; Zhou, Jiaqing; Xu, Jiaxuan; Chen, Xuanzuo; Liang, Wenhua; He, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    In previous studies, complete-case implementation of blind independent central review has been considered unnecessary based on no sign of systematic bias between central and local assessments. In order to further evaluate its value, this study investigated evaluation status between both assessments in phase III trials of anti-cancer drugs for non-hematologic solid tumors. Eligible trials were searched in PubMed with the date of Jan 1, 2010 to Jun 30, 2017. We compared objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) between central and local assessments by study-level pooled analysis and correlation analysis. In pooled analysis, direct comparison was measured by the odds ratio (OR) of central-assessed response status to local-assessed response status; to investigate evaluation bias between central and local assessments, the above calculated OR between experimental (exp-) and control (con-) arms were compared, measured by the ratio of OR. A total of 28 included trials involving 17,466 patients were included (28 with ORR, 16 with DCR). Pooled analysis showed central assessment reported lower ORR and DCR than local assessment, especially in trials with open-label design, central-assessed primary endpoint, and positive primary endpoint outcome, respectively. However, this finding could be found in both experimental [exp-ORR: OR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87), Pevaluation bias between two assessments was indicated through further analysis [ORR: ratio of OR=1.02 (0.97-1.07), P=0.42, I 2 =0%; DCR: ratio of OR=0.98 (0.93-1.03), P=0.37, I 2 =0%], regardless of mask (open/blind), sample size, tumor type, primary endpoint (central-assessed/local-assessed), and primary endpoint outcome (positive/negative). Correlation analysis demonstrated a high-degree concordance between central and local assessments (exp-ORR, con-ORR, exp-DCR, con-DCR: r>0.90, P<0.01). Blind independent central review remained irreplaceable to monitor local assessment, but its complete

  19. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Dodd, P.E.; Keast, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. No evidence was found for total-dose induced snap back. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing

  20. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  1. Effect of Number of Touches and Exercise Duration on the Kinematic Profile and Heart Rate Response During Small-Sided Games in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamichana David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise duration and the number of touches allowed during possession on time-motion characteristics and the physiological responses of soccer players in 6 vs. 6 small-sided games (SSGs lasting 12 minutes. The analysis divided each game into two 6-min periods and we compared two formats: free play (SSGfp vs. a maximum of two touches per individual possession (SSG 2T. Participants were 12 semi-professional players (age: 22.7±4.3 years; body height: 177.5+4.9 cm; body mass: 74.9±6.3 kg and the following variables were measured by means of heart rate monitors and GPS devices: mean heart rate (HRmean, time spent in each exercise intensity zone, total distance covered, total distance covered in different speed zones, number of accelerations at different intensities, maximum speed reached, player load, and the work-to-rest ratio. The results showed that in SSGFP there was a decrease in the intensity of physical parameters during the second 6-min period (6-12 min, whereas this decrease was not observed when a maximum of two touches per individual possession was allowed. During the second period (6-12 min of SSG2T there was an increase in HRmean and in the time spent in high exercise intensity zones, but these differences were not observed in SSGFP. The value of these findings for soccer coaches is that they illustrate how different technical, tactical or conditioning objectives could be addressed by altering the length and format of the SSG used in training.

  2. Total glucosides of paeony for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Jin, Di-Er; Yang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Wang, Jian-Ming; Kong, Wei-Ping; Tao, Qing-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. However, clinical practice hasn't been well informed by evidence from appropriately conducted systematic reviews. This PRISMA-compliant systematic review aims at examining the effectiveness and safety of TGP for RA. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TGP with placebo, no treatment, or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for patients with RA were retrieved by searching seven databases. Primary outcomes included disease improvement and disease remission. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, pain, health-related quality of life, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Data extraction and analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included studies and quality of evidence on pre-specified outcomes. Eight studies enrolling 1209 patients with active RA were included in this systematic review. On the basis of traditional DMARD(s), TGP might be beneficial for patients with RA in improvement of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response rate, ACR 50 response rate, ACR70 response rate, and in reduction of adverse effects, compared with no treatment. The overall methodological quality of included studies and the quality of evidence for each outcome were limited. Current trials suggested potential benefits of TGP for RA on the basis of traditional DMARD(s). Therefore, TGP may be a good choice for RA as an adjuvant therapy. However, considering the limited methodological quality and strength of evidence, high-quality RCTs are warranted to support the use of TGP for RA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The effect of sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters on high-frequency response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Goulet, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using

  4. Trade Adjustments to Exchange Rate Changes by Japanese Manufacturing MNEs: Intra-firm and arm's length transactions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDO Mitsuyo; KIMURA Fukunari

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how Japanese manufacturing multinational enterprises (MNEs) adjust to exchange rate changes. Using the micro-data of Japanese manufacturing MNEs from 1994 to 2010, we find that exports tend to respond to exchange rate changes, in particular when wholly or majority-owned affiliates are dominant among their foreign affiliates and when intra-firm trade ratios are higher. Moreover, the responsiveness to exchange rate changes is higher for intra-firm exports than for total expo...

  5. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Rudqvist

    Full Text Available 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland.BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value 1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively.In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy.

  7. Patient-Reported Outcome Coordinator Did Not Improve Quality of Life Assessment Response Rates: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Johnston

    Full Text Available Health related quality of life (HRQL assessments during therapy for pediatric cancer provide valuable information to better understand the patient experience. Our objective was to determine the impact of a patient-reported outcome (PRO coordinator on HRQL questionnaire completion rates during a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML trial.AAML1031 is a multicenter Children's Oncology Group therapeutic trial for de novo AML with a secondary aim to assess HRQL of children and adolescents treated with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Parents/guardians are the primary respondents and four questionnaires are administered at eight time points. The questionnaires are the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, PedsQL 3.0 Acute Cancer Module, PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. To improve response rates, a central PRO coordinator was instituted and reminded sites about upcoming and delinquent questionnaires. The proportion of HRQL questionnaires completed were compared prior to, and following institution of the PRO coordinator. This analysis evaluated the first five assessment time points.There were231 families who consented to participate in the HRQL aim. Overall response rates for all questionnaires were 73-83%. At time point 1, within 14 days of chemotherapy initiation, post-PRO coordinator completion rates were significantly higher for three of four questionnaires. However, the effect was not sustained and at time point 4, one month following last chemotherapy or HSCT, completion rates were significantly lower post-PRO coordinator for all four questionnaires.Addition of a central PRO coordinator did not result in sustained improvement in HRQL questionnaire completion rates. Efforts to improve response rates must consider other strategies.

  8. Transcriptional responses in the adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion injury: a study of the effect of ischaemic preconditioning in total knee arthroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Peter P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC has emerged as a method of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury. However, the complex mechanism through which IPC elicits this protection is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic response induced by IPC in muscle biopsies taken from the operative leg of total knee arthroplasty patients in order to gain insight into the IPC mechanism. Methods Twenty patients, undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty, were randomly assigned to IPC (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Patients in the IPC group received ischaemic preconditioning immediately prior to surgery. IPC was induced by three five-minute cycles of tourniquet insufflation interrupted by five-minute cycles of reperfusion. A muscle biopsy was taken from the operative knee of control and IPC-treated patients at the onset of surgery and, again, at one hour into surgery. The gene expression profile of muscle biopsies was determined using the Affymetrix Human U113 2.0 microarray system and validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR, white cell count (WCC, cytokines and haemoglobin were also made pre- and post-operatively. Results Microarray analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of important oxidative stress defence genes, immediate early response genes and mitochondrial genes. Upregulation of pro-survival genes was also observed and correlated with a downregulation of pro-apoptotic gene expression. CRP, ESR, WCC, cytokine and haemoglobin levels were not significantly different between control and IPC patients. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that IPC of the lower limb in total knee arthroplasty patients induces a protective genomic response, which results in increased expression of immediate early response genes, oxidative stress defence genes and pro-survival genes. These findings

  9. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  10. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its relation to in vivo rumen and total digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Larsen, Mogens; Lund, Peter

    2009-01-01

    in different ways both chemically and physically. The starch sources were fed in mixed diets together with grass silage and soya bean meal and allocated ad libitum to fistulated dairy cows. The starch content varied between 13 and 35% in ration dry matter for the different starch sources. The design...... was a series of cross-over experiments with two cows and two periods. Ruminal starch pool was estimated from rumen evacuation and starch flow was estimated by duodenal and faeces sampling. Fractional rate of rumen degradation was estimated from the equation [kd = rumen degraded/rumen pool] and rumen and total...

  11. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  12. Can a mathematical model predict an individual's trait-like response to both total and partial sleep loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Lu, Wei; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Rupp, Tracy L; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-06-01

    Humans display a trait-like response to sleep loss. However, it is not known whether this trait-like response can be captured by a mathematical model from only one sleep-loss condition to facilitate neurobehavioural performance prediction of the same individual during a different sleep-loss condition. In this paper, we investigated the extent to which the recently developed unified mathematical model of performance (UMP) captured such trait-like features for different sleep-loss conditions. We used the UMP to develop two sets of individual-specific models for 15 healthy adults who underwent two different sleep-loss challenges (order counterbalanced; separated by 2-4 weeks): (i) 64 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and (ii) chronic sleep restriction (CSR) of 7 days of 3 h nightly time in bed. We then quantified the extent to which models developed using psychomotor vigilance task data under TSD predicted performance data under CSR, and vice versa. The results showed that the models customized to an individual under one sleep-loss condition accurately predicted performance of the same individual under the other condition, yielding, on average, up to 50% improvement over non-individualized, group-average model predictions. This finding supports the notion that the UMP captures an individual's trait-like response to different sleep-loss conditions. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  14. Further study on the wheel-rail impact response induced by a single wheel flat: the coupling effect of strain rate and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Han, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive dynamic finite-element simulation method was proposed to study the wheel-rail impact response induced by a single wheel flat based on a 3-D rolling contact model, where the influences of the structural inertia, strain rate effect of wheel-rail materials and thermal stress due to the wheel-rail sliding friction were considered. Four different initial conditions (i.e. pure mechanical loading plus rate-independent, pure mechanical loading plus rate-dependent, thermo-mechanical loading plus rate-independent, and thermo-mechanical loading plus rate-dependent) were involved into explore the corresponding impact responses in term of the vertical impact force, von-Mises equivalent stress, equivalent plastic strain and shear stress. Influences of train speed, flat length and axle load on the flat-induced wheel-rail impact response were discussed, respectively. The results indicate that the maximum thermal stresses are occurred on the tread of the wheel and on the top surface of the middle rail; the strain rate hardening effect contributes to elevate the von-Mises equivalent stress and restrain the plastic deformation; and the initial thermal stress due to the sliding friction will aggravate the plastic deformation of wheel and rail. Besides, the wheel-rail impact responses (i.e. impact force, von-Mises equivalent stress, equivalent plastic strain, and XY shear stress) induced by a flat are sensitive to the train speed, flat length and axle load.

  15. Effect of Recruitment Methods on Response Rate in a Web-Based Study for Primary Care Physicians: Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Aoki, Takuya; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Suganuma, Aya M; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2018-02-08

    Low participation rates are one of the most serious disadvantages of Web-based studies. It is necessary to develop effective strategies to improve participation rates to obtain sufficient data. The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email and the day of the week of sending the invitation email on the participation rate in a Web-based trial. We conducted a 2×2 factorial design randomized controlled trial. We contacted 2000 primary care physicians from members of the Japan Primary Care Association in January 2017 and randomly allocated them to 1 of 4 combinations of 2 subject lines (presence or absence of an emphasis on a lottery for an Amazon gift card worth 3000 yen or approximately US $30) and 2 delivery days (sending the invitation email on Tuesday or Friday). The primary outcome was the response rate defined as the number of participants answering the first page of the questionnaire divided by the number of invitation emails delivered. All outcomes were collected between January 17, 2017, and February 8, 2017. We analyzed data from 1943 out of 2000 participants after excluding those whose email addresses were invalid. The overall response rate was 6.3% (123/1943). There was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding incentive in the subject line: the risk ratio was 1.12 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.58) and the risk difference was 0.7% (95% CI -1.5% to 2.9%). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the response rates between the 2 groups regarding sending the email on Tuesday or Friday: the risk ratio was 0.98 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.38) and the risk difference was -0.1% (95% CI -2.3% to 2.1%). Neither emphasizing the incentive in the subject line of the invitation email nor varying the day of the week the invitation email was sent led to a meaningful increase in response rates in a Web-based trial with primary care physicians. University Hospital

  16. Association of the GRIN2B rs2284411 polymorphism with methylphenidate response in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Johanna I; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Jong-Eun; Park, Subin; Hong, Soon-Beom; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Choi, Jae-Won; Lee, Sumin; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the possible association between two NMDA subunit gene polymorphisms (GRIN2B rs2284411 and GRIN2A rs2229193) and treatment response to methylphenidate (MPH) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 75 ADHD patients aged 6-17 years underwent 6 months of MPH administration. Treatment response was defined by changes in scores of the ADHD-IV Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), clinician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), and Continuous Performance Test (CPT). The association of the GRIN2B and GRIN2A polymorphisms with treatment response was analyzed using logistic regression analyses. The GRIN2B rs2284411 C/C genotype showed significantly better treatment response as assessed by ADHD-RS inattention ( p=0.009) and CGI-I scores ( p=0.009), and there was a nominally significant association in regard to ADHD-RS hyperactivity-impulsivity ( p=0.028) and total ( p=0.023) scores, after adjusting for age, sex, IQ, baseline Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score, baseline ADHD-RS total score, and final MPH dose. The GRIN2B C/C genotype also showed greater improvement at the CPT response time variability ( pADHD.

  17. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  18. Taking the Test Taker's Perspective: Response Process and Test Motivation in Multidimensional Forced-Choice Versus Rating Scale Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Rachelle; Frick, Susanne; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wetzel, Eunike

    2018-03-01

    The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to the rating scale (RS) response format. However, it is unclear how changing the response format may affect the response process and test motivation of participants. In Study 1, we investigated the MFC response process using the think-aloud technique. In Study 2, we compared test motivation between the RS format and different versions of the MFC format (presenting 2, 3, 4, and 5 items simultaneously). The response process to MFC item blocks was similar to the RS response process but involved an additional step of weighing the items within a block against each other. The RS and MFC response format groups did not differ in their test motivation. Thus, from the test taker's perspective, the MFC format is somewhat more demanding to respond to, but this does not appear to decrease test motivation.

  19. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  20. The responses of net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage for the continental United States to changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate, and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, D.A. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We extrapolated 3 biogeochemistry models (BIOME-BGC, CENTURY, and TEM) across the continental US with the vegetation distributions of 3 biogeography models (BIOME2, DOLY, and MAPSS) for contemporary climate at 355 ppmv CO{sub 2} and each of 3 GCM climate scenarios at 710 ppmv. For contemporary conditions, continental NPP ranges from 3132 to 3854 TgC/yr and total carbon storage ranges from 109 to 125 PgC. The responses of NPP range from no response (BIOME-BGC with DOLY or MAPSS vegetations for UKMO climate) to increases of 53% and 56% (TEM with BIOME2 vegetations for GFDL and OSU climates). The responses of total carbon storage vary from a decrease of 39% (BIOME-BGC with MAPSS vegetation for UKMO climate) to increases of 52% and 56% (TEM with BIOME2 vegetations for OSU and GFDL climates). The UKMO responses of BIOME-BGC with MAPSS vegetation are caused by both decreased forest area (from 44% to 38%) and photosynthetic water stress. The OSU and GFDL responses of TEM with BIOME2 vegetations are caused by forest expansion (from 46% to 67% for OSU and to 75% for GFDL) and increased nitrogen cycling.