WorldWideScience

Sample records for total residual strain

  1. Residual strains in girth-welded linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwen, S.R.; Holden, T.M.; Powell, B.M.; Lazor, R.B.

    1987-07-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction has been used to measure the axial residual strains in and adjacent to a multipass girth weld in a complete section of 914 mm (36 inches) diameter, 16 mm (5/8 inch) wall, linepipe. The experiments were carried out at the NRU reactor, Chalk River using the L3 triple-axis spectrometer. The through-wall distribution of axial residual strain was measured at 0, 4, 8, 20 and 50 mm from the weld centerline; the axial variation was determined 1, 5, 8, and 13 mm from the inside surface of the pipe wall. The results have been compared with strain gauge measurements on the weld surface and with through-wall residual stress distributions determined using the block-layering and removal technique

  2. One- and multistage total strain and stress-controlled fatigue tests with a steel of type 42 CrMo 4 subject to varied residual and mean stress loading. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.; Schulze, V.

    1995-01-01

    Work under this research project covered tests with the quenched and tempered steel 42 CrMo 4 to which one- and two-stage tension-compression fatigue stresses were applied with varying mean loads, under conditions of nominal stress and total strain control. Shot peening was used to induce various microstructural conditions in the material at the surface and near below. Softening in the material was observed to be a continuous process, and the steel showed no stabilised, cyclic deformation behaviour. The cyclic stress-strain curve measured with equal stress amplitudes and total strain control applied shows higher plastic strain amplitudes than that measured with nominal stresses. The fatigue behaviour under two-stage loading depends on the chosen sequence of loads applied, the testing periods, and the overall testing procedure, so that there is no way of deriving data for two-stage testing procedures from single-stage test results. (orig.) [de

  3. ANSYS Simulation of Residual Strains in Butt-welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atroshenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal-strain cycle on residual strains in thin-walled circular seams of cylindrical shells using TIG butt welds was studied. Estimates were calculated using numerical modelling. The structure was made of corrosion-resistant austenitic steels.

  4. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  5. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  6. Reduction of residual strains in weldments in explosion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsemakhovich, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Peculiarities of large-size item strains in explosion cladding have been investigated. Causes of explosion-welded item destruction under the action of reflected waves have been established by means of the acoustic analysis of the item-support system. It is suggested to use grit as a support which permits to decrease 3-4 times and stabilize residual strains and reduce to minimum the probability of crack appearance

  7. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  8. Internal residual strain mapping in carburized chrome molybdenum steel after quenching by neutron strain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaida, Yoshihisa; Serizawa, Takanobu; Manzanka, Michiya

    2011-01-01

    A hollow circular cylinder specimen with an annular U-notch of chrome molybdenum steel with 0.20 mass% C (SCM420) was carburized in carrier gas and quenched in oil bath. In order to determine the case depth, the specimen was cut off and carbon content and Vickers hardness gradients were measured experimentally near the carburized surface. The residual strain mapping in the interior of carburized cylinder was conducted nondestructively by neutron strain scanning. In this study, the neutron diffraction from Fe-211 plane was used for strain scanning. The neutron wavelength was tuned to 0.1654nm so that diffraction angle became about 90deg. Radial, hoop and axial residual strains were measured by scanning diffracting volume along the axial direction of cylinder specimen. Each residual strain was calculated from lattice spacing change. Unstressed lattice spacing was determined experimentally using reference coupon specimens that were cut from the interior of same carburized cylinder. As a result, the diffraction peak width at half height, FWHM, near the carburized surface was about 3.7 times wider than that of coupon specimens. On the other hand, the most peak widths in the interior equaled to that of coupon specimens. Peak width broadened slightly as the diffracting volume approached the carburized case layer. From the center to the quarter of cylinder specimen, the hoop and axial strains were tensile, and the radial one was compressive in the interior. From the quarter to the edge of the cylinder specimen, the hoop tensile strain increased, radial and axial strains changed to tensile and compressive, respectively. Therefore, the interior of the cylinder specimen was found to be deformed elastically to balance the existence of compressive residual stresses in the carburized case layer. (author)

  9. Total Strain FE Model for Reinforced Concrete Floors on Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.; Bos, van den A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A finite element (FE) model using a total strain material model has been developed to predict the behavior of warehouse reinforced concrete floors on piles. The material model (not the FE model itself) was calibrated to material tests. The FE model for the floor structure was checked with full-scale

  10. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  11. Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro [Honda R& D; Bunn, Jeffrey R. [ORNL; Fancher, Christopher M. [ORNL; Seid, Alan [Honda R& D; Motani, Ryuta [Honda R& D; Matsuda, Hideki [Honda R& D; Okayama, Tatsuya [Honda R& D

    2018-04-01

    Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material. The research discussed within this paper consists of non-destructive residual strain measurements in the interior of connecting rods using the 2nd Generation Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, measuring the Fe (211) diffraction peak position of the ferrite phase. The interior strain distribution of connecting rod, which prepared under different manufacturing processes, was revealed. By the visualization of interior strains, clear understandings of differences in various processing conditions were obtained. In addition, it is known that the peak width, which is also obtained during measurement, is suggestive of the size of crystallites in the structure; however the peak width can additionally be caused by microstresses and material dislocations.

  12. Microstructure and temperature dependence of intergranular strains on diffractometric macroscopic residual stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.N., E-mail: Julia.Wagner@kit.edu [KNMF, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Wimpory, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin Wannsee (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor für Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Stockinger, M. [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria)

    2014-11-17

    Knowledge of the macroscopic residual stresses in components of complex high performance alloys is crucial when it comes to considering the safety and manufacturing aspects of components. Diffraction experiments are one of the key methods for studying residual stresses. However a component of the residual strain determined by diffraction experiments, known as microstrain or intergranular residual strain, occurs over the length scale of the grains and thus plays only a minor role for the life time of such components. For the reliable determination of macroscopic strains (with the minimum influence of these intergranular residual strains), the ISO standard recommends the use of particular Bragg reflections. Here we compare the build-up of intergranular strain of two different precipitation hardened IN 718 (INCONEL 718) samples, with identical chemical composition. Since intergranular strains are also affected by temperature, results from room temperature measurement are compared to results at T=550 °C. It turned out that microstructural parameters, such as grain size or type of precipitates, have a larger effect on the intergranular strain evolution than the influence of temperature at the measurement temperature of T=550 °C. The results also show that the choice of Bragg reflections for the diffractometric residual stress analysis is dependent not only on its chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the sample. In addition diffraction elastic constants (DECs) for all measured Bragg reflections are given.

  13. Determinations of total residue, total oxide and density of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Gao Yueying; Yang Ming; Jin Liyun

    1992-01-01

    Gravimetric method for determination of total residue, total oxide and density of HLLW is developed. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped on to the small quartz disc and put into the mini muffle furnace carefully. It is first heated to below 100 degree C (for 1.5 hours to remove the free water, and then heated to 180 degree C for 2 hours to remove the crystal water in a furnace. The total residue is weighed at room temperature. The precision is better than 3% for the determination of total residue and total oxide. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped into the weighing bottle and weighed. The precision is better than 1%

  14. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  15. Role of grain boundary nature and residual strain in controlling sensitisation of type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedabadi, Parag M.; Kain, Vivekanand; Dangi, Bhupinder Kumar; Samajdar, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Low-level of residual strain improved resistance to sensitisation. ► High fraction of special boundaries did not always reduce sensitisation. ► Area attacked during the EPR test correlated well with degree of sensitisation. ► Volume loss during the EPR test also correlated well with degree of sensitisation. - Abstract: The effects of residual strain and grain boundary character distribution on sensitisation of type 304 stainless steel at 525 °C were evaluated using electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) technique. The results indicated that a very low level of residual strain and a high fraction of annealing twins significantly improved the resistance to sensitisation. Image analysis indicated that the fraction of area attacked during the EPR test correlated well with the EPR data. The volume loss, calculated using atomic force microscopic examinations, during the EPR tests also correlated well with the EPR results.

  16. Residual Strains and Their Relation to the Fatigue Damage Evolution in Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; Jespersen, Kristine Munk

    2016-01-01

    , the volumetric shrinkage of the epoxy at the two curing cycles is identical, the resulting residual strain in an embedded optical fibre measured using fibre Bragg Grating is found to be increased with a factor of 3. Together with, 3D x-ray tomography of partly fatigued test specimens there is an indication...

  17. Thermomechanically induced residual strains in Al/SiCp metal-matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Clarke, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Residual lattice strains in the aluminium and SiC phases of F3S.20S extruded A359 20% SiC metal-matrix composite were measured by using neutron diffi action at room and elevated temperatures to monitor the effects of in situ uniaxial plastic deformations. The results are interpreted with referenc...

  18. Suppression of surface effect by using bent-perfect-crystal monochromator in residual strain scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Miroslav; Mikula, Pavol

    490/491, - (2005), s. 234-238 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron diffraction * residual strain scanning * bent monochromator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  19. Synchrotron measurements of local microstructure and residual strains in ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Andriollo, Tito; Fæster, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The local microstructure and distribution of thermally induced residual strains in ferrite matrix grains around an individual spherical graphite nodule in ductile cast iron (DCI) were measured using a synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction technique. It is found that the matrix grains are deformed...

  20. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  1. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  2. Discussion on accuracy of weld residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction. Influence of strain free reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is required to evaluate a strain-free reference, α 0 , to perform accurate stress measurement using neutron diffraction. In this study, accuracy of neutron stress measurement was quantitatively discussed from α 0 evaluations on a dissimilar metal butt-weld between a type 304 austenitic stainless steel and an A533B low alloy ferritic steel. A strain-free standard specimen and a sliced specimen with 10 mm thickness taken from the dissimilar metal butt-weld were utilized. In the lattice constant evaluation using the standard specimen, average lattice constant derived from multiple hkl reflections was evaluated as the stress-free reference with cancelling out an intergranular strain. Comparing lattice constant distributions in each reflection with average lattice constant distribution in the standard specimen, αFe211 and γFe311 reflections were judged as a suitable reflection for neutron strain measurement to reduce intergranular strain effects. Residual stress distribution in the sliced specimen evaluated using α 0 measured here exhibited higher accuracy than that measured using strain gauges. On the other hand, α 0 distributions were evaluated using the sliced specimen under the plane-stress condition. Existence of slight longitudinal residual stresses near the weld center decreased accuracy of the α 0 evaluations, which means that it is required to optimize the thickness of the sliced specimen for accurate α 0 evaluation under plane strain condition. As a conclusion of this study, it was confirmed that procedures of accurate α 0 evaluation, optimization of the measurement condition, and multiple evaluations on the results play an important role to improve accuracy of the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction. (author)

  3. Analytic examination of mechanism for compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain using peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Ryo; Hato, Hisamitsu; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Yoshikubo, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Our goal for this study was to understand the cause of the differences in surface properties between surfaces processed using water jet peening (WJP) and shot peening (SP) and to examine the compressive residual stress introduction process with low plastic strain using SP. The dynamic behaviors of stress and strain in surfaces during these processes were analyzed through elasto-plastic calculations using a finite-element method program, and the calculated results were compared with measured results obtained through experiments. Media impacting a surface results in a difference in the hardness and microstructure of the processed surface. During SP, a shot deforms the surface locally with stress concentration in the early stages of the impact, while shock waves deform the surface evenly throughout the wave passage across the surface during WJP. A shot with a larger diameter creates a larger impact area on the surface during shot impact. Thus, SP with a large-diameter shot suppresses the stress concentration under the same kinetic energy condition. As the shot diameter increases, the equivalent plastic strain decreases. On the other hand, the shot is subject to size restriction since the calculated results indicate the compressive residual stress at the surface decreased and occasionally became almost zero as the shot diameter increased. Thus, compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain by using SP is considered achievable by using shots with a large diameter and choosing the appropriate peening conditions. (author)

  4. Comparison of Measured Residual Stress in an Extra Thick Multi-pass Weld Using Neutron Diffraction Method and Inherent Strain Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JeongUng; An, GyuBaek; Woo, Wan Chuck

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of large-scale containership, a large amount of high-strength steels with extra thick plates is being extensively used. The welding stress existing in the extra thick welded plates has a significant effect on the integrity of the component in terms of brittle fracture and fatigue behavior. It has been reported that welding residual stress distribution in an extra thick plate can affect the propagation path of the crack. Therefore, it is important to measure the distribution of welding residual stresses for the reliable design of the welded structures. So far various researches have been carried out for the determination of residual stresses on the surface of steels. In this paper, the total residual stresses in the 70 mm thick multipass FACW butt joint were measured by integrating initial stress into ISM. Concretely, two methods named as initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were employed to determine the total residual stresses. Furthermore, the distributions of residual stresses were compared with the results of the Neutron Diffraction Method(NDM). In order to measure the three dimensional residual stresses in the welded joint with initial stresses existing before welding, initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were developed. The residual stresses in 70 mm-thick butt joint by flux cored arc welding were carried out with a good accuracy using the two developed methods. The residual stresses in welded joint using both initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM agreed well with the results measured by Neutron Diffraction Method. This suggests that the integrated ISM is a reliable method for residual stress measurement if initial stress existed

  5. Residual strain in the Nb-H system measured by selected area diffraction (SAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulhoes, I.A.M.; Akune, K.; Pinatti, Dyonisio G.

    1981-07-01

    Various specimens of Nb were annealed in vacuum of 10 -3 torr for four hours at 1770 0 K. These speciments were doped with hydrogen up to 1000 ppm by weight and then were analyzed selected area diffraction. The line resolution of the electron channelling pattern was meassured for the specimens with different hydrogen content. These measurements, combined with the measurement of density, permitted one to estimate the residual strain caused by hydrogen. (Author) [pt

  6. Numerical and experimental evaluation of residual strains induced by pulsed laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touvrey, C.; Bruyere, V.; Namy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the residual strains induced by different welding processes during the assembly of two Ti6Al4V thin sheets. Several welding configurations and two means (pulsed laser and continuous one) are tested. The first part of the study intends to experimentally quantify strains induced by laser-matter interaction when one of the plates can freely bend. In this configuration the residual stresses are minimum, and consequently the strains measurement constitute a good indicator of the mechanical evolution. The displacements are in-situ reported thanks to a mechanical sensor. The second part of the study is dedicated to the numerical modeling of the processes. Unfortunately, the model is not completely predictive and appears to be oversimplified to describe the measured distortion. As it appears difficult to model the laser-matter interaction (especially in the case of many impacts recovering), we have adopted an equivalent approach to simulate the thermal evolution within the work pieces. An optimization procedure has been developed to determine an equivalent thermal flux, which leads to a melted zone shape in good agreement with experimental evaluations. The thermo-mechanical problem is computed by means of the finite elements software COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are compared to experimental data (displacement measurements) throughout the complete simulation. We plan to apply the complete model for more complex geometries, involving the generation of residual stresses. (authors)

  7. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  8. Total and occluded residual gas content inside the nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Sergio C.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Oliveira, Justine R.; Machado, Joyce F.; Guglielmo, Luisa M.; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes three techniques available to measure total and occluded residual gases inside the UO 2 nuclear fuel pellets. Hydrogen is the major gas compound inside these pellets, due to sintering fabrication process but Nitrogen is present as well, due to storage atmosphere fuel. The total and occluded residual gas content inside these pellets is a mandatory requirement in a quality control to assure the well function of the pellets inside the nuclear reactor. This work describes the Gas Extractor System coupled with mass spectrometry GES/MS, the Gas Extractor System coupled with gas chromatography GES/GC and the total Hydrogen / Nitrogen H/N analyzer as well. In the GES, occlude gases in the UO 2 pellets is determinate using a high temperature vacuum extraction system, in which the minimum limit of detection is in the range 0.002 cc/g. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the amount of gaseous components employs a mass spectrometry or a gas chromatography technique. The total Hydrogen / Nitrogen analyzer employ a thermal conductivity gas detector linked to a gaseous extractor furnace which has a detection limit is in the range 0.005 cc/g. The specification for the residual gas analyses in the nuclear fuel pellets is 0.03 cc/g, all techniques satisfy the requirement but not the nature of the gases due to reaction with the reactor cladding. The present work details the chemical reaction among Hydrogen / Nitrogen and nuclear reactor cladding. (author)

  9. Residual strain dependence on the matrix structure in RHQ-Nb3Al wires by neutron diffraction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Ito, Takayoshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Hemmi, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    We prepared three types of non-Cu RHQ-Nb 3 Al wire sample with different matrix structures: an all-Ta matrix, a composite matrix of Nb and Ta with a Ta inter-filament, and an all-Nb matrix. Neutron diffraction patterns of the wire samples were measured at room temperature in the J-PARC ‘TAKUMI’. To obtain the residual strains of the materials, we estimated the lattice constant a by multi-peak analysis in the wires. A powder sample of each wire was measured, where the powder was considered to be strain free. The grain size of all the powder samples was below 0.02 mm. For the wire sample with the all-Nb matrix, we also obtained the lattice spacing d by a single-peak analysis. The residual strains of the Nb 3 Al filament were estimated from the two analysis results and were compared. The resulting residual strains obtained from the multi-peak analysis showed a good accuracy with small standard deviation. The multi-peak analysis results for the residual strains of the Nb 3 Al filaments in the three samples (without Cu plating) were all tensile residual strain in the axial direction, of 0.12%, 0.12%, and 0.05% for the all-Ta matrix, the composite matrix, and the all-Nb matrix, respectively. The difference in the residual strain of the Nb 3 Al filament between the composite and all-Nb matrix samples indicates that the type of inter-filament material shows a great effect on the residual strain. In this paper, we report the method of measurement, method of analysis, and results for the residual strain in the three types of non-Cu RHQ-Nb 3 Al wires. (paper)

  10. Residual strain evolution during the deformation of single fiber metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, J.C.; Uestuendag, E.; Clausen, B. [Dept. of Materials Science, California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Sivasambu, M.; Beyerlein, I.J. [Theoretical Div., Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, D.W.; Bourke, M.A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Div., Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Successful application of metal matrix composites often requires strength and lifetime predictions that account for the deformation of each phase. Yet, the deformation of individual phases in composites usually differs significantly from their respective monolithic behaviors. An approach is presented that quantifies the deformation parameters of each phase using neutron diffraction measurements before, during, and after failure under tensile loading in model composites consisting of a single alumina fiber embedded in an aluminum matrix. The evolution of residual strains after loading was examined including the effects of fiber failure. (orig.)

  11. Minimizing residues and strain in 2D materials transferred from PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Achint; Bharadwaj, Palash; Heeg, Sebastian; Parzefall, Markus; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Novotny, Lukas

    2018-06-01

    Integrating layered two-dimensional (2D) materials into 3D heterostructures offers opportunities for novel material functionalities and applications in electronics and photonics. In order to build the highest quality heterostructures, it is crucial to preserve the cleanliness and morphology of 2D material surfaces that come in contact with polymers such as PDMS during transfer. Here we report that substantial residues and up to ∼0.22% compressive strain can be present in monolayer MoS2 transferred using PDMS. We show that a UV-ozone pre-cleaning of the PDMS surface before exfoliation significantly reduces organic residues on transferred MoS2 flakes. An additional 200 ◦C vacuum anneal after transfer efficiently removes interfacial bubbles and wrinkles as well as accumulated strain, thereby restoring the surface morphology of transferred flakes to their native state. Our recipe is important for building clean heterostructures of 2D materials and increasing the reproducibility and reliability of devices based on them.

  12. Effect of Residual Strain on PWSCC Initiation of Alloy 690 in Primary Water of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Woo; Eom, Ki-Hyeon; Hwang, Seong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to attempt to correlate the susceptibility to crack initiation of Alloy 690 with the levels of cold work in simulated primary water. Experiments were conducted in high-temperature water to accelerate the cracking behavior and to determine the severity of crack initiation as a function of level of cold work for Alloy 690. Cracking susceptibility was determined by measuring the crack length per unit area and crack density. SCC initiation susceptibility of Alloy 690 increased with increase of the residual strain induced by the prior cold-rolling process. The 20% cold-rolled specimen exhibited mostly IG cracks, while the 30% and 40% cold-rolled specimens revealed significant amounts of IG and TG cracks. Most cracks were observed near the smallest cross-section area of the tapered specimen, where the maximum stress was applied, indicating that the SCC initiation susceptibility was strongly dependent on the applied stress. In order to find the correlation between SCC initiation susceptibility and residual strain induced by cold work, more analyses need to be performed in terms of the crack length per unit area and the crack density, as a strong indicative for SCC initiation susceptibility

  13. Nonlinear Model of Pseudoelastic Shape Memory Alloy Damper Considering Residual Martensite Strain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Parulekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increasing interest in using superelastic shape memory alloys for applications in seismic resistant-design. Shape memory alloys (SMAs have a unique property by which they can recover their original shape after experiencing large strains up to 8% either by heating (shape memory effect or removing stress (pseudoelastic effect. Many simplified shape memory alloy models are suggested in the past literature for capturing the pseudoelastic response of SMAs in passive vibration control of structures. Most of these models do not consider the cyclic effects of SMA's and resulting residual martensite deformation. Therefore, a suitable constitutive model of shape memory alloy damper which represents the nonlinear hysterical dynamic system appropriately is essential. In this paper a multilinear hysteretic model incorporating residual martensite strain effect of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy damper is developed and experimentally validated using SMA wire, based damper device. A sensitivity analysis is done using the proposed model along with three other simplified SMA models. The models are implemented on a steel frame representing an SDOF system and the comparison of seismic response of structure with all the models is made in the numerical study.

  14. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400{sub Y}15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  15. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Composite Cure Process Modeling and Simulations using COMPRO(Registered Trademark) and Validation of Residual Strains using Fiber Optics Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Composite cure process induced residual strains and warping deformations in composite components present significant challenges in the manufacturing of advanced composite structure. As a part of the Manufacturing Process and Simulation initiative of the NASA Advanced Composite Project (ACP), research is being conducted on the composite cure process by developing an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which the process induced factors influence the residual responses. In this regard, analytical studies have been conducted on the cure process modeling of composite structural parts with varied physical, thermal, and resin flow process characteristics. The cure process simulation results were analyzed to interpret the cure response predictions based on the underlying physics incorporated into the modeling tool. In the cure-kinetic analysis, the model predictions on the degree of cure, resin viscosity and modulus were interpreted with reference to the temperature distribution in the composite panel part and tool setup during autoclave or hot-press curing cycles. In the fiber-bed compaction simulation, the pore pressure and resin flow velocity in the porous media models, and the compaction strain responses under applied pressure were studied to interpret the fiber volume fraction distribution predictions. In the structural simulation, the effect of temperature on the resin and ply modulus, and thermal coefficient changes during curing on predicted mechanical strains and chemical cure shrinkage strains were studied to understand the residual strains and stress response predictions. In addition to computational analysis, experimental studies were conducted to measure strains during the curing of laminated panels by means of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) embedded in the resin impregnated panels. The residual strain measurements from laboratory tests were then compared with the analytical model predictions. The paper describes the cure process

  17. Measurement of residual strain in composites by means of time-of- flight neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Richardson, J.; Saigal, A.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction time-of-flight measurements using the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been employed to study strain in various metal- and ceramic-matrix composites. For example, measurements carried out to 900 C on a composite composed of a titanium alloy matrix and silicon carbide fibers have been used to validate theoretical assumptions in the prediction of fabrication-induced residual stress. Sapphire reinforced nickel aluminide composites have also been studied. Studies of a high-temperature ceramic superconducting composite consisting of yttrium barium copper oxide and silver with various volume fractions of silver have also been carried out. The results of these studies have provided information on the effect of Ag content on interface bonding. In addition, ceramic-matrix composites with randomly dispersed ceramic whiskers with varying fiber content have been investigated

  18. Geometry of X-ray based measurement of residual strain at desired penetration depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawiec, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-10-15

    X-ray based measurement of residual lattice strains at chosen penetration depth is one of the methods for investigating strain inhomogeneities in near-surface layers of polycrystalline materials. The measurement relies on determining shifts of Bragg peaks for various directions of the scattering vector with respect to the specimen. At each of these directions, to reach a given the penetration depth, a proper specimen orientation is required. The task of determining such orientations, albeit elementary, is quite intricate. The existing literature describes only partial solutions with unspecified domains of application, which fail if applied to beyond the domains. Therefore, geometric aspects of the measurement are analyzed in details. Explicit bounds on measurement parameters are given. The equation fundamental for the procedure is solved with respect to specimen orientations. For a given direction of the scattering vector, there are generally four different specimen orientations leading to the same penetration depth. This simple fact (overlooked in previous analyses) can be used for improving reliability of measurement results. Analytical formulas for goniometer angles representing these orientations are provided. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Effects of static strain aging on residual stress stability and alternating bending strength of shot peened AISI 4140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menig, R.; Schulze, V.; Voehringer, O. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1, Univ. Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Increases of residual stress stability and alternating bending strength of shot peened AISI 4140 are obtained by successive annealing treatments. This is caused by static strain aging effects, which lead to pinning of dislocations by carbon atoms and very small carbides. It will be shown that by well directed annealing of a quenched and tempered AISI 4140 it is possible to maximize the positive effects of static strain aging, without causing extended thermal residual stress relaxation. The amount of yield stress increases caused by static strain aging is quantified using tensile tests. Static strain aging is also found to be responsible for an increase of the quasi static and cyclic surface yield strength present after shot peening. (orig.)

  20. Fatigue life evaluation based on welding residual stress relaxation and notch strain approach for cruciform welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; Han, Seung Ho; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue strength of welded joint is influenced by the welding residual stress which is relaxed depending on local stress distributed in vicinity of stress raisers, eg. under cut, overlap and blow hole. To evaluate its fatigue life the geometry of the stress raisers and the welding residual stress should be taken into account. The several methods based on notch strain approach have been proposed in order to consider the two factors above mentioned. These methods, however, have shown considerable differences between analytical and experimental results. It is due to the fact that the amount of the relaxed welding residual stress evaluated by the cyclic stress-strain relationship do not correspond with that occurred in reality. In this paper the residual stress relaxation model based on experimental results was used in order to reduce the discrepancy of the estimated amount of the relaxed welding residual stress. Under an assumption of the superimposition of the relaxed welding residual stress and the local stress, a modified notch strain approach was proposed and verified to the cruciform welded joint

  1. Characterisation of the residual strain profiles in aluminium titanate/alumina functionally graded materials using x-ray diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In previous studies of the aluminium titanate/alumina functionally graded system, it was proposed that the mechanisms responsible for the observed flaw tolerance and quasi-ductile behaviour of the composite system were due to the generation of residual strain fields in the bulk of the composite. These residual strain fields are induced by a combination of the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the alumina and aluminium titanate phases and also the high degree of thermal anisotropy exhibited by the aluminium titanate phase. In the current study, both the macro-strain (linear) and micro-strain (non-linear) were extracted from x-ray diffraction data. The macro-strains were extracted from variations in the lattice parameters, whilst the micro-strains were extracted from line broadening of the diffraction peaks. Strain profiles were obtained by carefully removing layers of the composite till the centre region was reached. Analysis of the data showed that the macro-strain in the alumina phase was compressive and decreased from -0.149 ± 0.012 % at the surface to -0.086 ± 0.006 % at the centre of the composite system. The macro-strain in the aluminium titanate phase was observed to remain constant at a value of 0.181 ± 0.013 % and be tensile in nature. The micro-strains within the composite system were also seen to exhibit a similar profile with the micro-strain in the alumina phase ranging from 0.065 ± 0.003 % to 0.008 ± 0.005 % from the surface to the centre respectively and the aluminium titanate phase displaying a mean micro-strain value of 0.117 ± 0.033 %. These results were also seen to correlate well with the compositional profiles observed in previous studies of the system. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  2. INFLUENCE OF RESIDUAL VARUS DEFORMITY ON CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL, RADIOLOGICAL AND DYNAMOMETRIC OUTCOMES OF TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Zinoviev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study – to evaluate the influence of residual varus deformity of the lower leg on clinical, functional and dynamometric outcomes of TKR.Material and methods. In the period from September 2014 till May 2015 951 total knee replacement surgeries were performed in Ural clinical and rehabilitation center in 933 patients with initial varus deformity of lower limb. However, in 52 cases (5.5% residual varus deformity of >3° persisted. The main group included 36 patients with mean residual varus deformity of lower leg of 3.9°±0.74° (from 3.1° to 5.6°, the control group included 34 patients with neutral mechanic axis of the lower leg. Evaluation of treatment outcomes was performed on average 14.2±1.8 months after the procedure using functional assessment of the patients according to KSS (Knee Society Score, subjective assessment of life quality (SF36, as well as evaluation of the static-dynamic function of the lower leg on diagnostic and treatment complex Biodex Systems 4 Quick Set and assessment of stability of components fixation by F.C. Ewald scale in modification of O.A. Kudinov et al.Results. Functional assessment of the patients according to KSS (Knee Society Score for the main group was 84.0±4.6, in control group – 82.2±4.1 points (p>0.05. Subjective assessment of life quality (SF36 in the main group was 162.6±6.4 points, in control group – 164.3±8.1 points (p>0.05. In terms of flexion and extension of lower leg there were no significant differences between two groups when assessing static and dynamic function by treatment and diagnostic complex «Biodex Systems 4 Quick Set» on average in 14.2±1.8 months after procedure: neither isometric nor isokinetic parameters in both groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (p>0.05. Based on X-rays evaluation there were no abnormalities in components fixation in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences identified in KSS and SF36 scales

  3. High energy X-ray diffraction analysis of strain and residual stress in silicon nitride ceramic diffusion bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Prieto, C.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M.I.; Terry, A.E.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    High resolution X-ray scanning diffractometry is used to study the residual stress in binary metal/ceramic (Ni/Si 3 N 4 ) diffusion bonds fabricated by simultaneous high temperature heating and uniaxial pressing. In order to diminish the experimental error on the stress determination, the method consists of three steps: (i) to measure the axial and radial strains following some selected lines at the inner volume of the ceramic; (ii) to fit the strain data using finite element method (FEM) analysis and (iii) to determinate stresses by using the results obtained from the FEM method in the strain calculation

  4. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  5. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.barnes-2@manchester.ac.uk; Steuwer, A. [FaME38, ILL ESRF, 6 rue J.Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Mahawish, S. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Johnson, R. [TWI Yorkshire, Wallis Way, Catcliffe, Rotherham S60 5TZ (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-25

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ.

  6. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.J.; Steuwer, A.; Mahawish, S.; Johnson, R.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ

  7. Functional identification of conserved residues involved in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG sortase specificity and pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-05-30

    In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili mediate the adhesion of bacteria to host epithelial cells and play a pivotal role in colonization, host signaling, and biofilm formation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a well known probiotic bacterium, also displays on its cell surface mucus-binding pilus structures, along with other LPXTG surface proteins, which are processed by sortases upon specific recognition of a highly conserved LPXTG motif. Bioinformatic analysis of all predicted LPXTG proteins encoded by the L. rhamnosus GG genome revealed a remarkable conservation of glycine residues juxtaposed to the canonical LPXTG motif. Here, we investigated and defined the role of this so-called triple glycine (TG) motif in determining sortase specificity during the pilus assembly and anchoring. Mutagenesis of the TG motif resulted in a lack or an alteration of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus structures, indicating that the TG motif is critical in pilus assembly and that they govern the pilin-specific and housekeeping sortase specificity. This allowed us to propose a regulatory model of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus biogenesis. Remarkably, the TG motif was identified in multiple pilus gene clusters of other Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that similar signaling mechanisms occur in other, mainly pathogenic, species. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  9. A neutron diffraction study of residual stress and plastic strain in welded beryllium rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Varma, R.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Holden, T.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ely, T.; Spooner, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-01

    We present a study of residual stresses associated with the welding of beryllium rings. Using novel analysis techniques, information about residual stresses and plastic deformation of the base metal were obtained. In the post-welded state, the rings have a strong tensile circumferential residual stress and show evidence of significant plastic deformation. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of the residual strain change of Bi2212, Ag alloy and Ag during the heating and cooling process in Bi2212/Ag/Ag alloy composite wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J K; Ochiai, S; Okuda, H; Mukai, Y; Sugano, M; Sato, M; Oh, S S; Ha, D W; Kim, S C

    2008-01-01

    The residual strain change of Bi2212 and Ag during the cooling and heating process in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag alloy composite superconductor was studied. First, the residual strain of Bi2212 filaments at room temperature was measured by the x-ray diffraction method. Then, the Young's moduli of the constituents (Bi2212 filaments, Ag and Ag alloy) and yield strains of Ag and Ag alloy were estimated from the analysis of the measured stress-strain curve, based on the rule of mixtures. Also, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the Bi2212 filaments was estimated from the analysis of the measured thermal expansion curve of the composite wire. From the modeling analysis using the estimated property values and the residual strain of Bi2212 filaments, the changes of residual strain of Bi2212, Ag alloy and Ag with temperature during the cooling and heating process were revealed

  11. LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL AND TANGENTIAL STRAIN (LRS and LRT IN SIX Eucalyptus spp. CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of Eucalyptus genus present high levels of growth stress. These stresses are mechanical efforts generated during the tree growth to help maintaining the balance of the cup, in response to environmental (light, wind and inclination of the land and silvicultural agents (pruning, thinning and planting density. The growth stresses are responsible for the cracks of tops, in logs and boards, and for the warp after the breaking down. This research evaluated the level of growth stress, measured by the longitudinal residual and tangential strain (DRL and DRT, around the circumference of the trunks of alive trees of six clones of Eucalyptus spp., at the age of 10.5 years, and verified the effect of the planting parcel. The clones belong to VMM-AGRO, and they are coming from a clonal test area implanted in the Bom Sucesso farm, located in Vazante-MG. For evaluating the experiment, the model adopted was the completely randomized one disposed in factorial outline with two factors (clone and portion in three repetitions. The results indicated that the average LRS was 0.093 mm and that the average LRT was 0.025 mm. It was verified that, for LRS, the clone effects and planting parcel were significant, while the interaction effect was not significant. For LRT the parcel and interaction effect were significant, while clone effect was not significant. Clones 44, 58 and 47 presented the smallest levels and better distributions of LRS, while, the clones 27, 44 and 58 presented the highest LRS levels. The clones 44 and 58 presented the best distribution and the smallest level of growth stress and may be considered potentially apt for producing sawn wood or solid wood.

  12. Texture, residual strain, and plastic deformation around scratches in alloy 600 using synchrotron X-ray Laue micro-diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen Fuller, M.L. [Surface Science Western, Room G-1, Western Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)], E-mail: mfuller@uwo.ca; Klassen, R.J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Room 3002 Spencer Engineering Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada); McIntyre, N.S. [Surface Science Western, Room G-1, Western Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Gerson, A.R. [Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, Mawson Lakes Campus, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Ramamurthy, S. [Surface Science Western, Room G-1, Western Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); King, P.J. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada, 581 Coronation Blvd., Cambridge, Ontario, N1R5V3 (Canada); Liu, W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Deformation around two scratches in Alloy 600 (A600) was studied nondestructively using synchrotron Laue differential aperture X-ray microscopy. The orientation of grains and elastic strain distribution around the scratches were measured. A complex residual deviatoric elastic strain state was found to exist around the scratches. Heavy plastic deformation was observed up to a distance of 20 {mu}m from the scratches. In the region 20-30 {mu}m from the scratches the diffraction spots were heavily streaked and split indicating misoriented dislocation cell structures.

  13. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  14. Compressive Residual Strains in Mineral Nanoparticles as a Possible Origin of Enhanced Crack Resistance in Human Tooth Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forien, Jean-Baptiste; Fleck, Claudia; Cloetens, Peter; Duda, Georg; Fratzl, Peter; Zolotoyabko, Emil; Zaslansky, Paul

    2015-06-10

    The tough bulk of dentin in teeth supports enamel, creating cutting and grinding biostructures with superior failure resistance that is not fully understood. Synchrotron-based diffraction methods, utilizing micro- and nanofocused X-ray beams, reveal that the nm-sized mineral particles aligned with collagen are precompressed and that the residual strains vanish upon mild annealing. We show the link between the mineral nanoparticles and known damage propagation trajectories in dentin, suggesting a previously overlooked compression-mediated toughening mechanism.

  15. Neutron Diffraction Residual Strain Tensor Measurements Within The Phase IA Weld Mock-up Plate P-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has worked with NRC and EPRI to apply neutron and X-ray diffraction methods to characterize the residual stresses in a number of dissimilar metal weld mockups and samples. The design of the Phase IA specimens aimed to enable stress measurements by several methods and computational modeling of the weld residual stresses. The partial groove in the 304L stainless steel plate was filled with weld beads of Alloy 82. A summary of the weld conditions for each plate is provided in Table 1. The plates were constrained along the long edges during and after welding by bolts with spring-loaded washers attached to the 1-inch thick Al backing plate. The purpose was to avoid stress relief due to bending of the welded stainless steel plate. The neutron diffraction method was one of the methods selected by EPRI for non-destructive through thickness strain and stress measurement. Four different plates (P-3 to P-6) were studied by neutron diffraction strain mapping, representing four different welding conditions. Through thickness neutron diffraction strain mappings at NRSF2 for the four plates and associated strain-free d-zero specimens involved measurement along seven lines across the weld and at six to seven depths. The mountings of each plate for neutron diffraction measurements were such that the diffraction vector was parallel to each of the three primary orthogonal directions of the plate: two in-plane directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the direction normal to the plate (shown in left figure within Table 1). From the three orthogonal strains for each location, the residual stresses along the three plate directions were calculated. The principal axes of the strain and stress tensors, however, need not necessarily align with the plate coordinate system. To explore this, plate P-5 was selected for examination of the possibility that the principal axes of strain are not along the sample coordinate system axes. If adequate data could

  16. Diffraction grating strain gauge method: error analysis and its application for the residual stress measurement in thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanjie; Fan, Bozhao; He, Wei; Dai, Xianglu; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2018-03-01

    Diffraction grating strain gauge (DGSG) is an optical strain measurement method. Based on this method, a six-spot diffraction grating strain gauge (S-DGSG) system has been developed with the advantages of high and adjustable sensitivity, compact structure, and non-contact measurement. In this study, this system is applied for the residual stress measurement in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) combining the hole-drilling method. During the experiment, the specimen’s location is supposed to be reset accurately before and after the hole-drilling, however, it is found that the rigid body displacements from the resetting process could seriously influence the measurement accuracy. In order to understand and eliminate the effects from the rigid body displacements, such as the three-dimensional (3D) rotations and the out-of-plane displacement of the grating, the measurement error of this system is systematically analyzed, and an optimized method is proposed. Moreover, a numerical experiment and a verified tensile test are conducted, and the results verify the applicability of this optimized method successfully. Finally, combining this optimized method, a residual stress measurement experiment is conducted, and the results show that this method can be applied to measure the residual stress in TBCs.

  17. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Júlio X.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray measurement of residual strain within the nose of a worn manganese steel railway crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, S.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, R.; Danielsen, HK; Jensen, D. Juul

    2017-07-01

    Switches and crossings are an integral part of any railway network. Plastic deformation associated with wear and rolling contact fatigue due to repeated passage of trains cause severe damage leading to the formation of surface and sub-surface cracks which ultimately may result in rail failure. Knowledge of the internal stress distribution adds to the understanding of crack propagation and may thus help to prevent catastrophic rail failures. In this work, the residual strains inside the bulk of a damaged nose of a manganese railway crossing that was in service for five years has been investigated by using differential aperture synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The main purpose of this paper is to describe how this method allows non-destructive measurement of residual strains in selected local volumes in the bulk of the rail. Measurements were conducted on the transverse surface at a position about 6.5 mm from the rail running surface of a crossing nose. The results revealed the presence of significant compressive residual strains along the running direction of the rail.

  19. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  20. Finite element modeling to determine thermal residual strain distribution of bonded composite repairs for structural health monitoring design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wayne; Jones, Rhys; Davis, Claire; Galea, Stephen C.

    2002-11-01

    The economic implication of fleet upgrades, particularly in Australia with military aircraft such as the F-111 and F/A-18, has led to an increasing reliance on composite repair technology to address fatigue and corrosion-affected aircraft components. The increasing use of such repairs has led to a research effort to develop various in-situ health monitoring systems that may be incorporated with a repair. This paper reports on the development of a theoretical methodology that uses finite element analysis (FEA) to model the strain profiles which optical sensors, on or within the patch, will be exposed to under various operational scenarios, including load and disbond. Numerical techniques are then used to predict the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) reflections which occur with these strain profiles. The quality of these reflection are a key consideration when designing FBG based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This information can be used to optimise the location of both surface mounted, and embedded sensors, and determine feasibility of SHM system design. Research was conducted into the thermal residual strain (TRS) within the patch. A finite element study revealed the presence of significant thermal residual strain gradients along the surface of the tapered region of the patch. As Bragg gratings are particularly sensitive to strain gradients, (producing a result similar to a chirped grating) the strain gradient on the composite at potential sensor locations both under load, and in the event of disbond was considered. A sufficiently high gradient leads to an altered Bragg reflection. These spurious reflections need to be considered, and theoretically obtained reflections can provide information to allow for load scenarios where the Bragg shift is not a smooth, well defined peak. It can also be shown that embedded fibres offer a higher average thermal residual strain reading, while being subject to a much lower strain gradient. This particularly favors the

  1. Total hip arthroplasty performed in patients with residual poliomyelitis: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Lee, Young-Kyun; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Patients with residual poliomyelitis can have advanced degenerative arthritis of the hip in the paralytic limb or the nonparalytic contralateral limb. Although THA is a treatment option for some of these patients, there are few studies regarding THA in this patient population. We therefore reviewed a group of patients with residual poliomyelitis who underwent cementless THA on either their paralytic limb or nonparalytic limb to assess (1) Harris hip scores, (2) radiographic results, including implant loosening, (3) complications, including dislocation, and (4) limb length discrepancy after recovery from surgery. From January 2000 to December 2009, 10 patients with residual poliomyelitis (10 hips, four paralytic limbs and six nonparalytic contralateral limbs) underwent THA using cementless prostheses. Harris hip scores, complications, and leg length discrepancy were determined by chart review, and confirmed by questionnaire and examination; radiographs were reviewed by two observers for this study. Followup was available for all 10 patients at a minimum of 3 years (median, 7 years; range, 3.4-13 years). Surgery was done at the same side of the paralytic limb in four hips and contralateral to the paralytic limb in six. All patients had pain relief and improvement in function; the Harris hip score improved from mean of 68 preoperatively to 92 at last followup (p = 0.043). However, only three patients had complete pain relief. One hip dislocated, which was treated successfully with closed reduction and a hip spica cast for 2 months. There was no loosening or osteolysis in this series. Leg length discrepancy improved after the index operation, but only in the THAs performed in the paralytic limbs. Cementless THA may be suitable for painful hips in adult patients with residual poliomyelitis. Nonetheless, these patients should be informed of the possibility of mild residual pain and persistent leg length discrepancy, particularly patients whose THA is performed on the

  2. Fixed and mobile-bearing total ankle prostheses: Effect on tibial bone strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Fernandes, Caroline Sieger; Guillemin, Maïka; Crevoisier, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Total ankle replacement is associated to a high revision rate. To improve implant survival, the potential advantage of prostheses with fixed bearing compared to mobile bearing is unclear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that fixed and mobile bearing prostheses are associated with different biomechanical quantities typically associated to implant failure. With a validated finite element model, we compared three cases: a prosthesis with a fixed bearing, a prosthesis with a mobile bearing in a centered position, and a prosthesis with mobile bearing in an eccentric position. Both prostheses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were tested on seven tibias with maximum axial compression force during walking. We tested the hypothesis that there was a difference of bone strain, bone-implant interfacial stress, and bone support between the three cases. We also evaluated, for the three cases, the correlations between bone support, bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress. There were no statistically significant differences between the three cases. Overall, bone support was mainly trabecular, and less effective in the posterior side. Bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress were strongly correlated to bone support. Even if slight differences are observed between fixed and mobile bearing, it is not enough to put forward the superiority of one of these implants regarding their reaction to axial compression. When associated to the published clinical results, our study provides no argument to warn surgeons against the use of two-components fixed bearing implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  4. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  5. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  6. Optimization of bent perfect Si(220)-crystal monochromator for residual strain/stress instrument - Part II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, MK.; Em, Vt.; Lee, C.H.; Mikula, Pavol; Hong, KP; Choi, YH; Cheon, JK; Nam, UW; Kong, KN; Jin, KC

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 368, 1 2 3 4 (2005), s. 70-75 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron monochromator * residual stress measurement * neutron diffractometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  7. Interplay among solidification, microstructure, residual strain and hot tearing in B206 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Elia, F., E-mail: f.delia10@gmail.com [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. East, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ravindran, C. [Centre for Near-net-shape Processing of Materials, Ryerson University, 101 Gerrard St. East, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Sediako, D. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2015-01-29

    Hot tearing is a complex phenomenon attributed to alloy solidification, microstructure and stress/strain development within a casting. In this research, the conditions associated with the formation of hot tears in B206 aluminum alloy were investigated. Neutron diffraction strain mapping was carried out on three B206 castings with varying levels of titanium (i.e. unrefined, 0.02 and 0.05 wt%). Titanium additions effectively reduced grain size and transformed grain morphology from coarse dendrites to fine globular grains. Further, thermal analysis suggested that grain refinement delayed the onset of dendrite coherency in B206 and therefore enhanced the duration of bulk liquid metal feeding for the refined casting conditions. As a result, the interactive effects of such factors resulted in a more uniform distribution of strain, and subsequent higher resistance to hot tearing for the grain refined castings.

  8. The effects of Pantoea sp. strain Y4-4 on alfalfa in the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil, and auxiliary impacts of plant residues on the remediation of saline-alkali soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhuan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Nanxiong; Liu, Lizhu; Chen, Yahua

    2017-04-01

    The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Y4-4 was isolated from plant rhizosphere soil and identified as Pantoea sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The effects of strain Y4-4 on alfalfa grown in heavy-metals-contaminated soil was investigated using a pot experiment. In a Cu-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 22.6% and 21%, and Cu accumulation increased by 15%. In a Pb-Zn-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 23.4% and 22%, and Zn accumulation increased by 30.3%. In addition, the salt tolerance and biomass of wheat seedlings could be improved by applying strain Y4-4 mixed with plant residue as a result of the Cu-rich plant residues providing copper nutrition to wheat. This study offers an efficient PGPR with strong salt tolerance and a safe strategy for the post-treatment of plant residue.

  9. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Residual strains in a stainless steel perforated plate subjected to reverse loading at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durelli, A.J.; Buitrago, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine strains in a stainless steel perforated plate subjected to a temperature of 1100 0 F and to a successively applied tensile and compressive in-plane loading sufficiently large to produce creep and plastic strains. The duration of the test was 1000 hours. Square grids of lines (at distance of 0.25 in.) and crossed-gratings (500 lines-per-inch) were engraved on both surfaces of the plate before the test. After the plate was unloaded and brought back to room temperature the grids were analyzed using traveling microscopes, and the gratings using the moire effect. Both Cartesian strains were determined from the moire isothetics along the axes of the plate, along the two lines tangent to the hole and parallel to those axes and along the edges of the plate. Grid measurements were made at specific points. The deformed shapes of the hole and of the plate are also given. It is estimated that strains larger than 0.001 can be determined with the techniques and methods used. (U.S.)

  11. Analysis of residual transverse stresses in a thick UD glass/polyester pultruded profile using hole drilling with strain gage and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko

    2018-05-01

    Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.

  12. Controlling residual dipolar couplings in high-resolution NMR of proteins by strain induced alignment in a gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshitaka; Markus, Michelle A.; Tycko, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble biological macromolecules can be weakly aligned by dissolution in a strained, hydrated gel such as cross-linked polyacrylamide, an effect termed 'strain-induced alignment in a gel' (SAG). SAG induces nonzero nuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings that can be measured in high-resolution NMR spectra and used as structural constraints. The dependence of experimental 15 N- 1 H dipolar couplings extracted from two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra on several properties of compressed polyacrylamide, including the extent of compression, the polyacrylamide concentration, and the cross-link density, is reported for the B1 immunoglobulin binding domain of streptococcal protein G (protein G/B1, 57 residues). It is shown that the magnitude of macromolecular alignment can be widely varied by adjusting these properties, although the orientation and asymmetry of the alignment tensor are not affected significantly. The dependence of the 15 N relaxation times T 1 and T 2 of protein G/B1 on polyacrylamide concentration are also reported. In addition, the results of 15 N relaxation and HSQC experiments on the RNA binding domain of prokaryotic protein S4 from Bacillus stearothermophilus (S4 Δ41, residues 43-200) in a compressed polyacrylamide gel are presented. These results demonstrate the applicability of SAG to proteins of higher molecular weight and greater complexity. A modified in-phase/anti-phase (IPAP) HSQC technique is described that suppresses natural-abundance 15 N background signals from amide groups in polyacrylamide, resulting in cleaner HSQC spectra in SAG experiments. The mechanism of protein alignment in strained polyacrylamide gels is contrasted with that in liquid crystalline media

  13. Total Antibiotics — A New Possible Alternative for the Screening of Coccidiostat Residues in Poultry Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevanandan V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Total Antibiotics test is a microbial inhibition test which has been recently introduced for the detection of antibiotics in meat. The aim of this study was to determine whether it would be suitable for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A comparison with the Premi®Test was assessed also for the suitability of the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A selection of poultry meat samples of different organ parts were assessed with 14 samples from Slovakian farms that had previously been tested for coccidiostats by the Veterinary and Food Institute in Košice. In addition, another 8 samples from varied Slovakian supermarkets such as Lidl, Billa and Tesco with samples of chicken or duck meat, were tested. Each prepared sample was added to the Total Antibiotics kit tubes and incubated. The samples from all sources showed a mixture of positive and negative results for the detection of coccidiostats.

  14. Study on recovering directly the commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earths from Dongpao bastnasite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Hung; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Luu Xuan Dinh

    2003-01-01

    A technology for decomposition roasting and sequential leaching processes of Dong Pao bastnasite concentrate to recover directly commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earth elements from the leaching solution of the roasted product have been investigated. The bastnasite concentrate is initially roasted at temperature range of 600 - 650 degC and for time of 4 hrs in order to decompose and convert the hardly soluble carbonate forms of ore into easily soluble oxide. The roasted solid is then leached with sulfuric acid solution of 6N at 60 degC for 4 hrs to convert rare earths in oxide and fluoride form into rare earth sulfate. The recovery yield of rare earths of these stages is more than 95%. The attention has especially been paid on recovering directly the commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earth element from the above leaching solution. Complex ions of CeSO 4 2+ , Ce(SO 4 ) 2 , Ce(SO 4 ) 3 2- and Ce(SO 4 ) 4 4- exist in aqueous solution of cerium (IV) sulfate. Based on the property, the method of ion - sieve with DOWEX cation resin column has been applied to estimating separation of the ceric complex anions from Ln(III). The survey showed that most of the ceric complex anions are separated from total of residue rare earths. The latter which are absorbed in the cation column are recovered by elution of HCl of 4N. The recovery yield of cerium can only be reached 20% but the purity of that is very high, can be reached 99.6%. About 5 kg of CeO 2 of high grade and 5 kg of TREO of commercial specification have been produced. (author)

  15. Optimisation of recovery protocols for double-base smokeless powder residues analysed by total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzier, Georgina; Bors, Dana; Ash, Jordan; Goodpaster, John V; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of explosive events requires appropriate evidential protocols to recover and preserve residues from the scene. In this study, a central composite design was used to determine statistically validated optimum recovery parameters for double-base smokeless powder residues on steel, analysed using total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS. It was found that maximum recovery was obtained using isopropanol-wetted swabs stored under refrigerated conditions, then extracted for 15min into acetone on the same day as sample collection. These parameters were applied to the recovery of post-blast residues deposited on steel witness surfaces following a PVC pipe bomb detonation, resulting in detection of all target components across the majority of samples. Higher overall recoveries were obtained from plates facing the sides of the device, consistent with the point of first failure occurring in the pipe body as observed in previous studies. The methodology employed here may be readily applied to a variety of other explosive compounds, and thus assist in establishing 'best practice' procedures for explosive investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Total Nitrite Pattern Visualization as an Improved Method for Gunshot Residue Detection and its Application to Casework Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jason; Upton, Colin; Springer, Elyah

    2018-04-23

    Visualization of nitrite residues is essential in gunshot distance determination. Current protocols for the detection of nitrites include, among other tests, the Modified Griess Test (MGT). This method is limited as nitrite residues are unstable in the environment and limited to partially burned gunpowder. Previous research demonstrated the ability of alkaline hydrolysis to convert nitrates to nitrites, allowing visualization of unburned gunpowder particles using the MGT. This is referred to as Total Nitrite Pattern Visualization (TNV). TNV techniques were modified and a study conducted to streamline the procedure outlined in the literature to maximize the efficacy of the TNV in casework, while reducing the required time from 1 h to 5 min, and enhancing effectiveness on blood-soiled samples. The TNV method was found to provide significant improvement in the ability to detect significant nitrite residues, without sacrificing efficiency, that would allow for the determination of the muzzle-to-target distance. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Enhanced production of xylanase from locally isolated fungal strain using agro-industrial residues under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Roheena; Nisar, Kinza; Aslam, Aafia; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Naz, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    This study is related to the isolation of fungal strain for xylanase production using agro-industrial residues. Forty fungal strains with xylanolytic potential were isolated by using xylan agar plates and quantitatively screened in solid-state fermentation. Of all the tested isolates, the strain showing highest ability to produce xylanase was assigned the code Aspergillus niger LCBT-14. For the enhanced production of the enzyme, five different fermentation media were evaluated. Out of all media, M4 containing wheat bran gave maximum enzyme production. Effect of different variables including incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources has been investigated. The optimum enzyme production was obtained after 72 h at 30°C and pH 4. Glucose as a carbon source while ammonium sulphate and yeast extract as nitrogen sources gave maximum xylanase production (946 U/mL/min). This study was successful in producing xylanase by A. niger LCBT-14 economically by utilising cheap indigenous substrate.

  18. Study of residual stresses and plastic strains in expanded thin tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassine, T.; Inglebert, G.; Point, N.

    1993-01-01

    The measurement of residual stresses with X-rays or with extending gauges, on expanded tubes, implies a longitudinal cutting up. The cutting-up provokes an elastic relaxing of the stresses and this is particularly important for thin tubes. The initial stresses and the geometry influence the variation of the stresses along the tube. The determination of the relaxed stresses is possible in certain cases with extending gauges measurements, but this determination is difficult and expensive. In order to analytically correct these stresses, some assumptions are used and verified with a finite element model. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  19. Neutron and synchrotron measurements of residual strain in TIG welded aluminium alloy 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.A.; Preston, R.V.; Withers, P.J.; Shercliff, H.R.; Webster, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is one method of joining aluminium alloys with potential application in the aerospace industry. However, for it to be seriously considered as an alternative to mechanical fasteners the interrelated problems of residual stress and distortion need to be addressed. In this paper neutron, laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods are used to provide non-destructive information about the residual stress field in TIG-welded 2024 Al alloy. The results compare well despite the differing penetration and sampling volumes associated with each technique. It is found that the magnitudes of the tensile longitudinal stresses decrease along the plate due to progressive heating up of the plate ahead of the arc during welding, so that steady-state conditions are not achieved. Comparison of the data with a finite element model indicates that softening of the heat-affected region must be included to simulate the resulting stress field. The FE model is found to be in good agreement with the data especially in the vicinity of the weld slope-out

  20. Total sulfur determination in residues of crude oil distillation using FT-IR/ATR and variable selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Mello, Paola de Azevedo; Ferrão, Marco Flores; dos Santos, Maria de Fátima Pereira; Guimarães, Regina Célia Lourenço; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Total sulfur concentration was determined in atmospheric residue (AR) and vacuum residue (VR) samples obtained from petroleum distillation process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) in association with chemometric methods. Calibration and prediction set consisted of 40 and 20 samples, respectively. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Different treatments and pre-processing steps were also evaluated for the development of models. The pre-treatment based on multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and the mean centered data were selected for models construction. The use of siPLS as variable selection method provided a model with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values significantly better than those obtained by PLS model using all variables. The best model was obtained using siPLS algorithm with spectra divided in 20 intervals and combinations of 3 intervals (911-824, 823-736 and 737-650 cm-1). This model produced a RMSECV of 400 mg kg-1 S and RMSEP of 420 mg kg-1 S, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.990.

  1. Long-term Outcome of Unconstrained Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Ipsilateral Residual Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttaro, Martín A; Slullitel, Pablo A; García Mansilla, Agustín M; Carlucci, Sofía; Comba, Fernando M; Zanotti, Gerardo; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Incapacitating articular sequelae in the hip joint have been described for patients with late effects of poliomyelitis. In these patients, total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been associated with a substantial rate of dislocation. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes of unconstrained THA in this specific group of patients. The study included 6 patients with ipsilateral polio who underwent primary THA between 1985 and 2006. Patients with polio who underwent THA on the nonparalytic limb were excluded. Mean follow-up was 119.5 months (minimum, 84 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score. Radiographs were examined to identify the cause of complications and determine the need for revision surgery. All patients showed significantly better functional results when preoperative and postoperative mHHS (67.58 vs 87.33, respectively; P=.002) and VAS pain score (7.66 vs 2, respectively; P=.0003) were compared. Although 2 cases of instability were diagnosed, only 1 patient needed acetabular revision as a result of component malpositioning. None of the patients had component loosening, osteolysis, or infection. Unconstrained THA in the affected limb of patients with poliomyelitis showed favorable long-term clinical results, with improved function and pain relief. Nevertheless, instability may be a more frequent complication in this group of patients compared with the general population. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e255-e261.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  3. The bowing potential of granitic rocks: rock fabrics, thermal properties and residual strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Mosch, S.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Nikolayev, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    The bowing of natural stone panels is especially known for marble slabs. The bowing of granite is mainly known from tombstones in subtropical humid climate. Field inspections in combination with laboratory investigations with respect to the thermal expansion and the bowing potential was performed on two different granitoids (Cezlak granodiorite and Flossenbürg granite) which differ in the composition and rock fabrics. In addition, to describe and explain the effect of bowing of granitoid facade panels, neutron time-of-flight diffraction was applied to determine residual macro- and microstrain. The measurements were combined with investigations of the crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz and biotite. Both samples show a significant bowing as a function of panel thickness and destination temperature. In comparison to marbles the effect of bowing is more pronounced in granitoids at temperatures of 120°C. The bowing as well as the thermal expansion of the Cezlak sample is also anisotropic with respect to the rock fabrics. A quantitative estimate was performed based on the observed textures. The effect of the locked-in stresses may also have a control on the bowing together with the thermal stresses related to the different volume expansion of the rock-forming minerals.

  4. Complexity in modeling of residual stresses and strains during polymerization of bone cement: effects of conversion, constraint, heat transfer, and viscoelastic property changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2006-12-15

    Aseptic loosening of cemented joint prostheses remains a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. One possible contributor to cement loosening is the development of porosity, residual stresses, and local fracture of the cement that may arise from the in-situ polymerization of the cement. In-situ polymerization of acrylic bone cement is a complex set of interacting processes that involve polymerization reactions, heat generation and transfer, full or partial mechanical constraint, evolution of conversion- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic material properties, and thermal and conversion-driven changes in the density of the cement. Interactions between heat transfer and polymerization can lead to polymerization fronts moving through the material. Density changes during polymerization can, in the presence of mechanical constraint, lead to the development of locally high residual strain energy and residual stresses. This study models the interactions during bone cement polymerization and determines how residual stresses develop in cement and incorporates temperature and conversion-dependent viscoelastic behavior. The results show that the presence of polymerization fronts in bone cement result in locally high residual strain energies. A novel heredity integral approach is presented to track residual stresses incorporating conversion and temperature dependent material property changes. Finally, the relative contribution of thermal- and conversion-dependent strains to residual stresses is evaluated and it is found that the conversion-based strains are the major contributor to the overall behavior. This framework provides the basis for understanding the complex development of residual stresses and can be used as the basis for developing more complex models of cement behavior.

  5. Total synthesis and related studies of large, strained, and bioactive natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAMA, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins. PMID:27725470

  6. Chemometric analysis of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectra of Proteus mirabilis strains with defined structures of LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiec, Paulina; Mizera, Andrzej; Chrapek, Magdalena; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2016-07-01

    Proteus spp. strains are some of the most important pathogens associated with complicated urinary tract infections and bacteremia affecting patients with immunodeficiency and long-term urinary catheterization. For epidemiological purposes, various molecular typing methods have been developed for this pathogen. However, these methods are labor intensive and time consuming. We evaluated a new method of differentiation between strains. A collection of Proteus spp. strains was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy used in conjunction with a diamond ATR accessory directly produced the biochemical profile of the surface chemistry of bacteria. We conclude that a combination of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and mathematical modeling provides a fast and reliable alternative for discrimination between Proteus isolates, contributing to epidemiological research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Synthesis, optical properties and residual strain effect of GaN nanowires generated via metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2017-04-18

    Herein, we report on the studies of GaN nanowires (GaN NWs) prepared via a metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method with Pt as the catalyst. It has been found that etching time greatly influences the growth of GaN NWs. The density and the length of nanowires increased with longer etching time, and excellent substrate coverage was observed. The average nanowire width and length are around 35 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a single-crystalline wurtzite structure and is confirmed by X-ray measurements. The synthesis mechanism of GaN NWs using the metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method was presented. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of GaN NWs show red-shift PL peaks compared to the as-grown sample associated with the relaxation of compressive stress. Furthermore, a shift of the E2 peak to the lower frequency in the Raman spectra for the samples etched for a longer time confirms such a stress relaxation. Based on Raman measurements, the compressive stress σxx and the residual strain εxx were evaluated to be 0.23 GPa and 2.6 × 10−4, respectively. GaN NW synthesis using a low cost method might be used for the fabrication of power optoelectronic devices and gas sensors.

  8. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba María Paz-Méndez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella. In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three different subspecies and isolated from poultry houses was evaluated. To simulate food chain conditions, four different growth media (Tryptic Soy Broth at 1/20 dilution, milk at 1/20 dilution, tomato juice, and chicken meat juice, two different surfaces (stainless steel and polystyrene and two temperatures (6 °C and 22 °C were used to evaluate the biofilm formation. The morphotype, motility, and biofilm formation of Salmonella was temperature-dependent. Biofilm formation was significantly higher with 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth in all the surfaces and temperatures tested, in comparison with the other growth media. The laboratory growth medium 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth enhanced biofilm formation in Salmonella. This could explain the great differences in biofilm formation found between this growth medium and food residues. However, Salmonella strains were able to produce biofilm on the presence of food residues in all the conditions tested. Therefore, the Salmonella strain can use food residues to produce biofilm on common surfaces of the food chain. More studies combining more strains and food residues are necessary to fully understand the mechanism used by Salmonella to produce biofilm on the presence of these sources of nutrients.

  9. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Méndez, Alba María; Lamas, Alexandre; Vázquez, Beatriz; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2017-11-29

    Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella . In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three different subspecies and isolated from poultry houses was evaluated. To simulate food chain conditions, four different growth media (Tryptic Soy Broth at 1/20 dilution, milk at 1/20 dilution, tomato juice, and chicken meat juice), two different surfaces (stainless steel and polystyrene) and two temperatures (6 °C and 22 °C) were used to evaluate the biofilm formation. The morphotype, motility, and biofilm formation of Salmonella was temperature-dependent. Biofilm formation was significantly higher with 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth in all the surfaces and temperatures tested, in comparison with the other growth media. The laboratory growth medium 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth enhanced biofilm formation in Salmonella . This could explain the great differences in biofilm formation found between this growth medium and food residues. However, Salmonella strains were able to produce biofilm on the presence of food residues in all the conditions tested. Therefore, the Salmonella strain can use food residues to produce biofilm on common surfaces of the food chain. More studies combining more strains and food residues are necessary to fully understand the mechanism used by Salmonella to produce biofilm on the presence of these sources of nutrients.

  10. Development of nondestructive hybrid measuring method for three-dimensional residual stress distribution of thick welded joint. Hybrid measuring method of inherent strain method and neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Kasahara, Norifumi; Tamura, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    The measuring methods of the residual stress are classified into destructive one and nondestructive one. The inherent strain method (ISM) is destructive one. The neutron diffraction method (NDM) is nondestructive one. But the measurable depth is limited within about 20 mm and the method cannot measure the weld zone, without destruction of the object. So, in this study, the hybrid measuring method has been developed, by combining the ISM and the NDM. The theory of the hybrid method is the same as the ISM. In the analysis, the strains measured by the NDM without destruction are used. This hybrid measuring method is a true nondestructive measuring method for a thick welded joint. The applicability of the hybrid method has been verified by simulation, using a butt welded joint of thick pipes. In the simulation, the reliable order of the strains measured by the present NDM is very important, and was considered as 10 micro. The measurable regions by the present NDM were assumed. Under the above conditions, the data (the residual elastic strains assumed to be measured by the NDM) were made, and used in the ISM. As a result of such simulation, it has been cleared that the estimated residual stress has very high accuracy, if enough data are used. The required number of data is less than the ISM. (author)

  11. Total effects of contact and residual exposure of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin on the predatory mite Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Alifano, Jesse A; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are generally regarded as acutely toxic to predatory phytoseiid mites; however, persistence of hull split spray pyrethroid residues on almond trees and their effects on phytoseiids have not been quantified over time. Hull split, the separation of the almond hull along the suture, exposes the new crop nuts to infestation by Amyelois transitella (Walker) larvae, and is the preferred timing for insecticides applied for their control. Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is the most important phytoseiid biocontrol agent for web-spinning spider mites in California (USA) almond orchards, and the impact of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin pyrethroid residue on their survival, fertility, and fecundity was determined. The total effects of direct contact with esfenvalerate, permethrin, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin were also evaluated for comparison. The total effects (E) of direct contact treatments of the four pyrethroids ranged from 77.8 % for esfenvalerate to 98.8 % for bifenthrin. Both bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin twig residue would be considered harmful (IOBC class 4) following field application at hull split timing. Bifenthrin twig residue would be considered slightly harmful (IOBC class 2) for up to 3.5 months and harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. λ-cyhalothrin residue would be considered moderately harmful (IOBC class 3) for up to 3.5 months following application and harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. Bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin twig residue on treated trees significantly reduced G. occidentalis female survival for up to 6 months post-treatment, however total effects (E) classify these residues as harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. Harmful effects of direct and residual exposure following application have implications for the use of these pyrethroids in an integrated mite management program for perennial crops.

  12. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Méndez, Alba María; Lamas, Alexandre; Vázquez, Beatriz; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella. In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three dif...

  13. Correlation between residual stress and plastic strain amplitude during low cycle fatigue of mechanically surface treated austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 and ferritic-pearlitic steel SAE 1045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, I. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Hessen (Germany)], E-mail: Ivan.Nikitin@infineon.com; Besel, M. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Hessen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Mechanical surface treatments such as deep rolling are known to affect the near-surface microstructure and induce, e.g. residual stresses and/or increase the surface hardness. It is well known that, e.g. compressive residual stress states usually increase the lifetime under fatigue loading. The stress relaxation behaviour and the stability of the residual stress during fatigue loading depend on the mechanical surface treatment method. In this paper three different surface treatments are used and their effects on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) and ferritic-pearlitic steel (SAE 1045) are investigated. X-ray diffraction is applied for the non-destructive evaluation of the stress state and the microstructure. It is found that consecutive deep rolling and annealing as well as high temperature deep rolling produce more stable near-surface stress states than conventional deep rolling at room temperature. The plastic strain amplitudes during fatigue loading are measured and it is shown that they correlate well with the induced residual stress and its relaxation, respectively. Furthermore, Coffin-Manson plots are presented which clearly show the correlation between the plastic strain amplitude and the fatigue lifetime.

  14. Pichia pastoris Mut(S) strains are prone to misincorporation of O-methyl-L-homoserine at methionine residues when methanol is used as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Peter; Dewerte, Isabelle; De Groeve, Manu; De Keyser, Saskia; De Brabandere, Veronique; Stanssens, Patrick

    2016-06-07

    Over the last few decades the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become a popular host for a wide range of products such as vaccines and therapeutic proteins. Several P. pastoris engineered strains and mutants have been developed to improve the performance of the expression system. Yield and quality of a recombinant product are important parameters to monitor during the host selection and development process but little information is published regarding quality differences of a product produced by different P. pastoris strains. We compared titer and quality of several Nanobodies(®) produced in wild type and Mut(S) strains. Titer in fed-batch fermentation was comparable between all strains for each Nanobody but a significant difference in quality was observed. Nanobodies expressed in Mut(S) strains contained a product variant with a Δ-16 Da mass difference that was not observed in wild type strains. This variant showed substitution of methionine residues due to misincorporation of O-methyl-L-homoserine, also called methoxine. Methoxine is likely synthesized by the enzymatic action of O-acetyl homoserine sulfhydrylase and we confirmed that Nanobodies produced in the corresponding knock-out strain contained no methoxine variants. We could show the incorporation of methoxine during biosynthesis by its addition to the culture medium. We showed that misincorporation of methoxine occurs particularly in P. pastoris Mut(S) strains. This reduction in product quality could outweigh the advantages of using Mut strains, such as lower oxygen and methanol demand, heat formation and in some cases improved expression. Methoxine incorporation in recombinant proteins is likely to occur when an excess of methanol is present during fermentation but can be avoided when the methanol feed rate protocol is carefully designed.

  15. Comparison between total lung capacity and residual volume values obtained by pletysmography and single breath methods with methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed pulmonary function tests of twenty asthmatic patients from Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, classified according to Brazilian Guidelines for Asthma (2002, similar to GINA, into mild persistent or moderate (9 or severe (11 asthma. We obtained parameters from spirometry, plethysmograph(PL and single breath technique for diffusion capacity (SB, with methane. Total lung capacity and residual volume were called TLCPL and RVPL when measured by pletysmography and TLCSB and RVSB when determined by single breath test. There were 13 women and 7 men with mean age of 47.6 years. The pulmonary dysfunction degree to FEV1/FVC was 58.8% with CI95=53.9 to 63.6. The mean values in litres for TLCPL (5.94 and RVPL (2.55 were significantly higher than for TLCSB (4.73 and RVSB (1.66. Multiple regression equations were determined for TLCPL e RVPL using only single breath values, TLCSB or RVSB, and spirographic parameters, with significant regression coefficients. However, the inclusion of spirometric parameters, except for FVC, did not improve the predicted capacity for the equations. Considering only the TLCSB, r2=0.79, the equation is: TLCPL=(TLCSB*1.025+1.088, with EPE=0.64. The regression for RVPL, r2=0.23, is: RVPL=(RVSB*0.9268+1.012. The results obtained after bronchodilation with 400 mcg of salbutamol did not improve the regression. We concluded that the SB technique did not obtain the same results as pletysmography for TLC and RV, but for TLC this difference can be predicted. Resumo: Foram analisados exames de função pulmonar de 20 asmáticos, em acompanhamento no HU Gaffrée Guinle, classificados, segundo o Consenso Brasileiro (2002, em asma leve persistente ou moderada (9 e grave (11. Foram obtidos os valores dos parâmetros da espirografia, da pletismografia e da técnica de respiração única, com metano, para a medida da difusão pulmonar (DLco. Assim, a capacidade pulmonar total e o volume residual, quando

  16. A real-time PCR method for quantification of the total and major variant strains of the deformed wing virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bradford

    Full Text Available European honey bees (Apis mellifera are critically important to global food production by virtue of their pollination services but are severely threatened by deformed wing virus (DWV especially in the presence of the external parasite Varroa destructor. DWV exists as many viral strains with the two major variants (DWV-A and DWV-B varying in virulence. A single plasmid standard was constructed containing three sections for the specific determination of DWV-A (VP2 capsid region, DWV-B (IRES and a conserved region suitable for total DWV (helicase region. The assays were confirmed as specific and discriminatory with limits of detections of 25, 25 and 50 genome equivalents for DWV-A, DWV-B and total-DWV, respectively. The methods were successfully tested on Apis mellifera and V. destructor samples with varying DWV profiles. The new method determined a more accurate total DWV titre in samples with substantial DWV-B than the method currently described in the COLOSS Beebook. The proposed assays could be utilized for the screening of large quantities of bee material for both a total DWV load overview along with more detailed investigations into DWV-A and DWV-B profiles.

  17. Baseline toxicity of a chlorobenzene mixture and total body residues measured and estimated with solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Hermens, J.L.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Body residues of compounds with a narcotic mode of action that exceed critical levels result in baseline toxicity in organisms. Previous studies have shown that internal concentrations in organisms also can be estimated by way of passive sampling. In this experiment, solid-phase microextraction

  18. Normalized Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) stress-strain curve prediction method based on small strain triaxial test data on undisturbed Auckland residual clay soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. J. Md; Ibrahim, A.; Rahman, A. S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Small strain triaxial test measurement is considered to be significantly accurate compared to the external strain measurement using conventional method due to systematic errors normally associated with the test. Three submersible miniature linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) mounted on yokes which clamped directly onto the soil sample at equally 120° from the others. The device setup using 0.4 N resolution load cell and 16 bit AD converter was capable of consistently resolving displacement of less than 1µm and measuring axial strains ranging from less than 0.001% to 2.5%. Further analysis of small strain local measurement data was performed using new Normalized Multiple Yield Surface Framework (NRMYSF) method and compared with existing Rotational Multiple Yield Surface Framework (RMYSF) prediction method. The prediction of shear strength based on combined intrinsic curvilinear shear strength envelope using small strain triaxial test data confirmed the significant improvement and reliability of the measurement and analysis methods. Moreover, the NRMYSF method shows an excellent data prediction and significant improvement toward more reliable prediction of soil strength that can reduce the cost and time of experimental laboratory test.

  19. Experimental Determination and Numerical Modelling of Process Induced Strains and Residual Stresses in Thick Glass/Epoxy Laminate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    dependency on temperature and cure degree. Model predictions are compared to experimentally determined in-situ strains, determined using FBG sensors. It was found that both models offer good approximations of internal strain build-up. A general shortcoming is the lack of capturing rate-dependent effects...

  20. A system for the determination of surface strain in the measurement of residual stress in structural elements in mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, W.; Stuecker, E.; Wolf, H.

    1975-01-01

    The device is made up of an integrated module which can be glued to the measuring point. It consists of a strain gauge rosette system to determine surface strains which is installed on a baseplate. Each of the strain gauges of the system has two connection wires. One of these connection wires each is led to a common connection point, whilst the others lead to separate connection points. The layer of strain gauges is covered with a cover plate equipped with openings which leave open the connection points. The connection wires leading from the connection points are soldered into these openings, the solder in addition arresting the baseplate and the cover plate relative to each other. In addition, the solder constitutes soldered support points for the feeder lines. The cover plate may be transparent or have a coordinate system to indicate the locations of the strain gauges. (DG/RF) [de

  1. Preparation of progenin III from total steroidal saponins of Dioscorea nipponica Makino using a crude enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqiang; Yu, Hongshan; Liu, Chunying; Bao, Yongming; Hu, Xiangchun; Wang, Yuanhao; Liu, Bing; Fu, Yaoyao; Tang, Sihui; Jin, Fengxie

    2013-05-01

    Progenin III, one of the most active spirostanol saponins, is a potential candidate for anti-cancer therapy due to its strong antitumor activity and low hemolytic activity. However, the concentration of progenin III is extremely low in natural Dioscorea plants. In this paper, the progenin III production from total steroidal saponins of Dioscorea nipponica Makino was studied using the crude enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae DLFCC-38. The crude enzyme converting total steroidal saponins into progenin III was obtained from the A. oryzae DLFCC-38 culture. For enzyme production, the strain was cultured for 72 h at 30 °C with shaking at 150 rpm in 5 % (w/v) malt extract medium containing 2 % (v/v) extract of D. nipponica as the enzyme inducer. The crude enzyme converted total steroidal saponins into major progenin III with a high yield when the reaction was carried out for 9 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with the 20 mg/ml of substrate. In the preparation of progenin III, 117 g of crude progenin III was obtained from 160 g of substrate, and the crude product was purified with silica gel column to obtain 60.3 g progenin III of 93.4 % purity.

  2. Substitutions at residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein serve as the minimal determinant of attenuation for canine parvovirus vaccine strain 9985-46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Morimasa; Takahashi, Takuo; Kainuma, Risa; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Oshima, Sho; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells. Using an infectious molecular clone system, we constructed isogenic CPVs of the parental virulent 9985 strain carrying single or double mutations. We observed that only a single amino acid substitution in VP2, G300V or T389N, attenuated the virulent parental virus. Combinations of these mutations further attenuated CPV to a level comparable to that of 9985-46. Strains with G300V/T389N substitutions did not induce clinical symptoms in experimentally infected pups, and their ability to infect canine cells was highly restricted. We found that another G300V/V562L double mutation decreased affinity of the virus for canine cells, although its pathogenicity to dogs was maintained. These results indicate that mutation of residue 300, which plays a critical role in host tropism, is not sufficient for viral attenuation in vivo, and that attenuation of 9985-46 strain is defined by at least two mutations in residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein. This finding is relevant for quality control of the vaccine and provides insight into the rational design of second-generation live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  3. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  4. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  5. Non destructive neutron diffraction measurements of cavities, inhomogeneities, and residual strain in bronzes of Ghiberti's relief from the Gates of Paradise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Alessandroni, M.; Andreani, C.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Materna, T.; Paradowska, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative neutron studies of cultural heritage objects provide access to microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic structures in a nondestructive manner. In this paper we present a neutron diffraction investigation of a Ghiberti Renaissance gilded bronze relief devoted to the measurement of cavities and inhomogeneities in the bulk of the sample, along with the bulk phase composition and residual strain distribution. The quantitative measurements allowed the determination of the re-melting parts extension, as well as improving current knowledge about the manufacturing process. The study provides significant and unique information to conservators and restorators about the history of the relief.

  6. Non destructive neutron diffraction measurements of cavities, inhomogeneities, and residual strain in bronzes of Ghiberti's relief from the Gates of Paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Alessandroni, M.; Andreani, C.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Materna, T.; Paradowska, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative neutron studies of cultural heritage objects provide access to microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic structures in a nondestructive manner. In this paper we present a neutron diffraction investigation of a Ghiberti Renaissance gilded bronze relief devoted to the measurement of cavities and inhomogeneities in the bulk of the sample, along with the bulk phase composition and residual strain distribution. The quantitative measurements allowed the determination of the re-melting parts extension, as well as improving current knowledge about the manufacturing process. The study provides significant and unique information to conservators and restorators about the history of the relief.

  7. Bioemulsifier production byMicrobacterium SP. strains isolated from mangrove and their application to remove cadmiun and zinc from hazardous industrial residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniszewski, Erick; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Mota, Fábio Faria; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of ecosystems with heavy metals is an important issue in current world and remediation technologies should be in according to environmental sustainability concept. Bioemulsifier are promising agents to be used in metal removal and could be effective to many applications in environmental industries. The aims of this work was screening the potential production of bioemulsifier by microorganisms isolated from an oil contaminated mangrove, and evaluate cadmium and zinc removal potential of those strains from a hazardous industrial residue. From that, bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were isolated from urban mangrove sediments. Four isolates were identified as Microbacterium sp by 16S rRNA analysis and were able to reduce up to 53.3% of culture medium surface tension (TS) when using glucose as carbon and energy source and 20.2% when sucrose was used. Suspensions containing bioemulsifier produced by Microbacterium sp. strains show to be able to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated industrial residue, and its ability varied according carbon source. Significant differences in metal removal were observed by all strains depending on the carbon source. When glucose was used, Cd and Zn removal varied from 17 to 41%, and 14 to 68%, respectively. However, when sucrose was used it was observed only 4 to a maximum of 15% of Cd removal, and 4 to 17% of Zn removal. When the same tests were performed after ethanol precipitation, the results were different: the percentages of removal of Zn (7–27%) and Cd (14–32%) were higher from sucrose cultures. This is the first report of heavy metals removal by bioemulsifier from Microbacterium sp. PMID:24031486

  8. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  9. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  10. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  11. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanoiri, Yohei; Ishida, Yojiro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Inouye, Masayori; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively 13 C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used 13 C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  12. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanoiri, Yohei [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ishida, Yojiro [Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Terauchi, Tsutomu [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Inouye, Masayori [Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@tmu.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively {sup 13}C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used {sup 13}C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  13. Estimation of residual stress in cold rolled iron-disks from strain measurements on the high resolution Fourier diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    The results of estimating residual stresses in cold rolled iron disks by measurements with the high resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor are presented. These measurements were made for calibration of magnetic and ultrasonic measurements carried out at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing in Saarbrucken (Germany). The tested objects were cold rolled steel disks of 2.5 mm thickness and diameter of about 500 mm used for forming small, gas pressure tanks. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out at the scattering angle 2θ=+152 d eg with resolution Δd/d=1.5·10 -3 . The gauge volume was chosen according to the magnetic measurements lateral resolution 20x20 mm 2 . In the nearest future the neutron diffraction measurements with cold rolled iron disks at the scattering angle 2θ=±90 0 are planned. Also the texture analysis will be included in the Rietveld refinement procedure for more correct calculation of residual stress fields in the cold rolled materials. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  14. Peri-implant bone strains and micro-motion following in vivo service: a postmortem retrieval study of 22 tibial components from total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kenneth A; Miller, Mark A; Goodheart, Jacklyn R; Izant, Timothy H; Cleary, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    Biological adaptation following placement of a total knee replacements (TKRs) affects peri-implant bone mineral density (BMD) and implant fixation. We quantified the proximal tibial bone strain and implant-bone micro-motion for functioning postmortem retrieved TKRs and assessed the strain/micro-motion relationships with chronological (donor age and time in service) and patient (body weight and BMD) factors. Twenty-two tibial constructs were functionally loaded to one body weight (60% medial/40% lateral), and the bone strains and tray/bone micro-motions were measured using a digital image correlation system. Donors with more time in service had higher bone strains (p = 0.044), but there was not a significant (p = 0.333) contribution from donor age. Donors with lower peri-implant BMD (p = 0.0039) and higher body weight (p = 0.0286) had higher bone strains. Long term implants (>11 years) had proximal bone strains 900 µϵ that were almost twice as high as short term (implants 570 µϵ. Micro-motion was greater for younger donors (p = 0.0161) and longer time in service (p = 0.0008). Increased bone strain with long term in vivo service could contribute to loosening of TKRs by failure of the tibial peri-implant bone. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  16. Dissecting the functional role of key residues in triheme cytochrome PpcA: a path to rational design of G. sulfurreducens strains with enhanced electron transfer capabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Morgado

    Full Text Available PpcA is the most abundant member of a family of five triheme cytochromes c7 in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs and is the most likely carrier of electrons destined for outer surface during respiration on solid metal oxides, a process that requires extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome has the highest content of lysine residues (24% among the family, and it was suggested to be involved in e-/H(+ energy transduction processes. In the present work, we investigated the functional role of lysine residues strategically located in the vicinity of each heme group. Each lysine was replaced by glutamine or glutamic acid to evaluate the effects of a neutral or negatively charged residue in each position. The results showed that replacing Lys9 (located near heme IV, Lys18 (near heme I or Lys22 (between hemes I and III has essentially no effect on the redox properties of the heme groups and are probably involved in redox partner recognition. On the other hand, Lys43 (near heme IV, Lys52 (between hemes III and IV and Lys60 (near heme III are crucial in the regulation of the functional mechanism of PpcA, namely in the selection of microstates that allow the protein to establish preferential e-/H(+ transfer pathways. The results showed that the preferred e-/H(+ transfer pathways are only established when heme III is the last heme to oxidize, a feature reinforced by a higher difference between its reduction potential and that of its predecessor in the order of oxidation. We also showed that K43 and K52 mutants keep the mechanistic features of PpcA by establishing preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values than the wild-type protein, a property that can enable rational design of Gs strains with optimized extracellular electron transfer capabilities.

  17. Robust fault detection of turbofan engines subject to adaptive controllers via a Total Measurable Fault Information Residual (ToMFIR) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chowdhury, Fahmida N; Djuric, Ana; Yeh, Chih-Ping

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides a new design of robust fault detection for turbofan engines with adaptive controllers. The critical issue is that the adaptive controllers can depress the faulty effects such that the actual system outputs remain the pre-specified values, making it difficult to detect faults/failures. To solve this problem, a Total Measurable Fault Information Residual (ToMFIR) technique with the aid of system transformation is adopted to detect faults in turbofan engines with adaptive controllers. This design is a ToMFIR-redundancy-based robust fault detection. The ToMFIR is first introduced and existing results are also summarized. The Detailed design process of the ToMFIRs is presented and a turbofan engine model is simulated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed ToMFIR-based fault-detection strategy. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional kinematics and collateral ligament strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katherine M; Foutz, Timothy L; Johnsen, Kyle J; Budsberg, Steven C

    2014-09-01

    To quantify the 3-D kinematics and collateral ligament strain of stifle joints in cadaveric canine limbs before and after cranial cruciate ligament transection followed by total knee replacement (TKR) involving various tibial plateau angles and spacer thicknesses. 6 hemi-pelvises collected from clinically normal nonchondrodystrophic dogs (weight range, 25 to 35 kg). Hemi-pelvises were mounted on a modified Oxford knee rig that allowed 6 degrees of freedom of the stifle joint but prevented mechanical movement of the hip and tarsal joints. Kinematics and collateral ligament strain were measured continuously while stifle joints were flexed. Data were again collected after cranial cruciate ligament transection and TKR with combinations of 3 plateau angles (0°, 4°, and 8°) and spacer thicknesses (5, 7, and 9 mm). Presurgical (ie, normal) stifle joint rotations were comparable to those previously documented for live dogs. After TKR, kinematics recorded for the 8°, 5-mm implant most closely resembled those of unaltered stifle joints. Decreasing the plateau angle and increasing spacer thickness altered stifle joint adduction, internal rotation, and medial translation. Medial collateral ligament strain was minimal in unaltered stifle joints and was unaffected by TKR. Lateral collateral ligament strain decreased with steeper plateau angles but returned to a presurgical level at the flattest plateau angle. Among the constructs tested, greatest normalization of canine stifle joint kinematics in vitro was achieved with the steepest plateau angle paired with the thinnest spacer. Furthermore, results indicated that strain to the collateral ligaments was not negatively affected by TKR.

  19. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  20. Optimization of biomass, total carotenoids and astaxanthin production in Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow strain Steptoe (Nevada, USA under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA S CIFUENTES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is one of the natural sources of astaxanthin, a pigment widely used in salmon feed. This study was made to discover optimal conditions for biomass and astaxanthin production in H. pluvialis from Steptoe, Nevada (USA, cultured in batch mode. Growth was carried out under autotrophic (with NaNO3, NH4Cl and urea and mixotrophic conditions (with 4, 8, 12 mM sodium acetate under two photon flux densities (PFD (35 and 85 µmol m-2 s-1. The carotenogenesis was induced by 1 addition of NaCl (0.2 and 0.8 %, 2 N-deprivation and 3 high PFD (150 µmol m-2 s-1. Total carotenoids were estimated by spectrophotometry and total astaxanthin by HPLC. Ammonium chloride was the best N-source for growth (k=0.7 div day-1, 228-258 mg l-1and 2.0 x 10(5 - 2.5 x 10(5 cells ml-1 at both PFD, respectively. With increasing acetate concentration, a slight increment in growth occurred only at 85 µmol m-2 s-1. Light was the best inductive carotenogenic factor, and the highest carotenoid production (4.9 mg l-1, 25.0 pg cell-1 was obtained in cultures pre-grown in nitrate at low light. The NaCl caused an increase in carotenoid content per cell at increasing salt concentrations, but resulted in a high cell mortality and did not produce any increment in carotenoid content per volume compared to cultures grown at 150 µmol m-2 s-1. The highest carotenoid content per cell (22 pg and astaxanthin content per dry weight (10.3 mg g-1 (1% w/w were obtained at 85 µmol m-2 s-1 with 0.8% NaCl.

  1. Cleaning verification: A five parameter study of a Total Organic Carbon method development and validation for the cleaning assessment of residual detergents in manufacturing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ahmad, Imad A Haidar; Tam, James; Wang, Yan; Dao, Gina; Blasko, Andrei

    2018-02-05

    A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) based analytical method to quantitate trace residues of clean-in-place (CIP) detergents CIP100 ® and CIP200 ® on the surfaces of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment was developed and validated. Five factors affecting the development and validation of the method were identified: diluent composition, diluent volume, extraction method, location for TOC sample preparation, and oxidant flow rate. Key experimental parameters were optimized to minimize contamination and to improve the sensitivity, recovery, and reliability of the method. The optimized concentration of the phosphoric acid in the swabbing solution was 0.05M, and the optimal volume of the sample solution was 30mL. The swab extraction method was 1min sonication. The use of a clean room, as compared to an isolated lab environment, was not required for method validation. The method was demonstrated to be linear with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9999. The average recoveries from stainless steel surfaces at multiple spike levels were >90%. The repeatability and intermediate precision results were ≤5% across the 2.2-6.6ppm range (50-150% of the target maximum carry over, MACO, limit). The method was also shown to be sensitive with a detection limit (DL) of 38ppb and a quantitation limit (QL) of 114ppb. The method validation demonstrated that the developed method is suitable for its intended use. The methodology developed in this study is generally applicable to the cleaning verification of any organic detergents used for the cleaning of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment made of electropolished stainless steel material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration ( X ₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time ( X ₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature ( X ₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC 50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve

  3. Presence of Vibrios and Aeromonas strains and total psychrotrophs in hexagonal spotted grouper and Spanish Mackerel Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dagal, M.

    2002-01-01

    This work was conducted on different parts of hexagonal-spotted grouper and Spanish mackerel fish from 10 major fishery shops in Riyadh city to assess the presence of vibrios and aeromonas using the API20E and Biolog system. Also, pH and total psychotrophs were assessed as two indexes of quality. Similar data were obtained from both identification systems except for Aeromonas media-like and Vibrio anguillarum which are not included in the API20E database. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. media-like, V. alginolyticus, V.anguillarum, V. damsel and V. fluvialis were recovered from fish samples A. medial-like and V. damsel most predominant. Unexpectedly, V. cholera and V. parahemolyticus were not recovered. The numbers of skin samples of grouper having more than 7 log CFU/gm were much higher than that of mackerel skin samples. Similar psychrotrophic counts were noticed in gut samples of the two fish types, indicating similarly in growth habitat. Most of the grouper fish samples had a pH in the range of >6.40-7.02, whereas 95% of mackerel samples had a pH at 6.40 or below. (author)

  4. Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the Analysis of Polyploid Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Zadrag-Tecza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid. Such experiments enabled us to test the hypertrophy hypothesis, which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell—the hypertrophy state—is the reason preventing the cell from further proliferation. This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed that cell size has an important impact on not only the reproductive potential but also the total lifespan of this cell. Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. The achievement of excessive size by the cell (hypertrophic state may lead to two distinct phenomena: the cessation of reproduction without “mother” cell death and the cessation of reproduction with cell death by bursting, which has not been shown before.

  5. Effect of Plastic Pre-straining on Residual Stress and Composition Profiles in Low-Temperature Surface-Hardened Austenitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Winther, Grethe

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with the evaluation of the residual stress profiles in expanded austenite by applying grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) combined with successive sublayer removal. Annealed and deformed (εeq=0.5) samples of stable stainless steel EN 1.4369 were nitrided...... or nitrocarburized. The residual stress profiles resulting from the thermochemical low-temperature surface treatment were measured. The results indicate high-residual compressive stresses of several GPa’s in the nitrided region, while lower-compressive stresses are produced in the carburized case. Plastic...... deformation in the steel prior to thermochemical treatment has a hardly measurable influence on the nitrogen-rich zone, while it has a measurable effect on the stresses and depth of the carbon-rich zone....

  6. Optimization of the bent perfect Si(311)-crystal monochromator for a residual strain/stress instrument at the HANARO reactor - Part I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, MK; Lee, Ch.H.; Vyacheslav, T.; Mikula, Pavol

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 369, - (2005), s. 1-7 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron monochromator * residual stress measurement * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  7. Deformações residuais longitudinais decorrentes de tensões de crescimento em eucaliptos e suas associações com outras propriedades Longitudinal residual strains resulted from growth stresses in eucalypts and their association with other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima

    2004-02-01

    ânicas da madeira fossem significativamente estimadas por modelos múltiplos.Growth stresses are a limiting factor in the use of fast growing eucalypts for the production of sawing logs. Further studies are needed for the qualification and mensuration of these stresses in eucalypts trees in Brazil. Thus, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the application of a new instrument, CIRAD-Forêt extensometer, in the measurement of the longitudinal residual strain (DRL in standing trees of five genetic materials of eucalypts, experimentally cultivated in Aracruz-Espirito Santo, and to correlate the magnitude of such strain with other wood properties and tree dimensions. The results obtained showed that: i the extensometer is a simple, rapid and reliable instrument to measure and identify trees with different levels of growth stresses; ii the DRL associated to the growth stresses measured with the extensometer were in average equal to 71 mm; iii no statistical differences were found in the DRLs measured in different cardinal orientations; iv the DRLs varied significantly with the genetic material according to the analyses of variance; v for clone 1, in which the DRLs were measured in two positions along the stem (1.3 m and 2.5 m, the values were similar; vi among various wood properties, only basic density was positive and significantly correlated with the DRLs when the five genetic materials were analysed together; vii except for the stability factor (DBH/total height of variety 5, the correlation between DRL and the tree growth dimensions were not significant when the genetic materials were analyzed separately, however, when the five genetic materials were analyzed together, only total height of the tree did not result in significant correlation with the DRLs; viii DRL addition to the tree growth dimensions allowed density and several wood mechanical properties to be significantly estimated by multiple models.

  8. THE IMPACT OF USING SOME RHIZOBACTERIAL STRAINS AS BIOFERTILIZERS ON THE TOTAL CONTENT OF SOLUBLE PROTEINS IN CORN CARYOPSES (ZEA MAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : Present researches are oriented to achieve a better understanding of the complex relations established between plants and rhizobacterial strains, all of these because of the increasing economic importance of the microbiotic flora. The results show us that using rhizobacterial strains as fertilizers improve the quantity and the quality of crops.

  9. Effect of cell immobilization on the treatment of olive mill wastewater by a total phenols, acetic acid and formic acid degrading bacterium strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errami, Mohamed

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW is a pure vegetative by-product, containing a high organic and polyphenol content and is resistant to biodegradation. Its disposal lead to major environmental pollution problems in the Mediterranean basin. An aerobic bacterium was isolated from OMW. During three consecutive diluted and supplemented OMW treatment cycles, significant abatement of its phytotoxic substances was observed. In fact, total phenols, acetic and formic acids were reduced between 33 and 64 % when cells of the isolated bacterium were grown free; and between 62 and 78 % when cells of the same isolated bacterium were grown immobilized in a polyurethane sponge. These results suggest that the bacterium culture of the new isolate would decrease the OMW phytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA showed that all the related sequences are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and revealed that the isolated bacterium was characterized as a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.El alpechín (OMW es un residuo puro de la extracción del aceite de oliva, que contiene una elevada carga orgánica y de polifenoles por lo que es resistente a la degradación. Su descarga produce graves problemas de contaminación medioambiental en toda el área mediterránea. Se ha aislado una bacteria anaerobia del OMW, que , durante tres ciclos consecutivos de tratamiento del OMW diluido y suplementado, produjo una disminución significativa de las sustancias fitotóxicas del residuo. De hecho, la concentración en fenoles totales, ácido acético y ácido fórmico se redujeron entre 33 y 64 % cuando las células no estaban inmovilizadas y entre el 62 y 78 % cuando las células bacterianas se inmovilizaron en una esponja de poliuretano. Estos resultados indican que el cultivo de la nueva bacteria aislada puede disminuir la fototoxicidad del alpechín. Análisis filogenético del ribosoma 16S de DNA demostró que todas las secuencias eran miembros de la familia

  10. An approach to the estimative the DBO and the DQO of residual waters by means of the measure of the total organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Horacio; Mejia, Gloria; Chaverra, Marlene; Vasquez, Esmeralda

    2000-01-01

    Using parameters like BOD and COD has normally done the measurement of the contents of biodegradable organic matter present in both water and wastewaters. Since the time required to obtain the first of them is too long for practical purposes plus the fact that precision achieved in analysis results is not too high for both, some troubles are encountered when evaluating pollution loads for different objectives (applying water quality criteria to discharge effluents or designing wastewater treatment facilities) this paper presents the results of a method of estimation of both parameters through the use of the total organic carbon contents of waste waters. Its detection is quick and accurate and could mean the access to a tool with many possibilities in water pollution assessment and waste water treatment control

  11. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  12. Evidence for three types of x-ray damage repair in yeast and sensitivity of totally repair deficient strains to sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, J.C.; Schild, D.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of yeast that confer sensitivity to x-rays are known to fall into two epistasis groups, called here the RAD51 and RAD18 groups, which are each thought to control a different type of x-ray repair. They examine here the role of genes in a third repair pathways in x-ray repair. RAD1 and RAD3 are known to be important in the repair of pyrimidine dimers after uv-irradiation. They find that these genes can also play an important role in x-ray repair, but that this role is only exposed when both the other pathways of x-ray repair are blocked. Double mutants blocked in the RAD51 and RAD18 pathways are significantly less x-ray sensitive than triple mutants blocked in these pathways but also mutant in either the RAD1 or RAD3 genes. In a related experiment, they tested the importance of DNA repair in nature by determining the sensitivity to natural unfiltered sunlight of a strain lacking all known DNA repair pathways. They constructed a quadruple mutant strain containing RAD1-1, RAD18-2, RAD51-1 and PHR1-1. The latter mutation blocks the cell's ability to photoreactivate uv damage. They found that this strain was so sensitive to sunlight that less than three seconds' exposure would cause an average of one lethal hit per cell, and survival was less than 2% after ten seconds' exposure. Wild type yeast at sea level showed no killing after thirty minutes. the quadruple mutant is approximately one thousand times more sensitive to sunlight than the related wild type

  13. The Lysine Residues within the Human Ribosomal Protein S17 Sequence Naturally Inserted into the Viral Nonstructural Protein of a Unique Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Are Important for Enhanced Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied human pathogen. Due largely to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV, the molecular mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently, a unique genotype 3 strain of HEV recovered from a chronically infected patient was adapted for growth in HepG2C3A human hepatoma cells. The adaptation of the Kernow C-1 P6 HEV to propagate in HepG2C3A cells selected for a rare virus recombinant that contains an insertion of a 171-nucleotide sequence encoding amino acids 21 to 76 of the human ribosomal protein S17 (RPS17) within the hypervariable region (HVR) of the HEV ORF1 protein. When the RPS17 insertion was placed into a strain of genotype 1 HEV which infects only humans, it expanded the host range of the virus, allowing it to infect cell lines from multiple animal species, including cow, dog, cat, chicken, and hamster. In this study, we utilized forward and reverse genetics to attempt to define which aspects of the RPS17 insertion allow for the ability of the Kernow C-1 P6 HEV to adapt in cell culture and allow for expanded host tropism. We demonstrate that the RPS17 sequence insertion in HEV bestows novel nuclear/nucleolar trafficking capabilities to the ORF1 protein of Kernow P6 HEV and that lysine residues within the RPS17 insertion, but not nuclear localization of the ORF1 protein, correlate with the enhanced replication of the HEV Kernow C-1 P6 strain. The results from this study have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cross-species infection and replication of HEV. IMPORTANCE HEV is an important pathogen worldwide. The virus causes high mortality (up to 30%) in pregnant women and has been recognized to cause chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised populations. The life cycle of HEV has been understudied due to a lack of sufficient cell culture systems in which to propagate the virus. Recently, insertions and rearrangements of the

  14. Application of laser interferometry for assessment of surface residual stress by determination of stress-free state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Dong Il; Lee, Nak Kyu; Choi, Tae Hoon; Na, Kyoung Hoan

    2003-01-01

    The total relaxed stress in annealing and the thermal strain/stress were obtained from the identification of the residual stress-free state using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI). The residual stress fields in case of both single and film/substrate systems were modeled using the thermo-elastic theory and the relationship between relaxed stresses and displacements. We mapped the surface residual stress fields on the indented bulk Cu and the 0.5 μm Au film by ESPI. In indented Cu, the normal and shear residual stress are distributed over -1.7 GPa to 700 MPa and -800 GPa to 600 MPa respectively around the indented point and in deposited Au film on Si wafer, the tensile residual stress is uniformly distributed on the Au film from 500 MPa to 800 MPa. Also we measured the residual stress by the X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) for the verification of above residual stress results by ESPI

  15. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  16. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  18. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu Piao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS, 0.77 (MS and 0.95 (HS, respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF (p>0.05. The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p0.05. In addition, the purine derivative (PD excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05. In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS in Holstein steers.

  19. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  20. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  1. Evaluating the damage of steel 09G2S under static and cyclic loading with regard for the level of residual stresses in the metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Kamantsev, I. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Drukarenko, N. A.; Goruleva, L. S.; Veselova, V. E.

    2017-12-01

    An approach to the estimation of the residual durability of structural elements in view of their initial stress-strain state is proposed. The adequacy of the developed approach is confirmed by experiments on cyclic loading of specimens without pronounced stress concentrators simulating the work of real structural elements under conditions of overshooting the total stresses causing local plastic deformation of the material, with regard for residual stresses.

  2. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  3. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil... existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 in or on all food commodities by including residues of Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 variant soil...

  4. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  5. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  6. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  7. Computer modeling of the stress-strain state of welded construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurguzhin, Marat; Danenova, Gulmira; Akhmetzhanov, Talgat

    2017-11-01

    At the present time the maintenance of the welded construction serviceability over normative service life is provided by the maintenance system on the basis of the guiding documents according to the concept of "fail safe". However, technology factors relating to welding such as high residual stresses and significant plastic strains are not considered in the guiding documents. The design procedure of the stressed-strained state of welded constructions is suggested in the paper. The procedure investigates welded constructions during welding and the external load using the program ANSYS. In this paper, the model of influence of the residual stress strain state on the factor of stress intensity is proposed. The calculation method of the residual stressed-strained state (SSS) taking into account the phase transition is developed by the authors. Melting and hardening of a plate material during heating and cooling is considered. The thermomechanical problem of heating a plate by a stationary heat source is solved. The setup of the heating spot center on distance (190 mm) from the crack top in a direction of its propagation leads to the fact that the value of total factor of stress intensity will considerably decrease under action of the specified residual compressing stresses. It can lower the speed of the crack propagation to zero. The suggested method of survivability maintenance can be applied during operation with the purpose of increasing the service life of metal constructions up to running repair of technological machines.

  8. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  9. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  10. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  11. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  12. Phytosterols elevation in bamboo shoot residue through laboratorial scale solid-state fermentation using isolated Aspergillus niger CTBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X X; Chen, R S; Shen, Y; Yin, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus niger CTBU isolated from local decayed bamboo shoot residue was employed to solid-state fermentation (SSF) of bamboo shoot residue to elevate the content of phytosterols. Strain acclimatization was carried out under the fermentation condition using bamboo shoot as substrate for fermentation performance improvement. The optimal fermentation temperature and nitrogen level were investigated using acclimatized strain, and SSF was carried out in a 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask feeding 300-mg bamboo shoot residue chips under the optimal condition (33 °C and feeding 4 % urea), and 1,186 mg (100 g)(-1) of total phytosterol was attained after 5-day fermentation, in comparison, only 523 mg (100 g)(-1) of phytosterol was assayed in fresh shoots residue. HPLC analysis of the main composition of total phytosterols displays that the types of phytosterols and composition ratio of main sterols keep steady. This laboratorial scale SSF unit could be scaled up for raw phytosterols production from discarded bamboo shoot residue and could reduce its cost.

  13. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  14. Crescimento micelial de dois isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, em resíduos ligninocelulósicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3622 Mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in lignocellulose residue - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Schunck da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o crescimento micelial de dois isolados, 42 e 47, de Lentinula edodes, utilizaram-se os substratos: serragens de Eucalyptus sp., de Grevillea robusta e de Melia azedarach; resíduo de algodão e folhas de Panicum maximum em diferentes composições e suplementados com farelos de soja e de arroz. Verificou-se crescimento micelial por meio de medidas do raio avaliadas pela Análise de Dados Longitudinais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à analise estatística (Manova. O crescimento foi significativamente diferente ao longo do tempo e este influenciou marcadamente o comportamento dos isolados nos diferentes resíduos. Observaram-se quatro padrões de comportamento para o isolado 42 e cinco, para o 47. As serragens de Eucalyptus sp. e de G. robusta mostraram-se as mais propícias ao crescimento dos dois isolados de L. edodes, confirmando ser essa espécie essencialmente de hábito lignícola.With the purpose of verifying the mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes – 42 and 47 –, the following substrates were used: sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta and Melia azedarach; cotton residue and leaves of Panicum maximum, in different compositions and complemented with crumbs of soy and rice. Mycelial growth was verified through radius measurements as evaluated by Longitudinal Data Analysis. The obtained data was submitted to statistical analysis (Manova. The growth was significantly different along time, and this influenced remarkably the behavior of the isolated strains in the different residues. Four patterns of behavior were observed for isolate 42, and five for number 47. The sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp. and of G. robusta proved to the most favorable for growing the two isolates of L. edodes, confirming this species to be essentially lignous.

  15. A report on the indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the control of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar (India): an initiative towards total elimination targeting 2015 (Series-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Dinesh, D S; Tiwari, A K; Kumar, A J; Kumar, R; Singh, V P; Das, P

    2009-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar is endemic in Bihar state, India. Current vector control programme in Bihar focuses mainly on spraying the sandfly infested dwellings with DDT. The Government of India in collaboration with WHO has fixed the target 2015 for total elimination of kala-azar. The present study was carried out to see the impact of DDT and improved IEC in the containment of vector density vis-à-vis disease transmission. Before the start of the spraying operations training was imparted to all the medical and paramedical personnel regarding the methods of spraying operations. Pre- and post-sandfly density was monitored in four selected districts. Incidences of kala-azar cases were compared for pre- and post-spray periods. Social acceptability and perceptions of households was collected through questionnaires from 500 randomly selected households in the study districts. House index in three study districts reduced considerably during post-spray when compared to pre-spray. Kala-azar incidence in many districts was reduced after the DDT spray. Either partial or complete refusal was reported in 14.4%, while 35% were not satisfied with the suspension concentration and coverage; and 46.6% were found satisfied with the spraying procedure. Strengthening the IEC activities to sensitise the community, proper training of health personnel, monitoring of spray, good surveillance, proper treatment of cases and two rounds of DDT spray with good coverage in the endemic districts up to three years are essential to achieve the desired total elimination of kala-azar in Bihar state.

  16. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3 of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, for DARC binding and contained a consensus heparin binding site essential for DARC binding. Both HIV-1 and P. vivax can be blocked from binding to their chemokine receptors by the chemokine, RANTES and its analog AOP-RANTES. Site directed mutagenesis of the heparin binding motif in members of the DBP family, the P. knowlesi alpha, beta and gamma proteins abrogated their binding to erythrocytes. Positively charged residues within domain 1 are required for binding of P. vivax and P. knowlesi erythrocyte binding proteins. Conclusion A heparin binding site motif in members of the DBP family may form part of a conserved erythrocyte receptor binding pocket.

  17. Occurrence of Natural Bacillus thuringiensis Contaminants and Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis-Based Insecticides on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kristine; Rosenquist, Hanne; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Wilcks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    A total of 128 Bacillus cereus-like strains isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables for sale in retail shops in Denmark were characterized. Of these strains, 39% (50/128) were classified as Bacillus thuringiensis on the basis of their content of cry genes determined by PCR or crystal proteins visualized by microscopy. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and plasmid profiling indicated that 23 of the 50 B. thuringiensis strains were of the same subtype as B. thuringiensis strains used as commercial bioinsecticides. Fourteen isolates were indistinguishable from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD1 present in the products Dipel, Biobit, and Foray, and nine isolates grouped with B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai present in Turex. The commercial strains were primarily isolated from samples of tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers. A multiplex PCR method was developed to simultaneously detect all three genes in the enterotoxin hemolysin BL (HBL) and the nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), respectively. This revealed that the frequency of these enterotoxin genes was higher among the strains indistinguishable from the commercial strains than among the other B. thuringiensis and B. cereus-like strains isolated from fruits and vegetables. The same was seen for a third enterotoxin, CytK. In conclusion, the present study strongly indicates that residues of B. thuringiensis-based insecticides can be found on fresh fruits and vegetables and that these are potentially enterotoxigenic. PMID:16672488

  18. Comparison of stress and total energy methods for calculation of elastic properties of semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P

    2013-01-16

    We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.

  19. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  20. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  2. Tratamentos focais e totais com inseticidas de ação residual para o controle de Triatoma brasiliensis e Triatoma pseudomaculata no Nordeste brasileiro Focal and total residual insecticide spraying to control Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo M. Oliveira Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para controle eficiente dos triatomíneos Triatoma brasiliensis e Triatoma pseudomaculata, foi feito um ensaio de campo em Boa Viagem, Ceará, de modo a comparar a borrifação convencional versus tratamento focal com deltametrina 5% SC, dose 25 mg i.a./m² e o organofosforado malation lenta liberação 8.3% SR, dose 2g i.a./m². O ensaio incluiu aleatoriamente 1.541 casas, separadas em quatro grupos. Em dois deles foi aplicada borrifação focal ­ tratamento PT com deltametrina dentro das casas e no peridomicílio e PL que recebeu malation lenta liberação nas mesmas circunstâncias. Os outros dois tiveram tratamento convencional, isto é, aplicação total ­ PT com deltametrina no intra e peridomicílio e PL, tratado com deltametrina dentro das casas e malation lenta liberação no peridomicílio. As avaliações entomológicas aos 6 e 12 meses pós-tratamentos mostraram melhor resultado para o tratamento misto, grupo PL, provavelmente em decorrência da boa performance do piretróide dentro das casas e da formulação de lenta liberação nas condições hostis do peridomicílio. Os abrigos dos animais domésticos sofreram modificações ao longo do ano, colaborando com a redução da performance dos inseticidas no peridomicílio.To efficiently control the triatomines Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, a field trial was performed to compare conventional versus focal spraying of deltamethrin 5% SC at 25 mg a.i./m² and the slow-release organophosphate malathion 8.3% SR at 2g a.i./m². The assay took place in the county of Boa Viagem, Ceará State, with 1541 households, randomly separated into 4 groups. Two of them received focal spraying: PT, treated with deltamethrin indoors and in the peridomicile, and PL, which received slow-release malathion in the same circumstances. The other groups received conventional, i.e., total application: PT with deltamethrin in the intra- and peridomicile, and PL, which was treated with

  3. Evaluation of Residual Stresses using Ring Core Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The method for measuring residual stresses using ring-core method is described. Basic relations are given for residual stress measurement along the specimen depth and simplified method is described for average residual stress estimation in the drilled layer for known principal stress directions. The estimation of calculated coefficients using FEM is described. Comparison of method sensitivity is made with hole-drilling method. The device for method application is described and an example of experiment is introduced. The accuracy of method is discussed. The influence of strain gauge rosette misalignment to the evaluated residual stresses is performed using FEM.

  4. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  5. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  6. Residual stresses in weld-clad reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, W.

    1975-01-01

    Cladding of low alloy nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel with austenitic stainless steel introduces in heavy section components high residual stresses which may cause microcrack formation in stress relief heat treatment. In this investigation an attempt is made to contribute to the solution of the stress relief cracking problem by determining quantitatively the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses after cladding and after subsequent stress relief heat treatment. The distribution of residual stresses was determined on the basis of a combined experimental-mathematical procedure. Heavy section plate specimens of low alloy steel as base material were given an austenitic monolayer-cladding using the techniques of strip electrode and plasma hot wire cladding, respectively. A number of plates was stress relief heat treated. Starting from the cladded surface the thickness of the plates was reduced by subsequent removal of layers of material. The elastic strain reaction to the removal of each layer was measured by strain gauges. From the data obtained the biaxial residual stress distribution was computed as a function of thickness using relations which are derived for this particular case. In summary, lower residual stresses are caused by reduced thickness of the components. As the heat input, is decreased at identical base material thickness, the residual stresses are lowered also. The height of the tensile residual stress peak, however, remains approximataly constant. In stress relief annealed condition the residual stresses in the cladding are in tension; in the base material the residual stresses are negligibly small

  7. Measurement of residual stress in textured Al alloy by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, S.; Hayashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Akiniwa, Y.; Minakawa, N.; Morii, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Residual stress generated in a shrunken aluminum alloy specimen, which was prepared for the round robin test conducted by VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) TWA-20 organized for the purpose of standardizing residual stress measurement methods, was evaluated by a neutron diffraction method. The main purpose of the round robin test was to assess the reproducibility of data obtained with the measurement facilities of the participants. The general standard of the Residual Stress Analyzer (RESA) constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was verified from the measured residual strains, which were equivalent to the values calculated by FEM and values measured by the research facilities in North America. Residual stress was calculated from residual strain in three perpendicular directions. The diffraction intensities were dependent on measurement directions since the prepared specimen possessed texture. Diffraction profiles in directions having a weak diffraction intensity caused an inaccurate evaluation of the residual stress. To solve this problem, a new method for evaluating residual stress with respect to diffraction plane dependency of the elastic constant was applied. The diffraction plane giving the highest intensity among 110, 200, and 220 diffraction was used to evaluate the residual strain in each of three directions. The residual strain obtained on the used diffraction plane was converted to the equivalent strain for the defined diffraction plane using the ratio of elastic constants of these two planes. The developed evaluation method achieved highly accurate measurement and remarkable efficiency in the measurement process. (author)

  8. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.S.J.; Islam, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 10 5 /s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  9. Recent advances in residual stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, P.J.; Turski, M.; Edwards, L.; Bouchard, P.J.; Buttle, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently residual stresses have been included in structural integrity assessments of nuclear pressure vessels and piping in a very primitive manner due to the lack of reliable residual stress measurement or prediction tools. This situation is changing the capabilities of newly emerging destructive (i.e. the contour method) and non-destructive (i.e. magnetic and high-energy synchrotron X-ray strain mapping) residual stress measurement techniques for evaluating ferritic and austenitic pressure vessel components are contrasted against more well-established methods. These new approaches offer the potential for obtaining area maps of residual stress or strain in welded plants, mock-up components or generic test-pieces. The mapped field may be used directly in structural integrity calculations, or indirectly to validate finite element process/structural models on which safety cases for pressurised nuclear systems are founded. These measurement methods are complementary in terms of application to actual plant, cost effectiveness and measurements in thick sections. In each case an exemplar case study is used to illustrate the method and to highlight its particular capabilities

  10. Design of specimen for weld residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a laboratory specimen for simulating residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe. Specimen type and method for residual stress generation were proposed based on the review of prior studies and parametric finite element simulation. To prove the proposed specimen type and loading method, the residual stress was generated using the designed specimen by applying proposed method and was measured. The measured residual stress using X-ray diffraction reasonably agreed with the results of finite element simulation considered in the specimen design. Comparison of residual strains measured at several locations of specimen and given by finite element simulation also showed good agreement. Therefore, it is indicated that the designed specimen can reasonably simulate the residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe

  11. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  12. 40 CFR 180.1212 - Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1212 Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption... for residues of the microbial pesticide Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28 in or on all food...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on peas...

  14. Modelling of the Residual Stress State in a new Type of Residual Stress Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik

    2014-01-01

    forms the experimental case which is analysed. A FE model of the specimen is used for analysing the curing history and the residual stress build up. The model is validated against experimental strain data which are recorded by a Fibre Brag Grating sensor and good agreement has been achieved.......The paper presents a study on a new type residual stress specimen which is proposed as a simple way to conduct experimental validation for model predictions. A specimen comprising of a steel plate with circular hole embedded into a stack of CSM glass fibre and further infused with an epoxy resin...

  15. Analysis of residual stresses in a long hollow cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovyy, Yuriy V.; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for solving the axisymmetric stress problem for a long hollow cylinder subjected to locally-distributed residual (incompatible) strains. This method is based on direct integration of the equilibrium and compatibility equations, which thereby have been reduced to the set of two governing equations for two key functions with corresponding boundary and integral conditions. The governing equations were solved by making use of the Fourier integral transformation. Application of the method is illustrated with an analysis of the welding residual stresses in a butt-welded thick-walled pipe. - Highlights: → A solution to the axisymmetric stress problem for a hollow cylinder is constructed. → The cylinder is subjected to a field of locally-distributed residual strains. → The method is based on direct integration of the equilibrium equations. → An application of our solution to analysis of welding residual stresses is considered.

  16. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  17. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  18. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  19. Preliminary characterization of Rhizobium strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... residues for animal feed and helps to maintain soil fertility through .... A loopful of agar slopes of the strains assayed for vitamin production was ... B12 Assay Medium, amended with 2 mmol l-1 Ca-pantothenate, biotin and ...

  20. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  1. Production of CGTase by a Bacillus alkalophilic CGII strain isolated from wastewater of a manioc flour industry Produção de CGTase por Bacillus alkalophilic CGII isolado de água residuária de uma fecularia de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Luisa de Freitas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available GCTase production by a new strain of Bacillus alkalophilic CGII isolated from Brazilian wastewater of manioc flour industry was examined. The growth medium used was composed by 1.5% starch, 1.5% nitrogen and 1% Na2CO3. Higher activity was obtained with starch, maltodextrin and galactose. When glucose was added to the medium, no enzyme production was observed. High enzyme activity and growth were reached when aeration was increased (88.6 U/mL. The enzyme characterization showed an optimum pH and temperature 8.0 and 55ºC for starch hydrolyses, respectively. Mg+ and Ca++ showed small activation; however, Hg+ and Cu+ showed a strong enzyme inhibition.Estudou-se a produção de CGTase por uma nova cepa de Bacillus alkalophilic CGII, isolada de água residuária de uma fecularia de mandioca, durante cultivo em meio composto de 1,5% de amido, 1,5% de fonte de nitrogênio e 1% Na2CO3. A atividade enzimática foi alta quando se utilizou amido, maltodextrina e galactose como fontes de carbono. Quando se utilizou glicose no meio de cultivo não se observou produção da enzima. Atividade enzimática alta (88,6 U/mL e melhor crescimento foram obtidos quando se aumentou a aeração. A caracterização da enzima mostrou um pH ótimo de 8,0 e temperatura ótima de 55ºC sendo que a enzima sofreu uma pequena ativação por Mg+ e Ca++. A enzima foi fortemente inibida por Hg+ e Cu+.

  2. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrington, R.J.; Scott, J.J.; Torres, F.

    1994-06-01

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique

  3. Residues of tritium-labeled morantel in lactating dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.J.; Mosher, F.R.; Burnett, D.M.; Newby, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Residues of morantel and its metabolites were monitored in plasma, urine, and milk of five lactating dairy cattle that received an oral dose of [4,4-pyrimidyl- 3 H 2 ]morantel tartrate at 10 mg/kg. Drug-related radioactivity peaked in plasma at 8 h and in milk by the second milking, postdose, and was 170 and 84 ng/mL, respectively. The fraction of total residues in milk convertible to the marker compound, N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, was 0.38 on the basis of a comparison of the areas under the curves for total and marker residues. Five days after dosing, 3.9% of the total radioactivity in liver was recovered as tritium water. Total drug-related residues in this target tissue averaged 1.15 μg/g. About half of the drug-related residues in liver was unextractable and was classified by bound

  4. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  5. 75 FR 9527 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0750; FRL-8800-9] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012. DATES: This regulation is effective March 3, 2010...

  6. 75 FR 8504 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0749; FRL-8799-4] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080. DATES: This regulation is effective February 25, 2010...

  7. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates I: Genesis of residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.

    2011-04-28

    Volumetric growth of an elastic body may give rise to residual stress. Here a rigorous analysis is given of the residual strains and stresses generated by growth in the axisymmetric Kirchhoff plate. Balance equations are derived via the Global Constraint Principle, growth is incorporated via a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient, and the system is closed by a response function. The particular case of a compressible neo-Hookean material is analyzed, and the existence of residually stressed states is established. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  8. Measurement of residual stresses by the moire method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Albertazzi, A., Jr.

    Three different applications of the moire method to the determination of residual stresses and strains are presented. The three applications take advantage of the property of ratings to record the changes of the surface they are printed on. One of the applications deals with thermal residual stresses, another with contact residual stress and the third one is a generalization of the blind hole technique. This last application is based on a computer assisted moire technique and on the generalization of the quasi-heterodyne techniques of fringe pattern analysis.

  9. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates I: Genesis of residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.; Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric growth of an elastic body may give rise to residual stress. Here a rigorous analysis is given of the residual strains and stresses generated by growth in the axisymmetric Kirchhoff plate. Balance equations are derived via the Global Constraint Principle, growth is incorporated via a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient, and the system is closed by a response function. The particular case of a compressible neo-Hookean material is analyzed, and the existence of residually stressed states is established. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  10. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  11. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  12. Residual stress in a thick section high strength T-butt weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, S.V.; Linton, V.M.; Oliver, E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Residual stresses in a structure are generated as a result of the various fabrication and welding processes used to make the component. Being able to quantify these residual stresses is a key step in determining the continuing integrity of a structure in service. In this work, the residual stresses around a high strength, quenched and tempered steel T-butt web to curved plate weld have been measured using neutron strain scanning. The results show that the residual stresses near the weld were dominated by the welding residual stresses, while the stresses further from the weld were dominated by the bending residual stresses. The results suggest that the combination of welding-induced residual stress and significant pre-welding residual stress, as in the case of a thick bent section of plate can significantly alter the residual stress profile from that in a flat plate

  13. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  14. Chlorinated pesticide residues in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    of pesticide in contaminated river water into the Bay of Bengal. Con centration ranges of all these pesticide residues detected were, aldrine: 0.02-0.53, gamma BHC: 0.01-0.21, dieldrine: 0.05-0.51, and total DDT: 0.02-0.78, all in mu g g sup(-1) (wet wt)....

  15. MM98.57 Quantification of Combined Strain Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Sturgård; Wanheim, Tarras

    1998-01-01

    this curve into useful scalar relations from experimental data.The strain history for plane strain when assuming volume constancy may be plotted in a shear strain, normal strain diagram, which has the property of showing both the rotation of principal deformation axes during the deformation and the amount...... is to describe the total strain history as a curve in the 6-dimensional shear strain, normal strain space. In order to be able to use these experimental data for calculation, the development of this strain curve must be transformed into a set of scalar relations that may be used for predicting the yield surface...... at a given point in a new strain history. A simple example of this concept is to take the length of the strain curve as describing scalar relation: E.g. to use the equivalent strain as parameter for describing the yield stress. This paper focuses on the strain curve concept and the possibilities to convert...

  16. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  17. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  18. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  20. Lattice strain measurements on sandstones under load using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischbutter, A.; Neov, D.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Vrána, M.; Walther, K.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron diffraction methods (both time-of-flight- and angle-dispersive diffraction) are applied to intracrystalline strain measurements on geological samples undergoing uniaxial increasing compressional load. The experiments were carried out on Cretaceous sandstones from the Elbezone (East Germany), consisting of >95% quartz which are bedded but without crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz. From the stress-strain relation the Young's modulus for our quartz sample was determined to be (72.2±2.9) GPa using results of the neutron time-of-flight method. The influence of different kinds of bedding in sandstones (laminated and convolute bedding) could be determined. We observed differences of factor 2 (convolute bedding) and 3 (laminated bedding) for the elastic stiffness, determined with angle dispersive neutron diffraction (crystallographic strain) and with strain gauges (mechanical strain). The data indicate which geological conditions may influence the stress-strain behaviour of geological materials. The influence of bedding on the stress-strain behaviour of a laminated bedded sandstone was indicated by direct residual stress measurements using neutron time-of-flight diffraction. The measurements were carried out six days after unloading the sample. Residual strain was measured for three positions from the centre to the periphery and within two radial directions of the cylinder. We observed that residual strain changes from extension to compression in a different manner for two perpendicular directions of the bedding plane.

  1. Reconstruction of the residual stresses in a hyperelastic body using ultrasound techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Sunnie; Walton, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a novel approach for characterizing the residual stress field in soft tissue using ultrasound interrogation. A nonlinear inverse spectral technique is developed that makes fundamental use of the finite strain nonlinear response

  2. Residual stresses in non-symmetrical carbon-epoxy laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Akkerman, Remko; Lamers, E.A.D.; Martin, M.J.; Hahn, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    The curvature of unsymmetrical [0/90] laminates moulded from AS4/8552 uni-directional tape has been measured. A linear thermoelastic approach has been applied to predict the related residual stress state before demoulding, giving an estimate of the stress induced by polymerisation strain. The

  3. Conversion of lignocellulosic agave residues into liquid biofuels using an AFEX™-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gómez, Carlos A; Escamilla Silva, Eleazar M; Zhong, Cheng; Dale, Bruce E; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh

    2018-01-01

    Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology. We also identified commercial enzyme mixtures that maximize sugar yields for AFEX-pretreated agave bagasse and leaf matter, at ~ 6% glucan (w/w) loading enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the pretreated agave hydrolysates (at a total solids loading of ~ 20%) were used for ethanol fermentation using the glucose- and xylose-consuming strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST), to determine ethanol yields at industrially relevant conditions. Low-severity AFEX pretreatment conditions are required (100-120 °C) to enable efficient enzymatic deconstruction of the agave cell wall. These studies showed that AFEX-pretreated A. tequilana bagasse, A. tequilana leaf fiber, and A. salmiana bagasse gave ~ 85% sugar conversion during enzyme hydrolysis and over 90% metabolic yields of ethanol during fermentation without any washing step or nutrient supplementation. On the other hand, although lignocellulosic A. salmiana leaf gave high sugar conversions, the hydrolysate could not be fermented at high solids loadings, apparently due to the presence of natural inhibitory compounds. These results show that AFEX-pretreated agave residues can be effectively hydrolyzed at high solids loading using an optimized commercial enzyme cocktail (at 25 mg protein/g glucan) producing > 85% sugar conversions and over 40 g/L bioethanol titers. These results show that AFEX technology has considerable potential to convert lignocellulosic agave residues to bio-based fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery.

  4. Nitrous oxide emission from soils amended with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.; Oenema, O.

    2002-01-01

    Crop residues incorporated in soil are a potentially important source of nitrous oxide (N2O), though poorly quantified. Here, we report on the N2O emission from 10 crop residues added to a sandy and a clay soil, both with and without additional nitrate (NO3-). In the sandy soil, total nitrous oxide

  5. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  6. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  7. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 180.1146 - Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1146 Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in...

  9. X-ray study of residual stress distribution of ground ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kenzi.

    1997-01-01

    The residual stress distribution of ground ceramics was determined from the eigen strain existing in the ground surface. The eigen strain of ground ceramics was tensile, and exponentially decreased with the distance from the surface. The residual stress distribution is given as a superposition of an exponential function of compression and a linear function. It is found that the actual residual stress distribution can be approximated by a compressive exponential function because the magnitude of tensile residual stress is negligibly small compared to the compressive residual stress. In the experiments, the diffraction angle was measured on ground silicon nitride for a wide range of sin 2 ψ using the glancing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. A strong nonlinearity was found in the 2θ-sin 2 ψ diagram at very high ψ-angles. From the analysis of nonlinearity, the residual stress distribution was determined. The residual stress distribution of silicon nitride coincided with the distribution calculated from the eigen strain distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to clarify the origin of generation of the residual stress. Both strain contrasts and microcracks were observed below the ground surface ; straight dislocations were also observed within silicon nitride grains near the ground surface. (author)

  10. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  11. Relaxation of residual stress in MMC after combined plastic deformation and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Ceretti, M.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Manescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron Diffraction shows that plastic pre-deformation and heat treatments have opposite effects on the residual stress in Al-SiC p composites. The thermal micro residual stress is relaxed or even reversed by pre-strains above 0.2%, but restored by heat treatments. The sense of relaxation changes above 400 deg. C (the mixing temperature)

  12. Construction of Potent Recombinant Strain Through Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion in Endophytic Fungi for Anticancerous Enzymes Production Using Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed; Al-Zahrani, Salha Hassan Mastour; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Among all fungal endophytes isolates derived from different ethno-medical plants, the hyper-yield L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase wild strains Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20 using rice straw under solid-state fermentation (SSF) were selected. The selected strains were used as parents for the intergeneric protoplast fusion program to construct recombinant strain for prompt improvement production of these enzymes in one recombinant strain. Among 21 fusants obtained, the recombinant strain AYA 20-1, with 2.11-fold and 2.58-fold increase in L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase activities more than the parental isolates Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20, respectively, was achieved using rice straw under SSF. Both therapeutic enzymes L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase were purified and characterized from the culture supernatant of the recombinant AYA 20-1 strain with molecular weights of 50.6 and 83.2 kDa, respectively. Both enzymes were not metalloenzymes. Whereas thiol group blocking reagents such as p-chloromercurybenzoate and iodoacetamide totally inhibited L-asparaginase activity, which refer to sulfhydryl groups and cysteine residues involved in its catalytic activity, they have no effect toward L-glutaminase activity. Interestingly, potent anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were detected for both enzymes.

  13. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  14. Persistence of pirimiphos methyl residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zennouche, B.; Bennaceur, M.

    1991-03-01

    The persistence of 14C pirimiphos methyl in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 6 months. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. There was a gradual increase in the surface residues over the storage period. 27,97% of the applied amount was found in the surface residues and 54,16% in the extractable and bound residues one month after treatment. After 6 months storage, about 17,8% of the total quantity of the applied pirimiphos methyl remained on the surface and about 58,6% was present in the grains (extractable and bound residues). During cooking 10,91% of the extractable and bound residues were lost

  15. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  16. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  17. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  18. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mishurova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment.

  20. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  1. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  2. Investigation of residual stress in laser welding dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirim, Denilson de Camargo; Oliveira, Rene Ramos de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Rossi, Wagner de; Lima, Nelson Batista de; Delijaicov, Sergio; Gomes, Diego Oliva

    2010-01-01

    One of the most critical problems found in the different materials welding is the residual stress formation, that happens mainly for the fact of those materials they possess coefficients of thermal expansion and different thermal conductivities. Like this in this work the residual tension was evaluated in the technique of welding laser among the steel low carbon, AISI 1010 and AISI 304. The materials were united for it welds autogenous of top with a laser of continuous Nd:YAG in that they were varied the potency, speed and the focus of the laser stayed constant in relation to surface of the sample. The main objective of the study went identification and to analysis of the residual stress in HAZ on both sides of seem. Um planning factorial of two factors at two levels each it was executed for optimization the combination of the factors potency and speed. The obtained answers were the residual stress in different depths in HAZ. In the surface of the sample measures of residual stress were accomplished by the technique of X-ray diffraction. The hole drilling strain gage method it was applied to measure the residual stress on both sides of the union. The results were analyzed using the variance analysis and the statistical regression based on the different influences of the entrance and combination of the factors in the residual stress generated in that union. The results indicate that the development of models can foresee the answers satisfactorily. (author)

  3. Residual stress stability and alternating bending strength of AISI 4140 after shot peening and successive annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menig, R.; Schulze, V.; Voehringer, O. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde I, Univ. of Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Increases of residual stress stability and alternating bending strength of shot peened AISI 4140 are obtained by successive annealing treatments. This is caused by static strain aging effects, which lead to pinning of dislocations by carbon atoms and finest carbides. It will be shown that by short-time annealing of a quenched and tempered AISI 4140 it is possible to maximize the positive effect of static strain aging, while minimizing the detrimental effect of thermal residual stress relaxation, which was measured by X-ray diffraction method. Static strain aging effects were also found to be responsible for an increase of the quasi static and cyclic surface yield strengths. (orig.)

  4. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  5. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  6. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  7. The use of pulsed neutron diffraction to measure strain in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Shi, N.; Gray, G.T. III; James, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a technique for measuring strain in crystalline materials. It is non destructive, phase discriminatory and more penetrating than X rays. Pulsed neutron sources (in contrast with steady state reactor sources) are particularly appropriate for examining heterogeneous materials or for recording the polycrystalline response of all lattice reflections. Several different aspects of composite behavior can be characterized and examples are given of residual strain measurements, strain relaxation during heating, applied loading, and determination of the strain distribution function

  8. Analysis of bacterial strains from contaminated and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... A total 18 strains were collected from non-contaminated and contaminated environments, and were purified. All purified strains were characterized for Gram reaction and biochemical analysis. Screening for bioplastic production was done by Sudan black staining. Strains isolated from non-contaminated.

  9. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  10. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H.; Baehtz, C.; Leitenberger, W.; Bruns, M.; Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  11. Studies of 14C-methamidophos residues and their binding to Costa Rican vegetables and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, E.; Constenla, M.A.; Fuentes, G.; Moza, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of 14 C-methamidophos residues in tomato, lettuce and two soils were made under greenhouse conditions. Residues in tomato fruits were 4.5 ppm 35 days after the last application. Total residues in lettuce were also high and present mainly in the edible leaves (9.7 and 12.8 ppm after 3 and 5 applications of the insecticide, respectively). The non-extractable residues constituted a significant part of the total residues in plant tissues. Recovery of the extractable residues decreased with time more rapidly in a loamy clay than in a clay soil. Bound residue levels were about 8% of the applied 14 C in loamy clay after 10 days. Residues in the clay soil were higher and continued to decline throughout a 65-day period. (author)

  12. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-11-02

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L -1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L -1 MgCO 3 and 17.84 g L -1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L -1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g -1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L -1 ). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains.

  13. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  14. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-06-01

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  15. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  17. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  18. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo

    1991-01-01

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord

  19. Process induced residual stresses and distortions in pultrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Nielsen, Michael Wenani

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a coupled 3D transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis together with a 2D plane strain Lagrangian mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is carried out. The development of the process induced residual stresses and strains...... together with the distortions are predicted during the pultrusion in which the cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) approach is implemented. At the end of the process, tension stresses prevail for the inner region of the composite since the curing rate is higher here as compared to the outer...... regions where compression stresses are obtained. The separation between the heating die and the part due to shrinkage is also investigated using a mechanical contact formulation at the die-part interface. The proposed approach is found to be efficient and fast for the calculation of the residual stresses...

  20. Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens; Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used

  1. Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K. (Center for Welded Structures Research, Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

    2009-06-15

    The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used

  2. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  3. Stresses and residual stresses optical measurements systems evaluation; Avaliacao de sistemas opticos de medicao de tensoes e tensoes residuais em dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto Filho, Flavio Tito; Goncalves Junior, Armando Albertazzi [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia e Automatizacao (LABMETRO)

    2004-07-01

    There is always a constant concern about the pipelines' integrity. An important control parameter is the level of total mechanical stresses acting over the pipeline. However, the loading and residual stresses acting on a pipeline are not measured in the field as much as necessary. Technical difficulties and the high cost of the nowadays techniques and the hostile measurement conditions are the main reason for that. An alternative method has been developed at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) since 1992. A new optical measurement device is used to measure strains, mechanical stresses and residual stresses acting over the structure. A metrological and functional evaluation of this system is the main focus of this paper. (author)

  4. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  5. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Christer.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the matrix and particles in a metal matrix composite will introduce residual stresses during cooling from process temperature. These stresses are locally very high, and are known to influence the mechanical behaviour of the material. Changes in the stress state will occur during heat treatments and when the material is loaded due to different elastic, plastic, and creep properties of the constituents. The change of residual stresses in an Al-SiC particulate composite after different degree of plastic straining has been studied. The effect of plastic straining was modelled by an Eshelby model. The model and the measurements both show that the stress in the loading direction decreases for a tensile plastic strain and increases for a compressive plastic strain. By x-ray diffraction the stress response in the matrix and particles can be measured independently. This has been used to determine the stress state under and after heat treatments and under mechanical loading in two Al 15% SiC metal matrix composites. By analysing the line width from x-ray experiment the changes in the microstrains in the material were studied. A finite element model was used to model the generation of thermal residual stresses, stress relaxation during heat treatments, and load sharing during the first load cycle. Calculated stresses and microstrains were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The elastic behaviour of the composite can be understood largely in terms of elastic load transfer between matrix and particles. However, at higher loads when the matrix becomes plastic residual stresses also become important. 21 refs

  6. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  7. Residual and working stresses in pipe joints in heterogeneous metals, due to common action of welding and service loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.N.; Voronin, N.N.; Roshchin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The stresses in the welded joints of cylindrical shells are studied, which are caused by the total effect of the thermal deformation welding cycles, by the preheats connected with the thermal treatment or operation, and by power loads. Studied were the shell joints made of the steels Kh18N10T and St.3, as well as the joints of three shells made of different metals, St.3+18N1aT steel+copper. The schematic diagram showing the residual stresses set up under effect of different factors are presented. The following has been shown by the study: the preheating of the welded joints of the shells made of diverse metals up to the operational temperatures does not result in obviating the residual stresses. If the welded shells are loaded by the internal pressure up to the stresses of (0.8-O.9) sigmasub(T), in certain cases an essential (up to 60-70%) reduction in the residual welding stresses may be obtained. The effectiveness of a variation in the residual stresses is reduced in the joints that have been thermally treated after welding. The working stresses set up in the welded joints of the shells made of different metals under the operational loading may be essentially reduced through initial preheating with the application of a pressure or without it. The preheating temperature and the pressures applied may be chosen so that to create the residual strains and the stresses of inverse sign as compared with the working stresses

  8. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  9. Persistence of malathion residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The persistence of succinate- 14 C-malathion in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 32 weeks. The insecticide penetrated readily into the seed and up to 16% of the applied dose was found to be bound after 32 weeks in storage. Total terminal residues declined to 9.3 and 21.0 mg/kg from initially applied doses of 12.2 and 24.4 mg/kg respectively. A small percentage of malaoxon was detected only during the early weeks after treatment (3-5%). Malathion was the major constituent of the extractable residues. In addition, seven degradation products were detected and identified. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  11. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  12. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  13. Influence of reinforcement on strains within maxillary implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reinforcement of an embedded cast on the strains within maxillary implant overdentures. A maxillary edentulous model with implants placed bilaterally in the canine positions, dome-shaped copings, and experimental overdentures was fabricated. Rosette-type strain gauges were attached in the canine positions and at three points along the midline of the polished surface of the denture and connected to the sensor interface controlled by a personal computer. Experimental dentures with five different reinforcements were tested: without reinforcement; with a cast cobalt-chrome reinforcement over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings; and with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings. A vertical occlusal load of 49 N was applied to the first premolar and then to the first molar, and the strains were measured and compared by analysis of variance. In both loading situations, significantly less strain was recorded in dentures with reinforcement than in those without reinforcement. When the first premolar was loaded on dentures with and without palatal reinforcement at the first premolars, the strains on the denture with reinforcement over the tops of the copings were significantly lower than on the denture with reinforcement over the sides of the copings at the canine position. Cast reinforcement over the residual ridge and the top of copings embedded in an acrylic base reduced the strain from occlusal stress on maxillary implant overdentures.

  14. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelorget, Bruno; Francois, Manuel; Vial-Edwards, Cristian; Montay, Guillaume; Daniel, Laurent; Lu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force (ε t ≅ 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements

  15. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  16. Sustainability of compressive residual stress by stress improvement processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Satoru; Okita, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Atsunori

    2013-01-01

    Stress improvement processes are countermeasures against stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant components. It is necessary to confirm whether compressive residual stress induced by stress improvement processes can be sustained under operation environment. In order to evaluate stability of the compressive residual stress in 60-year operating conditions, the 0.07% cyclic strains of 200 times at 593 K were applied to the welded specimens, then a thermal aging treatment for 1.66x10 6 s at 673 K was carried out. As the result, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stresses were sustained on both surfaces of the dissimilar welds of austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) and nickel base alloy (NCF600 and alloy 182) processed by laser peening (LP), water jet peening (WJP), ultrasonic shot peening (USP), shot peening (SP) and polishing under 60-year operating conditions. (author)

  17. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, P.J.; Low, K.S.; Mills, G.; Webster, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  18. Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....

  19. Modeling of plates with multiple anisotropic layers and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2016-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling of plates uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. Based on the stress–strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general...... multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress.From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated......, and an excellent agreement between the two models is seen with a relative difference of less than 2% for all calculations. The model was also used to extract the cell capacitance, the parasitic capacitance and the residual stress of a pressure sensor composed of a multilayered plate of silicon and silicon oxide...

  20. Diffraction measurements of residual stress in titanium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.R.; Bourke, M.A.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lawson, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Metal matrix composites develop residual strains after consolidation due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the reinforcement fiber and the matrix. X-ray and neutron diffraction measured values for the longitudinal residual stress in the matrix of four titanium MMCs are reported. For thick composites (> 6 plies) the surface stress measured by x-ray diffraction matches that determined by neutron diffraction and therefore represents the stress in the bulk region consisting of the fibers and matrix. For thin sheet composites, the surface values are lower than in the interior and increase as the outer rows of fibers are approached. While a rationale for the behavior in the thin sheet has yet to be developed, accounting for composite thickness is important when using x-ray measured values to validate analytic and finite element calculations of the residual stress state

  1. On generalization uniaxial stress-strain relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, C.; Dubey, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of constitutive relations have been advanced for elastic, plastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of materials. It is shown that the various forms of the stress-strain relationship are specialized forms of generalization of a single stress-strain relation. For example, it is shown how the laws of elastic deformation, and the incremental and total deformation relationship for plastic behaviour are derivable from the Ramberg-Osgood relation. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of residual stress relief mechanisms in post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study on weld residual stress relief mechanisms associated with furnace-based uniform post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Both finite element and analytical methods are used to quantitatively examine how plastic deformation and creep relaxation contribute to residual stress relief process at different stages of PWHT process. The key contribution of this work to an improved understanding of furnace based uniform PWHT can be summarized as follows: (1)Plastic deformation induced stress relief during PWHT can be analytically expressed by the change in material elastic deformation capacity (or elastic deformation limit) measured in terms of material yield strength to Young's modulus ratio, which has a rather limited role in overall residual stress relief during furnace based uniform PWHT. (2)The most dominant stress relief mechanism is creep strain induced stress relaxation, as expected. However, a rapid creep strain development accompanied by a rapid residual stress reduction during heating stage before reaching PWHT temperature is shown to contribute to most of the stress relief seen in overall PWHT process, suggesting PWHT hold time can be significantly reduced as far as residual stress relief is concerned. (3)A simple engineering scheme for estimating residual stress reduction is proposed based on this study by relating material type, PWHT temperature, and component wall thickness. - Highlights: • The paper clarified effects of plastic deformation and creep relaxation on weld residual stress relief during uniform PWHT. • Creep strain development is far more important than plastic strain, mostly completed even before hold time starts. • Plastic strain development is insignificant and be analytically described by a material elastic deformation capacity parameter. • An engineering estimation scheme is proposed for determining residual stress reduction resulted from furnace based PWHT

  3. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1201 - Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1201 Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 is exempt from the requirement of a...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement of...

  7. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  8. Residual stress in ceramics and ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oden, M.

    1992-01-01

    Residual stresses in Si 3 N 4 and SiC have been measured with X-ray diffraction after grinding and thermal shock. The produced surface stresses are compressive after both treatments. The stresses show a strong dependence on the quenching temperature up to a certain temperature when cracks relax the stresses. The influence of the amount of reinforcing phase on the residual stress state in a Al 2 O 3 /SiC whisker composite was investigated and correlated to a modified Eshelby model. The agreement is excellent. The composite was quenched in liquid He (4K) and the stress state measured after show no relaxation of stresses, indicating elastic behaviour. An in situ strain measurement as a function of temperature conducted on a Al 2 O 3 /SiC whisker composite and a SiC/TiB 2 particle composite show very good agreement with the Eshelby model for the Al 2 O 3 /SiC system but not agreement for the SiC/TiB 2 system. The reason is believed to be stress relaxation during sample preparation. (au) (53 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.)

  9. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  10. Novel distributed strain sensing in polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abot, Jandro L; Song, Yi; Medikonda, Sandeep; Rooy, Nathan; Schulz, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the state of strain throughout an entire structure is essential to determine its state of stress, detect potential residual stresses after fabrication, and also to help to establish its integrity. Several sensing technologies are presently available to determine the strain in the surface or inside a structure. Large sensor dimensions, complex signal conditioning equipment, and difficulty in achieving a widely distributed system have however hindered their development into robust structural health monitoring techniques. Recently, carbon nanotube forests were spun into a microscale thread that is electrically conductive, tough, and easily tailorable. The thread was integrated into polymeric materials and used for the first time as a piezoresistive sensor to monitor strain and also to detect damage in the material. It is revealed that the created self-sensing polymeric materials are sensitive to normal strains above 0.07% and that the sensor thread exhibits a perfectly linear delta resistance–strain response above 0.3%. The longitudinal gauge factors were determined to be in the 2–5 range. This low cost and simple built-in sensor thread may provide a new integrated and distributed sensor technology that enables robust real-time health monitoring of structures

  11. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  12. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  13. Engineering strain measurements using the NPD at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lovell, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can affect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can provide spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of a component. By recording the change in the interplanar spacings elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Also on a pulsed source, where all lattice reflections are recorded, profile refinement is an option which allows the strain to be obtained from changes in the lattice parameter. Measurements made at LANSCE demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. (author)

  14. Comparison of neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stress in bead-on-plate weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, A.M.; Price, J.W.; Finlayson, T.R.; Lienert, U.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.

  15. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  16. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  17. Temperature and strain registration by fibre-optic strain sensor in the polymer composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveenko; Kosheleva; Shardakov; Voronkov

    2018-04-01

    The presence of process-induced strains induced by various manufacturing and operational factors is one of the characteristics of polymer composite materials (PCM). Conventional methods of registration and evaluation of process-induced strains can be laborious, time-consuming and demanding in terms of technical applications. The employment of embedded fibre-optic strain sensors (FOSS) offers a real prospect of measuring residual strains. This paper demonstrates the potential for using embedded FOSS for recording technological strains in a PCM plate. The PCM plate is manufactured from prepreg, using the direct compression-moulding method. In this method, the prepared reinforcing package is placed inside a mould, heated, and then exposed to compaction pressure. The examined technology can be used for positioning FOSS between the layers of the composite material. Fibre-optic sensors, interacting with the material of the examined object, make it possible to register the evolution of the strain process during all stages of polymer-composite formation. FOSS data were recorded with interrogator ASTRO X 327. The obtained data were processed using specially developed algorithms.

  18. Synergistic effect of eugenol with Colistin against clinical isolated Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ming Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections have become more challenging to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Combined antibiotics prove to be a relatively effective method to control such resistant strains. This study aim to investigate synergistic activity of eugenol combined with colistin against a collection of clinical isolated Escherichia coli (E.coli strains, and to evaluate potential interaction. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI of the bacteria were determined by disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, respectively. The mcr-1 mRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR. To predict possible interactions between eugenol and MCR-1, molecular docking assay was taken. Results For total fourteen strains including eight colistin-resistant strains, eugenol was determined with MIC values of 4 to 8 μg/mL. Checkerboard dilution test suggested that eugenol exhibited synergistic activity when combined with colistin (FICI ranging from 0.375 to 0.625. Comparison analysis of Real-time PCR showed that synergy could significantly down-regulate expression of mcr-1 gene. A metal ion coordination bond with catalytic zinc atom and a hydrogen bond with crucial amino acid residue Ser284 of MCR-1 were observed after molecular docking, indicating antibacterial activity and direct molecular interactions of eugenol with MCR-1 protein. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that eugenol exhibited synergistic effect with colistin and enhanced its antimicrobial activity. This might further contribute to the antibacterial actions against colistin-resistant E.coli strains. Graphical abstract Synergistic effect of eugenol with colistin against colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates.

  19. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  20. Serum total proteins and creatinine levels in experimental gambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempt was therefore made to evaluate the effect of two strains of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on total proteins and other serum biochemical parameters using vervet monkeys as a model. The outcome of both strains in vervet monkeys was traumatic as the monkeys died from infection 12 – 15 weeks post infection while ...

  1. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  2. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  4. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  5. Residual-stress distributions near stainless steel butt weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elligson, W.A.; Shack, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Concern for the integrity of stainless steel butt-weldments in boiling-water-reactor (BWR) piping systems has stimulated study of the conditions that cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the weldments. It is generally agreed that a high stress exceeding the initial yield strength is one of the essential elements for crack initiation. Since design procedures usually ensure that load stresses are below initial yield, the source of the high stresses necessary to produce SCC is thought to be the residual stresses due to welding. To examine the level of residual stresses in the weldments of interest, bulk residual stresses were measured on 100 mm (4-in.) and 254 mm (10-in.) diameter Schedule 80 piping weldments using strain relief techniques. Both laboratory welded specimens and field welded specimens from reactors in service were studied. Axial bulk residual stress distributions were obtained at 45 0 intervals around the circumference. At each azimuthal position, the residual stresses were measured at seven axial positions: on the weld centerline and 13, 20, and 25 mm on either side of the weld centerline on both the inside and outside surfaces

  6. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  7. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  8. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  9. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  10. The potential for energy production from crop residues in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingura, R.M.; Matengaifa, R. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi (Zimbabwe)

    2008-12-15

    There is increasing interest in Zimbabwe in the use of renewable energy sources as a means of meeting the country's energy requirements. Biomass provides 47% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. Energy can be derived from various forms of biomass using various available conversion technologies. Crop residues constitute a large part of the biomass available from the country's agriculture-based economy. The potential for energy production of crop residues is examined using data such as estimates of the quantities of the residues and their energy content. The major crops considered are maize, sugarcane, cotton, soyabeans, groundnuts, wheat, sorghum, fruits and forestry plantations. Quantities of residues are estimated from crop yields by using conversion coefficients for the various crops. Long-term crop yields data from 1970 to 1999 were used. Total annual residue yields for crops, fruits and forestry plantations are 7.805 Mt, 378 kt and 3.05 Mt, respectively. The crops, fruits and forestry residues have energy potential of 81.5, 4.9 and 44.3 PJ per year, respectively. This represents about 44% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. The need to balance use of crop residues for both energy purposes and other purposes such as animal feeding and soil fertility improvement is also highlighted. (author)

  11. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  12. Endosulfan residues in fish from the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried out in the recycled and the non-recycled areas of the Muda rice agroecosystem to determine the residue level of endosulfan in rice field fish. Snakehead or haruan (Channa striata), climbing perch or puyu (Anabas testudineus), walking catfish or keli (Clariasspp.) and snakeskin gouramy or sepat siam (Trichogasterpectoralis) were sampled and the tissues analysed using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Endosulfan sulphate metabolite was a ubiquitous residue in all fish at levels ranging from 0.0065 μg/g to 0.9837 μg/g of tissue wet weight whilst α-isomer was detected at a much lower concentration followed by β-isomer. In Channa striata, endosulfan total residue (α+β+sulphate) was accumulated in fish tissues sampled at ACRBD4 (non-recycled) site followed by Blok 14 (recycled) site. Endosulfan residue concentration did not coincide with water recycling practice nor changes in EROD enzyme activity. (Author)

  13. Degradation mechanism of Nb3Sn composite wires under tensile strain at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.O.; Kaiho, K.

    1978-01-01

    Bronze-processed Nb 3 Sn composite wire conductors exhibit changes in their superconducting parameters when strained in tension. This paper describes a detailed study of the effect of strain on critical current and an analysis by optical and SEM techniques of crack formation in the Nb 3 Sn layer under strain. The effect of strain history on both reversible and irreversible changes in critical current and the roles of differential thermal contraction induced residual strains and of Nb 3 Sn cracking are discussed

  14. Strain of laser annealed silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemanich, R. J.; Haneman, D.

    1982-05-01

    High resolution Raman scattering measurements have been carried out on pulse and continuous-wave laser annealed silicon samples with various surface preparations. These included polished and ion-bombarded wafers, and saw-cut crystals. The pulse annealing treatments were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum and in air. The residual strain was inferred from the frequency shift of the first-order Raman active mode of Si, and was detectable in the range 10-2-10-3 in all except the polished samples.

  15. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  16. The radiographic observation of the cervical strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chung Sik

    1972-01-01

    A total of 100 cases of cervical disorders were analysed of clinical signs and symptoms. The cervical strain is proved by the loss of normal lordotic curvature of the cervical spinal column on the lateral x-ray film in Ewha University Hospital from January, 1970 to december 1971 with the following results. 1. The 53 cervical strain was diagnosed in radiographic study for its abnormal locations. The hyperextension with abnormal curve is twice more after than hyperflection type. 2. The most frequent location of the cervical strain is demonstrated in the 4-6 th cervical spinal bodies (80%). 3. Most pronounced symptoms of cervical strain are local tenderness (40%), limitation of motion (17%) and radiating pain (15%). 4. The ratio of the sex incidence of male female was 3:2

  17. The radiographic observation of the cervical strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    A total of 100 cases of cervical disorders were analysed of clinical signs and symptoms. The cervical strain is proved by the loss of normal lordotic curvature of the cervical spinal column on the lateral x-ray film in Ewha University Hospital from January, 1970 to december 1971 with the following results. 1. The 53 cervical strain was diagnosed in radiographic study for its abnormal locations. The hyperextension with abnormal curve is twice more after than hyperflection type. 2. The most frequent location of the cervical strain is demonstrated in the 4-6 th cervical spinal bodies (80%). 3. Most pronounced symptoms of cervical strain are local tenderness (40%), limitation of motion (17%) and radiating pain (15%). 4. The ratio of the sex incidence of male female was 3:2.

  18. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  19. Microbial Community Dynamics during the Bioremediation Process of Chlorimuron-Ethyl-Contaminated Soil by Hansschlegelia sp. Strain CHL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25689050

  20. Applied strain dependence of critical current and internal lattice strain for BaHfO_3-doped GdBa_2Cu_3O_y coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Takashi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Ichino, Yusuke; Sugano, Michinaka; Machiya, Shutaro; Ibi, Akira; Izumi, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The strain effect of REBa_2Cu_3O_y (REBCO: RE = Y, Gd, Sm)-coated conductors (CCs) on critical current (I_c) is one of the most fundamental factors for superconducting coil applications. In this study, we aim to clarify the effect of artificial pinning center shapes on the strain effect in BHO-doped GdBCO CCs. To achieve this, we fabricated a Pure-GdBCO CC, a BHO nanorod-doped GdBCO CC and a multilayered-GdBCO (ML-GdBCO) CC, and carried out bending tests. As the result, the strain dependence of I_c for each CC showed an upward convex and the peak strain of the BHO-doped GdBCO CC shifts towards the compressive strain independent of the BHO shapes. In addition, the strain sensitivity of I_c in the GdBCO CCs including BHO becomes smaller. To clarify the difference between the strain sensitivity of I_c and the peak strain among the CCs, we evaluated the residual strain and the slopes of the internal lattice strains against the applied tensile strain (β). From this measurement, the residual strains for the Pure-GdBCO CC and the ML-GdBCO CC were almost the same. In addition, there was no change in the β value between the Pure-GdBCO and ML-GdBCO CCs. These results suggest that the changes in peak strain and strain sensitivity were not related to the internal lattice strain. (author)

  1. The stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, H.; Yamamura, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the calculation of the stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides. The elucidation of this relationship is expected quite helpful for the preparation of high-quality multilayers of these materials. This calculation is possible to do in the same way of Timoshenko's bi-metal treatment. The authors did computation of the residual stress and strain, and the state of stress and strain for these multilayers has been acquired in detail by this calculation

  2. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, C.; Tanzi, V.; Lanzetta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dip di Ingegneria Chimica, Napoli (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The Italian production of agricultural residues has been evaluated with a view to energy recovery through gasification. Two main categories of residues have been identified: the first, (A) is associated with the growing and collection of products with a nutritional value, whereas the second (B) includes the residues associated with the subsequent processing in order to obtain final products for commercialization. Category A, which comprises three further sub-categories: straw (A1); woody residues (A2); and stems and leaves (residues from vegetables, tobacco, sugar beet, (A3)), results in about 16.5 mt yr. The average amount of straw (A1) is 11 mt/yr, of which about 60% is waste to be eliminated. Woody residues (A2) (mainly pruning off-cuts from vineyards and olive groves) are about 3.5 mt/yr (85% unused). Category A3 amounts to about 2 mt/yr (90% unused). Straw is available mainly in the northern part of the country, whereas the other two sub-categories are widely distributed in central and southern regions. The yields of category B are estimated at 4 mt/yr, of which more than 3 mt/yr are waste products from grape and olive processing. Other residues, such as rice, sunflower and soya-bean husks (about 0.65 mt/yr), almond and nut shells and fruit stones (about 0.2 mt/yr), although not widely available on a national scale, can be significant on a local basis. The total amount of unused agricultural residues is about 14.5 mt/yr, which, if completely exploited through gasification, can contribute as much as 7-10% to the current national electricity needs. The regions of Veneto, Puglia, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna appear to be good candidates for electricity production, given the significant surface concentration of unused residues (105-55 t km{sup 2}). (author)

  3. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  4. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  5. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  6. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  7. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  8. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  9. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  10. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  11. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  12. A Study on Residual Stress Measurements by Using Laser Speckle Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Kyung Wan; Kang, Young June; Hong, Seong Jin; Kang, Hyung Soo

    1999-01-01

    Residual stress is one of the causes which make defects in engineering components and materials. And interest in the measurement of residual stress exists in many industries. There are commonly used methods by which residual stresses are currently measured. But these methods have a little demerits: time consumption and other problems. Therefore we devised a new experimental technique to measure residual stress in materials with a combination of laser speckle pattern interferometry, finite element method and spot heating. The speckle pattern interferometer measures in-plane deformations while the heating provides for very localized stress relief. FEM is used for determining heat temperature and other parameters. The residual stresses are determined by the amount of strain that is measured subsequent to the heating and cool-down of the region being interrogated. A simple model is presented to provide a description of the method. In this paper, the ambiguity problem for the fringe patterns has solved by a phase shifting method

  13. Experimental determination of residual stress by neutron diffraction in a boiling water reactor core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payzant, A.; Spooner, S.; Zhu, Xiaojing; Hubbard, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Residual strains in a 51 mm (2-inch) thick 304L stainless steel plate have been measured by neutron diffraction and interpreted in terms of residual stress. The plate, measuring (300 mm) in area, was removed from a 6m (20-ft.) diameter unirradiated boiling water reactor core shroud, and included a multiple-pass horizontal weld which joined two of the cylindrical shells which comprise the core shroud. Residual stress mapping was undertaken in the heat affected zone, concentrating on the outside half of the plate thickness. Variations in residual stresses with location appeared consistent with trends expected from finite element calculations, considering that a large fraction of the residual hoop stress was released upon removal of the plate from the core shroud cylinder

  14. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  15. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains exhibit differential and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvubu, Nontobeko Eunice; Pillay, Balakrishna; Gamieldien, Junaid; Bishai, William; Pillay, Manormoney

    2016-12-01

    Although pulmonary epithelial cells are integral to innate and adaptive immune responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, global transcriptomic changes in these cells remain largely unknown. Changes in gene expression induced in pulmonary epithelial cells infected with M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN, F11, F28, Beijing and Unique genotypes were investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform generated 50 bp reads that were mapped to the human genome (Hg19) using Tophat (2.0.10). Differential gene expression induced by the different strains in infected relative to the uninfected cells was quantified and compared using Cufflinks (2.1.0) and MeV (4.0.9), respectively. Gene expression varied among the strains with the total number of genes as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (1187), Beijing (1252), F11 (1639), F28 (870), Unique (886) and H37Rv (1179). A subset of 292 genes was commonly induced by all strains, where 52 genes were down-regulated while 240 genes were up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes were compared among the strains and the number of induced strain-specific gene signatures were as follows: F15/LAM4/KZN (138), Beijing (52), F11 (255), F28 (55), Unique (186) and H37Rv (125). Strain-specific molecular gene signatures associated with functional pathways were observed only for the Unique and H37Rv strains while certain biological functions may be associated with other strain signatures. This study demonstrated that strains of M. tuberculosis induce differential gene expression and strain-specific molecular signatures in pulmonary epithelial cells. Specific signatures induced by clinical strains of M. tuberculosis can be further explored for novel host-associated biomarkers and adjunctive immunotherapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  18. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  19. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  20. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  1. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  2. 40 CFR 180.111 - Malathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sugar, tops 8 Blackberry 8 Blueberry 8 Boysenberry 8 Carrot, roots 8 Chayote, fruit 8 Chayote, roots 8... removed 2 Cowpea, forage 135 Cowpea, hay 135 Cranberry 8 Cucumber 8 Currant 8 Date, dried fruit 8 Dewberry... in the drying of grape (raisins). (iii) Total residues of malathion resulting from drying of grape on...

  3. Effect of residual stresses on fatigue strength of plasma nitrided 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazadeh, J.; Amidi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Almost every method that has been presented to determine residual stress has some limitation and complexities. The aim of this work is to present a new, yet simple method so called strain indentation for measuring the residual stresses particularly in thin layers. In this method in addition to the precision measurements, components of residual stress at different directions may be determined. AISI 4140 steel specimens nitrided at 350 d ig C , 450 d ig C and 550 d ig C for 5 hours in the mixture of 75% nitrogen- 25% hydrogen gas. The, components of residual stress in the radials axial and hoop directions in the nitrided layer were determined considering the elastic strain recovery after removal of residual stress inducer(i.e. the nitrided layer). Fatigue strength of the nitrided specimens was obtained by plotting the S-N curves and fractographic studies carried out on the fracture surface of the specimens. The effect of residual stress on the stress pattern was simulated. The calculated residual stress components were in the range of 40-210 Mpa and the radial components of residual stress were more than the other two directions. Maximum fatigue strength improvement of up to 110% was observed in the plasma nitrided specimens at 550 d ig C and also 40% improvement in fatigue strength was detected by increasing the nitriding temperature from 350 d ig C to 550 d ig C . This was due to 100% increase in residual stress. Fatigue crack growth velocity in the hoop direction was more than that of radial direction. This seems to be due to higher radial residual stress component compared with the hoop stress component in the sub layer

  4. Benchmark on residual stress modeling in fracture mechanics assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Deschanels, H.; Chapuliot, S.; Le Delliou, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of development in analytical defect assessment methods for the RSE-M and RCC-MRx codes, new work on the consideration of residual stresses is initiated by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The first step of this work is the realization of a database of F.E. reference cases. To validate assumptions and develop a good practice guideline for the consideration of residual stresses in finite element calculations, a benchmark between AREVA, CEA and EDF is going-on. A first application presented in this paper focuses on the analysis of the crack initiation of aged duplex stainless steel pipes submitted to an increasing pressure loading. Residual stresses are related to pipe fabrication process and act as shell bending condition. Two tests were performed: the first with an internal longitudinal semi-elliptical crack and the second with an external crack. The analysis first focuses on the ability to accurately estimate the measured pressure at the crack initiation of the two tests. For that purpose, the comparison of results obtained with different methods of taking into account the residual stresses (i.e. thermal fields or initial strain field). It then validates post-treatment procedures for J or G determination, and finally compares of the results obtained by the different partners. It is then shown that the numerical models can integrate properly the impact of residual stresses on the crack initiation pressure. Then, an excellent agreement is obtained between the different numerical evaluations of G provided by the participants to the benchmark so that best practice and reference F.E. solutions for residual stresses consideration can be provided based on that work. (authors)

  5. Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening in stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, N.; Kondo, K.; Kaji, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Miwa, Y. [Nuclear Energy and Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Structural materials in fusion reactor with water cooling system will undergo corrosion in aqueous environment and heavier irradiation than that in LWR. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion (IASCC) may be induced in stainless steels exposed in these environment for a long term of reactor operation. The IASCC is considered to be caused in a welding zone. It is difficult to predict and estimate the IASCC, because several irradiation effects (irradiation hardening, swelling, irradiation induced stress relaxation, etc) work intricately. Firstly, effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening were investigated in stainless steels. Specimens used in this study were SUS316 and SUS316L. By bending deformation, the specimens with several % plastic strain, which corresponds to weld residual stress, were prepared. Ion irradiations of 12 MeV Ni{sup 3+} were performed at 330, 400 and 550 deg. C to 45 dpa in TIARA facility at JAEA. No bent specimen was simultaneously irradiated with the bent specimen. The residual stress was estimated by X-ray residual stress measurements before and after the irradiation. The micro-hardness was measured by using nano-indenter. The irradiation hardening and the stress relaxation were changed by irradiation under bending deformation. The residual stress did not relax even for the case of the higher temperature aging at 500 deg. C for the same time of irradiation. The residual stress after ion irradiation, however, relaxed at these experimental temperatures in SUS316L. The hardness was obviously suppressed in bent SUS316L irradiated at 300 deg. C to 6 or 12 dpa. It was evident that irradiation induced stress relaxation occasionally suppressed the irradiation hardening in SUS316L. (authors)

  6. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  7. Effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation at 200 C in a welded joint austenitic stainless steel - ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.; Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of heterogeneous welded joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels is evaluated for reactor components and more particularly effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation in a heterogeneous welded joint. Residual stress is measured by the hole method in which a hole is drilled through the center of a strain gage glued the surface of the materials. In the non uniform stress field a transmissibility function is used for residual stress calculation. High compression residual stress in the ferritic metal near the interface ferritic steel/weld slow down fatigue crack propagation. 5 tabs., 15 figs., 19 refs [fr

  8. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  9. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  10. Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

  11. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  12. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains isolated from five sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M; Sakata, S; Benno, Y

    2005-01-01

    Five different sourdoughs were investigated for the composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the biodiversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains. A total of 57 strains were isolated from five sourdoughs. Isolated strains were all identified by the 16S rDNA sequence and species-specific primers for L. sanfranciscensis. Results of identification showed that LAB strains were L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Weisella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceus. A total of 21 strains were identified as L. sanfranciscensis and these isolates were detected in all five sourdoughs. Ribotyping was applied to investigate the relationship between intraspecies diversity of L. sanfranciscensis and sourdough. A total of 22 strains of L. sanfranciscensis including L. sanfranciscensis JCM 5668T were compared by ribotyping. The dendrogram of 21 ribotyping patterns showed four clusters, and L. sanfranciscensis JCM 5668T was independent of the others. The different biotypes of L. sanfranciscensis were present in two sourdoughs compared with other three sourdoughs. The LAB compositions of five sourdoughs were different and the relationship between intraspecies diversity of L. sanfranciscensis strains and five sourdoughs was shown by ribotyping. This study demonstrated that ribotyping was useful for distinguishing L. sanfranciscensis strains. A further important result is that the intra-species diversity of L. sanfranciscensis strains seems to be related to the sourdough preparation.

  13. Treatment and processing of residues of fermentation; Behandlung und Verwertung von Gaerrueckstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, H.; Schliebner, P. [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    With the transformation of the EEG (Renewable Energy Resources Act), the number of biogas plants increased rapidly. Additionally, an enlargement of the performance of the plants and a regional concentration process take place. Recently, processing routes for liquid manure will be considered in order to reduce problems of the surplus of nutrients as well as the costs of the transport of the water-rich residues of fermentation. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on procedures for the processing of residues of fermentation as well as costs and utilization of these procedures. By the example of an agrarian society, four procedures for the output and processing of residues of fermentation are compared with one another regarding to expenditure of work time, investments and economy: Output of residues of fermentation, treatment of residues of fermentation by separation, processing of residues of fermentation by means of diaphragm technology, processing of residues of fermentation by means of evaporation technology. The processing routes reduce the residues of fermentation by 60 %. Thus, the costs of output and the necessary storage capacities for residues of fermentation are reduced. Presently, no savings regarding to work completion by the processing of the residues of fermentation can be obtained. The specific total costs of the investigated procedures are between 2.64 Euro/m{sup 3} according to the procedure with separation and to 8.64 Euro/m{sup 3} according to the diaphragm processing route. An enhanced demand of investment does not cause compellingly the highest specific total costs of the procedures. In comparison to the output of residues of fermentation, the examined procedures for the processing of residues of fermentation do not result in economical and ergonomic advantages. The high costs of investment and operating cost of the processing of residues of fermentation cannot be compensated by the reduced costs of output

  14. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  15. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  16. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  17. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  18. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  19. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  20. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  1. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  2. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  3. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  4. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  5. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in North-Eastern China in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Peculiarities of Strain Relaxation in GaN/AlN Superlattices Grown on Vicinal GaN (0001) Substrate: Comparative XRD and AFM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro M; Li, Shibin; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Safryuk, Nadiia V; Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Superlattices (SLs) consisting of symmetric layers of GaN and AlN have been investigated. Detailed X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements demonstrate that the relaxation of built-up strain in the films generally increases with an increasing number of repetitions; however, an apparent relaxation for subcritical thickness SLs is explained through the accumulation of Nagai tilt at each interface of the SL. Additional atomic force microscopy measurements reveal surface pit densities which appear to correlate with the amount of residual strain in the films along with the appearance of cracks for SLs which have exceeded the critical thickness for plastic relaxation. These results indicate a total SL thickness beyond which growth may be limited for the formation of high-quality coherent crystal structures; however, they may indicate a growth window for the reduction of threading dislocations by controlled relaxation of the epilayers.

  7. Evaluation of Crops Sensitivity to Atrazine Soil Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the sensitivity of 9 crops to atrazine soil residual, two separate experiments were conducted in field and greenhouse conditions. First experiment was conducted in a field with treated soil by atrazine based on split plot and the results evaluated in greenhouse conditions. Treatments in the field experiment included two organic manure application rates (0 and 50 t/ha as main plots and 2 atrazine application rates (2 and 4 kg/ha atrazine a.i. as sob plots. After corn harvesting soil was sampled at 0-15 cm surface layer in each plots in 15 points, after mixing the samples. Wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens and colza planted in pots at greenhouse. Second experiment conducted in greenhouse conditions for evaluation of atrazine soil residual in completely randomized design. Treatments included atrazine soil residual concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg soil and crops included wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens, rape, bean and tomato. Results showed that atrazine residue had no effect on crops growth in field experiment treated with atrazine. It seems that atrazine residue in filed soil is lower that its damage threshold for crops or maybe for its fast removal in field than in control conditions. But in bioassay experiment (greenhouse experiment crops response to atrazine residues were different. Results showed that onion and pea were most susceptible ant tolerant crops between studied species and based of ED50 parameter the other crops tolerance to total residue ranked as: pea< bean< lentil< sugar beet< tomato< barley< wheat< rape< onion. Keywords: Atrazine residue, Pea, Bean, Lentil, Sugar beet, Barley, Wheat, Rape, Tomato

  8. Hazardous properties of paint residues from the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajasaari, Kati; Kulovaara, Maaret; Joutti, Anneli; Schultz, Eija; Soljamo, Kari

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this study was to screen nine excess paint residues for environmental hazard and to evaluate their disposability in a non-hazardous or hazardous-waste landfill. These residues were produced in the process of spray-painting furniture. Residues were classified according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties. Leaching properties were determined with the European standard SFS-EN 12457-2 leaching-test. The toxicity of the leaching-test eluates was measured with plant-, bacteria- and enzyme-inhibition bioassays. Total organic carbon, formaldehyde and solvent concentrations in the solid wastes and in the leaching-test eluates were analysed. It seemed likely that leached formaldehyde caused very high acute toxicity in leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues. This hypothesis was based on the fact that the formaldehyde concentrations in the leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues were 62-75 times higher than the EC50 value reported in the literature for formaldehyde. The results of the water-curtain booth residues showed that the samples with the highest TOC and aromatic solvent concentrations were also the most toxic. The studied excess paint residues were complex organic mixtures and contained large amounts of compounds not identifiable from chemical data. Therefore, the evaluation of the hazard based solely on available chemical data is unlikely to be sufficient, as evidenced by our study. Our results show that harmful compounds remain in the solid waste and the toxicity results of their leaching-test eluates show that toxicity may leach from residues in contact with water at landfill sites. They also confirm the benefit of combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays in assessing the potential environmental hazard of complex organic mixtures found in wastes. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  10. Comparison of the adhesion ability of Candida albicans strains to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of oral Candida albicans strains to adhere to Caco-2 and Hep-2 epithelial cells, to produce slime using Congo red and Safranin methods and to form a biofilm on polymethylmethacrylate. A total of 20 C. albicans strains were tested in the present work. The biofilm ...

  11. Mutagenicity of pan residues and gravy from fried meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvik, E; Nilsson, L; Fredholm, L; Levin, O; Nord, C E; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-02-01

    Lean pork meat was fried with or without the addition of frying-fat at 200 or 250 degrees C. The pan residues were collected by washing the hot pan with boiling water. When producing thickened gravy the water was substituted by a mixture of water and flour, milk and flour or cream and flour. The basic extracts were tested for mutagenicity in Ames' Salmonella test on strain TA98 with the addition of S9 mix. High amounts of mutagenicity were found in all samples. The amounts of mutagenicity in the pan residues were at a comparable level of the amounts found in the meat crusts. Thickening of the gravy caused only small changes in the mutagenicity.

  12. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  13. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  16. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  17. Molecular and biochemical studies of some yeast strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Kluyveromyces lactis (Y.9) and Pichia jadinii (Y.10) contained almost double the amount of total amino ... Differences between ... biochemical analysis (total protein profile and total amino acids) were used as tools to select the best yeast strains in Saudi Arabia and Egypt as a rich source of animal protein.

  18. Role Strain in Collegiate Athletic Training Approved Clinical Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    Context: Certified athletic trainers who serve as Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs) in the collegiate setting are balancing various roles (eg, patient care and related administrative tasks, clinical education). Whether this balancing act is associated with role strain in athletic trainers has not been examined. Objective: To examine the degree of, and contributing factors (eg, socialization experiences, professional and employment demographics, job congruency) to, role strain in collegiate ACIs. Design: Cross-sectional survey design. Setting: Geographically stratified random sample of ACIs affiliated with accredited athletic training education programs at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, II, and III institutions. Patients or Other Participants: 118 collegiate ACIs (47 head athletic trainers, 45 assistant athletic trainers, 26 graduate assistant athletic trainers). Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training ACI Role Strain Inventory, which measures total degree of role strain, 7 subscales of role strain, socialization experiences, professional and employment characteristics, and congruency in job responsibilities. Results: A total of 49% (n  =  58) of the participants experienced a moderate to high degree of role strain. Role Overload was the highest contributing subscale to total role strain. No differences were noted between total role strain and role occupant groups, NCAA division, or sex. Graduate assistant athletic trainers experienced a greater degree of role incompetence than head athletic trainers did (P  =  .001). Division II ACIs reported a greater degree of inter-role conflict than those in Division I (P  =  .02). Female ACIs reported a greater degree of role incompetence than male ACIs (P  =  .01). Those ACIs who stated that the ACI training provided by their institution did not adequately prepare them for the role as an ACI experienced greater role strain (P < .001). Conclusions: The ACIs in the

  19. Residual stress measurement using the pulsed neutron source at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Holden, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can effect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can make spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of components. By recording the change in the crystalline interplanar spacing, elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Using a pulsed neutron source, all the lattice reflections are recorded in each measurement which allows anisotropic effects to be studied. Measurements made at the Manuel Lujan Jr Neutron Scattering Centre (LANSCE) demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. 15 refs., 7 figs

  20. The tyrosyl residues in creatine kinase. Modification by iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoum, A; Kassab, R; Pradel, L A

    1975-10-20

    The effect of the iodination of tyrosyl residues in creatine kinase from rabbit muscle has been investigated at alkaline pH after reversible masking of the reactive thiol groups. The conversion of 4-5 tyrosyl residues to monoiodotyrosines as measured by spectrotitration and by radioactive iodine labelling resulted in almost total loss of enzymic activity. The modified enzyme was unable to bind its nucleotide substrates but no significant conformational change was revealed by optical rotatory dispersion or Stokes radius measurements. However, change in the reactivity of some non-essential thiol groups, presumably those located near the active thiol groups, was observed.

  1. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  2. Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals and a test for white noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals are defined. By studying the sample paths of these statistics, changes in residual dependence can be detected that might be missed by statistics using only the total sum of cross-products. Also, a test statistic for white noise is proposed. It is

  3. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the three-dimensional residual stresses method based on the eigenstrain methodology via x-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masaru; Ishii, Takehiro; Furusako, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent fractures caused by fatigue or stress corrosion cracking in welded structures, it is important to predict crack propagation for cracks observed during in-service inspections. However, it is difficult to evaluate three-dimensional welding residual stresses non-destructively. Today, it is possible to measure residual stresses just on surface by X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction makes it possible to measure welding residual stresses non-destructively even in the thickness direction but it is only available in special irradiation facilities. Therefore, it is impossible to use neutron diffraction as an on-site measurement technique. As non-destructive method of three-dimensional welding residual stresses based on the eigenstrain methodology, the bead flush method has been proposed. In this method, three-dimensional welding residual stresses are calculated by an elastic FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis from eigenstrain distributions which are estimated by an inverse analysis from released strains by strain gauges in the removal of the weld reinforcement. Here, the removal of the excess metal contributes inhibition of crack initiation. Therefore, the bead flush method is a non-destructive technique essentially. However, estimation accuracy of this method becomes relatively poor when processing strains are added on the machined surface. The first author has been developed the bead flush method to be free from the influence of the processing strains. In this method, eigenstrains are estimated not from released strains but from residual strains on surface by X-ray diffraction. In this study, welding residual stresses on the bottom surface in an actual welded plate are estimated from elastic strains measured on the top surface using this method. To evaluate estimation accuracy, estimated residual stresses on the bottom surface are compared with residual stresses measured by X-ray diffraction. Here, eigenstrain distributions not only in the welding

  5. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok Kim, Kevin Wubs, Byeong-Soo Bae and Woo Soo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Polyurethane (PU prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  6. Comparison of residual stress measurement in thin films using surface micromachining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Luo, Z.X.; Chen, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Conductive, dielectric, semiconducting, piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films are extensively used for MEMS/NEMS applications. One of the important parameters of thin films is residual stress. The residual stress can seriously affect the properties, performance and long-term stability of the films. Excessive compressive or tensile stress results in buckling, cracking, splintering and sticking problems. Stress measurement techniques are therefore essential for both process development and process monitoring. Many suggestions for stress measurement in thin films have been made over the past several decades. This paper is concentrated on the in situ stress measurement using surface micromachining techniques to determine the residual stress. The authors review and compare several types of stress measurement methods including buckling technique, rotating technique, micro strain gauge and long-short beam strain sensor

  7. Investigation of the Residual Stress State in an Epoxy Based Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Process induced residual stresses may play an important role under service loading conditions for fiber reinforced composite. They may initiate premature cracks and alter the internal stress level. Therefore, the developed numerical models have to be validated with the experimental...... observations. In the present work, the formation of the residual stresses/strains are captured from experimental measurements and numerical models. An epoxy/steel based sample configuration is considered which creates an in-plane biaxial stress state during curing of the resin. A hole drilling process...... material models, i.e. cure kinetics, elastic modulus, CTE, chemical shrinkage, etc. together with the drilling process using the finite element method. The measured and predicted in-plane residual strain states are compared for the epoxy/metal biaxial stress specimen....

  8. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  9. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  10. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  11. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...

  12. Analysis of stress-strain behavior in Bi2223 composite tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M.; Osamura, K.; Nyilas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile test was carried out for Bi2223/Ag/Ag alloy composite tapes at RT, 77 and 7 K. Two yielding points are observed in the stress-strain curves. From the stress-strain behavior of the components and critical current (I c ) as a function of tensile strain, it was found that the microscopic reason for these yieldings is attributed to yielding of Ag alloy and fracture of Bi2223, respectively. The strain at the second yielding has temperature dependence and it becomes larger with decreasing measured temperature. From the thermo-mechanical analysis, it can be explained by temperature dependence of compressive residual strain of Bi2223. Reversible recovery of I c was found during loading-unloading test. The relationship between the reversible strain limit and the intrinsic strain of Bi2223 was discussed

  13. Strain measurements during pressurized thermal shock experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarso Vida Gomes, P. de; Julio Ricardo Barreto Cruz; Tanius Rodrigues Mansur; Denis Henrique Bianchi Scaldaferri; Miguel Mattar Neto

    2005-01-01

    For the life extension of nuclear power plants, the residual life of most of their components must be evaluated along all their operating time. Concerning the reactor pressure vessel, the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a very important event to be considered. For better understanding the effects of this kind of event, tests are made. The approach described here consisted of building a simplified in-scale physical model of the reactor pressure vessel, submitting it to the actual operating temperature and pressure conditions and provoking a thermal shock by means of cold water flow in its external surface. To conduct such test, the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been conducting several studies related to PTS and has also built a laboratory that has made possible the simulation of the PTS loading conditions. Several cracks were produced in the external surface of the reactor pressure vessel model. Strain gages were fixed by means of electrical discharge welding over the cracks regions in both external and internal surfaces. The temperature was monitored in 10 points across the vessel wall. The internal pressure was manually controlled and monitored using a pressure transducer. Two PTS experiments were conducted and this paper presents the strain measurement procedures applied to the reactor pressure vessel model, during the PTS, using strain gages experimental methodology. (authors)

  14. Shewanella strain isolated from black powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia T.S.; Contador, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C.; Galvao, Mariana M. [National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Black powder is a term frequently used to refer to residues formed by various types of iron sulfides mixed with contaminants eventually present in the natural gas flow. According to some researchers, the occurrence of black powder in gas pipelines, besides its chemical corrosion origin, can be directly related to the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) metabolism in this environment. A black powder sample was inoculated in a Post gate E medium modified with the addition of thioglycolate. The resulting positive culture was kept in the laboratory for four years until its use. A dilution technique was then performed aiming to isolate an SRB strain. The bacterial strain isolated and identified through DNA sequencing was not an SRB but rather a Shewanella sp. Compared to the sulfate-reducing bacteria group-traditionally considered the foremost responsible for microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) - Shewanella is a facultative anaerobe and has a versatile metabolism. Shewanella is able to reduce ferric iron and sulfite, oxidize hydrogen gas, and produce hydrogen sulfide; therefore, these bacteria can be responsible for MIC and pit formation. The isolated Shewanella was used in a corrosion experiment, and the corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, identifying iron sulfides, iron oxides, and sulfur. Our results indicate that the strain isolated, S. putrefaciens, plays a key role in corrosion problems in gas pipelines. (author)

  15. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  17. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  18. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  19. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  20. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  1. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  2. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  3. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  4. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  5. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  6. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  7. Internal strains after recovery of hardness in tempered martensitic steels for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, L.; Gondi, P.; Montanari, R.; Coppola, R.

    1991-03-01

    After tempering, with recovery of hardness, MANET steels present internal strains; these residual strains increase with quenching rate prior to tempering, and they remain after prolonged tempering times. On account of their persistence, after thermal treatments which lead to low dislocation and sub-boundary densities, the possibility has been considered that the high swelling resistance of MANET is connected with these centres of strain, probably connected with the formation, in ferrite, of Cr-enriched and contiguous Cr-depleted zones which may act as sinks for interstitials. Comparative observations on the internal strain behaviour of cold worked 316L stainless steel appear consistent with this possibility.

  8. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  9. Pesticide residues in food of plant origin from Southeast Asia – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skretteberg, L. G.; Lyrån, B.; Holen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables from Souteast Asia were analysed for the presence of pesticide residues. A total of 721 samples of 63 different commodities were collected in 2011. The products were imported to Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from ten countries; about 80% were imported from Thailand....... The reason for the increased control for certain food products from Southeast Asia was that the official control had revealed many products with too high levels of pesticide residues. In 60% of the samples we did not find any residues, while 28% had residues below or at the MRLs. Results above the MRLs were...

  10. Residual stress measurement inside a dissimilar metal weld mock-up of the pressurizer safety and relief nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Mansur, Tanius R., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Servico de Integridade Estrutural; Martins, Ketsia S., E-mail: ketshinoda@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Nelo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2015-07-01

    Residual stresses are present in materials or structural component in the absence of external loads or changes in temperatures. The most common causes of residual stresses being present are the manufacturing or assembling processes. All manufacturing processes, such as casting, welding, machining, molding, heat treatment, among others, introduces residual stresses into the manufactured object. The residual stresses effects could be beneficial or detrimental, depending on its distribution related to the component or structure, its load service and if it is compressive or tensile. In this work, the residual strains and stresses inside a mock-up that simulates the safety and relief nozzle of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer were studied. The current paper presents a blind hole-drilling method residual stress measurements both at the inner surface of dissimilar metal welds of dissimilar metal weld nozzle mock-up. (author)

  11. Residual stress measurement inside a dissimilar metal weld mock-up of the pressurizer safety and relief nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Mansur, Tanius R.; Martins, Ketsia S.

    2015-01-01

    Residual stresses are present in materials or structural component in the absence of external loads or changes in temperatures. The most common causes of residual stresses being present are the manufacturing or assembling processes. All manufacturing processes, such as casting, welding, machining, molding, heat treatment, among others, introduces residual stresses into the manufactured object. The residual stresses effects could be beneficial or detrimental, depending on its distribution related to the component or structure, its load service and if it is compressive or tensile. In this work, the residual strains and stresses inside a mock-up that simulates the safety and relief nozzle of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer were studied. The current paper presents a blind hole-drilling method residual stress measurements both at the inner surface of dissimilar metal welds of dissimilar metal weld nozzle mock-up. (author)

  12. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  13. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  14. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Kai; An, Ming-Zhe; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koike, Yoji [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Wu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h{sup -1}. The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste. (author)

  15. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.-Q.; Koike, Yoji; Liu Kai; An, M.-Z.; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu Xiaolei; Kida, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l -1 h -1 ) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h -1 . The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l -1 d -1 with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste

  16. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The use of lignocellulose biomass residues as a feedstock offers good perspectives for large scale production of fuel ethanol at competitive costs. An evaluation was performed to assess the international status of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology and the economical and ecological system performance, to identify RandD approaches for further development. Deriving fermentable sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulose materials via suitable pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a critical RandD issue. Further development of pretreatment via mild, low temperature alkaline extraction or weak acid hydrolysis using CO2, dissolved in pressurized hot water ('carbonic acid process') shows good perspectives. Enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis with the currently available industrial cellulases accounts for 36-45% of ethanol production costs. At least a 10-fold increase of cellulase cost-effectiveness is required. Despite substantial RandD efforts, no suitable fermentation system is currently available for the fermentation of pentoses (mainly xylose) from the hemicellulose fraction. Several strains of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria are able to convert all (hemi)cellulose components into ethanol. Follow-up RandD will focus on isolation of suitable strain(s) from this group. The system evaluation shows a 40-55% energetic efficiency (LHV basis) for conversion of lignocellulose feedstocks to ethanol. Thermal conversion of non-fermentable residues (mainly lignin) in a Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) system can provide the total steam and electricity requirement for the production process and an electricity surplus for export to the grid, giving a total system efficiency of 56-68%. Water consumption in the process (28-54 liter water/liter ethanol) is much higher than in current ethanol production (lo-15 l/l ethanol). The large amount of process water (used in the pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis

  17. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  18. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  19. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  20. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  1. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  3. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  4. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  5. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  6. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  7. Release behavior of triazine residues in stabilised contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, G.G.; Kookana, R.S.; Mallavarpu, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the release behavior of two triazines (atrazine and simazine) in stabilised soils from a pesticide-contaminated site in South Australia. The soils were contaminated with a range of pesticides, especially with triazine herbicides. With multiple extractions of each soil sample with deionised water (eight in total), 15% of atrazine and 4% of simazine residues were recovered, resulting in very high concentrations of the two herbicides in leachate. The presence of small fractions of surfactants was found to further enhance the release of the residues. Methanol content up to 10% did not substantially influence the concentration of simazine and atrazine released. The study demonstrated that while the stabilisation of contaminated soil with particulate activated carbon (5%) and cement mix (15%) was effective in locking the residues of some pesticides, it failed to immobilise triazine herbicides residues completely. Given the higher water solubility of these herbicides than other compounds more effective strategies to immobilise their residues is needed. - Stabilisation of contaminated soil with a mix of activated carbon and cement may fail to immobilise some contaminants like triazines

  8. Analysis of fenbendazole residues in bovine milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, David L; Bates, Anne H; Binder, Ronald G; Montague, William C; Whitehand, Linda C; Barker, Steven A

    2002-10-09

    Fenbendazole residues in bovine milk were analyzed by ELISAs using two monoclonal antibodies. One monoclonal antibody (MAb 587) bound the major benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs, including fenbendazole, oxfendazole, and fenbendazole sulfone. The other (MAb 591) was more specific for fenbendazole, with 13% cross-reactivity with the sulfone and no significant binding to the sulfoxide metabolite. The limit of detection of the ELISA method in the milk matrix was 7 ppb for MAb 587 and 3 ppb for MAb 591. Fenbendazole was administered in feed, drench, and paste form to three groups of dairy cattle. Milk was collected immediately before dosing and then every 12 h for 5 days. The ELISA indicated that residue levels varied widely among individual cows in each group. Fenbendazole levels peaked at approximately 12-24 h and declined rapidly thereafter. Metabolites were detected at much higher levels than the parent compound, peaked at approximately 24-36 h, and declined gradually. Residue levels were undetectable by 72 h. The ELISA data correlated well with the total residues determined by chromatographic analysis, but the use of the two separate ELISAs did not afford an advantage over ELISA with the single, broadly reactive MAb 587. The ELISA method could be used to flag high-residue samples in on-site monitoring of fenbendazole in milk and is a potential tool for studying drug pharmacokinetics.

  9. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  10. Endosulfan Resistance Profile of Soil Bacteria and Potential Application of Resistant Strains in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini P.K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from the soils of Wayanad District, Kerala, India and the isolates were tested for their tolerance to endosulfan and potential in bioremediation technology. Pesticide contamination in the soils, soil physico-chemical characteristics and socio-economic impacts of pesticide application were also analyzed. 28 pesticide compounds in the soil samples were analyzed and the results revealed that there was no pesticide residues in the soils. As per the survey conducted the pesticide application is very high in the study area and the level of awareness among the farmers was very poor regarding the method of application and its socio-economic and ecological impacts. A total of 9 bacterial strains were isolated with 50μg/ml of endosulfan in the isolating media and the results showed that most of the bacterial strains were highly resistance to endosulfan. Out of the 9 strains isolated 6 were highly resistant to endosulfan (500- 700μg/ml and the other 3 isolates showed the resistance of 250-500μg/ml. From the studied isolate, isolate 9 demonstrating prolific growth and high resistance was selected to check their capability to degrade endosulfan over time. Identification of the selected strain reveals that it belongs to the genus Bacillus. Results of endosulfan removal studies showed that with increase in time, the biomass of the bacterial strains increased. The complete disappearance of endosulfan from the spiked and inoculated broth during the first day of incubation (24 hour interval was observed. While the control flask showed the presence of endosulfan during the experimental period. Pesticide resistant bacteria are widely distributed in the soils of selected study area and the tolerance varied between bacteria even though they were isolated from the soils of the same area. The selected Bacillus species carry the ability to degrade endosulfan at accelerated rates and it could be useful in framing a

  11. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Leyenda, Belén; Villa, José G; López-Satué, Jorge; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH). Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton) used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg). Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  12. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carballo-Leyenda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH. Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg. Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  13. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  14. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes Produção de ligninases por linhagens de fungos Basidiomicetos usando resíduos agrícolas lignocelulósicos e aplicação das enzimas na descoloração de corantes sintéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1 and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP and lignin peroxidase (LiP (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively, when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60°C while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55°C. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes.Fungos decompositores de madeira, do grupo Basidiomicetes, coletados na "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, pertencentes a ordem Aphyllophorales e identificados como Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp. SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 e Phellinus rimosus SXS47 foram estudados para a produção de ligninases por FES (fermentação em estado sólido usando farelo de trigo ou palha de arroz como meio de cultura. A espécie C

  15. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  16. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  17. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G A; Ezeilo, A N [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  18. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, G.A.; Ezeilo, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  19. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  20. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  1. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  2. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  3. Residual stress measurement method in MEMS microbeams using frequency shift data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somà, Aurelio; Ballestra, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of a set of gold microbeams affected by residual stress has been studied. Experimental frequency shift curves were obtained by increasing the dc voltage applied to the specimens. Comparison with different analytical and numerical models has been carried out in order to identify both analytical and finite element models in the presence of residual stress. Residual strain and stress, due to the fabrication process, have been widely reported in the literature in both out-of-plane microcantilevers and clamped–clamped microbeams by using mainly the value of pull-in voltage and static deflection data. In the case of a microcantilever, an accurate modelling includes the effect of the initial curvature due to microfabrication. In double-clamped microbeams, a pre-load applied by tensile stress is considered. A good correspondence is pointed out between measurements and numerical models so that the residual stress effect can be evaluated for different geometrical configurations

  4. Residual stresses in a co-sintered SOC half-cell during post-sintering cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlas, Benoit; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Brodersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    .e. the reference temperature (Tref) or the strain difference based on the curvature. This approximation gives good results for bilayers with a defined cooling temperature profile, where the curvature of the bilayer defines a unique balance between the two unknown residual stress states in the two layers......Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the layers of a Solid Oxide Cell, residual stresses (thermal stresses) develop during the cooling after sintering. Residual stresses can induce cell curvature for asymmetric cells but more importantly they also result in more fragile cells. Depending...... on the loading conditions, the additional stress needed to break the cells can indeed be smaller due to the initial thermo-mechanical stress state. The residual stresses can for a bilayer cell be approximated by estimating the temperature at which elastic stresses start to build up during the cooling, i...

  5. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  7. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  8. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  9. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  10. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  11. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  12. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  13. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  15. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  16. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  17. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  18. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  19. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  20. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  1. Screening and characterization of Lactobacillus strains producing large amounts of exopolysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Flesch, F.; Brink, B. ten; Smith, M.R.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 182 Lactobacillus strains were screened for production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by a new method: growth in liquid media with high sugar concentrations. Sixty EPS-positive strains were identified; 17 strains produced more than 100 mg/l soluble EPS. Sucrose was an excellent

  2. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    potential; bulk materials; total energy calculations; entropy; strained- layer superlattice (SLS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0217 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi-Gang Yu...2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 5 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES

  3. Production traits of broiler chicken strains fed Ad Libitum and raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of commercial broiler chickens reared on full-feeding, and under the same housing, feeding regime, agro-climatic zone and management practices. A total number of 150 broiler dayold chicks, that, is 50 chicks each of Arbor Acres (strain A), Hubbard (strain B) and Marshall (strain C) were purchased from local hatcheries, ...

  4. The influence of texture on residual stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, N.B. de.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the orientation distribution function (ODF) from incomplete pole figures has been developed for rolled materials with a cubic structure. This program is based on Bunge's series expansion. The use of incomplete pole figures results in the loss of orthogonality among symmetric spherical harmonic functions and makes it necessary to explicitly evaluate the integrals. The ODF has been used to quantitatively evaluate the influence of texture in determining residual stresses. This has been done by calculating theoretically the strain undergone by each cell as a function of its orientation to residual stress relationship. To test the ODF program, cold rolled Cu and Al specimens were used and to evaluate residual stresses as a function of texture, cold rolled AISI 430 and 324 specimens were used. Simulations have also be presented based on the texture for each of the materials, to verify the nature of the curve d x sin 2 ψ as a function of each stress tensor components. (author)

  5. Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Saroj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.

  6. LYOPHILIZATION EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of lyophilization effect on the productivity of butanol-producing strains was the aim of our research. For this purpose we used butanol-producing strains; technical glycerol; biomass of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. Lyophilization was performed using a lyophilization-drying. The effect of the protective medium on residual moisture of freezedrying cultures suspensions depending on the concentration of glucose and sucrose was studed. It was shown that the lowest residual moisture was attained by using glucose and sucrose in amount of 10% and if the samples of freeze-drying bacteria had been saved for one month at 4 οC the productivity did not decrease. As temperature preservation was increased the productivity of the cultures was gradually decreased and it was greatly reduced at 30 οC. So the protective medium composition was optimized for lyophilization of butanol-producing strains as follows: sucrose 10.0%; gelatin 10.0%; agar 0.02%. It was shown that the preservation of samples of freeze-drying bacteria for six months at a temperature of 4 οC did not affect the productivity of strains. It was found that cultures could use glycerol as a carbon source for butanol accumulation before lyophilization.

  7. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  8. Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Pascual, J; González-Menéndez, V; Sampedro, I; García-Romera, I; Bills, G F

    2014-03-01

    Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  10. SALSA-A new instrument for strain imaging in engineering materials and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirling, Thilo; Bruno, Giovanni; Withers, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses are very hard to predict and if undetected can lead to premature failure or unexpected behaviour of engineering materials or components. This paper describes the operation of a new residual strain-mapping instrument, Strain Analyser for Large and Small scale engineering Applications (SALSA), recently commissioned at the public user facility, the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. A unique feature of this neutron diffraction instrument is the sample manipulator, which is the first of its kind, allowing precise scanning of large and heavy (<500 kg) samples along any trajectory involving translations, tilts and rotations. Other notable features of the instrument are also described

  11. Evaluation of creep residual life for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel based on Omega method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Isamu; Torihata, Shoji; Kihara, Shigemitu; Umaki, Hideo; Maruyama, Kouichi.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the accuracy of creep residual life prediction by the Omega method which is based on creep deformation, a series of creep tests on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were conducted at 500degC, 550degC and 600degC, and the Omega method was applied to the residual life estimation. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) There was a obvious linear portion, which corresponded to the tertiary creep, in the relationship between logarithm of strain and strain. So it was easy to define the Omega value as a gradient of linear portion. (2) It was proved that the Omega value depended on stress and temperature in such a way as it was the larger, the lower the stress and the lower the temperature. (3) By using the Omega value and strain rate which were determined experimentally, the residual life could be predicted within a factor of 1.5 at the stage of 50% and 80% of actual life. It was confirmed that the accuracy of this method was higher than that of the former method based on rupture time. (4) To apply this method to the residual life evaluation of operating plant materials, the Omega value has to be determined in the lower stress condition. So it is important to develop the extrapolation method of the Omega value based on the laboratory acceleration test to the longer service life. (author)

  12. Engineering strain measurements using the NPD at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lovell, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can affect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can provide spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of a component. By recording the change in the interplanar spacings elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Also on a pulsed source, where all lattice reflections are recorded, profile refinement is an option which alloys the strain to be obtained from changes in the lattice parameter. Measurements made at LANSCE demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. 5 refs., 5 figs

  13. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  14. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  15. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  16. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  18. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  19. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  20. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  1. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  2. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Influence of the pressure holding time on strain generation in fuel injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basara, Adis; Alt, Nicolas; Schluecker, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    An influence of the pressure holding time on residual strain generation during the autofrettage process was studied experimentally for the first time in the present work. It is the state of the art that fuel injection lines are held at the autofrettage pressure for only a few seconds in an industrial production. In doing so, it is assumed that a desirable residual stress-strain pattern is generated. However, the results of the experimental investigations outlined in this work indicated that completion of the plastic deformation caused by the autofrettage process and generation of the desirable stress-strain pattern require a much longer period. As shown, a third-order polynomial equation best described the interdependence between the time required for the completion of the process, the corresponding autofrettage pressure and the generated strain state. The method presented can be used as a tool for the determination of the optimal autofrettage process parameters in industrial production of fuel injection lines.

  4. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  5. Fate and possible nutritional and toxicological significance of methylbromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies on foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-03-01

    Methyl bromide residues in cocoa as a result of fumigation under practical conditions have been studied. Cocoa beans were exposed to 14 C-labelled CH 3 Br for 24 hours at 20-32degC and dosage 23.5 to 28mg/1 of fumigants (moisture content of 6-7%). Whole unroasted beans and their shells and nibs as well as shells and nibs of roasted (105degC for 30 min) beans were extracted separately with toluene (for free CH 3 Br) and the dried residues wet combusted. 14 C-activities were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Total methyl bromide (bound and free) was equivalent 83-98ppm in whole unroasted beans 35 hours after treatment and aeration, and 31, 15 and 10ppm after 7, 42 and 70 days respectively in one set of experiments and 37, 53 and 42ppm after 76, 60 and 51 days in another set. Approximately 80% of the residue occurred in the shells which constitute only 12 to 13% of unroasted beans. 99% of the total residues appeared to be in chemically-bound form. Roasting reduced the total residues by 32 to 62% in nibs and 3.6 to 14% in shells. A striking effect of roasting was the occurrence in roasted nibs of residues as (extractable) carbon-14 (62-82% of the total residues compared to 16.5 - 27% in unroasted nibs). The bound residues behaved as methylated derivatives whilst the volatile fraction behaved as volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard type reactions from the 14 C-labelled amino acides and sugars

  6. Control of strain in GaN by a combination of H2 and N2 carrier gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kariya, Michihiko; Kosaki, Masayoshi; Yukawa, Yohei; Nitta, Shugo; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2001-01-01

    We study the effect of a combination of N 2 and H 2 carrier gases on the residual strain and crystalline properties of GaN, and we propose its application to the improvement of crystalline quality of GaN/Al 0.17 Ga 0.83 N multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. GaN was grown with H 2 or N 2 carrier gas (H 2 - or N 2 - GaN) on an AlN low-temperature-deposited buffer layer. A (0001) sapphire substrate was used. N 2 - GaN was grown on H 2 - GaN. The total thickness was set to be 1.5 μm, and the ratio of N 2 - GaN thickness to the total thickness, x, ranged from 0 to 1. With increasing x, the tensile stress in GaN increased. Photoluminescence intensity at room temperature was much enhanced. Moreover, the crystalline quality of GaN/Al 0.17 Ga 0.83 N MQW was much higher when the MQW was grown with N 2 on H 2 - GaN than when it was grown with H 2 on H 2 - GaN. These results were due to the achievement of control of strain in GaN using a combination of N 2 - GaN and H 2 - GaN. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Strain induced adatom correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to superstructures is tried. Corresponding adatom configurations from Monte Carlo simulations are shown.

  8. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  9. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  10. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  11. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  12. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iye, Edward; Bilsborrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km 3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km 3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km 3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  13. Prediction of welding residual distortions of large structures using a local/global approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Y. G.; Bergheau, J. M.; Vincent, Y.; Boitour, F.; Leblond, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of welding residual distortions is more difficult than that of the microstructure and residual stresses. On the one hand, a fine mesh (often 3D) has to be used in the heat affected zone for the sake of the sharp variations of thermal, metallurgical and mechanical fields in this region. On the other hand, the whole structure is required to be meshed for the calculation of residual distortions. But for large structures, a 3D mesh is inconceivable caused by the costs of the calculation. Numerous methods have been developed to reduce the size of models. A local/global approach has been proposed to determine the welding residual distortions of large structures. The plastic strains and the microstructure due to welding are supposed can be determined from a local 3D model which concerns only the weld and its vicinity. They are projected as initial strains into a global 3D model which consists of the whole structure and obviously much less fine in the welded zone than the local model. The residual distortions are then calculated using a simple elastic analysis, which makes this method particularly effective in an industrial context. The aim of this article is to present the principle of the local/global approach then show the capacity of this method in an industrial context and finally study the definition of the local model

  14. Genetic variation of viral protein 1 genes of field strains of waterfowl parvoviruses and their attenuated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Tseng, Chun-hsien; Chang, Poa-chun; Mei, Kai; Wang, Shih-Chi

    2004-09-01

    To understand the genetic variations between the field strains of waterfowl parvoviruses and their attenuated derivatives, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the viral protein 1 (VP1) genes of nine field strains and two vaccine strains of waterfowl parvoviruses. Sequence comparison of the VP1 proteins showed that these viruses could be divided into goose parvovirus (GPV) related and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) related groups. The amino acid difference between GPV- and MDPV-related groups ranged from 13.1% to 15.8%, and the most variable region resided in the N terminus of VP2. The vaccine strains of GPV and MDPV exhibited only 1.2% and 0.3% difference in amino acid when compared with their parental field strains, and most of these differences resided in residues 497-575 of VP1, suggesting that these residues might be important for the attenuation of GPV and MDPV. When the GPV strains isolated in 1982 (the strain 82-0308) and in 2001 (the strain 01-1001) were compared, only 0.3% difference in amino acid was found, while MDPV strains isolated in 1990 (the strain 90-0219) and 1997 (the strain 97-0104) showed only 0.4% difference in amino acid. The result indicates that the genome of waterfowl parvovirus had remained highly stable in the field.

  15. Stress strain tensors with their application to x-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the method of obtaining the formulas of stress-strain tensor that express the directional dependence of stress-strain, that is, how these values change in response to coordinate transformation, and clarifies the preconditions for supporting both formulas. The two conversion formulas are both the second order of tensor, and the formula of strain tensor not only does not use the relational expression of stress and strain at all, but also is obtained completely independently of the formula of stress tensor. Except for the condition that the strain is very small (elastic deformation) in the conversion formula of strain, both formulas unconditionally come into effect. In other words, both formulas hold true even in the isotropic elastic body or anisotropic elastic body. It was shown that the conversion formula of strain can be derived from the conversion formula of stress using the formula of Hooke for isotropic elastic body. From these three-dimensional expressions, the two-dimensional stress-strain coordinate conversion formula that is used for Mohr's stress-strain circle was derived. It was shown that these formulas hold true for three-dimensional stress condition with stress-strain components in the three-axial direction that are not plane stress nor plane strain condition. In addition, as an application case of this theory, two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray stress measurements that are effective for residual stress measurement were shown. (A.O.)

  16. Vacuum Distillation Residue Upgrading by an Indigenous Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Sadat Tabatabaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly.Results:A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332. This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR, as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively.Conclusion:Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  17. Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Mitra Sadat; Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz

    2013-07-16

    Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  18. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  19. Measurements and predictions of strain pole figures for uniaxially compressed stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.; Clausen, B.; Holden, T.M.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Strain pole figures representative of residual intergranular strains were determined from an -2.98% uniaxially compressed austenitic stainless steel sample. The measurements were made using neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The measurements were compared with predictions from an elasto-plastic self-consistent model and found to be in good agreement

  20. Measurements and predictions of strain pole figures for uniaxially compressed stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, C. [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: clarsson@cfl.rr.com; Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holden, T.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Strain pole figures representative of residual intergranular strains were determined from an -2.98% uniaxially compressed austenitic stainless steel sample. The measurements were made using neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The measurements were compared with predictions from an elasto-plastic self-consistent model and found to be in good agreement.

  1. Analysis of martensitic transformation and residual tension in an 304L stainless steel; Analise da transformacao martensitica e tensao residual em um aco inoxidavel 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juciane Maria

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between plastic deformation and the strain induced phase transformation, that provides a practical route to the development of new engineering materials with excellent mechanical properties, characterize the TRIP effect 'Transformation Induced Plasticity'. Among the stainless steels, the metastable 304 L austenitic steel is susceptible to transformation of austenite-martensite phase from tensile tests at room temperature by increments of plastic deformation. It is of great technological and scientific interest the knowledge of the evolution of phase transformation and residual stress from different levels and rates of plastic deformation imposed to the material. It is also important to evaluate the interference of metallographic preparation in quantitative analyzes of this steel. The main techniques used in this study consisted of X-rays diffraction and Ferritoscopy for the quantitation phase, and XRD to residual stress analysis also. As observed, the phase transformation quantification has not suffered significant influence of the metallographic preparation and evolved from increments of plastic deformation due to different stop charges and strain rates, leading to a further strengthening of the austenite matrix. The evaluation of residual stress resulting from the martensitic transformation was susceptible to the metallographic preparation and increased its value on comparison to sample without metallographic preparation. It was also observed that the residual stress decreased with the increase of the fraction of transformed martensite. (author)

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  3. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  4. Relation between psi-splitting and microscopic residual shear stresses in x-ray stress measurement on uni-directionally deformed layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabusa, Takao; Fujiwara, Haruo

    1982-01-01

    The psi-splitting behaviors were investigated for the ground and the milled surface layers of both iron and high speed steel in order to find out the relation among microscopic residual shear stresses. For the high speed steel, the X-ray elastic constants and the residual strains were measured on the carbide phase as well as on the matrix phase. It was clarified that the psi-splitting was caused by a combination of the selective nature of X-ray diffractions and the microscopic residual shear stresses within the interior of cells and the carbide particles. The volume fraction occupied by the cell walls and the residual shear stresses sustained by them were estimated from the equilibrium condition of the microscopic residual shear stresses. The distributions of residual stresses over the deformed layers indicate that the thermal effect is dominant in grinding and the mechanical effect is dominant in milling for forming residual stresses. (author)

  5. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  6. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Xing, Li

    2009-01-01

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  7. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia [Center for Biomass Resource Utilization, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University (East Campus), 17 Qing-Hua-Dong-Lu, Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xing, Li [Service Center for Trading Technology Service, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-12-15

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  8. Intraoperative ultrasound-assisted enucleation of residual fibroids following laparoscopic myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yan; Li, Si-Jing; Zheng, Ping; Wu, Xia; Sheng, Jie; Yuan, Dong-Lan; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Wei; Duan, Ai-Hong; Wu, Qing-Qing; Lu, Dan

    2018-05-25

    To investigate if intraoperative ultrasounds by laparoscopic and transvaginal ultrasonography (LUS and TVS) could improve enucleating the residual fibroids following laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). From March to December 2016, 78 women with uterine fibroids underwent LM, LUS and TVS were applied to detect residual fibroids and to guide surgeons to enucleate them after the visible fibroids were removed during LM operation. The total number of residual fibroids found by LUS was 140, and the total number found by TVS was 127 following LM (P = 0.03). LUS is statistically superior to TVS in the detection of residual fibroids in the anterior wall (P = 0.004), in the detection of intramural fibroids (P = 0.002), and in the detection of fibroids with a diameter ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm (P = 0.002). According to the total number of enucleated fibroids by LM, patients were divided into three groups (Group 1: 2 to 4, Group 2: 5 to 7 and Group 3: ≥8 fibroid counts). The percentages of patients in each group with residual fibroids at the end of surgery were 22.2%, 51.9% and 66.7% respectively. Both LUS and TVS are beneficial to surgical treatment of fibroids by assisting enucleation of residual fibroids following LM, while LUS is more effective in localizing residual fibroids than TVS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimate of the residual loads obtained in the end of piles driven in porous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David de Carvalho

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In the geotechnical engineering the study about the quantification of the residual loads in the pile end, after the end of the first loading of the load test attempt, highlighted some works on its interpretation in the curve load versus pile settlement. The construction of a mathematical model to study such a phenomenon is based on the Relations of Cambefort Precast-concrete piles were specially built for this research. They have special elements installed all along their length where the residual loads inlaid in the pile end region could be measured by means of deformation strain gauges.

  10. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  11. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  12. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  14. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-07-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS / MS). Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL) were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  15. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha F. A. Jallow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  16. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  17. Non-destructive measurement of residual stresses in U-0.8 wt.% Ti by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, A.; Root, J.H.; Holden, T.M.; Macewen, S.R.; Ludtka, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The macroscopic residual stress distribution in γ-quenched and stress levelled U-0.8wt% Ti alloy tubes was studied using neutron diffraction techniques. Residual strains were evaluated from the difference in d-spacings measured in the tubes and in small reference samples machined from each tube. Residual stresses were calculated with the isotropic bulk value of the elastic constraints for polycrystalline α-U. Quenching from the γ field resulted in a nearly equi-biaxial stress state at every point across the wall thickness of the tube. The magnitude of the radial stress was very small compared with that of the axial and hoop stresses which were compressive at the surfaces and tensile in the interior. Stress levelling relieved almost completely the hoop residual stress without affecting the radial stress. The axial residual stress becomes tensile through the wall thickness and remains constant at about 20% of its magnitude in the as-quenched condition

  18. A coupled creep plasticity model for residual stress relaxation of a shot-peened nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Dennis J.; John, Reji; Brockman, Robert A.; Rosenberger, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Shot peening is a commonly used surface treatment process that imparts compressive residual stresses into the surface of metal components. Compressive residual stresses retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. During component loading history, shot-peened residual stresses may change due to thermal exposure, creep, and cyclic loading. In these instances, taking full credit for compressive residual stresses would result in a nonconservative life prediction. This article describes a methodical approach for characterizing and modeling residual stress relaxation under elevated temperature loading, near and above the monotonic yield strength of INI 00. The model incorporates the dominant creep deformation mechanism, coupling between the creep and plasticity models, and effects of prior plastic strain to simulate surface treatment deformation.

  19. Effects of fatigue and environment on residual strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of fatigue, moisture conditioning, and heating on the residual tension strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels were evaluated using specimens made with T300/5208 graphite epoxy in a 16-ply quasi-isotropic layup, with two different buffer strip materials, Kevlar-49 or S-glass. It was found that, for panels subjected to fatigue loading, the residual strengths were not significantly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panels by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results, but increased the residual strengths of the Kevlar-49 buffer strip panels slightly. For both buffer strip materials, the heat increased the residual strengths of the buffer strip panels slightly over the ambient results.

  20. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.