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Sample records for total reorganization energy

  1. Theoretical study of substitution effects on molecular reorganization energy in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Niu, Yingli; Peng, Qian; Shuai, Zhigang; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2011-09-14

    Chemical substitutions are powerful molecular design tools to enhance the performance of organic semiconductors, for instance, to improve solubility, intermolecular stacking, or film quality. However, at the microscopic level, substitutions in general tend to increase the molecular reorganization energy and thus decrease the intrinsic charge-carrier mobility. Through density functional theory calculations, we elucidate strategies that could be followed to reduce the reorganization energy upon chemical substitution. Specific examples are given here for hole-transport materials including indolo-carbazoles and several triarylamine derivatives. Through decomposition of the total reorganization energy into the internal coordinate space, we are able to identify the molecular segment that provides the most important contributions to the reorganization energy. It is found that when substitution reduces (enhances) the amplitude of the relevant frontier molecular orbital in that segment, the total reorganization energy decreases (increases). In particular, chlorination at appropriate positions can significantly reduce the reorganization energy. Several other substituents are shown to play a similar role, to a greater or lesser extent. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  2. Exploring Low Internal Reorganization Energies for Silicene Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Pedro, Ricardo; Lopez-Rios, Hector; Mendoza-Cortes, Jose-L.; Kong, Jing; Fomine, Serguei; Van Voorhis, Troy; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. High-performance materials rely on small reorganization energies to facilitate both charge separation and charge transport. Here, we perform density-functional-theory calculations to predict small reorganization energies of rectangular silicene nanoclusters with hydrogen-passivated edges denoted by H-SiNC. We observe that across all geometries, H-SiNCs feature large electron affinities and highly stabilized anionic states, indicating their potential as n -type materials. Our findings suggest that fine-tuning the size of H-SiNCs along the "zigzag" and "armchair" directions may permit the design of novel n -type electronic materials and spintronics devices that incorporate both high electron affinities and very low internal reorganization energies.

  3. Exploring Low Internal Reorganization Energies for Silicene Nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pablo-Pedro, Ricardo

    2017-08-17

    High-performance materials rely on small reorganization energies to facilitate both charge separation and charge transport. Here, we performed DFT calculations to predict small reorganization energies of rectangular silicene nanoclusters with hydrogen-passivated edges denoted by H-SiNC. We observe that across all geometries, H-SiNCs feature large electron affinities and highly stabilized anionic states, indicating their potential as n-type materials. Our findings suggest that fine-tuning the size of H-SiNCs along the zigzag and armchair directions may permit the design of novel n-type electronic materials and spinctronics devices that incorporate both high electron affinities and very low internal reorganization energies.

  4. Differences in Brain Adaptive Functional Reorganization in Right and Left Total Brachial Plexus Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-Tao; Liu, Han-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yun-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Total brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) results in the total functional loss of the affected limb and induces extensive brain functional reorganization. However, because the dominant hand is responsible for more cognitive-related tasks, injuries on this side induce more adaptive changes in brain function. In this article, we explored the differences in brain functional reorganization after injuries in unilateral BPAI patients. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 10 left and 10 right BPAI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), which is a resting-state index, was calculated for all patients as an indication of the functional activity level of the brain. Two-sample t-tests were performed between left BPAI patients and controls, right BPAI patients and controls, and between left and right BPAI patients. Two-sample t-tests of the ALFF values revealed that right BPAIs induced larger scale brain reorganization than did left BPAIs. Both left and right BPAIs elicited a decreased ALFF value in the right precuneus (P right BPAI patients exhibited increased ALFF values in a greater number of brain regions than left BPAI patients, including the inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results revealed that right BPAIs induced greater extents of brain functional reorganization than left BPAIs, which reflected the relatively more extensive adaptive process that followed injuries of the dominant hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Designed azurins show lower reorganization free energies for intraprotein electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Marshall, Nicholas M; Wherland, Scot

    2013-01-01

    Low reorganization free energies are necessary for fast electron transfer (ET) reactions. Hence, rational design of redox proteins with lower reorganization free energies has been a long-standing challenge, promising to yield a deeper understanding of the underlying principles of ET reactivity...

  6. Synaptic reorganization in the adult rat's ventral cochlear nucleus following its total sensory deafferentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heika Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Ablation of a cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem, providing a model to investigate nervous degeneration and formation of new synaptic contacts in the adult brain. In a quantitative electron microscopical study on the plasticity of the central auditory system of the Wistar rat, we first determined what fraction of the total number of synaptic contact zones (SCZs in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN is attributable to primary sensory innervation and how many synapses remain after total unilateral cochlear ablation. Second, we attempted to identify the potential for a deafferentation-dependent synaptogenesis. SCZs were ultrastructurally identified before and after deafferentation in tissue treated for ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (EPTA staining. This was combined with pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for gephyrin identifying inhibitory SCZs, the growth-associated protein GAP-43, glutamate, and choline acetyltransferase. A stereological analysis of EPTA stained sections revealed 1.11±0.09 (S.E.M.×10(9 SCZs per mm(3 of AVCN tissue. Within 7 days of deafferentation, this number was down by 46%. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses were differentially affected on the side of deafferentation. Excitatory synapses were quickly reduced and then began to increase in number again, necessarily being complemented from sources other than cochlear neurons, while inhibitory synapses were reduced more slowly and continuously. The result was a transient rise of the relative fraction of inhibitory synapses with a decline below original levels thereafter. Synaptogenesis was inferred by the emergence of morphologically immature SCZs that were consistently associated with GAP-43 immunoreactivity. SCZs of this type were estimated to make up a fraction of close to 30% of the total synaptic population present by ten weeks after sensory deafferentation. In conclusion, there appears to be a substantial potential

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy on the charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy of molecular film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kera, Satoshi, E-mail: kera@ims.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Department of Nanomaterial Science, Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ueno, Nobuo [Department of Nanomaterial Science, Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of electron-phonon coupling as well as intermolecular interaction is required to discuss the mobility of charge carrier in functional molecular solids. This article summarizes recent progress in direct measurements of valence hole-vibration coupling in ultrathin films of organic semiconductors by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The experimental study of hole-vibration coupling of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) state in ordered monolayer film by UPS is essential to comprehend hole-hopping transport and small-polaron related transport in organic semiconductors. Only careful measurements can attain the high-resolution spectra and provide key parameters in hole-transport dynamics, namely the charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy. Analyses methods of the UPS HOMO fine feature and resulting charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy are described for pentacene and perfluoropentacene films. Difference between thin-film and gas-phase results is discussed by using newly measured high-quality gas-phase spectra of pentacene. Methodology for achieving high-resolution UPS measurements for molecular films is also described.

  8. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions.

  9. Vertical detachment energy of hydrated electron based on a modified form of solvent reorganization energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jian; Zhu, Quan; Li, Yun-Kui; Cheng, Xue-Min; Li, Xiang-Yuan; Fu, Ke-Xiang; He, Fu-Cheng

    2010-02-18

    In this work, the constrained equilibrium principle is introduced and applied to the derivations of the nonequilibrium solvation free energy and solvent reorganization energy in the process of removing the hydrated electron. Within the framework of the continuum model, a modified expression of the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of a hydrated electron in water is formulated. Making use of the approximation of spherical cavity and point charge, the variation tendency of VDE accompanying the size increase of the water cluster has been inspected. Discussions comparing the present form of the VDE and the traditional one and the influence of the cavity radius in either the fixed pattern or the varying pattern on the VDE have been made.

  10. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouroux, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  11. Congress moves to reorganize Department of Energy labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Two bills that would transform the missions and practices of the Department of Energy's research laboratories are moving forward in both branches of Congress. Each of the two is crafted to improve cooperative research between DOE and private industry, but the House bill goes further by making fundamental changes in lab administration. H.R. 1432 provides a clear statement of purpose for the labs. The eight missions outlined in the bill are as follows: Enhance the nation's understanding of energy production and use, with a goal of reducing reliance on imported sources of fuels; Advance nuclear science and technology for national security purposes; Assist with dismantlement of nuclear weapons and work to curb nuclear arms proliferation; Conduct fundamental research in energy-related science and technology; Assist in development of technologies for disposal of hazardous wastes, particularly nuclear waste; Work with private industry to develop generic green technologies; Conduct technology-transfer activities; and Work to improve the quality of science, math, and engineering education in the U.S

  12. Reorganization at Oryx Energy focuses on teamwork, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    As one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the world, Oryx Energy Co. has become a strong international player, In an increasingly global business, they are competing with some very tough international companies. This competition calls for their continued focus on technology and innovative ways of conducting business, not only on the international scene but also in the U.S. Here the author focuses on ways his company is approaching U.S. activities, both onshore and in the Gulf of Mexico

  13. Reorganization energy upon charging a single molecule on an insulator measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatayer, Shadi; Schuler, Bruno; Steurer, Wolfram; Scivetti, Ivan; Repp, Jascha; Gross, Leo; Persson, Mats; Meyer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Intermolecular single-electron transfer on electrically insulating films is a key process in molecular electronics1-4 and an important example of a redox reaction5,6. Electron-transfer rates in molecular systems depend on a few fundamental parameters, such as interadsorbate distance, temperature and, in particular, the Marcus reorganization energy7. This crucial parameter is the energy gain that results from the distortion of the equilibrium nuclear geometry in the molecule and its environment on charging8,9. The substrate, especially ionic films10, can have an important influence on the reorganization energy11,12. Reorganization energies are measured in electrochemistry13 as well as with optical14,15 and photoemission spectroscopies16,17, but not at the single-molecule limit and nor on insulating surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), with single-charge sensitivity18-22, atomic-scale spatial resolution20 and operable on insulating films, overcomes these challenges. Here, we investigate redox reactions of single naphthalocyanine (NPc) molecules on multilayered NaCl films. Employing the atomic force microscope as an ultralow current meter allows us to measure the differential conductance related to transitions between two charge states in both directions. Thereby, the reorganization energy of NPc on NaCl is determined as (0.8 ± 0.2) eV, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide the atomistic picture of the nuclear relaxations on charging. Our approach presents a route to perform tunnelling spectroscopy of single adsorbates on insulating substrates and provides insight into single-electron intermolecular transport.

  14. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  15. Reorganization of the Ministries and Agencies and future nuclear energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagishi, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Enomoto, Toshiaki; Kawase, Kazuharu; Izuriha, Isao; Shimohirao, Isao; Sakurai, Jun

    2001-01-01

    Japanese governmental Ministries and Agencies were reorganized to a system of one Cabinet Office and twelve Ministries and Agencies on January 6, 2001, by reformation after an interval of about a half of century. Together with this reformation, for an organization executing nuclear energy administration, the Cabinet Office, the Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) started. Especially, at the METI, the 'Nuclear Energy Safety and Security Agency' was newly established to unitarity manage safety regulation of the nuclear energy facilities, to enforce system to upgrading of their safety Here were introduced on every content of the organization in the nuclear energy administration, to follow its future subjects under some items on new system and its development, new organization play in liberalization market, expectation to nuclear energy administration at the new system, question on national nuclear safety countermeasure from a standpoint of landing site, stable supply system of electric power, and expectation to suitable safety regulation to secure safety of old nuclear facilities. (G.K.)

  16. Alternative Forms of Energy Production and Political Reconfigurations: The Sociology of Alternative Energies as a Study of Collective Reorganization Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpala, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Energy choices that are made in a society are also political choices. This article aims to study the extent to which these choices can be reoriented by technological developments related to renewable energies, thus contributing to a redistribution of possibilities and to social reorganization. Three steps are proposed to show that while the development of alternative energies depends on technological advances, it can, in this process, also reveal political potentials: 1) the first step clarifies the theoretical arguments that can be deployed in favour of an approach in terms of 'technological potentialism'; 2) the second step extends this approach by identifying a set of potentials linked to renewable energies and the model that could take shape through these alternative forms; 3) the third step examines how these potentials could find ways of being updated

  17. Effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 copper site of nitrite Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Wijma, Hein J.; MacPherson, Iain

    2007-01-01

    Copper-containing nitrite reductase harbors a type-1 and a type-2 Cu site. The former acts as the electron acceptor site of the enzyme, and the latter is the site of catalytic action. The effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 site was explored by studying...

  18. Probing the electronic structure of redox species and direct determination of intrinsic reorganization energies of electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique capable of directly determining the intrinsic reorganization energies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions is described. Appropriate solution phase redox species are prepared in the gas phase using electrospray ionization and probed using photodetachment spectroscopy. Five metal complex anions involved in the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple are investigated and the intramolecular reorganization energies are measured directly from spectral features due to removing the most loosely bound 3d electron from the Fe(II)-complexes. The photodetachment spectra also yield electronic structure information about the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple and provide a common electronic structure origin for the reducing capability of the Fe(II)-complexes, the most common redox reagents. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Theoretical calculation of reorganization energy for electron self-exchange reaction by constrained density functional theory and constrained equilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Sheng; Ming, Mei-Jun; Ma, Jian-Yi; Li, Xiang-Yuan

    2013-08-22

    Within the framework of constrained density functional theory (CDFT), the diabatic or charge localized states of electron transfer (ET) have been constructed. Based on the diabatic states, inner reorganization energy λin has been directly calculated. For solvent reorganization energy λs, a novel and reasonable nonequilibrium solvation model is established by introducing a constrained equilibrium manipulation, and a new expression of λs has been formulated. It is found that λs is actually the cost of maintaining the residual polarization, which equilibrates with the extra electric field. On the basis of diabatic states constructed by CDFT, a numerical algorithm using the new formulations with the dielectric polarizable continuum model (D-PCM) has been implemented. As typical test cases, self-exchange ET reactions between tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and their corresponding ionic radicals in acetonitrile are investigated. The calculated reorganization energies λ are 7293 cm(-1) for TCNE/TCNE(-) and 5939 cm(-1) for TTF/TTF(+) reactions, agreeing well with available experimental results of 7250 cm(-1) and 5810 cm(-1), respectively.

  20. The total energy policy in Flanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The policy of the Flemish region (Belgium) with regard to the total energy principle are presented. An overview of the main policy instruments to support energy saving and environmental-friendly investments as well as the development of new technologies is given. The total energy policy of the Flanders Region forms part of the general Flemish (energy) policy. (A.S.)

  1. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  2. Different functional reorganization of motor cortex after transfer of the contralateral C7 to different recipient nerves in young rats with total brachial plexus root avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wei, Hai-feng; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-dong

    2012-12-07

    Clinically, contralateral C7 transfer is used for nerve reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries. Postoperatively, synchronous motions at the donor limb are noteworthy. This study studied if different recipient nerves influenced transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex after this procedure. 90 young rats with total root avulsion of the brachial plexus were divided into groups 1-3 of contralateral C7 transfer to anterior division of the upper trunk, to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and to the median nerve, respectively. After reinnervation of target muscles, number of sites for forelimb representations in bilateral motor cortices was determined by intracortical microstimulation at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. At nine months, transhemispheric reorganization of nerves neurotized by contralateral C7 was fulfilled in four of six rats in group 1, one of six in group 2 and none in group 3, respectively; at 12 months, that was fulfilled in five of six in group 1, four of six in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that rate of fulfilled transhemispheric reorganization in group 1 was 12.19 times that in group 3 (95% CI 0.006-0.651, p=0.032). At 12 months, number of sites for hindlimb representations which had encroached upon original forelimb representations on the uninjured side was statistically more in group 3 than in group 2 (t=9.5, pmotor cortex than that to median nerve alone in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of the Reorganization Energy Barrier in Computational Design of Porphyrin-Based Solar Cells with Cobalt-Based Redox Mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; Jónsson, Elvar Örn; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    , and this limits the achievable efficiency. Here we show that the large driving force is a direct consequence of the large reorganization energy of the dye regeneration reaction. The reorganization energies for charge transfer between a simple zinc porphyrin dye and two popular cobalt-based redox mediators......The shift from iodide-based redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells toward octahedral cobalt complexes has led to a significant increase in the efficiency. However, due to the nature of this type of complexes the driving force required for the regeneration of the dye is very high...... to identify already known highperformance dyes in addition to a number of even better candidates. Our analysis shows that the large internal reorganization energy of the Co-based redox mediators is an obstacle for achieving higher efficiencies....

  4. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  5. Total energy calculations and bonding at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    Some of the concepts and theoretical techniques employed in recent ab initio studies of the electronic and structural properties of surfaces and interfaces are discussed. Results of total energy calculations for the 2 x 1 reconstructed diamond (111) surface and for stacking faults in Si are reviewed. 30 refs., 8 figs

  6. Atomic resonances above the total ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolen, G.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous result obtained using the theory associated with dilatation analytic potentials is that by performing a complex coordinate rotation, r/subj/ → r/subj/e/subi//sup theta/, on a Hamiltonian whose potential involves only pairwise Coulombic interactions, one can show that when theta = π/2, no complex eigenvalues (resonances) appear whose energies have a real part greater than the total ionization energy of the atomic system. This appears to conflict with experimental results of Walton, Peart, and Dolder, who find resonance behavior above the total ionization energy of the H -- system and also the theoretical stabilization results of Taylor and Thomas for the same system. A possible resolution of this apparent conflict is discussed and a calculation to check its validity is proposed

  7. Modeling Loop Reorganization Free Energies of Acetylcholinesterase: A Comparison of Explicit and Implicit Solvent Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ... screening of charge-charge interactions. This paper compares different solvent models applied to the problem of estimating the free-energy difference between two loop conformations in acetylcholinesterase...

  8. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  9. Investigation of solvent dynamic effects on the electron self-exchange in two thianthrene couples with large inner reorganization energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choto, P; Rasmussen, K; Grampp, G

    2015-02-07

    The large structural difference between thianthrene radical cations and their neutral parent molecules can possibly affect their electron self-exchange reactions. Before this can be investigated experimentally, it is necessary to first understand the influence of the solvent on such electron transfer reactions. To achieve this, the rate constants of the electron self-exchange reactions of the Th˙(+)/Th and MTh˙(+)/MTh (Th = thianthrene, MTh = 2,3,7,8-tetramethoxythianthrene) couples were investigated by means of ESR line broadening experiments in different solvents at 293 K. The diffusion corrected rate constants cover a range of 7.2 × 10(8)≤ket≤ 44 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for Th˙(+)/Th and 2.0 × 10(8)≤ket≤ 11.6 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for MTh˙(+)/MTh, respectively. The results were analysed within the framework of the Marcus Theory and the characteristic reorganization energy, λ, was determined. Both couples clearly show a solvent dynamic effect controlled by the longitudinal relaxation time τL of the solvents. However, the influence of the structural changes, in terms of λ, was smaller than expected at room temperature.

  10. Total energy calculations from self-energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Friera, P.

    2001-06-01

    Density-functional theory is a powerful method to calculate total energies of large systems of interacting electrons. The usefulness of this method, however, is limited by the fact that an approximation is required for the exchange-correlation energy. Currently used approximations (LDA and GGA) are not sufficiently accurate in many physical problems, as for instance the study of chemical reactions. It has been shown that exchange-correlation effects can be accurately described via the self-energy operator in the context of many-body perturbation theory. This is, however, a computationally very demanding approach. In this thesis a new scheme for calculating total energies is proposed, which combines elements from many-body perturbation theory and density-functional theory. The exchange-correlation energy functional is built from a simplified model of the self-energy, that nevertheless retains the main features of the exact operator. The model is built in such way that the computational effort is not significantly increased with respect to that required in a typical density-functional theory calculation. (author)

  11. The RWE combine - notes on its reorganization and Energy-Department-to-RWE-Energie-AG re-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    As the holding in charge of the combine, RWE AG soon will be managing legally self-sufficient controlling companies at its own responsibility. While the Energy Department (electric power, gas, heat, water) will be re-formed to become RWE Energie AG, the newly established RWE Entsorgung AG will be responsible for waste disposal and waste management. (DG) [de

  12. Total energy calculations for structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Harmon, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    The structural integrity and physical properties of crystalline solids are frequently limited or enhanced by the occurrence of phase transformations. Martensitic transformations involve the collective displacement of atoms from one ordered state to another. Modern methods to determine the microscopic electronic changes as the atoms move are now accurate enough to evaluate the very small energy differences involved. Extensive first principles calculations for the prototypical martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to closepacked 9R structure in sodium metal are described. The minimum energy coordinate or configuration path between the bcc and 9R structures is determined as well as paths to other competing close-packed structures. The energy barriers and important anharmonic interactions are identified and general conclusions drawn. The calculational methods used to solve the Schrodinger equation include pseudopotentials, fast Fourier transforms, efficient matrix diagnonalization, and supercells with many atoms

  13. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  14. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingping; Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: → To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. → Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. → A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  15. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart.

  16. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Wang, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  17. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

    1980-05-01

    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  18. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  19. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  20. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  1. Medium properties and total energy coupling in underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological model is presented that allows the direct calculation of the effects of variations in medium properties on the total energy coupling between the medium and an underground explosion. The model presented is based upon the assumption that the shock wave generated in the medium can be described as a spherical blast wave at early times. The total energy coupled to the medium is then simply the sum of the kinetic and internal energies of this blast wave. Results obtained by use of this model indicate that the energy coupling is more strongly affected by the medium's porosity than by its water content. These results agree well with those obtained by summing the energy deposited by the blast wave as a function of range

  2. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  3. How will the largest energy consumers influence the reorganization and will they be affected by the changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Kiewit, F.; Bergeron, S.

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of the Natural Gas Industrial Consumers Association (NGICA), which represents the interests of industrial natural gas consumers in matters of transport and distribution of natural gas in Canada, was described. The NGICA supports the decision of the provincial government to create an energy commission, replacing the existing Natural Gas Commission. Even though natural gas marketing in Canada has been deregulated since 1985, consumers of natural gas in Quebec have had until now less choice in suppliers than Ontario consumers. It is the Association's view that the competition in a free market, within the limits of natural monopolies, provides the best guarantee of reasonable prices and conditions of supply of all forms of energy

  4. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  5. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  6. A multisite interaction expansion of the total energy in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.C.; Gonis, A.

    1994-01-01

    The local-density approximation provides a proper setting for the decomposition of total energy into many-body (many-atom) contributions. Multiple scattering theory in turn provides a convenient framework for carrying out this process. We illustrate this concept with calculations on a linear chain of atoms in bulk copper

  7. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lanbing; Hu Jinli

    2012-01-01

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  8. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  9. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  10. Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data

  11. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2008-01-01

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  12. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  13. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy; TOTAL rapport societal and environnemental 2004. Notre energie en partage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  14. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization; La restructuration des industries de l'energie dans la mondialisation economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, J.M

    2003-07-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  15. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  16. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-01-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk

  17. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Resonance capture reactions with a total energy detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of nuclear reaction rates is considered; the Moxon--Rae detector and pulse height weighting are reviewed. This method has been especially useful in measuring (n,γ) cross sections. Strength functions and level spacing can be derived from (n,γ) yields. The relevance of neutron capture data to astrophysical nucleosynthesis is pointed out. The total gamma energy detection method has been applied successfully to radiative neutron capture cross section measurements. A bibliography of most of the published papers reporting neutron capture cross sections measured by the pulse height weighting technique is included. 55 references

  19. About total kinetic energy distribution between fragments of binary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Koblik, Yu.N.; Pikul, V.P.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    At the investigation of binary fission reactions one of the main characteristic of process is total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments and it distribution between them. From the values of these characteristics it is possible to extract the information about structure of fission fragments in the break up point of initial fissionable nuclear system. In our work TKE dependence from the deformation parameters of shape and density distribution of charge in the fission fragments are investigated. In the end of paper some generalizations of obtaining results are carried out and presented in the form of tables and figures

  20. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Territorialization of energy policies in the Franco-Valdo-Genevan urban area: energy planning as a tool for reorganizing border areas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavallez, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In France as in Switzerland, local authorities stand out as leading players of energy transition, a transition that requires an important renewal of public intervention instruments. It is the stakes and the conditions of such a renewal that the present work aims to examine, based on the experiments of territorial energy planning led on the Franco-Valdo-Genevan cross-border territory. Conceived as initiatives of relocation of the energy supply system, these energy planning initiatives are examined through an institutionalist and pragmatic 'reading template'. This 'reading template' consists of seeing these energy planning initiatives as pragmatist inquiries aiming, through a collective work of cognitive equipment of the territorial Franco-Valdo-Genevan field of intervention, at the reconstruction of the means of coordination between people about their material, organizational and political territory. It opens towards a double reading of the energy planning initiatives. The first one concentrates on the organizational dimension of these inquiries - i.e. on the cultures of action which they gather and the modalities of interaction between them - whereas the second focuses on the cognitive substance which represents the medium of the interactions. This double reading provides insights at various levels. The first one concerns the (cognitive) territorial field of intervention that these energy-planning experiments contribute to draw. A field which, although better and better characterized in its technical dimensions, remains at the same time limited and 'deformed' so that it values more the fossil energy systems, from which we want to release ourselves, than the renewable ones, which we would like to replace them with. The second level of teaching concerns the processes of production of territorial knowledge (PPTK) which presides over the demarcation and 'equipment' of the territorial field of intervention. Examined through the institutional norms and the culture of

  2. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  3. Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

    1994-01-01

    A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000.

  4. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Energy management for cost reduction in the production. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management; Energiemanagement zur Kostensenkung in der Produktion. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westkaemper, Engelbert; Verl, Alexander (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the workshop of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) at 6th October, 2009, in Stuttgart the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Engelbert Westkaemper); (2) TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management - ''With energy management to an energy efficient production'' (Alexander Schloske); (3) DIN EN 16001 Introduction of an energy management system - utilization and advantages for companies (Sylvia Wahren); (4) Analysis of the energy efficiency with power flow - Support and implementation at factory planning and optimization of production (Klaus Erlach); (5) Total Energy Efficiency Management - Approaches at the company Kaercher in injection moulding for example (Axel Leschtar); (6) Modelling the embodied product energy (Shahin Rahimifard); (7) Acquisition of energy data in the production - Technologies and possibilities (Joachim Neher); (8) Active energy management by means of an ''energy control centre'' - Analysis of the real situation and upgrading measures in the production using coating plants as an example (Wolfgang Klein); (9) Visualisation and simulation of energy values in the digital factory (Carmen Constantinescu, Axel Bruns).

  6. Impurities in semiconductors: total energy and infrared absorption calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1987-01-01

    A new method to calculate the electronic structure of infinite nonperiodic system is discussed. The calculations are performed using atomic pseudopotentials and a basis of atomic Gaussiam wave functions. The Hartree-Fock self consistent equations are solved in the cluster-Bethe lattice system. Electron correlation is partially included in second order pertubation approximation. The formalism is applied to hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Total energy calculations of finite clusters of silicon atom in the presence of impurities, are also presented. The results show how atomic oxygen breaks the covalent silicon silicon bond forming a local configuration similar to that of SiO 2 . Calculations of the infrared absorption due to the presence of atomic oxygen in cristalline silicon are presented. The Born Hamiltonian to calculate the vibrational modes of the system and a simplied model to describe the infrared absorption mechanism are used. The interstitial and the the substitutional cases are considered and analysed. The position of the main infrared absorption peak, their intensities and their isotope shifts are calculated. The results are satisfactory agreement with the available data. (author) [pt

  7. Tangible and fungible energy: Hybrid energy market and currency system for total energy management. A Masdar City case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Kennedy, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We propose the introduction of an energy-based parallel currency as a means to ease the transition to energy-conscious living. Abundant fossil energy resources mask the internal and external energy costs for casual energy consumers. This situation is challenging communities that draw a significant fraction of their primary energy consumption from renewable energy sources. The Masdar Energy Credit (MEC) system is a way of translating the fundamental aspects behind energy generation and usage into a tangible reality for all users with built-in fungibility to incentivize collectively sustainable behavior. The energy credit currency (ergo) corresponds with a chosen unit of energy so that the total amount of ergos issued equals the energy supply of the community. Ergos are distributed to users (residents, commercial entities, employees, and visitors) on a subscription basis and can be surrendered in exchange for the energy content of a service. A spot market pricing mechanism is introduced to relate ergos to 'fiat' currency using a continuously variable exchange rate to prevent depletion of the sustainable energy resource. The MEC system is intended to: (i) meet the sustainable energy balance targets of a community (ii) support peak shaving or load shifting goals, and (iii) raise energy awareness.

  8. Economics of total energy schemes in the liberalised European energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampret, Peter

    This thesis is concerned with the liberalisation of the European Energy markets and the affects this has had on total energy systems. The work concentrates on a number of case studies all of which are located in the area surrounding Gelsenkirchen - Bottrop - Gladbeck, the centre of the Ruhr region of Germany.The thesis describes briefly how the legislation of the parliament of the extended European Union has been interpreted and enacted into German legislation and its affects on production, transport, sales and customers. Primarily the legislation has been enacted to reduce energy costs by having a competitive market while enabling security of supply. The legislation whose development has accelerated since 1999 can lead to negative effects and these have been highlighted for the case studies chosen.The legislation and technological advances, each of them successful by themselves, do not provide the expected reduction of carbon dioxide emissions when applied to total energy system. The introduction of human behaviour as a missing link makes the problems evident and gives a theoretical basis to overcome these problems. The hypothesis is proven by eight detailed research projects and four concisely described ones.The base of the research is the experience gained on approximately 1,000 operation years of the simplest total energy system, that of centralised heating. This experience is transferred to different solutions for total energy systems and their economics in combination with the changing legislation and observation of human behaviour.The variety of topics of the case studies includes the production of heat by boiler, solar or combined heat and power and the use of fuel cells. Additionally the transfer of heat, at the place of demand is considered, either as an individual boiler in a building or as de-centralised district heating.The various results of these projects come together in a final project which covers four different heating systems in identical

  9. The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.

  10. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  11. Targeting for energy efficiency and improved energy collaboration between different companies using total site analysis (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Andersson, Eva; Harvey, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Rising fuel prices, increasing costs associated with emissions of green house gases and the threat of global warming make efficient use of energy more and more important. Industrial clusters have the potential to significantly increase energy efficiency by energy collaboration. In this paper Sweden's largest chemical cluster is analysed using the total site analysis (TSA) method. TSA delivers targets for the amount of utility consumed and generated through excess energy recovery by the different processes. The method enables investigation of opportunities to deliver waste heat from one process to another using a common utility system. The cluster consists of 5 chemical companies producing a variety of products, including polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), amines, ethylene, oxygen/nitrogen and plasticisers. The companies already work together by exchanging material streams. In this study the potential for energy collaboration is analysed in order to reach an industrial symbiosis. The overall heating and cooling demands of the site are around 442 MW and 953 MW, respectively. 122 MW of heat is produced in boilers and delivered to the processes. TSA is used to stepwise design a site-wide utility system which improves energy efficiency. It is shown that heat recovery in the cluster can be increased by 129 MW, i.e. the current utility demand could be completely eliminated and further 7 MW excess steam can be made available. The proposed retrofitted utility system involves the introduction of a site-wide hot water circuit, increased recovery of low pressure steam and shifting of heating steam pressure to lower levels in a number heat exchangers when possible. Qualitative evaluation of the suggested measures shows that 60 MW of the savings potential could to be achieved with moderate changes to the process utility system corresponding to 50% of the heat produced from purchased fuel in the boilers of the cluster. Further analysis showed that after implementation

  12. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  13. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  14. On total cross sections and slopes at superhigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremyan, Sh.S.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative analysis of hadron-hadron interactions in theories with critical and supercritical pomerons is carried out. The main characteristics of binary interactions in both theories are shown practically to coincide to each other in the whole range of accessible energies. Also an analysis of characteristics of hadron-nuclei interactions is given in the framework of Reggeon field theory with critical and supercritical pomerons and multiple scattering theory. The results obtained agree with available experimental data on proton-nuclei interactions at superhigh energies

  15. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    Background : Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  16. Total-energy global optimizations using nonorthogonal localized orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Mauri, F.; Galli, G.

    1995-01-01

    An energy functional for orbital-based O(N) calculations is proposed, which depends on a number of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals larger than the number of occupied states in the system, and on a parameter, the electronic chemical potential, determining the number of electrons. We show that the minimization of the functional with respect to overlapping localized orbitals can be performed so as to attain directly the ground-state energy, without being trapped at local minima. The present approach overcomes the multiple-minima problem present within the original formulation of orbital-based O(N) methods; it therefore makes it possible to perform O(N) calculations for an arbitrary system, without including any information about the system bonding properties in the construction of the input wave functions. Furthermore, while retaining the same computational cost as the original approach, our formulation allows one to improve the variational estimate of the ground-state energy, and the energy conservation during a molecular dynamics run. Several numerical examples for surfaces, bulk systems, and clusters are presented and discussed

  17. Low energy total cross section of 36Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Magurno, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    To compare the predictions of the valence model with measured partial radiative widths of 36 Ar an accurate knowledge of the bound-level parameters is required. This is achieved by carrying out a Breit-Wigner parameter fit to the total cross section of 36 Ar measured by Chrien et al and renormalized to the recommended values of the thermal capture and scattering cross sections. (1 figure, 1 table) (U.S.)

  18. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design and development of a 7 meter diameter parabolic dish solar collector are discussed. Each of the four main subsystems of the collector: (1) reflector, (2) mount and drives, (3) receiver and (4) the controls, is discussed briefly with the major emphasis on the receiver design. To minimize development risks and production costs, a dish design based on use of stamped aluminum petals (sectors) was chosen. This design is similar to the design of a communication antenna already commercially produced. The reflective surface of the petals has a total reflectance of .86 and a specularity (dispersion) of 8 mrd. This performance is obtained by mechanical polishing and chemical brightening of the petal surface, followed by application of a clear RTV silicone protective coating. Selection of the material and weather proofing coated are discussed. Results from performance tests on an engineering development dish collector are presented and compared with pretest predictions.

  19. A constrained optimization algorithm for total energy minimization in electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang Linwang

    2006-01-01

    A new direct constrained optimization algorithm for minimizing the Kohn-Sham (KS) total energy functional is presented in this paper. The key ingredients of this algorithm involve projecting the total energy functional into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking the minimizer of total energy functional within each subspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy functional not only provides a search direction along which the KS total energy functional decreases but also gives an optimal 'step-length' to move along this search direction. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that this new direct constrained optimization algorithm can be more efficient than the self-consistent field (SCF) iteration

  20. Effects of the charge-transfer reorganization energy on the open-circuit voltage in small-molecular bilayer organic photovoltaic devices: comparison of the influence of deposition rates of the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Chien; Su, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2016-05-14

    The theoretical maximum of open-circuit voltage (VOC) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has yet to be determined, and its origin remains debated. Here, we demonstrate that VOC of small-molecule OPV devices can be improved by controlling the deposition rate of a donor without changing the interfacial energy gap at the donor/acceptor interface. The measurement of external quantum efficiency and electroluminescence spectra facilitates the observation of the existence of charge transfer (CT) states. A simplified approach by reusing the reciprocity relationship for obtaining the properties of the CT states is proposed without introducing complex techniques. We compare experimental and fitting results and propose that reorganization energy is the primary factor in determining VOC instead of either the CT energy or electronic coupling term in bilayer OPV devices. Atomic force microscopy images indicate a weak molecular aggregation when a higher deposition rate is used. The results of temperature-dependent measurements suggest the importance of molecular stacking for the CT properties.

  1. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete....... With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically...... positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high...

  2. S. 1439: Export Reorganization Act of 1976. Hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session on S. 1439, S. 3770, and H.R. 15273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The hearing of July 28, 1976 on S. 1439, a bill to reorganize certain export functions of the Federal government, included statements from the following: Sen. John O. Pastore, Chairman, JCAE; Sen. Abraham Ribicoff; Sen. Charles H. Percy; Myron B. Kratzer, Deputy Ass't. Secy. for Nuclear Energy and Energy Technology, Dept. of State; Charles W. Robinson, Deputy Secy. of State; Dr. Robert W. Fri, Deputy Administrator, ERDA; Marcus A. Rowden, Chairman, NRC, accompanied by Commissioners Kennedy and Gilinsky; and the joint prepared statement of Senators Glenn, Percy, and Ribicoff. S. 1439 was unanimously rejected by the Joint Committee in open meeting on Aug. 26, 1976. Then on Aug. 31, 1976, the Joint Committee met to receive testimony on the Nuclear Explosive Proliferation Control Act of 1976, S. 3770 and H.R. 15273, the proposed substitute for S. 1439. The Aug. 31 hearing included statements by Rep. Melvin Price, Vice Chairman, JCAE, and Fri, Rowden, and Kratzer. Further background information, mainly letters, is included under ''Additional Materials'' and in three appendixes

  3. The reorganization of the Russian hydrocarbons industry: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the main guidelines for the reorganization of the Russian hydrocarbon industry. Specifically, it focuses on the economic conditions concerning the constitution of Russian oil companies in an uncertain environment. In Russia, one of the main problems is to create autonomous energy enterprises. The main conclusion is that up to now the reorganization has been essentially juridical, connected with the constitution of joint stock companies. From an economic point of view, the organizational model behind these joint stock companies is not very well defined and lacks clearly defined coordination mechanisms. (author)

  4. Reorganization of AECL and the future marketing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, James

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Engineering Co. has been reorganized to support the new emphasis on foreign sales of CANDU reactors. Much has been learned from reactor sales to Argentina, Korea, and Romania, but Canada needs to sell one 600 MWe reactor a year in order to avoid a decline in its nuclear industry. (LL)

  5. Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihao Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an energy-input based directional distance function, we calculated the shadow price of four types of energy (i.e., coal, oil, gas and electricity among 30 areas in China from 1998 to 2012. Moreover, a macro-energy efficiency index in China was estimated and divided into intra-provincial technical efficiency, allocation efficiency of energy input structure and inter-provincial energy allocation efficiency. It shows that total energy efficiency has decreased in recent years, where intra-provincial energy technical efficiency drops markedly and extensive mode of energy consumption rises. However, energy structure and allocation improves slowly. Meanwhile, lacking an integrated energy market leads to the loss of energy efficiency. Further improvement of market allocation and structure adjustment play a pivotal role in the increase of energy efficiency.

  7. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory energy-related history, research, managerial reorganization proposals, actions taken, and results. History report, 1945--1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, E.F.

    1997-03-01

    This report documents the development of major energy-related programs at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory between 1945 and 1979. Although the Laboratory's primary mission during that era was the design and development of nuclear weapons and most of the Laboratory's funding came from a single source, a number of factors were at work that led to the development of these other programs. Some of those factors were affected by the Laboratory's internal management structure and organization; others were the result of increasing environmental awareness within the general population and the political consequences of that awareness; still others were related to the increasing demand for energy and the increasing turmoil in the energy-rich Middle East. This report also describes the various activities in Los Alamos, in Washington, and in other areas of the world that contributed to the development of major energy-related programs at Los Alamos. The author has a unique historical perspective because of his involvement as a scientist and manager at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the time period described within the report. In addition, in numerous footnotes and references, he cites a large body of documents that include the opinions and perspectives of many others who were involved at one time or another in these programs. Finally the report includes a detailed chronology of geopolitical events that led to the development of energy-related programs at Los Alamos

  8. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory energy-related history, research, managerial reorganization proposals, actions taken, and results. History report, 1945--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, E.F.

    1997-03-01

    This report documents the development of major energy-related programs at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory between 1945 and 1979. Although the Laboratory`s primary mission during that era was the design and development of nuclear weapons and most of the Laboratory`s funding came from a single source, a number of factors were at work that led to the development of these other programs. Some of those factors were affected by the Laboratory`s internal management structure and organization; others were the result of increasing environmental awareness within the general population and the political consequences of that awareness; still others were related to the increasing demand for energy and the increasing turmoil in the energy-rich Middle East. This report also describes the various activities in Los Alamos, in Washington, and in other areas of the world that contributed to the development of major energy-related programs at Los Alamos. The author has a unique historical perspective because of his involvement as a scientist and manager at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the time period described within the report. In addition, in numerous footnotes and references, he cites a large body of documents that include the opinions and perspectives of many others who were involved at one time or another in these programs. Finally the report includes a detailed chronology of geopolitical events that led to the development of energy-related programs at Los Alamos.

  9. Research on the decomposition model for China’s National Renewable Energy total target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Shi, Yuren; Yan, Jianming; Ou, Xunmin; Lieu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial that China’s renewable energy national target in 2020 is effectively decomposed into respective period targets at the provincial level. In order to resolve problems arising from combining the national and local renewable energy development plan, a total target and period target decomposition model of renewable energy is proposed which considers the resource distribution and energy consumption of different provinces as well as the development characteristics of various renewable energy industries. In the model, the total proposed target is comprised of three shares: basic share, fixed share and floating share target. The target distributed for each province is then determined by the preference relation. That is, when total renewable energy target is distributed, the central government is more concerned about resources potential or energy consumption. Additionally, the growth models for various renewable energy industries are presented, and the period targets of renewable energy in various provinces are proposed in line with regional economic development targets. In order to verify whether the energy target can be achieved, only wind power, solar power, and hydropower are considered in this study. To convenient to assess the performance of local government, the two year period is chosen as an evaluation cycle in the paper. The renewable energy targets per two-year period for each province are calculated based on the overall national renewable energy target, energy requirements and resources distribution. Setting provincial period targets will help policy makers to better implement and supervise the overall renewable energy plan. - Highlights: It is very importance that the national target of renewable energy in 2020 can be effectively decomposed into the stages target of various province. In order to resolve the relation the plan between the national and local renewable energy development planning, a total target and phase target decomposition model

  10. Long term fault system reorganization of convergent and strike-slip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.; McBeck, J.; Hatem, A. E.; Toeneboehn, K.; Beyer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory and numerical experiments representing deformation over many earthquake cycles demonstrate that fault evolution includes episodes of fault reorganization that optimize work on the fault system. Consequently, the mechanical and kinematic efficiencies of fault systems do not increase monotonically through their evolution. New fault configurations can optimize the external work required to accommodate deformation, suggesting that changes in system efficiency can drive fault reorganization. Laboratory evidence and numerical results show that fault reorganization within accretion, strike-slip and oblique convergent systems is associated with increasing efficiency due to increased fault slip (frictional work and seismic energy) and commensurate decreased off-fault deformation (internal work and work against gravity). Between episodes of fault reorganization, fault systems may become less efficient as they produce increasing off fault deformation. For example, laboratory and numerical experiments show that the interference and interaction between different fault segments may increase local internal work or that increasing convergence can increase work against gravity produced by a fault system. This accumulation of work triggers fault reorganization as stored work provides the energy required to grow new faults that reorganize the system to a more efficient configuration. The results of laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that we should expect crustal fault systems to reorganize following periods of increasing inefficiency, even in the absence of changes to the tectonic regime. In other words, fault reorganization doesn't require a change in tectonic loading. The time frame of fault reorganization depends on fault system configuration, strain rate and processes that relax stresses within the crust. For example, stress relaxation may keep pace with stress accumulation, which would limit the increase in the internal work and gravitational work so that

  11. The Use of Trust Regions in Kohn-Sham Total Energy Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang, Lin-wang

    2006-01-01

    The Self Consistent Field (SCF) iteration, widely used for computing the ground state energy and the corresponding single particle wave functions associated with a many-electron atomistic system, is viewed in this paper as an optimization procedure that minimizes the Kohn-Sham total energy indirectly by minimizing a sequence of quadratic surrogate functions. We point out the similarity and difference between the total energy and the surrogate, and show how the SCF iteration can fail when the minimizer of the surrogate produces an increase in the KS total energy. A trust region technique is introduced as a way to restrict the update of the wave functions within a small neighborhood of an approximate solution at which the gradient of the total energy agrees with that of the surrogate. The use of trust region in SCF is not new. However, it has been observed that directly applying a trust region based SCF(TRSCF) to the Kohn-Sham total energy often leads to slow convergence. We propose to use TRSCF within a direct constrained minimization(DCM) algorithm we developed in dcm. The key ingredients of the DCM algorithm involve projecting the total energy function into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking the minimizer of the total energy function within each subspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy function, which is computed by TRSCF, not only provides a search direction along which the KS total energy function decreases but also gives an optimal 'step-length' that yields a sufficient decrease in total energy. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate that the combination of TRSCF and DCM is more efficient than SCF

  12. The total Hartree-Fock energy-eigenvalue sum relationship in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Using the well known relationships for the isoelectronic changes in the total Hartree-Fock energy, nucleus-electron attraction energy and electron-electron repulsion energy in atoms a simple polynomial expansion in Z is obtained for the sum of the eigenvalues which can be used to calculate the total Hartree-Fock energy. Numerical results are presented for 2-10 electron series to show that the present relationship is a better approximation than the other available energy-eigenvalue relationships. (author)

  13. Energy efficiency improvement: A strong driver for Total operations and R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnaud, Frederic; Rocher, Anne

    2010-09-15

    Total has implemented an energy efficiency action plan for both producing fields and new projects linked to a dedicated R and D program. The Energy efficiency assessment methodology is described, with an example: base line of the current situation, energy efficiency plan, contribution to best practices at corporate level. A methodology to assess the energy efficiency of a new development has been defined and implemented within Total. This methodology as well as related indicators is presented. Examples of R and D results dedicated to improve energy efficiency in two major areas of future developments are given: sour gas production and deep offshore field architecture.

  14. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  16. Machine Learning methods in fitting first-principles total energies for substitutionally disordered solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and first-principles description of solid structures and total energies. However, it is highly time-consuming to calculate structures with hundreds of atoms in the unit cell and almost not possible to calculate thousands of atoms. We apply and adapt machine learning algorithms, including compressive sensing, support vector regression and artificial neural networks to fit the DFT total energies of substitutionally disordered boron carbide. The nonparametric kernel method is also included in our models. Our fitted total energy model reproduces the DFT energies with prediction error of around 1 meV/atom. The assumptions of these machine learning models and applications of the fitted total energies will also be discussed. Financial support from McWilliams Fellowship and the ONR-MURI under the Grant No. N00014-11-1-0678 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  18. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  19. How fast is the growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Sohail-Afzal, Tahir; Ayub-Faridi, M; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2003-01-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.

  20. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  1. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  2. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  3. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food, increases......: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially. Keywords: hospital food; nutritional risk; undernutrition...

  4. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  5. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  6. Firm Reorganization : Social Control or Social Contract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Hendrik Leendert; Dolfsma, Wilfred; Blinde-Leerentveld, Rowan

    Firm reorganizations deeply affect employees. Management can reorganize in different ways, focusing on costs or acknowledging the involvement of employees. The latter implies following a social contract that complements incomplete (formal) labor contracts. Little is known about how the way in which

  7. Photovoltaic industry, towards a reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2011-01-01

    During the first semester 2011 the sales of photovoltaic equipment have dropped unexpectedly, certainly due to the harsh winter in Europe and the reduction of the policy of financial incentives in some countries. This drop in demand has triggered such a drop in prices that some manufacturers face financial difficulties, for instance the American Evergreen Solar was declared bankrupt in mid august 2011. Today the production of solar panels exceeds the demand. The third term of 2011 shows an improvement but the sector will not escape a reorganization: there are too many manufacturers, some will disappear, other will merge, the biggest will stay. Some economists see the future market divided into 2 sectors: one sector dedicated to the mass production of classical solar panels at very low cost, this sector will be occupied mainly by Chinese companies and another sector demanding a more specialized know-how will be driven by American, Japanese and European companies. (A.C.)

  8. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  9. Hierarchical reorganization of dimensions in OLAP visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, Sébastien; Bouali, Fatma; Guinot, Christiane; Venturini, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the visual reorganization of online analytical processing (OLAP) cubes that aims at improving their visualization. Our method addresses dimensions with hierarchically organized members. It uses a genetic algorithm that reorganizes k-ary trees. Genetic operators perform permutations of subtrees to optimize a visual homogeneity function. We propose several ways to reorganize an OLAP cube depending on which set of members is selected for the reorganization: all of the members, only the displayed members, or the members at a given level (level by level approach). The results that are evaluated by using optimization criteria show that our algorithm has a reliable performance even when it is limited to 1 minute runs. Our algorithm was integrated in an interactive 3D interface for OLAP. A user study was conducted to evaluate our approach with users. The results highlight the usefulness of reorganization in two OLAP tasks.

  10. Near-memory data reorganization engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Maya; Lloyd, G. Scott

    2018-05-08

    A memory subsystem package is provided that has processing logic for data reorganization within the memory subsystem package. The processing logic is adapted to reorganize data stored within the memory subsystem package. In some embodiments, the memory subsystem package includes memory units, a memory interconnect, and a data reorganization engine ("DRE"). The data reorganization engine includes a stream interconnect and DRE units including a control processor and a load-store unit. The control processor is adapted to execute instructions to control a data reorganization. The load-store unit is adapted to process data move commands received from the control processor via the stream interconnect for loading data from a load memory address of a memory unit and storing data to a store memory address of a memory unit.

  11. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  12. Network industries deregulation and energy industries reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaporte, P.; Chevalier, J.M.; Bourdaire, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The electric power distribution systems deregulation is going to change the economical and institutional scenery. The empowerment term can be anything but a happy change for the customer by giving him the free choice. But this evolution calls the public power in question again. Meanwhile the government has to remain vigilant and watch over the safety in terms of cartel and environment risk. (A.L.B.)

  13. Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) Performance Analysis of High Temperature Energy Storage Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 milestones and lessons learned; performance in 1983; a typical day's operation; collector field performance and thermal losses; and formal testing are highlighted. An initial test that involves characterizing the high temperature storage (hts) subsystem is emphasized. The primary element is on 11,000 gallon storage tank that provides energy to the steam generator during transient solar conditions or extends operating time. Overnight, thermal losses were analyzed. The length of time the system is operated at various levels of cogeneration using stored energy is reviewed.

  14. Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korunur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the Møller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.

  15. Relation between total shock energy and mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenma, Taro; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Masaya; Mizukami, Kazuya; Kamada, Rui; Takahashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Ryo; Maeno, Motoki; Okamoto, Kaori; Chiba, Yuki; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2018-05-15

    Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) shocks have been associated with mortality. However, no study has examined the relation between total shock energy and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the association of total shock energy with mortality, and to determine the patients who are at risk of this association. Data from 316 consecutive patients who underwent initial ICD implantation in our hospital between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. We collected shock energy for 3 years from the ICD implantation, and determined the relation of shock energy on mortality after adjusting confounding factors. Eighty-seven ICD recipients experienced shock(s) within 3 years from ICD implantation and 43 patients had died during the follow-up. The amount of shock energy was significantly associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.26 (per 100 joule increase), p energy accumulation (≥182 joule) was lower (p energy accumulation (energy accumulation and all-cause death was remarkable in the patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) or atrial fibrillation (AF). Increase of shock energy was related to mortality in ICD recipients. This relation was evident in patients with low LVEF or AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of stress and total energy methods for calculation of elastic properties of semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P

    2013-01-16

    We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.

  17. Environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency of Taiwan's service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chin-Yi; Hu, Jin-Li; Lou, Tze-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study computes the pure technical efficiency (PTE) and energy-saving target of Taiwan's service sectors during 2001–2008 by using the input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with the assumption of a variable returns-to-scale (VRS) situation. This paper further investigates the effects of industry characteristics on the energy-saving target by applying the four-stage DEA proposed by Fried et al. (1999). We also calculate the pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) scores in these service sectors. There are three inputs (labor, capital stock, and energy consumption) and a single output (real GDP) in the DEA model. The most energy efficient service sector is finance, insurance and real estate, which has an average TFEE of 0.994 and an environment-adjusted TFEE (EATFEE) of 0.807. The study utilizes the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model with the energy-saving target (EST) as the dependent variable. Those service industries with a larger GDP output have greater excess use of energy. The capital–labor ratio has a significantly positive effect while the time trend variable has a significantly negative impact on the EST, suggesting that future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors. - Highlights: • The technical efficiency and energy-saving target of service sectors are assessed. • The pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency scores in services are assessed. • The industrial characteristic differences are examined by the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model. • Labor, capital, and energy and an output (GDP) are included in the DEA model. • Future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors

  18. Optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems with hydrogen storage for total energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-01-01

    A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the solar array and hydrogen storage size for any given system configuration and geographical site. Sensitivity analyses have been performed to study the effect of subsystem efficiencies on the total system performance and sizing, and also to identify possibilities for further improvements. Optimum system configurations have also been derived. The results indicate that a solar-hydrogen energy system is a very promising potential alternative for low power applications requiring a total electricity self-sufficiency. (Author).

  19. DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed

  20. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  1. Hadronic multiplicity and total cross-section: a new scaling in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylinsky, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of mean multiplicity to total cross-section is shown to be the same for all the Regge models and to rise with energy as lns which is confirmed by experimental data. Hence, a power of multiplicity growth is unambiguously connected with that of total cross-section. As regards the observed growth, approximately ln 2 s, it tells about a dipole character of pomeron singularity

  2. Total cross sections of hadron interactions at high energies in low constituents number model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovskij, V.A.; Radchenko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider QCD hadrons interaction model in which gluons density is low in initial state wave function in rapidity space and real hadrons are produced from color strings decay. In this model behavior of total cross sections of pp, pp bar, π ± p, K ± p, γp, and γγ interactions is well described. The value of proton-proton total cross section at LHC energy is predicted

  3. A comment on the calculation of the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index originally proposed by Hu and Wang (2006). The TFEE index serves as a very well-known and popular means of estimating overall energy efficiency. While many previous studies have used the indicator of energy inefficiency, including the indicator of energy intensity (i.e., Energy input/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) to measure energy efficiency, Hu and Kao (2007) point out that the indicator of energy intensity is not only a partial-factor energy efficiency indicator, but that this partial-factor ratio is also quite inappropriate for analyzing the impact of changing energy use over time. The TFEE index overcomes the disadvantage of the indicator of energy intensity as mentioned above, but five steps are needed to calculate the TFEE score. In this study, we provide a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the TFEE score. Furthermore, we extend this no-output growth model to an output growth model. This study concludes that the output growth model not only makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index than the model proposed by Hu and Wang (2006) and Hu and Kao (2007), but that it can also obtain better TFEE scores. - Highlights: ► The comment is on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index. ► Two extension models are no-output growth model and output growth model. ► The model in this study makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index.

  4. The conditions for total reflection of low-energy atoms from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The critical angles for the total reflection of low-energy particles from Cu rows and (001) planes have been investigated, using the binary collision approximation computer simulation code MARLOWE Breakthrough angles were evaluated for H, N, Ne, Ar, Cu, Xe, and Au in the energy range from 0.1 to 7.5 keV. In both the axial and the planar cases, recoiling of the target atoms lowers the energy barrier which the target surface presents to the heavy projectiles. Consequently, the breakthrough angles are reduced for heavy projectiles below the values expected either from observations on light projectiles or from analytical channeling theory. (orig.) [de

  5. Total cross section for hadron production by e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Godermann, E.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.

    1979-10-01

    The cross section for the process e + e - → multihadrons has been measured at the highest PETRA energies. We measure R (the total cross-section in units of the point-like e + e - → μ + μ - cross-section) to be 2.9 +- 0.7, 4.0 +- 0.5, 4.6 +- 0.4 and 4.2 +- 0.6 at √s of 22, 27.7, 30 and 31.6 GeV respectively. The observed average multiplicity, together with existing low energy data, indicate a rapid increase in multiplicity with increasing energy. (orig.)

  6. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  7. Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwała Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers.

  8. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  9. Mechanical properties of carbynes investigated by ab initio total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Salvestrini, Paolo; Manini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    As sp carbon chains (carbynes) are relatively rigid molecular objects, can we exploit them as construction elements in nanomechanics? To answer this question, we investigate their remarkable mechanical properties by ab initio total-energy simulations. In particular, we evaluate their linear...

  10. Parameterization of α-nucleus total reaction cross section at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, M A; Abdulmomen, M A

    2008-01-01

    Applying a Coulomb correction factor to the Glauber model we have derived a closed expression for α-nucleus total reaction cross section, σ R . Under the approximation of rigid projectile model, the elastic S-matrix element S el (b) is evaluated from the phenomenological N-α amplitude and a Gaussian fit to the Helm's model form factor. Excellent agreements with the experimental data have been achieved by performing two-parameter fits to the α-nucleus σ R data in the energy range about 75 to 193 MeV. One of the parameters was found to be energy independent while the other, as expected, shows the energy dependence similar to that of N-α total cross section.

  11. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  12. Fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions of spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) distributions are evaluated in a quantum mechanical framework using elongation, mass asymmetry, neck degree of freedom as the relevant collective parameters in the Fourier shape parametrization recently developed by us. The potential energy surfaces (PES) are calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic model based on the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD), the Yukawa-folded (YF) single-particle potential and a monopole pairing force. The PES are presented and analysed in detail for even-even Plutonium isotopes with A = 236-246. They reveal deep asymmetric valleys. The fission-fragment mass and TKE distributions are obtained from the ground state of a collective Hamiltonian computed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the WKB approach by introducing a neck-dependent fission probability. The calculated mass and total kinetic energy distributions are found in good agreement with the data.

  13. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Morcelle, V.

    2010-06-01

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range 6 Li- 238 U, and 158 projectile nuclei from 2 H up to 84 Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  14. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  15. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  16. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  17. Forward elastic scattering and total cross-section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    1985-01-01

    The successful cooling technique of antiproton beams at CERN has recently allowed the acceleration of proton and antiproton bunches simultaneously circulating in opposite directions in the SPS. Hadron-hadron collisions could so be produced at a centre-of-mass energy one order of magnitude higher than previously available, thus opening a new wide range of energies to experimentation. This technique also made it possible to replace one of the two proton beams in the ISR by a beam of antiprotons, allowing a direct precise comparison, by the same detectors, of pp and anti pp processes at the same energies. The recent results are summarized of the forward elastic scattering and total cross-section in this new energy domain. (Mori, K.)

  18. Total integrated energy system (TIES) feasibility analysis for the downtown redevelopment project, Pasadena, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the most desirable method of serving the energy needs of a commercial development to be constructed in Pasadena, California. The factors that determine maximum desirability consist of the following: (1) maximum economic benefit to the energy user and to the surrounding community; (2) minimum usage of energy by both the energy user and the surrounding community; and (3) minimum introduction of pollutants into the community. The methods studied were the Total Integrated Energy System (TIES) concept in several configurations. The TIES concept differs from the ''total energy concept'' in the respect that the electric power output of the local power generation plant goes into the utility company distribution grid, rather than to the user. The user is served power from the grid, as with a conventional system, but also receives heating and cooling media produced from power generation by-product heat from the TIES plant. The effect of this concept is that a very large source-sink for electric energy is provided by the utility company grid. This, in turn, permits the plant to operate in response to instantaneous thermal demand, rather than instantaneous power demand. No auxiliary firing is ever required. No waste of unneeded by-product energy to atmosphere ever occurs. Balance is achieved by either delivering excess power into the grid or by withdrawing power production deficiency from the grid. Near-optimum efficiency is achieved during all operating conditions. There is no need whatsoever for the power-generating plant to be sized to meet the power demand, since it seldom, if ever, tracks the power demand. Sizing of the electric generation is solely a function of economics and the demand for waste heat.

  19. Dependence of the quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshai, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence of the quasipotential of one-boson exchange on the total energy of the system is calculated. It is shown that despite the nonlocal form of the obtained quasipotential the three-dimensional equations for the waves function can be reduced by a partial expansion to one-dimensional equations. The influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behavior in the coordinate representation is discussed

  20. On the dependence of quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the framework of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence is calculated of the one-boson exchange potential on the total energy of the system. It is shown that in spite of a nonlocal form of the quasipotential obtained, three-dimensional equations for the wave function are reduced to one-dimensional ones by means of partial expansion. Influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behaviour in the coordinate representation is discussed

  1. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  2. Mid-South solar total energy: institutional analysis. Final report, May 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powe, R.E.; Carley, C.T.; Forbes, R.E.; Johnson, L.R.; Stiffler, A.K.; Hodge, B.K.; Bouchillon, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was undertaken to determine the current usage of energy by the Mississippi State University, considering electricity and fuel separately. A variety of individual components likely to be employed in total energy systems are then considered in detail, including: solar assisted space heating system, space cooling system design, solar electric system, flat plate solar collector system, central solar receiver, and geothermal heat pump system. Also, algorithms have been developed for the approximate prediction of building heating and cooling loads based on gross parameters such as floor area, type of wall construction, etc. System considerations and evaluation are then presented. (LEW)

  3. Experimental evidence of reorganizing landscape under changing climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Reinhardt, L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the dynamics of landscape reorganization under changing climatic forcing is important to understand geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions, assess response of landscapes to external perturbations for future predictive modeling, and for interpreting past climate from stratigraphic record. For such an analysis, however, real landscape observations are limited. To this end, a series of controlled laboratory experiments on evolving landscape were conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. High resolution elevation data at a temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm were collected as the landscape approached steady state (constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5 times precipitation rate). Our results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold increase in precipitation with the fluvial regime encroaching into the previously debris dominated regime, widening and aggradation of channels and valleys, and accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales. To better understand the initiation of the observed reorganization, we perform a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, showing strikingly different spatial patterns on landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS), even when the time under SS is renormalized to match the total volume of eroded and deposited sediment in TS. Our results suggest a regime shift in the behavior of transport processes on the landscape at the intermediate scales i.e., from supply-limited to transport-limited.

  4. Preliminary results of total kinetic energy modelling for neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visan, I.; Giubega, G.; Tudora, A.

    2015-01-01

    The total kinetic energy as a function of fission fragments mass TKE(A) is an important quantity entering in prompt emission calculations. The experimentally distributions of TKE(A) are referring to a limited number of fission systems and incident energies. In the present paper, a preliminary model for TKE calculation in neutron induced fission system is presented. The range of fission fragments is chosen as in the Point by Point treatment. The model needs as input only mass excesses and deformation parameters taken from available nuclear databases being based on the following approximations: total excitation energy of fully accelerated fission fragments TXE is calculated from energy balance of neutron-induced fission systems as sum of the total excitation energy at scission E*sciss and deformation energy Edef. The deformation energy at scission is given by minimizing the potential energy at the scission configuration. At the scission point, the fission system is described by two spheroidal fragments nearly touching by a pre-scission distance or neck caused by the nuclear forces between fragments. Therefore, the Columbian repulsion depending on neck and, consequently, on the fragments deformation at scission, is essentially in TKE determination. An approximation is made based on the fission modes. For the very symmetric fission, the dominant super long channel is characterized by long distance between fragments leading to low TKE values. Due to magic and double-magic shells closure, the dominant S1 fission mode for pairs with heavy fragment mass AH around 130-134 is characterized by spherical heavy fragment shape and easily deformed light fragment. The nearly spherical shape of the complementary fragments are characterized by minimum distance, and consequently to maximum TKE values. The results obtained for TKE(A) are in good agreement with existing experimental data for many neutron induced fission systems, e.g. ''2''3''3&apos

  5. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  6. Total β-decay energies of neutron-rich zinc isotopes, A=75-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Fogelberg, B.; Sangariyavanish, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation involves improved measurements of the Qsub(β)-values of 75-78 Zn and determinations of the total decay energies of sup(79,80)Zn which are not reported in the literature before. Also 81 Zn was detected but at the time for the experiment the ion-source was not efficient enough to yield sufficient activity for an accurate Qsub(β)-determination. (orig./HSI)

  7. Total binding energy of heavy positive ions including density treatment of Darwin and Breit corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of total energies of neutral atoms is first generalised to heavy positive ions. To facilitate quantitative contact with the numerical predictions of Dirac-Fock theory, Darwin and Breit corrections are expressed in terms of electron density, and computed using input again from relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory. These corrections significantly improve the agreement between the two seemingly very different theories. (author)

  8. Reaction and total cross sections for low energy π+ and π- on isospin zero nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, A.; Ho/ibraten, S.; Kraushaar, J.J.; Kriss, B.J.; Peterson, R.J.; Ristinen, R.A.; Brack, J.T.; Hofman, G.; Gibson, E.F.; Morris, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reaction and total cross sections for π + and π - on targets of 2 H, 6 Li, C, Al, Si, S, and Ca have been measured for beam energies from 42 to 65 MeV. The cross sections are proportional to the target mass at 50 MeV, consistent with transparency to these projectiles. The cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  10. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ∼2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying k

  11. Total energy supply for remote human habitations (Or 'Nuclear North of 60')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will examine the direct application of nuclear energy solutions in the north, and remote areas of Canada. Further it will challenge the existing energy network based on the shipment of fossil fuels to remote areas, and examine the use of small, modular, and/or deployable nuclear plants in these communities. The use of these small reactors and some newly emerging technologies will likely provide a near total energy supply for these communities. In particular low grade heat processes, district heating, the 'local' production of motive fuels, and local food production will be examined. Additionally the economic and social impact of moving the value added side of many of these processes to the local communities will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  13. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  14. The rise of the proton-(anti)proton total cross section at tevatron energies and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluit, P.M.; Timmermans, J.

    1987-12-01

    A dispersion relation analysis of the UA4 result on the real part of the panti p elastic scattering amplitude is presented. The interpretation is twofold. Assuming that the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically identical, a steep rise is deduced of the total cross section in the 1-4 TeV domain. In case the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically different, it is deduced that there is a crossing of the total cross section of pp and panti p between ISR and Spanti pS energies followed by a steep rise of the difference of the pp and panti p total cross sections. It is shown that in both cases this rise can be accounted for if we add an additional term with an energy cut-off to the usual Amaldi parametrisation of the total cross section: ln 2 (s/s cut ) in the first case, or ln(s/s cuto ) in the second case, where √s cut lies around 500 GeV and √s cuto around 63 GeV. Both quantities can be interpreted as a threshold of a new process. For the first case, a continuous parametrisation without a threshold is also proposed with an extra term of the form ln 2 (1+ s/s 1 ), where √s 1 equals 700 GeV. 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic supercomplexes during environmental acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMinagawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimate to ever-changing environments in order to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2. The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors such as quality and quantity of light, temperature, drought, and CO2 concentration, among others. Accumulating evidence indicates that photosynthetic supercomplexes undergo supramolecular reorganization within a short timeframe during acclimation to an environmental change. This reorganization includes state transitions that balance the excitation of photosystem I and II by shuttling peripheral antenna proteins between the two, thermal energy dissipation that occurs at energy-quenching sites within the light-harvesting antenna generated for negative feedback when excess light is absorbed, and cyclic electron flow that is facilitated between photosystem I and the cytochrome bf complex when cells demand more ATP and/or need to activate energy dissipation. This review will highlight the recent findings regarding these environmental acclimation events in model organisms with particular attention to the unicellular green alga C. reinhardtii and with reference to the vascular plant A. thaliana, which offers a glimpse into the dynamic behavior of photosynthetic machineries in nature.

  16. The total energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic fields in a dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Michael E.

    2017-08-01

    mv. Newtonian fluids can behave very much like dust with the same energy-momentum tensor. The energy and momentum conservation properties of light propagating in the vacuum were long-ago cast in the energy-momentum tensor formalism in terms of the electromagnetic energy density and electromagnetic momentum density. However, extrapolating the tensor theory of energy-momentum conservation for propagation of light in the vacuum to propagation of light in a simple linear dielectric medium has proven to be problematic and controversial. A dielectric medium is not "otherwise empty" and it is typically assumed that optically induced forces accelerate and decelerate nanoscopic material constituents of the dielectric. The corresponding material energy-momentum tensor is added to the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor to form the total energy-momentum tensor, thereby ensuring that the total energy and the total momentum of the thermodynamically closed system remain constant in time.

  17. Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.

  18. Co-Plaintigff in Judicial Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Gonçalves Matos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study it was to analyze the possibility of the economic group file a single request for judicial reorganization. Concerning the methodology, the study is a descriptive - analytic research, analyzing the legal doctrines and jurisprudence about the subject. It has been shown that the reorganization of groups, instead of separated companies may result benefits, as a company of the group can help to recover the others that are facing difficulties, but there is the possibility to create a negative incentive for the development of global business activity. It was concluded that the active joinder in bankruptcy is feasible, but it would be more prudent for each group company present its own reorganization  plan.

  19. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  20. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  1. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  2. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  3. Total, partial and differential ionization cross sections in proton-hydrogen collisions at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Shiyang [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, School of Mathematical and Physical Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Pichl, Lukas [University of Aizu, Foundation of Computer Science Laboratory, Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Kimura, Mineo [Yamaguchi Univ., Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kato, Takako [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Single-differential, partial and total ionization cross sections for the proton-hydrogen collision system at low energy range (0.1-10 keV/amu) are determined by using the electron translation factor corrected molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Full convergence of ionization cross sections as a function of H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular basis size is achieved by including up to 10 bound states, and 11 continuum partial waves. The present cross sections are in an excellent agreement with the recent experiments of Shah et al., but decrease more rapidly than the cross sections measured by Pieksma et al. with decreasing energy. The calculated cross section data are included in this report. (author)

  4. Determination of the total neutron cross section using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.

  5. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194

  6. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  7. Solar total energy: large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia Site. Annual report, June 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, E.J.

    1979-07-01

    A background summary and a complete description of the progress and current status of activities relative to the Cooperative Agreement for the Solar Total Energy - Large Scale Experiment at the Bleyle Knitwear Plant at Shenandoah, Georgia are presented. A statement of objectives and an abstract of progress to date are included. This is followed by a short introduction containing a project overview, a summary of the participants and their respective roles, a brief description of the Solar Total Energy System (STES) design concept, and a chronological summary of progress to date. A general description of the site is given, a detailed report of progress is reported, and drawings and equipment lists are included. The closed-loop solar energy system planned for Shenandoah begins with circulation of Syltherm 800, a heat transfer fluid of the Dow-Corning Corporation, through the receiver tubes of a parabolic dish solar collector field. As solar energy is focused on the receivers, the heat transfer fluid is heated to approximately 399/sup 0/C (750/sup 0/F) and is pumped to a heat exchanger for immediate use, or to a thermal storage system for later use. Once in the heat exchanger, the fluid heats a working fluid that produces the steam required for operating the turbine. After performing this task, the heat transfer fluid returns to the collectors to repeat the cycle, while the steam turbine-generator system supplies the electrical demands for the knitwear plant and the STES. During STES operation, maximum thermal and electrical requirements of the application are expected to be at 1.08 MWth and 161 kWe, respectively. During the power generation phase, some of the steam is extracted for use as process steam in the knitwear manufacturing process, while exhaust steam from the turbine is passed through a condenser to produce hot water for heating, domestic use, and absorption air conditioning. (WHK)

  8. Analytic properties of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation and the total energy of atomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Senatore, G.

    1985-06-01

    The analytic properties of solutions of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation which tend to zero at infinity are first examined, the neutral atom solution being a member of this class. A new length is shown to enter the theory, proportional to the square root of the fine structure constant. This information is used to develop a perturbation expansion around the neutral atom solution, corresponding to positive atomic ions with finite but large radii. The limiting law relating ionic radius to the degree of ionization is thereby displayed in functional form, and solved explicitly to lowest order in the fine structure constant. To embrace this knowledge of heavy positive ions, as well as results from the one-electron Dirac equation, a proposal is then advanced as to the analytic form of the relativistic total energy E(Z,N) of an atomic ion with nuclear charge Ze and total number of electrons N. The fact that, for N>1, the nucleus is known only to bind Z+n electrons, where n is 1 or 2, indicates non-analyticity in the complex Z plane, represented by a circle of radius Z approx.= N. Such non-analyticity is also a property of the non-relativistic energy derived from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. The relativistic theory, however, must also embody a second type of non-analyticity associated with the known property for N=1 that the Dirac equation predicts electron-positron pair production when the electronic binding energy becomes equal to twice the electron rest mass energy. This corresponds to a second circle of non-analyticity in E(Z,N), and hence to a Taylor-Laurent expansion of this quantity in the atomic number Z. The relation of this expansion to the Layzer-Bahcall series is finally discussed. (author)

  9. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  10. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  11. Robust total energy demand estimation with a hybrid Variable Neighborhood Search – Extreme Learning Machine algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Oro, J.; Duarte, A.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The total energy demand in Spain is estimated with a Variable Neighborhood algorithm. • Socio-economic variables are used, and one year ahead prediction horizon is considered. • Improvement of the prediction with an Extreme Learning Machine network is considered. • Experiments are carried out in real data for the case of Spain. - Abstract: Energy demand prediction is an important problem whose solution is evaluated by policy makers in order to take key decisions affecting the economy of a country. A number of previous approaches to improve the quality of this estimation have been proposed in the last decade, the majority of them applying different machine learning techniques. In this paper, the performance of a robust hybrid approach, composed of a Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm and a new class of neural network called Extreme Learning Machine, is discussed. The Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm is focused on obtaining the most relevant features among the set of initial ones, by including an exponential prediction model. While previous approaches consider that the number of macroeconomic variables used for prediction is a parameter of the algorithm (i.e., it is fixed a priori), the proposed Variable Neighborhood Search method optimizes both: the number of variables and the best ones. After this first step of feature selection, an Extreme Learning Machine network is applied to obtain the final energy demand prediction. Experiments in a real case of energy demand estimation in Spain show the excellent performance of the proposed approach. In particular, the whole method obtains an estimation of the energy demand with an error lower than 2%, even when considering the crisis years, which are a real challenge.

  12. Test of the universal rise of hadronic total cross sections at super-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the total cross sections at very high energies described by log 2 (s/s 0 ) appears to be confirmed. In the analysis of the COMPETE collaboration in the Particle Data Group (2006), the Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) was assumed to extend the universal rise of all the total hadronic cross sections to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. We test if the assumption on the universality of B is justified, through investigation of the values of B for π ± p(K ± p) and pp,pp scatterings. We search for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, using a constraint from the FESR of the P' type for π -+ p scatterings and constraints that are free from the unphysical regions for the pp, pp and K ± p scatterings. By including rich information of the low-energy scattering data owing to the use of FESR, the errors of the B parameters decrease especially for πp. The resulting value of B pp is consistent with B πp within two standard deviations, which appears to support the universality hypothesis. (orig.)

  13. Relativistic analysis of the dielectric Einstein box: Abraham, Minkowski and total energy-momentum tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Tomas; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The definition of the momentum of light inside matter is studied. → Fully relativistic analysis of the dielectric 'Einstein box' thought experiment. → Minkowski, Abraham and the total energy-momentum tensors are derived in detail. → Some assumptions hidden in the usual Einstein box argument are identified. → The Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case. - Abstract: We analyse the 'Einstein box' thought experiment and the definition of the momentum of light inside matter. We stress the importance of the total energy-momentum tensor of the closed system (electromagnetic field plus material medium) and derive in detail the relativistic expressions for the Abraham and Minkowski momenta, together with the corresponding balance equations for an isotropic and homogeneous medium. We identify some assumptions hidden in the Einstein box argument, which make it weaker than it is usually recognized. In particular, we show that the Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case.

  14. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  15. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2

  16. Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Manero, F.

    1996-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  18. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  19. Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM tm) Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Phillip R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) has completed the sponsored project entitled, Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM) Curriculum. The project involved the development of a structured professional development program to improve the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies of engineers and operators of commercial buildings. TE2AM advances a radically different approach to commercial building design, operation, maintenance, and end of life disposition. By employing asset management principles to the lifecycle of a commercial building, owners and occupants will realize improved building performance, reduced energy consumption and positive environmental impacts. Through our commercialization plan, we intend to offer TE2AM courses and certificates to the professional community and continuously improve TE2AM course materials. The TE2AM project supports the DOE Strategic Theme 1 Energy Security; and will further advance the DOE Strategic Goal 1.4 Energy Productivity. Through participation in the TE2AM curriculum, engineers and operators of commercial buildings will be eligible for a professional certificate; denoting the completion of a prescribed series of learning activities. The project involved a comprehensive, rigorous approach to curriculum development, and accomplished the following goals: 1. Identify, analyze and prioritize key learning needs of engineers, architects and technical professionals as operators of commercial buildings. 2. Design and develop TE2AM curricula and instructional strategies to meet learning needs of the target learning community. 3. Establish partnerships with the sponsor and key stakeholders to enhance the development and delivery of learning programs. 4. Successfully commercialize and sustain the training and certificate programs for a substantial time following the term of the award. The project team was successful in achieving the goals and

  20. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  1. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The current most important solar energy utilization fields are solar energy power generation (solar heat and photovoltaic power generation), and solar heat cooling and heating. A solar heat power system collects or stores solar thermal energy as energy source of power systems, and converts it to electric power through heat exchange systems. To establish such system, not only R and D on a collector, absorption capsule, storage unit and heat transfer unit, but also complete study on an optimum system configuration and environmental impact are necessary. A photovoltaic power system converts solar energy to electric power directly by photoelectric conversion device such solar cell. Except specific local uses, drastic cost reduction and improvement of a conversion efficiency (at present 12-15%) and life (several years) are necessary for solar cells. Although a lot of solar heat cooling and heating systems is in practical use in Japan, for its further diffusion an important research task is development of heat collector excellent in efficiency, cost, life and maintainability. (NEDO)

  2. Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total energy of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J E; Sterne, P A

    2004-01-01

    We develop expressions for the electrostatic potential and total energy of crystalline solids which are amenable to direct evaluation in real space. Unlike conventional reciprocal space formulations, no Fourier transforms or reciprocal lattice summations are required, and the formulation is well suited for large-scale, parallel computations. The need for reciprocal space expressions is eliminated by replacing long-range potentials by equivalent localized charge distributions and incorporating long-range interactions into boundary conditions on the unit cell. In so doing, a simplification of the conventional reciprocal space formalism is obtained. The equivalence of the real- and reciprocal space formalisms is demonstrated by direct comparison in self-consistent density-functional calculations

  3. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Transcutaneous Energy Transmission Systemfor Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Koshiji, Kohji

    Transcutaneous Energy Transmission (TET) is one way of providing the energy needed to power a totally implantable artificial heart (TIAH). In the present study, an externally coupled TET system was implanted in a prototype human phantom to evaluate emission and immunity. In the emission evaluation, measurements were conducted based on CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871 standards, while immunity tests were based on the standards of the IEC 61000-4 series. The magnetic field of the radiated emission was measured using a loop antenna. At 0.1[MHz], we found the greatest magnetic field of 47.8 [dBμA/m], somewhat less than CISPR’s upper limit of 54 [dBμA/m]. For the conducted emission, by installing a noise filter and ferrite beads in the input section of the DC-power supply, conducted emission could be kept within the allowable limits of CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871. Finally, the immunity tests against radiated and conducted emission, electrostatic discharge and voltage fluctuation proved that the prototype could withstand the maximum level of disturbance. These results confirmed that the TET system implanted in a human phantom could, through modification, meet the emission and immunity standards.

  5. Classical calculation of the total ionization energy of helium-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum mechanics rejects the classical modelling of microworld. One of the reasons is that the Bohr's rules can not be applied for many-electron atoms and molecules. But the many-body problem in classical mechanics has no analytical solution even for 3 particles. Numerical solutions should be used. The quantum Bohr's rule expressing the moment of momentum conservation for two particles is invalid in more complicated cases. Yet Bohr reached some success for helium-like atoms. The Bohr's formula concerning helim-like atoms is deduced again in this paper and its practical reliability is analyzed with contemporary data. The binding energy of the system is obtained in the simple form E=(Z-1/4) 2 α 2 mc 2 , where Z is the atomic number, α - the fine structure constant, M - the electron mass and c - the light speed in vacuum. The calculated values are compared with experimental data on the total ionization energy of the helium-like atoms from 2 He 4 to 29 Cu 64 . The error decreases quickly with the increasing of atomic mass, reaching zero for Cu. This indicated that the main source of error is the nucleus motion. The role of other possible causes is analyzed and proves negligible. (author). 1 tab, 4 refs

  6. Single- and dual energy QCT around acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty using 3-dimensional segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    of segmentation software and to compare bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in single- and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT) Materials and Methods: 24 male patients with total hip arthroplasty (12 cemented and 12 uncemented) were scanned and rescanned using SECT and virtual monochromatic DECT images. 3D- ROIs......Background: Bone density measurements around hip implants are challenged by artifacts and the complex anatomy of the acetabulum. We developed 3D segmentation software and used dual energy CT to reduce artifacts. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the between-scan agreement and reliability...... the cemented cup the mean BMD for SECT was 523 mg/ccm with a between-scan difference of 14 mg/ccm, p=0.25 and 186 mg/ccm in DECT with a difference of 6 mg/ccm, p=0.15. ICC was >0.95 with more narrow limits of agreement in DECT compared with SECT. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was 25% higher with DECT...

  7. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  8. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  9. Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.

    1993-11-01

    The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section dσ el /dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d 2 σ sd /dM 2 dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies √s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 ± 0.58 (16.98 ± 0.25) GeV -2 at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + ρ 2 )σ T is measured to be 62.64 ± 0.95 (81.83 ± 2.29) mb at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming ρ = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are σ el = 12.87 ± 0.30, σ T = 61.26 ± 0.93 and σ sd = 7.89 ± 0.33 mb (σ el = 19.70 ± 0.85, σ T = 80.03 ± 2.24 and σ sd = 9.46 ± 0.44 mb) at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV

  10. An energy harvesting converter to power sensorized total human knee prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, V; Sardini, E; Serpelloni, M; Baronio, G

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the internal loads acting in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) is fundamental aspect to improve their design. One of the main benefits of this improvement is the longer duration of the tibial inserts. In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvesting system, which is implantable in a TKP, is presented. This is conceived for powering a future implantable system that is able to monitor the loads (and, possibly, other parameters) that could influence the working conditions of a TKP in real-time. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, positioned into each condyle, and a coil that is placed in a pin of the tibial insert and connected to an implantable power management circuit. The magnetic flux variation and the induced voltage are generated by the knee's motion. A TKP prototype has been realized in order to reproduce the knee mechanics and to test the EHS performance. In the present work, the experimental results are obtained by adopting a resistive load of 2.2 kΩ, in order to simulate a real implanted autonomous system with a current consumption of 850 µA and voltage of 2 V. The tests showed that, after 7 to 30 s of walking with a gait cycle frequency of about 1.0 Hz, the EHS can generate an energy of about 70 μJ, guaranteeing a voltage between 2 and 1.4 V every 7.6 s. With this prototype we can verify that it is possible to power for 16 ms a circuit having a power consumption of 1.7 mW every 7.6 s. The proposed generator is a viable solution to power an implanted electronic system that is conceived for measuring and transmitting the TKP load parameters. (paper)

  11. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masanari; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Sakanaka, Junya; Nakamura, Masamichi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2011-01-01

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  12. Holistic virtual machine scheduling in cloud datacenters towards minimizing total energy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Garraghan, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumed by Cloud datacenters has dramatically increased, driven by rapid uptake of applications and services globally provisioned through virtualization. By applying energy-aware virtual machine scheduling, Cloud providers are able to achieve enhanced energy efficiency and reduced operation cost. Energy consumption of datacenters consists of computing energy and cooling energy. However, due to the complexity of energy and thermal modeling of realistic Cloud datacenter operation, tradi...

  13. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  14. Thermo-optically induced reorganizations in the main light harvesting antenna of plants. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Varkonyi, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the circular dichroism spectral transients associated with the light-induced reversible reorganizations in chirally organized macrodomains of pea thylakoid membranes and loosely stacked lamellar aggregates of the main chlorophyll a/b light harvesting complexes (LHCII) isolated...... from the same membranes. These reorganizations have earlier been assigned to originate from a thermo-optic effect. According to the thermo-optic mechanism, fast local thermal transients due to dissipation of the excess excitation energy induce elementary structural changes in the close vicinity...

  15. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  16. Reorganization of Dentate Gyrus Microcircuits During Epileptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ryan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a form of acquired epilepsy characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. TLE often develops following a precipitating neurological insult, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, prolonged febrile seizures or status epilepticus. These insults can initiate a constellation of genetic, functional, network and systems level reorganization that transforms a normal non-epileptic brain into one capable of generating recurrent and unprovoked seizures....

  17. The excitatory/inhibitory input to orexin/hypocretin neuron soma undergoes day/night reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperchia, Claudia; Imperatore, Roberta; Azeez, Idris A; Del Gallo, Federico; Bertini, Giuseppe; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Cristino, Luigia; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Orexin (OX)/hypocretin-containing neurons are main regulators of wakefulness stability, arousal, and energy homeostasis. Their activity varies in relation to the animal's behavioral state. We here tested whether such variation is subserved by synaptic plasticity phenomena in basal conditions. Mice were sacrificed during day or night, at times when sleep or wake, respectively, predominates, as assessed by electroencephalography in matched mice. Triple immunofluorescence was used to visualize OX-A perikarya and varicosities containing the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)2 or the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) combined with synaptophysin (Syn) as a presynaptic marker. Appositions on OX-A + somata were quantitatively analyzed in pairs of sections in epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. The combined total number of glutamatergic (Syn + /VGluT2 + ) and GABAergic (Syn + /VGAT + ) varicosities apposed to OX-A somata was similar during day and night. However, glutamatergic varicosities were significantly more numerous at night, whereas GABAergic varicosities prevailed in the day. Triple immunofluorescence in confocal microscopy was employed to visualize synapse scaffold proteins as postsynaptic markers and confirmed the nighttime prevalence of VGluT2 + together with postsynaptic density protein 95 + excitatory contacts, and daytime prevalence of VGAT + together with gephyrin + inhibitory contacts, while also showing that they formed synapses on OX-A + cell bodies. The findings reveal a daily reorganization of axosomatic synapses in orexinergic neurons, with a switch from a prevalence of excitatory innervation at a time corresponding to wakefulness to a prevalence of inhibitory innervations in the antiphase, at a time corresponding to sleep. This reorganization could represent a key mechanism of plasticity of the orexinergic network in basal conditions.

  18. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For every solar energy utilization field, its background, feasibility, impact in practical use, and R and D policy in Japan were studied. Heating and hot water supply by solar energy are already practical because of less technical problems and reasonable profitability, and cooling is also practical as far as a technical viewpoint. At present, the technical level of solar heat power generation is in the stage of basic technology, however, in the future, development of economically reasonable systems will be demanded as well as establishment of its technology. The most difficult problem for realizing practical solar cell power generation systems is cost reduction. It is also another problem that a big demand of Si for solar cells further exceeds the current yield of Si in a semiconductor industry. A small-scale hybrid solar cell power generation system applicable to the roof of general residences is already feasible. Although a solar furnace is still poor in application to industrial fields, it is expected as the leading part for a future solar heat chemical industry. (NEDO)

  19. A gauge-invariant reorganization of thermal gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Nan

    2010-07-01

    This dissertation is devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum gauge theories. The poor convergence of quantum field theory at finite temperature has been the main obstacle in the practical applications of thermal QCD for decades. In this dissertation I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to the thermodynamics of QED and Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order. For the Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of electrons and photons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T, m{sub f}/T and e{sup 2}, where m{sub D} and m{sub f} are the photon and electron thermal masses, respectively, and e is the coupling constant. I demonstrate that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e {proportional_to} 2. For the non-Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of gluons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T and g{sup 2}, where m{sub D} is the gluon thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. I show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T {proportional_to} 2 - 3 T{sub c}. The results suggest that HTLpt provides a systematic framework that can be used to calculate static and dynamic quantities for temperatures relevant at LHC. (orig.)

  20. A gauge-invariant reorganization of thermal gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Nan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum gauge theories. The poor convergence of quantum field theory at finite temperature has been the main obstacle in the practical applications of thermal QCD for decades. In this dissertation I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to the thermodynamics of QED and Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order. For the Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of electrons and photons by expanding in a power series in m D /T, m f /T and e 2 , where m D and m f are the photon and electron thermal masses, respectively, and e is the coupling constant. I demonstrate that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e ∝ 2. For the non-Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of gluons by expanding in a power series in m D /T and g 2 , where m D is the gluon thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. I show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T ∝ 2 - 3 T c . The results suggest that HTLpt provides a systematic framework that can be used to calculate static and dynamic quantities for temperatures relevant at LHC. (orig.)

  1. Projection potentials and angular momentum convergence of total energies in the full-potential Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Although the full-potential Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker Green function method yields accurate results for many physical properties, the convergence of calculated total energies with respect to the angular momentum cutoff is usually considered to be less satisfactory. This is surprising because accurate single-particle energies are expected if they are calculated by Lloyd’s formula and because accurate densities and hence accurate double-counting energies should result from the total energy variational principle. It is shown how the concept of projection potentials can be used as a tool to analyse the convergence behaviour. The key factor blocking fast convergence is identified and it is illustrated how total energies can be improved with only a modest increase of computing time. (paper)

  2. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Total β-decay energies and atomic masses in regions far from β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is a summary of experimental investigations on total β-decay energies and deduced atomic masses of nuclei far from the region of β-stability. The Qsub(β) values are given for isotopes of Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Rb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Fr, Ra and Ac, with β-unstable nuclei. These unstable nuclei have very short half-lives, often below 10s, and the experimental techniques for the production, separation and collection of these short-lived nuclei are described. Neutron deficient nuclides were produced by spallation, in the ISOLDE facility, and neutron deficient nuclides were produced by thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U in the OSIRIS facility. β-spectra were recorded using an Si(Li)-detector and a coincidence system. Qsub(β) values obtained from mass formulae have been compared with experimental values obtained in different mass regions and a comparison made between results obtained from different droplet mass formulae. (B.D.)

  5. A Gaussian quadrature method for total energy analysis in electronic state calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika

    This article reports studies by Fukushima and coworkers since 1980 concerning their highly accurate numerical integral method using Gaussian quadratures to evaluate the total energy in electronic state calculations. Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Laguerre quadratures were used for integrals in the finite and infinite regions, respectively. Our previous article showed that, for diatomic molecules such as CO and FeO, elliptic coordinates efficiently achieved high numerical integral accuracy even with a numerical basis set including transition metal atomic orbitals. This article will generalize straightforward details for multiatomic systems with direct integrals in each decomposed elliptic coordinate determined from the nuclear positions of picked-up atom pairs. Sample calculations were performed for the molecules O3 and H2O. This article will also try to present, in another coordinate, a numerical integral by partially using the Becke's decomposition published in 1988, but without the Becke's fuzzy cell generated by the polynomials of internuclear distance between the pair atoms. Instead, simple nuclear weights comprising exponential functions around nuclei are used. The one-center integral is performed with a Gaussian quadrature pack in a spherical coordinate, included in the author's original program in around 1980. As for this decomposition into one-center integrals, sample calculations are carried out for Li2.

  6. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  7. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  8. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  9. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirazita, M.

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  10. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  11. Absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar8+ on Ar as a function of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar 8+ on Ar were measured as a function of projectile laboratory energy from 0.090 to 0.550 keV/amu. The effective one electron transfer cross section dominates above 0.32 keV/amu, while below this energy, the effective two electron transfer starts to become appreciable. The total cross section varies by a factor over the energy range explored. The overall error in the cross section measurement is estimated to be ± 15%

  12. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  13. Optimization of Photospheric Electric Field Estimates for Accurate Retrieval of Total Magnetic Energy Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumme, E.; Pomoell, J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the photospheric magnetic, electric, and plasma velocity fields are essential for studying the dynamics of the solar atmosphere, for example through the derivative quantities of Poynting and relative helicity flux and using the fields to obtain the lower boundary condition for data-driven coronal simulations. In this paper we study the performance of a data processing and electric field inversion approach that requires only high-resolution and high-cadence line-of-sight or vector magnetograms, which we obtain from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The approach does not require any photospheric velocity estimates, and the lacking velocity information is compensated for using ad hoc assumptions. We show that the free parameters of these assumptions can be optimized to reproduce the time evolution of the total magnetic energy injection through the photosphere in NOAA AR 11158, when compared to recent state-of-the-art estimates for this active region. However, we find that the relative magnetic helicity injection is reproduced poorly, reaching at best a modest underestimation. We also discuss the effect of some of the data processing details on the results, including the masking of the noise-dominated pixels and the tracking method of the active region, neither of which has received much attention in the literature so far. In most cases the effect of these details is small, but when the optimization of the free parameters of the ad hoc assumptions is considered, a consistent use of the noise mask is required. The results found in this paper imply that the data processing and electric field inversion approach that uses only the photospheric magnetic field information offers a flexible and straightforward way to obtain photospheric magnetic and electric field estimates suitable for practical applications such as coronal modeling studies.

  14. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  15. Changes in Allostatic Load during workplace reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Blønd, Morten; Netterstrøm, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Allostatic Load (AL) represents the strain on the body produced by repeated physiologic or allostatic responses activated during stressful situations. Several cross-sectional studies have found empirical substantiation for the relationship between impaired psychosocial work environment and high AL. The aim of this longitudinal study is to investigate changes in AL during workplace reorganization that has been shown to cause impaired psychosocial work environment. Moreover, we aim to investigate the association between changes in AL and changes in psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance) and psychological distress (stress symptoms and perceived stress). A major reorganization of non-state public offices was effectuated in Denmark on 1 January 2007. In 2006 and 2008, we collected clinical and questionnaire data from 359 participants, 265 women and 94 men, employed in seven municipality or county administrations. Four municipalities and one county merged with others, while one municipality and one county remained unmerged. We calculated the AL score based on 13 physiological markers reflecting stress responses of the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems. We analysed changes in AL from 2006 to 2008. AL increased significantly during workplace reorganization in the whole study group but we observed only a tendency of significant increase in AL in the merger group compared with the control group. Moreover, we observed no association between the changes in AL and changes in psychosocial work environment and psychological distress. This result leaves the conclusion unclear but contributes to the limited research in this area with a longitudinal design and focus on low-risk levels and small changes in AL in healthy people as predictor of future disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The IDC-thesaurus and its reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senf, W.

    1979-04-01

    Final report on the IDC-Thesaurus and its reorganization. The Thesaurus set up for documentation of chemistry and its borderline areas is built up of concept sets. These concept sets unite all synonyms and are linked by concept relations reflecting the hierarchical structure of the Thesaurus. Analysis of the polyhierarchy of the Thesaurus. Composite concepts are subdivided into their broader terms of the abstraction system. These concepts as well as words with different spelling are transferred from the retrieval Thesaurus to a Thesaurus dictionary from which a file is set up for correcting the complete documentation file. (orig.) 891 WB 892 MB [de

  17. Changes in Allostatic Load during workplace reorganization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt

    2017-01-01

    , effort-reward imbalance) and psychological distress (stress symptoms and perceived stress). Methods A major reorganization of non-state public offices was effectuated in Denmark on 1 January 2007. In 2006 and 2008, we collected clinical and questionnaire data from 359 participants, 265 women and 94 men...... between the changes in AL and changes in psychosocial work environment and psychological distress. Conclusions This result leaves the conclusion unclear but contributes to the limited research in this area with a longitudinal design and focus on low-risk levels and small changes in AL in healthy people...

  18. 76 FR 71919 - Corporate Reorganizations; Allocation of Basis in “All Cash D” Reorganizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... issuing temporary regulations that provide guidance regarding the determination of the basis of stock or securities in a reorganization where no stock or securities of the issuing corporation is issued and... the share of stock of the issuing corporation to which the basis, if any, of the stock or securities...

  19. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Studies on a hydrogen energy total system; 1978 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Analysis was made on timing, patterns and scales of introducing hydrogen energy into the Japan's total energy system, and case studies were made on transfer of the comprehensive systems that can be realized in the years of 1985, 2000 and 2025. The basic conception for the analytic method employed a method to analyze and present theoretically the conditions in which prerequisites or results of the estimation can be established, rather than intending elucidation of the estimation itself. An energy model was used for the theoretical means thereof. The objective function to be optimized was assumed to maximize (estimate over the planned period of time) the total effectiveness of the hydrogen energy system converted into the present value being given appropriate discount. The economic performance measures for different secondary energies working as the comparison measures are the limiting production cost of each energy. A consideration was given to the point that the electrolytic hydrogen cannot compete with that made by using the thermo-chemical method (if developed successfully) using heat from high-temperature gas reactor if the fossil fuel price rises sharply. Considerations are also required in replaceability of hydrogen energy with other energies, and hydrogen utilization in petroleum refining. (NEDO)

  20. Energy supply scenarios and sustainable development: A total view on economy and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Sustainable development' is the guiding principle of the ecological, economic and development policy debate. Although the guiding principle of 'sustainable development' meets with unanimous approval as a general rule, there is a broad spectrum of views and interpretations of this guiding principle in terms of its normative and theoretical scientific basis as well as with regard to the aims and line of action to be taken. This applies especially to the energy sector. This lecture endeavours to concretise the guiding principle of 'sustainable development' for the energy sector, or to put in more exact terms, for the sector providing energy services. Major options for the supply of energy are classified and evaluated in terms of their importance for the sustainable provision of energy based on the results of a comprehensive review of materials and different types of energy. (orig.) [de

  1. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  2. Homeland Security: Scope of the Secretary's Reorganization Authority

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    ...). Section 872 of the Homeland Security Act gives the Secretary of Homeland Security the authority to reorganize "functions" and "organizational units" within the Department either independently, 60...

  3. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    A numerical model was prepared to express fields and size of hydrogen energy introduction in Japan's energy systems in the future. Dividing Japan into 13 weather sections, one to two energy bases (import and secondary production bases in coastal areas) were assumed on each section. Secondary energies produced in these energy bases are transported to intermediate bases, from which the energies are distributed into cities and consumed. For the purpose of simplification, final consumption departments are hypothesized to exist in these intermediate bases. Parameters that characterize the flows on networks in the processes of supply, distribution, production, storage, transportation and utilization are divided largely into energy efficiency and cost of the processes. The amount of energy demand in each final consumption department was defined as an amount to maximize the expected effects as a result of having satisfied the demand. The result of trial calculations revealed that, as long as the hydrogen to be introduced is limited to hydrogen produced via electrolysis using thermally generated power, the hydrogen introduction into the future energy systems is difficult in terms of economic performance. (NEDO)

  4. Total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle of low-energy photons reflected from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Srpko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle for water and initial photon energy range from 20 keV to 100 keV are presented in this pa per. A water shield in the form of a thick, homogenous plate and per pendicular incidence of the monoenergetic photon beam are assumed. The results were obtained through Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by means of the MCNP computer code. Calculated values for the total number albedo were compared with data previously published and good agreement was confirmed. The dependence of the average cosine of the polar angle on energy is studied in detail. It has been found that the total average cosine of the polar angle has values in the narrow interval of 0.66-0.67, approximately corresponding to the reflection angle of 48°, and that it does not depend on the initial photon energy.

  5. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  6. Local functional derivative of the total energy and the shell structure in atoms and molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, R.; Markvoort, Albert. J.; Santen, van R.A.; Hilbers, P.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The full and local Thomas–Fermi–Dirac energy functional derivatives are evaluated at Hartree–Fock densities for several atoms and molecules. These functions are interpreted as local chemical potentials and related mainly to kinetic energy functional derivatives. They are able to reveal the shell

  7. Total neutron cross sections at energies around 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Romero, J.L.; Martens, P.

    1990-09-01

    The results for measurements of total cross sections on C, Al, Mg, Cu, Ge and Pb at 17.6 and 19.8 MeV are reported. A detailed comparison is presented with previous data and with the global optical model by the Ohio group. We also discuss plans for total non elastic cross section measurements. 31 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1981 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this research, studies are conducted relative to the time point, form, and magnitude of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's total energy system. The research aims to construct a hydrogen energy total system consisting of hydrogen energy subsystems to be available in the future and to clearly define the stage at which transfer to the target system will be carried out. In the research for fiscal 1981, studies continue about the feasibility of hydrogen as automobile and aviation fuels and as a material for use in chemical engineering, about conversion into each other of hydrogen and various synthetic fuels and electric power with which hydrogen will have to compete in the domain into which it will be supplied, and about technologies of their utilization for comparison between such energies in the search for their interchangeability. Surveys are conducted on technical data about local energies. The Yakushima island is chosen, for instance, and a conceptual hydrogen energy base is constructed there and the cost for the construction is estimated. At the last part, the feasibility of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's energy system in the future is discussed for assessment. (NEDO)

  9. Total β-decay energies and masses of tin, antimony and tellurium isotopes in the vicinity of 50132Sn82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Rudstam, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental β-decay energies for short-lived isotopes of tin, antimony and tellurium are presented. Mass-separated sources were produced at the on-line isotope separator OSIRIS. By applying β-γ coincidence methods, total β-decay energies have been determined for the following nuclides: 127-131 Sn, 128 130 131 134 Sb and 134 135 Te. The atomic mass excess has been derived for these nuclei, and comparisons are made with mass formula predictions. (Auth.)

  10. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  11. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Chiari, L. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Buckman, S. J., E-mail: Stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ingolfsson, O. [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107 (Iceland)

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  12. The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linse, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature

  13. Wannier-function-based constrained DFT with nonorthogonality-correcting Pulay forces in application to the reorganization effects in graphene-adsorbed pentacene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Subhayan; O'Regan, David D.; Sanvito, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Pulay terms arise in the Hellmann-Feynman forces in electronic-structure calculations when one employs a basis set made of localized orbitals that move with their host atoms. If the total energy of the system depends on a subspace population defined in terms of the localized orbitals across multiple atoms, then unconventional Pulay terms will emerge due to the variation of the orbital nonorthogonality with ionic translation. Here, we derive the required exact expressions for such terms, which cannot be eliminated by orbital orthonormalization. We have implemented these corrected ionic forces within the linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) package onetep, and we have used constrained DFT to calculate the reorganization energy of a pentacene molecule adsorbed on a graphene flake. The calculations are performed by including ensemble DFT, corrections for periodic boundary conditions, and empirical Van der Waals interactions. For this system we find that tensorially invariant population analysis yields an adsorbate subspace population that is very close to integer-valued when based upon nonorthogonal Wannier functions, and also but less precisely so when using pseudoatomic functions. Thus, orbitals can provide a very effective population analysis for constrained DFT. Our calculations show that the reorganization energy of the adsorbed pentacene is typically lower than that of pentacene in the gas phase. We attribute this effect to steric hindrance.

  14. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  15. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  17. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt; Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Aumann, Thomas; Casarejos, Enrique; Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme; Heinz, Andreas; Jurado, Beatriz; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  18. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric [CEA DAM Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Arpajon (France); Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent [CNRS/IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay (France); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, Enrique [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Heinz, Andreas [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurado, Beatriz [CNRS/IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France); Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Cortical Reorganization in Dual Innervation by Single Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mou-Xiong; Shen, Yun-Dong; Hua, Xu-Yun; Hou, Ao-Lin; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2017-09-21

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and repair is related with cortical reorganization. However, the mechanism of innervating dual targets by 1 donor nerve is largely unknown. To investigate the cortical reorganization when the phrenic nerve simultaneously innervates the diaphragm and biceps. Total brachial plexus (C5-T1) injury rats were repaired by phrenic nerve-musculocutaneous nerve transfer with end-to-side (n = 15) or end-to-end (n = 15) neurorrhaphy. Brachial plexus avulsion (n = 5) and sham surgery (n = 5) rats were included for control. Behavioral observation, electromyography, and histologic studies were used for confirming peripheral nerve reinnervation. Cortical representations of the diaphragm and reinnervated biceps were studied by intracortical microstimulation techniques before and at months 0.5, 3, 5, 7, and 10 after surgery. At month 0.5 after complete brachial plexus injury, the motor representation of the injured forelimb disappeared. The diaphragm representation was preserved in the "end-to-side" group but absent in the "end-to-end" group. Rhythmic contraction of biceps appeared in "end-to-end" and "end-to-side" groups, and the biceps representation reappeared in the original biceps and diaphragm areas at months 3 and 5. At month 10, it was completely located in the original biceps area in the "end-to-end" group. Part of the biceps representation remained in the original diaphragm area in the "end-to-side" group. Destroying the contralateral motor cortex did not eliminate respiration-related contraction of biceps. The brain tends to resume biceps representation from the original diaphragm area to the original biceps area following phrenic nerve transfer. The original diaphragm area partly preserves reinnervated biceps representation after end-to-side transfer. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  20. Rotational reorganization of doped cholesteric liquid crystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, R.; M. Pollard, M.; Katsonis, N.; Vicario, J.; J. Broer, D.; Feringa, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an unprecedented rotational reorganization of cholesteric liquid crystalline films is described. This rotational reorganization results from the conversion of a chiral molecular motor dopant to an isomer with a different helical twisting power, leading to a change in the cholesteric

  1. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. CONCEPTS OF THE REORGANIZATION OF SERVICE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra DOBÁK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the literature based review of the developing of (logistificated business processes and their reorganizations are shown briefly. The research of the service processes is also actual in our time giving work to managers and researches alike. In the narrowing market the increasing competition and the dominance of customers is a warning to the companies to carry out continuous rationalization and reductions of costs in order to increase efficiency. In this essay we would like to show briefly how we started our research primarily concentrating on technical literatures. First of all we concentrate on the improvement assets of processes. We will show some major tendencies in the process of Business Process Amelioration (BPA evolution. The production focused approach of services can mean significant process improvement therefore it is a good analysis method of the process improvement.

  3. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  4. The state of the art in Japan's telecommunications energy systems - Strategy for Total Power Management -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroyama, Seiichi [NTT Power and Building Facilities Inc., Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The ''strategy for total power management (STPM)'' was developed for managing problems in relation to energy for multimedia services in a comprehensive manner from the viewpoints of risk, cost, and environment. To provide integrated services based on STPM, a DC power supply system, a highly reliable UPS, and a co-generation system have been developed. (orig.)

  5. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  6. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the heavy nuclei fission with anomalously high values of the fission fragments total kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryachkov, Vitaly; Goverdovskii, Andrei; Ketlerov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Vecheslav; Sergachev, Alexei

    2018-03-01

    Binary fission of 232Th and 238U induced by fast neutrons were under intent investigation in the IPPE during recent years. These measurements were performed with a twin ionization chamber with Frisch grids. Signals from the detector were digitized for further processing with a specially developed software. It results in information of kinetic energies, masses, directions and Bragg curves of registered fission fragments. Total statistics of a few million fission events were collected during each experiment. It was discovered that for several combinations of fission fragment masses their total kinetic energy was very close to total free energy of the fissioning system. The probability of such fission events for the fast neutron induced fission was found to be much higher than for spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. For experiments with 238U target the energy of incident neutrons were 5 MeV and 6.5 MeV. Close analysis of dependence of fission fragment distribution on compound nucleus excitation energy gave us some explanation of the phenomenon. It could be a process in highly excited compound nucleus which leads the fissioning system from the scission point into the fusion valley with high probability.

  8. A panel data parametric frontier technique for measuring total-factor energy efficiency: An application to Japanese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the stochastic frontier analysis model, we estimate TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) scores for 47 regions across Japan during the years 1996–2008. We extend the cross-sectional stochastic frontier model proposed by Zhou et al. (2012) to panel data models and add environmental variables. The results provide not only the TFEE scores, in which statistical noise is taken into account, but also the determinants of inefficiency. The three stochastic TFEE scores are compared with a TFEE score derived using data envelopment analysis. The four TFEE scores are highly correlated with one another. For the inefficiency estimates, higher manufacturing industry shares and wholesale and retail trade shares correspond to lower TFEE scores. - Highlights: • This study estimates total-factor energy efficiency of Japanese regions using the stochastic frontier analysis model. • Determinants of inefficiency are also estimated. • The higher the manufacturing share and wholesale and retail trade share, the lower the energy efficiency

  9. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Li, L.; Ott, L.L.; Kolgani, Rajeswari M.; Yong, G.J.; Ali, Z.A.; Drury, O.B.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with ∼10 12 photons per ∼200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within (1- x ) Sr x MnO 3 sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response

  10. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  11. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear energy is one of the clean options of electricity generation for the betterment of human life. India has an ambitious program for such electricity generation using different types of nuclear reactors. The safe and efficient generation of electricity from these reactors requires quality control of different nuclear materials, ...

  12. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  13. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  14. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  15. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  16. Research report of fiscal 1997. Study on total energy and material control (feasibility study on circulating society); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa (junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to construct real sustainable global environment and human society in the 21st century called the century of environment, not only the innovation of manufacturing processes technically supporting such the construction but also the conception including the innovation of the whole society from a wide viewpoint are essential. As a total energy and material control system (TEMCOS) concept, the view of an energy-saving circulating society is attempted which minimizes a total energy and material flow in Japan, and the role and issue of manufacturing industry, in particular, material industry are extracted. As one of the targets of such a concept, the conception of an eco-town is also described. Paying attention on some important material industries including a mass material flow and consuming a large amount of energy such as metal, plastics and automobile industries, the study result on a material flow for every industry is arranged, and some effective issues contributing to minimize a material flow and control energy consumption and CO2 emission are extracted. 80 refs., 67 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Structure determination of disordered organic molecules on surfaces from the Bragg spots of low-energy electron diffraction and total energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, H.C.; Weinert, M.; Saldin, D.K.; Stacchiola, D.; Zheng, T.; Tysoe, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    We show that an analysis of the intensity versus energy variation of Bragg spots due to low-energy electron diffraction from a disordered overlayer of molecules on a crystal surface allows a much more convenient method of determining the local adsorption geometries of such molecules than previously analyzed weak diffuse diffraction patterns. For the case of methanol on Pd(111), we show that the geometry determined by this means from experimental diffraction data is in excellent agreement with the predictions of density functional total energy calculations

  18. Harris functional and related methods for calculating total energies in density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, F.W.; Painter, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    The simplified energy functional of Harris has given results of useful accuracy for systems well outside the limits of weakly interacting fragments for which the method was originally proposed. In the present study, we discuss the source of the frequent good agreement of the Harris energy with full Kohn-Sham self-consistent results. A procedure is described for extending the applicability of the scheme to more strongly interacting systems by going beyond the frozen-atom fragment approximation. A gradient-force expression is derived, based on the Harris functional, which accounts for errors in the fragment charge representation. Results are presented for some diatomic molecules, illustrating the points of this study

  19. Current State and Future Perspectives of Energy Sources for Totally Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleszynski, Peter A; Luc, Jessica G Y; Schade, Peter; PhilLips, Steven J; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang

    There is a large population of patients with end-stage congestive heart failure who cannot be treated by means of conventional cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, or chronic catecholamine infusions. Implantable cardiac devices, many designated as destination therapy, have revolutionized patient care and outcomes, although infection and complications related to external power sources or routine battery exchange remain a substantial risk. Complications from repeat battery replacement, power failure, and infections ultimately endanger the original objectives of implantable biomedical device therapy - eliminating the intended patient autonomy, affecting patient quality of life and survival. We sought to review the limitations of current cardiac biomedical device energy sources and discuss the current state and trends of future potential energy sources in pursuit of a lifelong fully implantable biomedical device.

  20. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  1. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Third quarterly progress report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The application of Solar Total Energy System (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, etc.) in the United States is investigated. Candidate solar-thermal and solar-photovoltaic concepts are considered for providing on-site electrical power generation as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. The solar-thermal concepts include the use of solar concentrators (distributed or central-receiver) for collection of the thermal energy for conversion to electricity by means of a Rankine-cycle or Brayton-cycle power-conversion system. Recoverable waste heat from the power-generation process is utilized to help meet the building thermal-energy demand. Evaluation methodology is identified to allow ranking and/or selection of the most cost-effective concept for commercial-building applications.

  2. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents in fast-food products across ten countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-11-01

    Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data have linked the consumption of fast foods to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast-food items from five major chains across ten countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK. Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n 550) and fewest from the United Arab Emirates (n 106). There was considerable variability in energy and fat contents of fast foods across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197 kJ/100 g) and sandwiches (552-1050 kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat contents (g/100 g); for example, extreme variation in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets with 12 g total fat/100 g in Germany compared with 21·1 g/100 g in New Zealand. These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast-food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption.

  3. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1982 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    In this research on a hydrogen energy total system, studies are conducted on the plan of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base and on hydrogen as fuel for automobiles. It is estimated that the construction of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base will cost 7.125-billion yen in total. The sum includes 6.410-billion yen for the construction of a system on an island named Island A, 500-million yen for structures on an island named Island B, and 215-million yen for the construction of a marine transportation system between the two islands. Large shares will go to a hydroelectric power plant and a hydrogen liquefaction system, the two occupying approximately half of the total sum. In the study of hydrogen as fuel for automobiles, it is concluded that hydrogen is advantageously employed as fuel for automobiles. When comparison is made in terms of heat value, it is found that even a hydrogen engine which is a mere modification of a currently used engine is comparable to the currently used engine in terms of performance. As for abnormal combustion, a hydrogen/air 2-system injection method is contrived, and this solves the problem almost completely. Cryogenic hydrogen is advantageous in both NOx emission and heat efficiency though within certain limitations. From the viewpoint of safety, the recommended automobile fuel structural formula is GH{sub 2}(MH). (NEDO)

  5. The spectrum of protons produced in pp collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Data are reported on the distributions in longitudinal and transverse momentum of protons produced in the range 0.5energy at the CERN ISR. The invariant inelastic cross section shows a peak at high longitudinal momenta. The shape of this peak suggests substantial production of states with masses up to at least 7 GeV. (4 refs).

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with multiple total reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a total reflection XRF analyzer and the performance data of this instrument are described. The drastic reduction of the scattered radiation is the outstanding property of the method. Detection limits of elements and matrix effects are discussed. The competition with other methods of analysis has proven its advantages in a wide range. In addition to its multi-element features down to the picogram level, particularly its universal calibration function has turned out to be a great help in the analytical practice. (orig./RB)

  7. Low-dose dual-energy cone-beam CT using a total-variation minimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jong Hwan

    2011-02-01

    Dual-energy cone-beam CT is an important imaging modality in diagnostic applications, and may also find its use in other application such as therapeutic image guidance. Despite of its clinical values, relatively high radiation dose of dual-energy scan may pose a challenge to its wide use. In this work, we investigated a low-dose, pre-reconstruction type of dual-energy cone-beam CT (CBCT) using a total-variation minimization algorithm for image reconstruction. An empirical dual-energy calibration method was used to prepare material-specific projection data. Raw data at high and low tube voltages are converted into a set of basis functions which can be linearly combined to produce material-specific data using the coefficients obtained through the calibration process. From much fewer views than are conventionally used, material specific images are reconstructed by use of the total-variation minimization algorithm. An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method using a micro-CT system. We have reconstructed images of the phantoms from only 90 projections acquired at tube voltages of 40 kVp and 90 kVp each. Aluminum-only and acryl-only images were successfully decomposed. We evaluated the quality of the reconstructed images by use of contrast-to-noise ratio and detectability. A low-dose dual-energy CBCT can be realized via the proposed method by greatly reducing the number of projections

  8. The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Total Factor Energy Efficiency: A Cross-Region Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulations are the key measure by which governments achieve sustainable environmental and economic development. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect impacts of environmental regulations on total factor energy efficiency of regions in China. Since regions have different levels of economic development and resource endowment, we used the slacks-based measure (SBM-undesirable model to calculate total factor energy efficiency considering regional technology heterogeneity and examined the regional impacts of environmental regulation on this efficiency using the Tobit regression model. A positive direct impact was generated in the eastern region of China by the forced mechanism, which forced enterprises to reduce fossil fuel energy demand and increase clean energy consumption; whereas a negative direct impact was generated in the middle and western regions owing to the green paradox, which is the observation that expected stringent environmental regulation prompts energy owners to accelerate resource extraction. Moreover, indirect impacts through technological progress and foreign direct investment were taken into account in the model, and the results show that the indirect impacts vary across regions. A logical response to these findings would be to develop different policies for different regions.

  9. Manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the HIJING model, global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy scale. An interesting model prediction is the presence of a central bump over a pseudorapidity plateau of a total transverse energy distribution. The bump is induced by a jet quenching effect in a dense nuclear matter. It is shown that a wide acceptance calorimeter with a pseudorapidity coverage -5<η<5 allows one to obtain experimental confirmation of such an effect

  10. Evaluation of the total magnetospheric energy output parameter, U/sub T/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, R.D.; Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; Clauer, C.R.; McPherron, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last few years the relationship between U/sub T/, the magnetospheric energy consumption or output rate, and epsilon, a commonly used solar wind-magnetosphere energy input function, has been explored in some detail. Very high correlations between U/sub T/ and epsilon are found during periods of strong activity, and by using linear prediction filtering techniques a ''delta-function'' impulse response was found for filter elements representing essentially zero delay. In light of these remarkable results, the derivation of U/sub T/ for these intervals is re-examined. We find that U/sub T/ is dominated in each event interval by the term containing tau/sub R/, the ring current decay time, and that when tau/sub R/ is defined as a function of epsilon the ''delta-function'' impulse response is present. If a constant tau/sub R/ is assumed, the delta-function part of the filter disappears completely. Thus, this delta-function, which has been taken as being indicative of the directly driven component is an artifact of the earlier analysis, and it is due to the dependence of U/sub T/ on epsilon. Our results imply that until U/sub T/ can be derived independently from epsilon, these two quantities cannot be compared in a meaningful way, and that results obtained in previous studies are not valid

  11. Precise determination of total absorption coefficients for low-energy gamma-quanta with Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, T.; Statev, S.; Nejkov, Kh.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of determining the total absorption coefficient applying the Moessbauer effect is proposed. This method enables the accuracy of the measurement increase. The coefficient is measured with practically no background on using the recoilless part of gamma radiation obtained from the Moessbauer source with and without the sample between the source of the gamma-quanta and the detector. Moessbauer sources and absorbers with a single line and without an isomeric shift are used. The recoilless part of the radiation is obtained by the ''two point'' method as a difference between the numbers of photons corresponding to the stationary source and to the vibrating one with a big mean square velocity, respectively. In the concrete measurements the sources 57 Co and 119 Sn are used. The total absorption coefficient for different samples beginning with water up to plumbum is determined. The mean square error for the mean result in all measurements is less than the mean statistical error for the coefficient. The obtained experimental data give a much smaller deviation from the theoretical data of the last issue of the Stom-Israel Tables than the one expected by their authors

  12. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing Physical Activity and Brain Reorganization after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Carr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that, if reorganization of brain function is to be optimal after stroke, there needs to be a reorganisation of the methods used in physical rehabilitation and the time spent in specific task practice, strength and endurance training, and aerobic exercise. Frequency and intensity of rehabilitation need to be increased so that patients can gain the energy levels and vigour necessary for participation in physical activity both during rehabilitation and after discharge. It is evident that many patients are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation severely deconditioned, meaning that their energy levels are too low for active participation in daily life. Physicians, therapists, and nursing staff responsible for rehabilitation practice should address this issue not only during inpatient rehabilitation but also after discharge by promoting and supporting community-based exercise opportunities. During inpatient rehabilitation, group sessions should be frequent and need to include specific aerobic training. Physiotherapy must take advantage of the training aids available, including exercise equipment such as treadmills, and of new developments in computerised feedback systems, robotics, and electromechanical trainers. For illustrative purposes, this paper focuses on the role of physiotherapists, but the necessary changes in practice and in attitude will require cooperation from many others.

  14. Absence of a Scott correction for the total binding energy of noninteracting fermions in a smooth potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxtable, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown, for V in a particular class of smooth functions, that the total binding energy, E(Z), of Z noninteracting Fermions in the potential well Z 4/3 V(Z 1/3 X) obeys E(Z) = c TF (V)Z 7/3 + O(Z 5/3 ) as Z → ∞. Here c TF (V) is the coefficient predicted by Thomas-Fermi theory. This result is consistent with the conjectured Scott correction, which occurs at order Z 2 , to the total binding energy of an atomic number Z. This correction is thought to arise only because V(x)∼ - |x| -1 near x = 0 in the atomic problem, and so V is not a smooth function

  15. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... in the underlying electronic structure. We further demonstrate that the non-selfconsistent RPA total energies of these materials have minima at nonzero U. Our RPA calculations find the rutile phase of TiO2 to be more stable than anatase independent of U, a result which is consistent with experiments...

  16. Total-energy Assisted Tight-binding Method Based on Local Density Approximation of Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Nishino, Shinya; Yamamoto, Susumu; Suzuki, Takashi; Ikeda, Minoru; Ohtani, Yasuaki

    2018-06-01

    A novel tight-binding method is developed, based on the extended Hückel approximation and charge self-consistency, with referring the band structure and the total energy of the local density approximation of the density functional theory. The parameters are so adjusted by computer that the result reproduces the band structure and the total energy, and the algorithm for determining parameters is established. The set of determined parameters is applicable to a variety of crystalline compounds and change of lattice constants, and, in other words, it is transferable. Examples are demonstrated for Si crystals of several crystalline structures varying lattice constants. Since the set of parameters is transferable, the present tight-binding method may be applicable also to molecular dynamics simulations of large-scale systems and long-time dynamical processes.

  17. Single/total-economy aspects of production and utilization of energy from renewable raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, K

    1982-01-01

    ''Biosprit (biologically produced gasohol) can compete with synthetically produced ethanol for use in commerce and industries but not fully so with petrol due to the present refinery selling prices. Nevertheless, a 10% admixture will increase the price of one litre of petrol only slightly. If the consumer is not meant to cover this price increase, it could be covered by a small proportion of those expenditures which will be saved through a changeover to biogasohol production and which have been payed for necessary export refunding so far. Even at present, there is a considerable benefit involved for the overall national economy if there was a changeover to biogasohol production. In terms of total economy, transitional or initial subsidization would be just as justified as it is with initial promotion by the government with the introduction of new technologies.

  18. The total neutron cross section of 58Fe in the energy range 7 to 325 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.D.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1976-08-01

    The total neutron cross section of 58 Fe has been determined in the energy range 7-325 keV by a transmission measurement using enriched 58 Fe samples. The data have been shape fitted by means of an R-matrix multi-level formalism to extract resonance parameters for s- and l > 0 wave resonances. The s-wave strength function was determined to S 0 = (4.3 +- 1.9) c 10 -4 . (orig.) [de

  19. The thermodynamic approach to boron chemical vapour deposition based on a computer minimization of the total Gibbs free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslain, R.; Thebault, J.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bernard, C.

    1979-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the system is used to study the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of boron from BCl 3 -H 2 or BBr 3 -H 2 mixtures on various types of substrates (at 1000 < T< 1900 K and 1 atm). In this approach it is assumed that states close to equilibrium are reached in the boron CVD apparatus. (Auth.)

  20. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  1. Total energy and potential enstrophy conserving schemes for the shallow water equations using Hamiltonian methods - Part 1: Derivation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Christopher; Randall, David

    2017-02-01

    The shallow water equations provide a useful analogue of the fully compressible Euler equations since they have similar characteristics: conservation laws, inertia-gravity and Rossby waves, and a (quasi-) balanced state. In order to obtain realistic simulation results, it is desirable that numerical models have discrete analogues of these properties. Two prototypical examples of such schemes are the 1981 Arakawa and Lamb (AL81) C-grid total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme, and the 2007 Salmon (S07) Z-grid total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme. Unfortunately, the AL81 scheme is restricted to logically square, orthogonal grids, and the S07 scheme is restricted to uniform square grids. The current work extends the AL81 scheme to arbitrary non-orthogonal polygonal grids and the S07 scheme to arbitrary orthogonal spherical polygonal grids in a manner that allows for both total energy and potential enstrophy conservation, by combining Hamiltonian methods (work done by Salmon, Gassmann, Dubos, and others) and discrete exterior calculus (Thuburn, Cotter, Dubos, Ringler, Skamarock, Klemp, and others). Detailed results of the schemes applied to standard test cases are deferred to part 2 of this series of papers.

  2. Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...

  3. Achievement report on surveys and researches in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Surveys and researches on total energy systems; 1980 nendo total energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho yoyaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-06-01

    Identifying the energy demand system as a total system covering from energy generation to the ultimate utilization, a quantitative and theoretical analysis method was developed in achieving selection and development of long-term strategy of Japan for 50 years from about 1975 to about 2025. Development was made on a supply estimation model by using the system dynamics method, that includes international fluctuation factors in primary energy supply structure and time-based relevant elements. Improvements were made in several occasions on the demand estimation model that includes movements of Japan's industrial structures and nation's needs for living, and fluctuation factors of population configuration. Development and improvement were made on the energy flow model to link the supply side with the demand side and analyze the energy flow. In addition, efforts were made on arranging data for inputting these models (data collection, putting them in order, and processing). These models are now in the phase of practical use, and three models have also been nearly completed. Quantitative analysis will be possible if arranging the input database is continued. (NEDO)

  4. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Zäch, G A

    2000-10-01

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns

  5. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  6. Mid-south solar total energy institutional analysis. Semi-annual technical progress report, December 1978-May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powe, R.E.; Carley, C.T.; Forbes, R.E.; Johnson, L.R.

    1979-07-31

    During this reporting period a variety of individual components likely to be employed in total energy systems at Mississippi State University have been considered in detail. Also, algorithms have been developed for the approximate prediction of building heating and cooling loads based on gross parameters such as floor area, type of wall construction, etc. A comprehensive survey was undertaken to determine the current usage of energy by the university and correlation equations were used to project consumption rates for the next few years. The development of an algorithm for heating and cooling load calculations is described. Design and specifications are given for a solar-assisted space heating system, a solar air conditioning system, and a 1-MWe solar thermal power plant for the university. Flat-plate collectors for space heating or water heating at the MSU campus are assessed. Also the possibility of exploiting low-grade geothermal energy near MSU using heat pumps for space heating is discussed.

  7. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Li, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Kolgani, Rajeswari M. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Yong, G.J. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Ali, Z.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ables, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Bionta, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with {approx}10{sup 12} photons per {approx}200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within <0.1%, taking into account thermal and mechanical stress to prevent melting in the LCLS beam due to its high energy density. We propose to use a magnetoresistive Nd{sub (1-} {sub x} {sub )}Sr {sub x} MnO{sub 3} sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response.

  8. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both Pobese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health.

  9. Hybrid fuel cell/diesel generation total energy system, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, C. F.

    1982-11-01

    Meeting the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (DGSCC) electrical and thermal requirements with the existing system was compared with using fuel cells. Fuel cell technology selection was based on a 1985 time frame for installation. The most cost-effective fuel feedstock for fuel cell application was identified. Fuels considered included diesel oil, natural gas, methanol and coal. These fuel feedstocks were considered not only on the cost and efficiency of the fuel conversion process, but also on complexity and integration of the fuel processor on system operation and thermal energy availability. After a review of fuel processor technology, catalytic steam reformer technology was selected based on the ease of integration and the economics of hydrogen production. The phosphoric acid fuel cell was selected for application at the GDSCC due to its commercial readiness for near term application. Fuel cell systems were analyzed for both natural gas and methanol feedstock. The subsequent economic analysis indicated that a natural gas fueled system was the most cost effective of the cases analyzed.

  10. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE Evaluation on Thermal Power Industry with DEA, Malmquist and Multiple Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Peng Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a new round of power market reform, realizing the goals of energy saving and emission reduction, reducing the coal consumption and ensuring the sustainable development are the key issues for thermal power industry. With the biggest economy and energy consumption scales in the world, China should promote the energy efficiency of thermal power industry to solve these problems. Therefore, from multiple perspectives, the factors influential to the energy efficiency of thermal power industry were identified. Based on the economic, social and environmental factors, a combination model with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Malmquist index was constructed to evaluate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in thermal power industry. With the empirical studies from national and provincial levels, the TFEE index can be factorized into the technical efficiency index (TECH, the technical progress index (TPCH, the pure efficiency index (PECH and the scale efficiency index (SECH. The analysis showed that the TFEE was mainly determined by TECH and PECH. Meanwhile, by panel data regression model, unit coal consumption, talents and government supervision were selected as important indexes to have positive effects on TFEE in thermal power industry. In addition, the negative indexes, such as energy price and installed capacity, were also analyzed to control their undesired effects. Finally, considering the analysis results, measures for improving energy efficiency of thermal power industry were discussed widely, such as strengthening technology research and design (R&D, enforcing pollutant and emission reduction, distributing capital and labor rationally and improving the government supervision. Relative study results and suggestions can provide references for Chinese government and enterprises to enhance the energy efficiency level.

  11. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon

  12. Predicted and Totally Unexpected in the Energy Frontier Opened by LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    Opening lectures. Sid Coleman and Erice / A. Zichichi. Remembering Sidney Coleman / G.'t Hooft -- Predicted signals at LHC. From extra-dimensions: Multiple branes scenarios and their contenders / I. Antoniadis. Predicted signals at the LHC from technicolor / A. Martin. The one-parameter model at LHC / J. Maxin, E. Mayes and D. V. Nanopoulos. How supercritical string cosmology affects LHC / D. V. Nanopoulos. High scale physics connection to LHC data / P. Nath. Predicted signatures at the LHC from U(I) extensions of the standard model / P. Nath -- Hot theoretical topics. Progress on the ultraviolet finiteness of supergravity / Z. Bern. Status of supersymmetry: Foundations and applications / S. Ferrara and A. Marrani. Quantum gravity from dynamical triangulation / R. Loll. Status of superstring and M-theory / J. H. Schwarz. Some effects of instantons in QCD / G.'t Hooft. Crystalline gravity / G.'t Hooft -- QCD problems. Strongly coupled gauge theories / R. Kenway. Strongly interacting matter at high energy density / L. McLerran. Seminars on specialized topics. The nature and the mass of neutrinos. Majorana vs. Dirac / A. Bettini. The anomalous spin distributions in the nucleon / A. Deshpande. Results from PHENIX at RHIC / M. J. Tannenbaum -- Highlights from laboratories. Highlights from RHIC / Y. Akiba. News from the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory / E. Coccia. Highlights from TRIUMF / N. S. Lockyer. Highlights from Superkamiokande / M. Koshiba. Highlights from Fermilab / P. J. Oddone. Highlights from IHEP / Y. Wang -- Special sessions for new talents. Fake supergravity and black hole evolution / A. Gnecchi. Track-based improvement in the jet transverse momentum resolution for ATLAS / Z. Marshall. Searches for supersymmetric dark matter with XENON / K. Ni. Running of Newton's constant and quantum gravitational effects / D. Reeb.

  13. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Total energy supply-system for manned spaceship using nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Honma, Yuji; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the deep space, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc in the future, a spacecraft that will be driven by nuclear power should be developed. At present, satellites or space probes have been using mainly electric source of chemical battery, fuel battery, solar battery, and RI battery. However, considering highly developed and extensive space exploration in the future, it is obvious that larger electric power is required over the long term space travel more than several years. Additionally, the solar battery used in space will be fundamentally impossible to use in planetary exploration father away form Mars because sunlight is attenuated. Therefore, larger electric power source must be installed in the space craft. In this study, we consider about co-generation system for heat and electricity using nuclear power. We think that the nuclear power is appropriate for using in deep space because of a long time operation without refueling and possibility in downsizing due to higher power density. We selected the fast reactor system of about 18 MWth compared with other type of reactors, such as PWR and high temperature gas reactor (Honma, 2006). With regard to a power generation system, we examined about efficiency of Stirling engine compared with a gas-turbine engine. Theoretical efficiency of Stirling engine is much higher than that of gas-turbine engine. Therefore, we selected Stirling engine and we have started the model test of a Stirling engine. Total power generation at International Space Station (ISS) that has been built since 1998 is about 110kWe. We estimated that about 5 times as much electricity as that of ISS is enough to explore or developed the space. In that case, 2.5MWe will be generated by the system, number of crews will be about 10 and 2MW will be used to electric propulsion. (author)

  15. Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organization under LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-15

    Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies. Interestingly, the frequency distribution of the active repertoire of brain states under LSD closely follows power-laws indicating a re-organization of the dynamics at the edge of criticality. Beyond the present findings, these methods open up for a better understanding of the complex brain dynamics in health and disease.

  16. Tuning Reactivity and Electronic Properties through Ligand Reorganization within a Cerium Heterobimetallic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Jerome R.; Gordon, Zachary; Booth, Corwin H.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2014-06-24

    Cerium compounds have played vital roles in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry due to their reversible redox chemistry between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states. However, attempts to rationally access molecular cerium complexes in both oxidation states have been frustrated by unpredictable reactivity in cerium(III) oxidation chemistry. Such oxidation reactions are limited by steric saturation at the metal ion, which can result in high energy activation barriers for electron transfer. An alternative approach has been realized using a rare earth/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) heterobimetallic framework, which uses redox-inactive metals within the secondary coordination sphere to control ligand reorganization. The rational syntheses of functionalized cerium(IV) products and a mechanistic examination of the role of ligand reorganization in cerium(III) oxidation are presented.

  17. Atomic force microscopy observation of lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Chen, Tangting; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Qiaobing; Jin, Chunhua

    2013-08-01

    We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular cytoskeleton reorganization in primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mouse. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized by AFM. Using three-dimensional technique of AFM, we were able to quantify the changes of cytoskeleton by the "density" and total "volume" of the cytoskeleton fibers. Compared to the control group, the density of cytoskeleton was remarkably decreased and the volume of cytoskeleton was significantly increased after LPS treatment, which suggests that LPS may induce the cytoskeleton reorganization and change the cardiomyocyte morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  19. Homeland Security: Scope of the Secretary's Reorganization Authority

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    .... While many of the proposed changes may be effectuated administratively, some might require legislative action due to limits on reorganization authority under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296...

  20. ["Hannibal ante portas" -- technical development and health care reorganization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülesdi, Béla; Velkey, György

    2011-11-20

    Authors intend to analyze the impact of medical technical development on the Hungarian health care system and try to draw attention to potentially necessary measures for professional and structural health care reorganization.

  1. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency in BRI Countries: An Estimation Based on Three-Stage DEA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI is showing its great influence and leadership on the international energy cooperation. Based on the three-stage DEA model, total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in 35 BRI countries in 2015 was measured in this article. It shows that the three-stage DEA model could eliminate errors of environment variable and random, which made the result better than traditional DEA model. When environment variable errors and random errors were eliminated, the mean value of TFEE was declined. It demonstrated that TFEE of the whole sample group was overestimated because of external environment impacts and random errors. The TFEE indicators of high-income countries like South Korea, Singapore, Israel and Turkey are 1, which is in the efficiency frontier. The TFEE indicators of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Poland and China are over 0.8. And the indicators of Uzbekistan, Ukraine, South Africa and Bulgaria are in a low level. The potential of energy-saving and emissions reduction is great in countries with low TFEE indicators. Because of the gap in energy efficiency, it is necessary to distinguish different countries in the energy technology options, development planning and regulation in BRI countries.

  2. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  3. MODIFIED KACHUGIN METHOD OF ALTERNATIVE SOFTWARE-BASED PROJECTION OF THE PATTERN OF REORGANIZATION OF ABRASION SHORES OF WATER RESERVOIRS IN THE FLAT TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol' Il'ya Stanislavovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently, effective regulations employed in the Russian Federation recommend the use of the methods developed by E.G. Kachuchin, G.S. Zolotarev, I.A. Pecherkin, etc. for the projection of patterns of reorganization of coastlines of water reservoirs. One of these methods, developed by E.G. Kachugin, belongs to the group of power methods based on the hypothesis that the amplitudes of destruction of the coast are proportionate to the total wave energy alongside the coastline. The Kachugin method was reworked into a computer-based two-dimensional engineering model of reorganization of the abrasion shore. The model generates alternative projections. It simulates the processes of washout and accumulation of soil in the coastal area and solves the problem of predicting the potential profile of the shore within a pre-set time period or until the abrasion is smoothed away in the course of formation of coastal shallows. The model testing has proven its efficiency in solving the engineering problems of projecting the line of reservoir abrasion shores with a high degree of reliability.

  4. The role of the tunneling matrix element and nuclear reorganization in the design of quantum-dot cellular automata molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jackson; Blair, Enrique P.

    2018-02-01

    Mixed-valence molecules provide an implementation for a high-speed, energy-efficient paradigm for classical computing known as quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). The primitive device in QCA is a cell, a structure with multiple quantum dots and a few mobile charges. A single mixed-valence molecule can function as a cell, with redox centers providing quantum dots. The charge configuration of a molecule encodes binary information, and device switching occurs via intramolecular electron transfer between dots. Arrays of molecular cells adsorbed onto a substrate form QCA logic. Individual cells in the array are coupled locally via the electrostatic electric field. This device networking enables general-purpose computing. Here, a quantum model of a two-dot molecule is built in which the two-state electronic system is coupled to the dominant nuclear vibrational mode via a reorganization energy. This model is used to explore the effects of the electronic inter-dot tunneling (coupling) matrix element and the reorganization energy on device switching. A semi-classical reduction of the model also is made to investigate the competition between field-driven device switching and the electron-vibrational self-trapping. A strong electron-vibrational coupling (high reorganization energy) gives rise to self-trapping, which inhibits the molecule's ability to switch. Nonetheless, there remains an expansive area in the tunneling-reorganization phase space where molecules can support adequate tunneling. Thus, the relationship between the tunneling matrix element and the reorganization energy affords significant leeway in the design of molecules viable for QCA applications.

  5. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  6. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  7. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  8. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [For Bleyle Knitwear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-06-01

    The site was described in terms of location, suitably, accessibility, and other factors. Detailed descriptions of the Solar Total Energy-Large Scale Experiment Application (STE-LSE) (Bleyle of America, Inc., Knitwear Plant), the DOE owned Meteorology Station operating at the site, and the instrumentation provided by the Georgia Power Company to measure energy usage within the knitwear plant are included. A detailed report of progress is given at the Shenandoah Site, introduced by the STE-LSE schedule and the Cooperative Agreement work tasks. Progress is described in terms of the following major task areas: site/application; instrumentation/data acquisition; meteorology station; site to STES interface; information dissemination. A brief overview of milestones to be accomplished is given, followed by these appendices: solar easement agreement, interface drawing set, and additional site background data. (MHR)

  9. Total electron scattering cross section from pyridine molecules in the energy range 10-1000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, A. Traoré; Costa, F.; da Silva, F. Ferreira; Limão-Vieira, P.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimental total electron scattering cross-section (TCS) from pyridine (C5H5N) for incident electron energies between 10 and 1000 eV, with experimental uncertainties within 5-10%, as measured with a double electrostatic analyser apparatus. The experimental results are compared with our theoretical calculations performed within the independent atom model complemented with a screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) procedure which has been updated by including interference effects. A good level of agreement is found between both data sources within the experimental uncertainties. The present TCS results for electron impact energy under study contribute, together with other scattering data available in the literature, to achieve a consistent set of cross section data for modelling purposes.

  10. ENDF/B-IV representation of the 238U total neutron cross section in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model

  11. Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references

  12. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  13. Natural gas reserves/total energy consumption: a useful new ratio for addressing global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy analysts have used the reserves/production ratios for oil and natural gas for decades as indicators of the ability of countries to maintain or increase their production of those fuels. The global community is now faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a variety of sources, with the energy sector being the largest contributor to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Natural gas has emerged as a highly desirable fuel, since it produces lower emissions of carbon dioxide than coal or oil for equivalent amounts of energy supplied. The ratio of a country's proven natural gas reserves to its total energy consumption is a good indicator of its ability to improve its air quality situation or address greenhouse gas reduction targets from domestic natural gas sources. This paper provides the ratio for several countries at different stages of development, and discusses some of the implications. In countries where exploration for natural gas has been limited, the estimated resources in place may sometimes be a more useful indicator than proven reserves, and could be used instead. (author)

  14. Total and inelastic cross-sections at LHC at CM energy of 7 TeV and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Achilli, Andrea; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Shekhovtsova, Olga; Srivastava, Yogendra N

    2011-01-01

    We discuss expectations for the total and inelastic cross-sections at LHC CM energies $\\sqrt{s}\\ =\\ 7\\ TeV$ {and $ 14\\ TeV$} obtained in an eikonal minijet model augmented by soft gluon $k_t$-resummation, which we describe in some detail. We present a band of predictions which encompass recent LHC data and suggest that the inelastic cross-section described by two channel eikonal models include only uncorrelated processes. We show that this interpretation of the model is supported by the LHC data.

  15. The total neutron cross-section of Nb at different temperatures for neutrons with energies below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Fayek, M.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-09-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been performed for natural Nb at liquid nitrogen, room and 425 0 K temperatures in the energy range from 2 MeV - 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The neutron diffraction pattern of Nb, at room temperature, was obtained using a double axis crystal spectrometer installed also at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The obtained total neutron cross-sections were analyzed using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the total neutron cross-section of Nb and the analysis of its neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and thermal inelastic scattering cross-sections of Nb were determined from the analysis of the total cross-section of Nb beyond the cut-off wavelength. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(t) = (6.30+-0.20)b; sigmasub(coh) = (6.0+-0.3)b; sigmasub(incoh) = (2.0+-1.0)b; bsub(coh) = (6.91+-0.08)fm

  16. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Dana Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  17. Summarized achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research on hydrogen energy total systems; 1979 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes discussions on future possibility of introducing hydrogen, by adding the latest data acquired in fiscal 1979 into a hydrogen energy total system calculation model. The critical cost of hydrogen is higher always than other secondary energies up to about 2030. Since it is a presupposition that hydrogen manufacturing is technologically feasible only by using the electrolytic manufacturing process, the hydrogen cost changes with the critical cost of electric power. Thereafter, if a hydrogen manufacturing process of mixed type utilizing heat from a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) is introduced, the cost will be reduced. However, introduction of HTGR is governed by the nuclear power plan such as HTGR technology development, rather than simply by the economic performance. Value factors showing qualitative advantage of hydrogen have been assigned to different demand sectors, whereas acceptable economic performance may emerge from this effect from about 2010 in sectors having large value factors (such as 2.8 in aircraft fuels). Hydrogen contribution would be about 2.1% in 2020 and 5.5% in 2030 of the whole energy demand. (NEDO)

  18. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Research on a hydrogen energy total system; 1980 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes research on a hydrogen energy total system. Fiscal 1980 has surveyed R/D technologies in the sectors anticipated to have large possibility of introducing hydrogen in Japan's energy systems in the future (ammonia/methanol industries, automobiles and aircraft fuel), and discussed the possibility of the introduction. The value factors (VF) applied to them are 1.7 for the ammonia industry, 1.1 to 1.6 for the methanol industry, 1.4 for gasoline as automobile and jet fuel, and 2.8 for jet fuel. Whether hydrogen would be introduced in all of these sectors depends on conditions of introducing hydrogen utilizing HTGR heat, and the VF of hydrogen against competing energies. Therefore, case studies were performed by using these factors as the parameters. If the VF is fixed and HTGR introduction speed is accelerated, introduction of hydrogen will be accelerated in the fields of chemical materials, air conditioning and process heat. On the other hand, the introduction will decrease in the automobile and aircraft fuel fields. If the methanol VF is made smaller, hydrogen introduction will be decelerated in the chemical industry field (methanol), and that in the air conditioning, automobiles and aircraft fuel fields will be accelerated. (NEDO)

  19. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  20. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  1. Experimental evidence of dynamic re-organization of evolving landscapes under changing climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Reinhardt, Liam; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the dynamic re-organization of an evolving landscape under a scenario of changing climatic forcing for improving our knowledge of geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions and developing predictive models of landscape response to external perturbations. Real landscape observations for long-term analysis are limited and to this end a high resolution controlled laboratory experiment was conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Elevation data were collected at temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5x precipitation). The results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold precipitation increase with the fluvial regime expanding into the previously debris dominated regime, accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales, and rivers shifting from an erosion-limited to a transport-limited regime. From a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, we demonstrate the strikingly different spatial patterns of landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS), even when the time under SS is "stretched" compared to that under TS such as to match the total volume and PDF of erosional and depositional amounts. We quantify the spatial coupling of hillslopes and channels and demonstrate that hillslopes lead and channels follow in re-organizing the whole landscape under such an amplified precipitation regime.

  2. Motor Cortex Reorganization in Patients with Glioma Assessed by Repeated Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Anne; Noack, Anika; Baumgarten, Peter; Seifert, Volker; Forster, Marie-Therese

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for cerebral reorganization after resection of low-grade glioma has mainly been obtained by serial intraoperative cerebral mapping. Noninvasively collected data on cortical plasticity in tumor patients over a surgery-free period are still scarce. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating motor cortex reorganization by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in patients after perirolandic glioma surgery. nTMS was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 20 patients, separated by 26.1 ± 24.8 months. Further nTMS mapping was conducted in 14 patients, resulting in a total follow-up period of 46.3 ± 25.4 months. Centers of gravity (CoGs) were calculated for every muscle representation area, and Euclidian distances between CoGs over time were defined. Results were compared with data from 12 healthy individuals, who underwent motor cortex mapping by nTMS in 2 sessions. Preoperatively and postoperatively pooled CoGs from the area of the dominant abductor pollicis brevis muscle and of the nondominant leg area differed significantly compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Most remarkably, during the ensuing follow-up period, a reorganization of all representation areas was observed in 3 patients, and a significant shift of hand representation areas was identified in further 3 patients. Complete functional recovery of postoperative motor deficits was exclusively associated with cortical reorganization. Despite the low potential of remodeling within the somatosensory region, long-term reorganization of cortical motor function can be observed. nTMS is best suited for a noninvasive evaluation of this reorganization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Total Energy Expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in rural pre-school children in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Salazar, G.; Diaz, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method in nineteen 5 y old children of a rural mountain community in Cuba. Materials and Methods. Ten males and nine females (18.4 and 18.5 kg average weight) with mean BMI values of 16.3 and 16.1 kg/m2 were included in the study. RMR was previously measured in year 2000 by indirect calorimetry in a sample of 11 children and values correlated properly with the estimations using the proposed equations of Henry and Rees. This estimate was used then for the whole group. Energy intake measured by 3-day weighed dietary record was 3.73 MJ/day. Tee was measured by the doubly labelled water method. Results: TEE values of well nourished children were 7.15 and 5.77 MJ/d for boys and girls, respectively. These findings imply that well nourished boys and girls are having a moderate to heavy physical activity requiring 93 and 75 kcal/kg per day. Physical activity of normal Cuban boys and girls living in rural areas was 1.88 and 1.59 METS, which is much higher than those values reported for children from developed countries using DLW. Energy intake was 1639 ± 381 in boys and 1230 ± 355 kcal/d in girls. Conclusions: TEE and physical activity level of rural Cuban children was higher than reported values of children living in developed countries

  4. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 2: appendices A-D to technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline- powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume II contains additional details on the vehicle, utility, and materials analyses and discusses several details of the methodology.

  5. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  6. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  7. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  8. Total Reaction Cross Section of Silicon Induced by ^{4}He in the Energy Range 3-10 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Ugryumov, V Yu; Basybekov, K B; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Duysebaev, A D; Duysebaev, B A; Zholdybaev, T K; Ismailov, K M; Kadyrzhanov, K K; Kalpakchieva, R; Kugler, A; Kukhtina, I N; Kushniruk, V F; Kuterbekov, K A; Mukhambetzhan, A; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Sadykov, B M; Skwirczynska, I; Sobolev, Yu G

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of total reaction cross section for alpha-particles on ^{nat}Si has been directly and accurately measured by the transmission method. These data show that sigma_R has different energy dependence from theoretical predictions at low energies. The sigma_R corrections due to inelastic scattering to the first excited state were made by integrating corresponding angular distributions.

  9. Total reaction cross section of silicon induced by 4He in the energy range 3-10 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumov, V.Yu.; Kuznetsov, I.V.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of total reaction cross section for α-particles on nat Si has been directly and accurately measured by the transmission method. These data show that σ R has different energy dependence from theoretical predictions at low energies. The σ R corrections due to inelastic scattering to the first excited state were made by integrating corresponding angular distributions

  10. Attachment reorganization following divorce: normative processes and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Borelli, Jessica L

    2018-03-21

    This paper uses attachment theory as a lens for reviewing contemporary research on how adults cope with marital separation and loss. The first section of the paper discusses the process of normative attachment reorganization, or the psychology of adaptive grief responses following relationship transitions. We argue that changes two processes, in particular, can be uses to track changes in this normative reorganization process: narrative coherence and self-concept clarity. The second section of the paper suggest that individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance shape the variability in this normative reorganization process, largely as a result of the characteristic ways in which these styles organize emotion-regulatory tendencies. The paper closes with a series of integrative questions for future research, including a call for new studies aimed at understanding under what contexts anxiety and avoidance may be adaptive in promoting emotion recovery to separation and divorce experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Missing mass spectra in pp inelastic scattering at total energies of 23 GeV and 31 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements of the momentum spectra of protons emitted at small angles in inelastic reactions at the CERN ISR. The data are for total energies s/sup 1///sub 2/ of 23 GeV and 31 GeV. The structure of the peak at low values of the missing mass M (of the system recoiling against the observed proton) is studied. The missing mass distributions have the form (M/sup 2/)-/sup B(t)/ where t is the four-momentum transfer squared. B(t) drops from 0.98+or-0.06 at t=-0.15 GeV/sup 2/ to 0.20+or-0.15 at t=-1.65 GeV/sup 2/. The results are compared with a simple triple-Regge formula. (12 refs).

  12. Measurement of total and partial photon proton cross sections at 180 GeV center of mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-03-01

    Photon proton cross sections for elastic light vector meson production, σ el γp , inelastic diffractive production, σ d γp , non-diffractive procution, σ nd γp , as well as the total cross section, σ γp tot , have been measured at an average γp center of mass energy of 180 GeV with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The resulting values are σ el γp =18±7 μb, σ d γp =33±8 μb, σ nd γp =91±11 μb, and σ γp tot =143±17 μb, where the errors include statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature. (orig.)

  13. The effects of dimensional parameters on sensing and energy harvesting of an embedded PZT in a total knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Mohsen; Anton, Steven R.

    2016-04-01

    Total Knee Replacement (TKR), one of the most common surgeries in the United States, is performed when the patient is experiencing significant amounts of pain or when knee functionality has become substantially degraded. Despite impressive recent developments, only about 85% of patients are satisfied with the pain reduction after one year. Therefore, structural health and performance monitoring are integral for intraoperative and postoperative feedback. In extension of the author's previous work, a new configuration for implementation of piezoelectric transducers in total knee replacement bearings is proposed and FEA modeling is performed to attain appropriate sensing and energy harvesting ability. The predicted force transmission ratio to the PZT (ratio of force applied to the bearing to force transferred to the embedded piezoelectric transducer) is about 6.2% compared to about 5% found for the previous encapsulated design. Dimensional parameters of the polyethylene bearing including the diameter and depth of the PZT pocket as well as the placement geometry of the PZT transducer within the bearing are hypothesized as the most influential parameters on the performance of the designed system. The results show a small change of 1% and 2.3% in the output of the system as a result of variation in the PZT location and pocket diameter, respectively. Whereas, the output of the system is significantly sensitive to the pocket depth; a pocket 0.01 mm deeper than the PZT transducer leads to no force transmission, and a pocket 0.15 mm shallower leads to full load transmission to the PZT. In order to develop a self-powered sensor, the amount of energy harvested from tibial forces for the proposed geometry is investigated.

  14. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR and total sleep deprivation (TSD produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00 and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75. During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00 and TSD (22:00–06:00, such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01 and saturated fat (p = 0.02 during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12. Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03. Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001. Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  15. Neutron total, scattering and inelastic gamma-ray cross sections of yttrium at few MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Guenther, P.; Smith, A.; Whalen, J.; McMurray, W.R.; Renan, M.J.; Heerden, I.J. van

    1984-01-01

    Neutron total, scattering and (n; n', γ) cross sections of elemental yttrium ( 89 Y) were measured in the few-MeV region. The neutron total-cross-section measurements were made with broad resolutions from approx.=0.5 to 4.2 MeV in steps of < or approx.0.1 MeV. Neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx.=1.5 to 4.0 MeV, at incident-neutron energy intervals of approx.=50 keV and at ten or more scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees using neutron detection. Inelastic-scattering cross sections were also determined using the (n; n', γ) reaction at incident energies from 1.6 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of 0.1 MeV. Gamma-rays and/or inelastically-scattered neutrons were observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 909.0+-0.5, 1,507.4+-0.3, 1,744.5+-0.3, 2,222.6+-0.5, 2,530+-0.8, 2,566.4+-1.0, 2,622.5+-1.0, 2,871.9+-1.5, 2,880.6+-2.0, 3,067.0+-2.0, 3,107.0+-2.0, 3,140.0+-2.0, 3,410.0+-2.0, 3,450.0+-2.0, 3,504.0+-1.5, 3,514.0+-2.0, 3,556.0+-2.0, 3,619.0+-3.0, 3,629.0+-3.0 and 3,715.0+-3.0 keV. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the spherical-optical-statistical, coupled-channels, and core-coupling models, and in the context of previously reported excited-level structure. (orig.)

  16. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Laura E; Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni

    2016-12-19

    Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34-0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00-04:00) and TSD (22:00-06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein ( p = 0.01) and saturated fat ( p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake ( p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD ( p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD ( p sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  17. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, L

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  18. Comparison of resting energy equations and total energy expenditure in haemodialysis patients and body composition measured by multi-frequency bioimpedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ben; Sridharan, Sivakumar; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-07-13

    Waste products of metabolism are retained in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Cellular metabolism generates energy, and patients with greater energy expenditure may therefore require more dialysis. To determine the amount of dialysis required, equations estimating resting and total energy expenditure (REE,TEE) are required. We compared estimates of REE in HD patients using established equations with a novel equation recently validated in HD patients (HD equation). TEE was derived from REE (HD equation) and estimates of physical activity obtained by questionnaire. REE and TEE relationships with bioimpedance measured body composition were then determined. We studied 317 HD patients; 195 males (61.5%), 123 diabetic (38.9%), mean age 65.0 ± 15.3 and weight 73.1 ± 16.8 kg. REE from HD Equation was 1509 ± 241 kcal/day, which was greater than for Mifflin St Joer 1384 ± 259, Harris-Benedict 1437 ± 244, Katch-McArdle 1345 ± 232 (all p employment (β 406.5, p appearance (β 2.7, p = 0.015), and negatively with age (β -7.9, p appearance, lower co-morbidity, age, and dialysis vintage, and the employed. More metabolically active patients may require greater dialytic clearances. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal–liquid interfacial free energy and thermophysical properties of pure liquid Ti using electrostatic levitation: Hypercooling limit, specific heat, total hemispherical emissivity, density, and interfacial free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Woo; Jeon, Sangho; Park, Cheolmin; Kang, Dong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are obtained by electrostatic levitation. • How to measure the thermophysical properties is shown with non-contact method. • Hypercooling limit of liquid Ti guarantying homogeneous nucleation is 341 K. • Accurate ratio C p /ε T of the liquid Ti is obtained with weak temperature dependence. • Interfacial free energy of Ti is estimated with the thermophysical parameters. -- Abstract: Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are measured by a newly developed electrostatic levitation. In this study, we measure a hypercooling limit (ΔT hyp ), specific heat (C p ), total hemispherical emissivity (ε T ), and density (ρ) of liquid Ti. The ΔT hyp of the liquid Ti is 341 K. The C p of the liquid Ti shows very weak temperature dependence during supercooling. The ε T and ρ of the liquid Ti are given by 0.329 and ρ(T) (g/cm 3 ) = (4.16 − 2.36) · 10 −4 (T − T m ). Finally, the interfacial free energy is estimated with the measured thermophysical parameters. The interfacial free energy is 0.164 J/m 2 , and Turnbull’s coefficient is 0.48

  20. The trends in total energy, macronutrients and sodium intake among Japanese: findings from the 1995-2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Aki; Imai, Shino; Htun, Nay Chi; Okada, Emiko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-06-04

    Monitoring nutritional status of the population is essential in the development and evaluation of national or local health policies. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate analysis on the trends in dietary intake of energy and macronutrients, as well as Na, in Japanese population using the data of series of cross-sectional national surveys - the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the National Health Nutrition Survey (NHNS) - during the period from 1995 to 2016. The NNS and NHNS participants aged 20-79 years were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was estimated using 1-d household-based dietary record. The trend in total energy intake, energy intake from macronutrients (fat and protein), Na intake and energy-adjusted Na intake were analysed using regression models adjusted to 2010 age distribution and anthropometry status. A total of 94 270 men and 107 890 women were included the analysis. Total energy intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. Similarly, energy intake from protein decreased, but energy intake (%) from fat increased in both sexes. Energy-adjusted Na intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. This study identified the decrease in total energy intake and energy intake from protein, whereas there were inverse trends in energy intake from fat among Japanese adults. Continued monitoring of trends in dietary intake will be needed, and there should be efforts to increase the accuracy of current survey procedures.

  1. Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Davidsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE in 35 obese 7–9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys. Total body water (TBW and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of 18O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM, using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher (p = 0.018 in boys (44.9% ± 3.3% than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%, while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; p = 0.014. TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day; p = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; p = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7–9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity.

  2. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L.

    2008-01-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p≤0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  3. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  4. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  5. Energy load in low energy residences. An analysis of the total energy use in 5 versions of a Norwegian residence; Energibelastninger ved lavenergiboliger. En analyse av totalenergiforbruket i 5 versjoner av en norsk bolig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, Beate Nemeth

    1997-12-31

    advanced solar energy residence and a house with more traditional solar energy use have in total a lower energy consumption when both energy content and energy consumption for operation are considered than in a traditionally built house of the same type. Generally most of the buildings both use solar energy and energy conservation measures combined with materials with low energy content. 41 refs., 186 tabs., 42 figs., 5 ills.

  6. Expediting Scientific Data Analysis with Reorganization of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byna, Surendra; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-08-19

    Data producers typically optimize the layout of data files to minimize the write time. In most cases, data analysis tasks read these files in access patterns different from the write patterns causing poor read performance. In this paper, we introduce Scientific Data Services (SDS), a framework for bridging the performance gap between writing and reading scientific data. SDS reorganizes data to match the read patterns of analysis tasks and enables transparent data reads from the reorganized data. We implemented a HDF5 Virtual Object Layer (VOL) plugin to redirect the HDF5 dataset read calls to the reorganized data. To demonstrate the effectiveness of SDS, we applied two parallel data organization techniques: a sort-based organization on a plasma physics data and a transpose-based organization on mass spectrometry imaging data. We also extended the HDF5 data access API to allow selection of data based on their values through a query interface, called SDS Query. We evaluated the execution time in accessing various subsets of data through existing HDF5 Read API and SDS Query. We showed that reading the reorganized data using SDS is up to 55X faster than reading the original data.

  7. 12 CFR 5.32 - Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 3 of the National Bank Consolidation and Merger Act, 12 U.S.C. 215a(a)(2); and (v) Describes any changes to the bank's business plan resulting from the reorganization. (3) Financial and managerial... impact of the proposed affiliation on the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the...

  8. Reorganization of the Lithuanian State Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskevicius, V.

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with preasent situation in energy sector in Lithuania. All power plants with installed capacity of 2561 MW, except Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (3000 MW) belongs to Lithuanian State Power System (LSPS) as well transmission and distribution networks. In 1989-1991 Lithuania generated approximately 29TWh of electricity annually from which 12TWh LSPS exported to neighbouring countries. After 1990 in the transitional period from planned economy to the marked one, the economic situation in the country became complicated. The electricity demand has fallen nearly 40%. Due to the similar situation in neighboring countries the electricity export has decreased too. The article presents the distribution of electric power output in 1994 by power plants; electric power consumption and output of power plants in Lithuania from 1940 to 1994 is also included. Some aspects of regional cooperation of tree Baltic countries in energy area is touched too. 3 figs

  9. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  10. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on preparing criteria for the safety assuring technologies for hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no hoan gijutsu kijun no sakusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    Studies have been made on preparing criteria for the safety assuring technologies for hydrogen energy total systems. The outline of the technological guideline for hydrogen manufacturing processes in the high temperature and pressure water decomposition method is the same as that in the normal pressure water decomposition method. However, its high temperature and pressure environment can cause new safety problems. Considerations should be given on, for example, material problems in structural materials and insulation materials including electrodes and membranes, introduction of gas-liquid separation and pressure balancing devices, problems in electrolyte circulation, and safety problems that may occur because of generation of hydrogen and oxygen under high temperature and pressure conditions. This paper summarizes these matters by surveying literature data. In order to provide basic information to prepare criteria for safety assuring technologies for the gaseous hydrogen liquefaction process, surveys and studies were made based on different items of technological information and experimental study results. Safety assuring technologies were discussed on metal hydrides (promising means for storing hydrogen). Powder is used to enhance hydrogen absorbing performance, whereas the metal hydrides are pulverized as a result of repetition of absorption and discharge of hydrogen. This paper describes also metal dust explosion disaster and its risk of occurrence. (NEDO)

  11. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  12. First principles total energy calculations of the structural and electronic properties of ScxGa1-xN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Armenta, Maria Guadalupe; Mancera, Luis; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Using first principles total energy calculations within the the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of Sc x Ga 1-x N, with Sc concentrations varying from 0% up to 100%. In particular we have studied the relative stability of several configurations of Sc x Ga 1-x N in wurtzite-like structures (the ground state configuration of GaN), or in rocksalt-like structures (the ground state configuration of ScN). It is found that for Sc concentrations less than ∼65%, the favored structure is a wurtzite-like one, while for Sc concentrations greater than ∼65%, the favored structure is a NaCl-like structure. It is also found that for the wurtzite-like crystals, the fundamental gap is large and direct. For the rocksalt crystals the fundamental gap is small and indirect, but with an additional larger direct gap. In agreement with the experiments of Little and Kordesch [Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2891 (2001)] we found a decrease of the band gap with the increase of the Sc concentration. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Food sources of total energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern among US adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is high intake of energy and overconsumed nutrients of public health concern in adolescents' diet. Overconsumed nutrients are sodium, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and added sugars. Our objective was to identify the most commonly consumed foods by adolescents as percentage of total energy, tota...

  14. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  15. 26 CFR 54.4980B-9 - Business reorganizations and employer withdrawals from multiemployer plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-9 Business reorganizations and employer withdrawals from multiemployer plans. The following... multiemployer plans: Q-1: For purposes of this section, what are a business reorganization, a stock sale, and an... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business reorganizations and employer...

  16. Total cross section measurements for νμ, ν-barμ interactions in 3 - 30 GeV energy range with IHEP - JINR neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Belikov, S.V.; Borisov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of total cross section measurements for the ν μ , ν-bar μ interactions with isoscalar target in the 3 - 30 GeV energy range have been presented. The data were obtained with the IHEP - JINR Neutrino Detector in the 'natural' neutrino beams of the U - 70 accelerator. The significant deviation from the linear dependence for σ tot versus neutrino energy is determined in the energy range less than 15 GeV. 46 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Emergent reorganization of an evolving experimental landscape under changing climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Reinhardt, L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding landscape re-organization under changing climatic forcing is fundamental to advancing our understanding of geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions, developing predictive models of landscape response to external perturbations, and interpreting the stratigraphic record for past climates by incorporating possible regime shifts. Real landscape observations for long-term analysis are limited and to this end a high resolution controlled laboratory experiment was conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Elevation data were collected at temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (for a constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5x precipitation). The results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold precipitation increase with the fluvial regime expanding into previously debris dominated regime, accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales, and rivers shifting from an erosion-limited to a transport-limited regime. By studying the space-time structure of the individual erosional and depositional events in terms of their size, location, clustering, and total volume we report complex space-time patterns of change which are scale-dependent and bounded by the river network topology. At the same time, the river network topology itself adjusts at smaller scales, with new channels added to accommodate increased hillslope erosional transport, further adjusting the landscape. Some new ideas related to landscape variability and entropy evolution at different scales during steady and transient states and the possibility of analyzing the self-organization with Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) metrics to infer possible underlying "optimality" principles governing the re-organization will also be presented.

  18. The balance of kinetic and total energy simulated by the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model for January and July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-T.; Gates, W. L.; Kim, J.-W.

    1984-01-01

    A three-year simulation which prescribes seasonally varying solar radiation and sea surface temperature is the basis of the present study of the horizontal structure of the balances of kinetic and total energy simulated by Oregon State University's two-level atmospheric general circulation model. Mechanisms responsible for the local energy changes are identified, and the energy balance requirement's fulfilment is examined. In January, the vertical integral of the total energy shows large amounts of external heating over the North Pacific and Atlantic, together with cooling over most of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. In July, an overall seasonal reversal is found. Both seasons are also characterized by strong energy flux divergence in the tropics, in association with the poleward transport of heat and momentum.

  19. Fission-fragment angular distributions and total kinetic energies for 235U(n,f) from .18 to 8.83 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.

    1982-01-01

    A gridded ion chamber was used to measure the fission fragment angular distribution and total kinetic energy for the 235 U(n,f) reaction from 0.18 to 8.81 MeV neutron energy. The anisotropies are in generally good agreement with earlier measurements. The average total kinetic energy is approx. 0.2 MeV greater than the thermal value at neutron energies < 2 MeV and shows a sudden decrease of approx. 0.8 MeV between 4 and 5 MeV neutron energy, well below the (n, n'f) threshold. Possible causes of this decrease are a change in the mass distribution or decreased shell effects in the heavy fragment

  20. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H 2 CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  1. Industry reorganization in Quebec : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoue, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the diversified markets in Quebec totaled 12.6 billion $CAN. This included electricity sales at 62.3 per cent, sales of natural gas at 8.8 per cent, and sales of electricity to the United States at 24.8 per cent. The paper included several view graphs depicting the average price of electricity by province and state, as well as regional transmission organizations. Tables outlining the restructuring and regulatory processes in Quebec from the fall of 1996 to 2000 were included along with an outline of the strategic plan and implications of Bill 116. A graph depicting Hydro-Quebec distribution and call for tenders for an additional 4100 MW from 2000 to 2016 was presented along with a list of accepted bids with the company name, location and type of power generation (hydraulic with reservoir, run-of-river, cogeneration-natural gas, or biomass). Other calls for tenders include an additional 1000 MW of renewable wind power. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Workplace Re-organization and Changes in Physiological Stress Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physiological stress markers as a consequence of workplace reorganization. Moreover, we aimed to investigate changes in the psychosocial work environment (job strain, effortreward imbalance (ERI), in psychological distress (stress symptoms......, perceived stress) and the mediating effect of these factors on changes in physiological stress markers. We used data from a longitudinal study that studied the health consequences of a major reorganization of non-state public offices executed in Denmark on 1 January 2007. Collection of clinical...... and questionnaire data was in 2006 and 2008, and in this sub-study we included 359 participants. To reflect stress reactions of the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system, we included 13 physiological markers. We observed significant change in several physiological stress markers...

  3. Proposal and Research Direction of Soil Mass Organic Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Han, Jichang

    2018-01-01

    Land engineering as a new discipline has been temporarily outrageous. The proposition of soil body organic reorganization undoubtedly enriches the research content for the construction of land engineering disciplines. Soil body organic reconstruction is designed to study how to realize the ecological ecology of the land by studying the external force of nature, to study the influence of sunlight, wind and water on soil body, how to improve the soil physical structure, to further strengthen the research of biological enzymes and microbes, and promote the release and utilization of beneficial inert elements in soil body. The emerging of frontier scientific research issues with soil body organic reorganization to indicate directions for the future development of soil engineering.

  4. Drying induced upright sliding and reorganization of carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingwen; De Paula, Raymond; Zhang Xiefei; Zheng Lianxi; Arendt, Paul N; Mueller, Fred M; Zhu, Y T; Tu Yi

    2006-01-01

    Driven by capillary force, wet carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been found to reorganize into cellular structures upon drying. During the reorganization process, individual CNTs are firmly attached to the substrate and have to lie down on the substrate at cell bottoms, forming closed cells. Here we demonstrate that by modifying catalyst structures, the adhesion of CNTs to the substrate can be weakened. Upon drying such CNT arrays, CNTs may slide away from their original sites on the surface and self-assemble into cellular patterns with bottoms open. It is also found that the sliding distance of CNTs increases with array height, and drying millimetre tall arrays leads to the sliding of CNTs over a few hundred micrometres and the eventual self-assembly into discrete islands. By introducing regular vacancies in CNT arrays, CNTs may be manipulated into different patterns

  5. Bilateral reorganization of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Martinian, L; Catarino, C; Yogarajah, M; Koepp, M J.; Caboclo, L; Sisodiya, S M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common surgical pathology associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). HS is typically characterized by mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reorganization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fiber networks in the dentate gyrus. One potential cause of postoperative seizure recurrence following temporal lobe surgery may be the presence of seizure-associated bilateral hippocampal damage. We aimed to investigate patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in a postmortem series as identified by NPY and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Methods: Analysis of dentate gyrus fiber reorganization, using dynorphin (to demonstrate MFS) and NPY immunohistochemistry, was carried out in a postmortem epilepsy series of 25 cases (age range 21–96 years). In 9 patients, previously refractory seizures had become well controlled for up to 34 years prior to death. Results: Bilateral MFS or abnormal NPY patterns were seen in 15 patients including those with bilateral symmetric, asymmetric, and unilateral HS by conventional histologic criteria. MFS and NPY reorganization was present in all classical HS cases, more variably in atypical HS, present in both MTLE and non-MTLE syndromes and with seizure histories of up to 92 years, despite seizure remission in some patients. Conclusion: Synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus may be a bilateral, persistent process in epilepsy. It is unlikely to be sufficient to generate seizures and more likely to represent a seizure-induced phenomenon. GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CA1p = CA1-predominant hippocampal sclerosis; CHS = classical hippocampal sclerosis; EFG = end folium gliosis; EFS = end folium sclerosis; GCD = granule cell dispersion; GCL = granule cell layer; HS = hippocampal sclerosis; MFS = mossy fiber sprouting; MTLE = mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; NPY = neuropeptide Y; ROI = region of interest; SE = status epilepticus; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:19710404

  6. A Structural Knowledge Representation Approach in Emergency Knowledge Reorganization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qingquan; Rong, Lili

    2007-01-01

    Facing complicate problems in emergency responses, decision makers should acquire sufficient background knowledge for efficient decision-making. Emergency knowledge acquired can be a kind of special product that is transferred among emergency decision makers and functional departments. The processing of knowledge product motivates the emergency knowledge decomposition and event-oriented knowledge integration, i.e. knowledge reorganization. Supported by the semantic power of category theory, t...

  7. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy drink exposures reported to Texas poison centers: Analysis of adverse incidents in relation to total sales, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Watts, Susan H; Herrera, Jessica; Larson, Joshua; Baeza, Salvador; Kingston, Richard L

    2018-05-21

    The ill-defined term "energy drink" includes a disparate group of products (beverages, shots, concentrates, and workout powders) having large differences in caffeine content and concentration and intended use. Hence, inaccurate conclusions may be drawn when describing adverse events associated with "energy drinks". The FDA is considering new regulation of these products but product specificity is needed to evaluate safety. To help address this, we queried Texas Poison Center Network data for single substance exposures to "energy drinks" from 2010 to 2014, then analyzed adverse events by product type. We specifically compared energy beverage exposures with sales data for the same time period to evaluate the safety profile of this category of energy drinks. Among 855 documented "energy drink" exposures, poison center-determined outcome severity revealed 291 with no/minimal effects, 417 judged nontoxic or minor/not followed, 64 moderate and 4 major effects, and no deaths. Serious complications included 2 seizures and 1 episode of ventricular tachycardia. Outcome severity by category for beverages: 11 moderate/1 major effects (none in children energy drinks". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Total energy intake may be more associated with glycemic control compared to each proportion of macronutrients in the korean diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2012-08-01

    Major macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans. A total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years) who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire. High total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002). Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted. Total energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  10. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  11. Minimizing Total Busy Time with Application to Energy-efficient Scheduling of Virtual Machines in IaaS clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Quang-Hung, Nguyen; Thoai, Nam

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds have become more popular enabling users to run applications under virtual machines. Energy efficiency for IaaS clouds is still challenge. This paper investigates the energy-efficient scheduling problems of virtual machines (VMs) onto physical machines (PMs) in IaaS clouds along characteristics: multiple resources, fixed intervals and non-preemption of virtual machines. The scheduling problems are NP-hard. Most of existing works on VM placement reduce ...

  12. INTERACTION BETWEEN MODELS OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE AND CYCLE OF ITS REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulkov Vitaliy Olegovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this scientific research is to develop a theoretical model of organizational and technology-related processes of reorganization of industrial enterprises, as well as their interaction. Multipoint logic notions of growth and interaction phases are used as research methods. The author describes the basic stages of reorganization, the life cycle of industrial enterprises and the cycle of their transformation. The processes are presented as an infographical image that represents a concentric model of interaction. This concentric model represents interaction between two or more phases. The process is entitled infografical modeling on the polyfunctional level. The concentric model moves both clockwise and anti-clockwise. Basic organizational and technological processes of reorganization of industrial enterprises that include decision making in terms of expediency of reorganization, design, construction, and performance of industrial enterprises at full capacity, and further operation of the industrial enterprise are described in the paper. Attainment of this objective, namely, reorganization of an industrial enterprise, involves a huge amount of resources, including labour resources that need interaction with all parties of reorganization; therefore, the concentric model of interaction describing the basic cycle of reorganization, the life cycle of an industrial enterprise and the cycle of its conversion is a trustworthy representation of this process. The proposed concentric model of interaction should be used in the design of organizational and technology-related processes for integrated consideration of reorganization of enterprises required to understand and improve the efficiency of reorganizations and to control the reorganization of industrial facilities.

  13. High resolution measurements of the He-He total scattering cross section for reduced collision energies between 0.2 and 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltgen, R.; Koehler, K.A.; Pauly, H.; Torello, F.; Vehmeyer, H.

    1974-01-01

    The energy dependence of the total scattering cross section is measured for the isotopic systems He 4 -He 4 and He 3 -He 3 using a velocity selected He primary beam and a He target in a scattering chamber maintained at 1.57 deg K. In the low energy region both systems show a pronounced atomic Ramsauer-Townsend effect. At higher energies 13 backward glory extrema in the case of He 4 -He 4 and 10 extrema for He 3 -He 3 are observed. From these extrema the energy dependence of the s-phase shift can be derived. Applying the semiclassical inversion method proposed by Miller it is possible to compute the repulsive potential in the energy range of the measurement

  14. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  15. Neutrons production of very low energy by filtration through graphite and measurement of total cross sections; Production de neutrons de tres basse energie par filtration a travers du graphite et mesure de sections efficaces totales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertaud, A; Beauge, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In this report, we done on the reactor of Chatillon analogous experiences to those of Fermi in Argonne. The temperature of the neutrons filtered ba a more or less thickness of graphite is measured by the method of absorption. This method permits the production and the study of a very low energy neutron beam. (M.B.) [French] Dans ce rapport, nous avons repris sur la pile de Chatillon des experiences analogues a celles de FERMI a Argonne. La temperature des neutrons filtree par une epaisseur plus ou moins grande de graphite est mesuree par la methode d'absorption. Cette methode permettant la production et l'etude d'un faisceau de neutron de tres basse energie. (M.B.)

  16. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  17. Correlations associated with small angle protons produced in proton- proton collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C

    1973-01-01

    High energy inelastic protons with x=2 p/sub L//s/sup 1/2/>0.99 observed in 15.3/15.3 GeV proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR are accompanied by particles whose angular distribution is confined to a narrow cone in the opposite direction. In contrast, lower energy protons (0.72

  18. Yield of Prompt Gamma Radiation in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U as a Function of the Total Fragment Kinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-07-01

    Fission gamma radiation yields as functions of the total fragment kinetic energy were obtained for 235U thermal-neutron induced fission. The fragments were detected with silicon surface-barrier detectors and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. In some of the measurements mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could also be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. Fission-neutron and gamma-ray data of previous experiments were used for comparisons of the yields, and estimates were made of the variation of the prompt gamma-ray energy with the total fragment kinetic energy

  19. Analysis of regional total factor energy efficiency in China under environmental constraints: based on undesirable-minds and DEA window model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Li, Deshan; Li, Shuangqiang; Jiang, Hanyu; Shen, Yuqing

    2017-06-01

    With China’s entrance into the new economy, the improvement of energy efficiency has become an important indicator to measure the quality of ecological civilization construction and economic development. According to the panel data of Chinese regions in 1996-2014, the nearest distance to the efficient frontier of Undesirable-MinDS Xeon model and DEA window model have been used to calculate the total factor energy efficiency of China’s regions. Study found that: Under environmental constraints, China’s total factor energy efficiency has increased after the first drop in the overall 1996-2014, and then increases again. And the difference between the regions is very large, showing a characteristic of “the east is the highest, the west is lower, and lowest is in the central” finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy suggestions.

  20. Measurement of the photon-proton total cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 209 GeV at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Pellegrino, A.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Crittenden, J.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kerger, R.; Kind, O.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Schnurbusch, H.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Weber, A.; Wessoleck, H.; Bailey, D.S.; Brook, N.H.; Cole, J.E.; Foster, B.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Robins, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Wing, M.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Jeoung, H.Y.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Ma, K.J.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Helbich, M.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Paganis, S.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Przybycien, M.B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Bednarek, B.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowal, M.; Kowalski, T.; Mindur, B.; Przybycien, M.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Fox-Murphy, A.; Fricke, U.; Geiser, A.; Goebel, F.; Goettlicher, P.; Graciani, R.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hillert, S.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labes, H.; Lelas, D.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Martens, J.; Martinez, M.; Moritz, M.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Stonjek, S.; Surrow, B.; Whitmore, J.J.; Wichmann, R.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Coldewey, C.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P.G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Markun, P.; Raach, H.; Woelfle, S.; Bell, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Doyle, A.T.; Glasman, C.; Hanlon, S.; Lee, S.W.; Lupi, A.; McCance, G.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Bodmann, B.; Holm, U.; Salehi, H.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Carli, T.; Gialas, I.; Klimek, K.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Goncalo, R.; Long, K.R.; Metlica, F.; Miller, D.B.; Tapper, A.D.; Walker, R.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Kuze, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, S.B.; Park, S.K.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Gonzalez, O.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Redondo, I.; Terron, J.; Vazquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Bertolin, A.; Corriveau, F.; Ochs, A.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D.G.; St-Laurent, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Bashkirov, V.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R.K.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Katkov, I.I.; Khein, L.A.; Korotkova, N.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Solomin, A.N.; Vlasov, N.N.; Zotkin, S.A.; Bokel, C.; Engelen, J.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Schagen, S.; Tassi, E.; Tiecke, H.; Tuning, N.; Velthuis, J.J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L.S.; Gilmore, J.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Kim, C.L.; Ling, T.Y.; Boogert, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Ferrando, J.; Matsushita, T.; Rigby, M.; Ruske, O.; Sutton, M.R.; Walczak, R.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Parenti, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Adamczyk, L.; Oh, B.Y.; Saull, P.R.B.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J.C.; McCubbin, N.A.; Heusch, C.; Park, I.H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Dagan, S.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kohno, T.; Umemori, K.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Maselli, S.; Monaco, V.; Peroni, C.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Galea, R.; Koop, T.; Levman, G.M.; Martin, J.F.; Mirea, A.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Butterworth, J.M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hayes, M.E.; Heaphy, E.A.; Jones, T.W.; Lane, J.B.; Lightwood, M.S.; West, B.J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Smalska, B.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; Zakrzewski, J.A.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Gladilin, L.K.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Breitweg, J.; Chapin, D.; Cross, R.; Kcira, D.; Lammers, S.; Reeder, D.D.; Savin, A.A.; Smith, W.H.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Straub, P.B.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C.D.; Fourletov, S.; Menary, S.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.

    2002-01-01

    The photon-proton total cross section has been measured in the process e + p→e + γp→e + X with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Events were collected with photon virtuality Q 2 2 and average γp center-of-mass energy W γp =209 GeV in a dedicated run, designed to control systematic effects, with an integrated luminosity of 49 nb -1 . The measured total cross section is σ tot γp =174±1 (stat.)±13 (syst.) μb. The energy dependence of the cross section is compatible with parameterizations of high-energy pp and pp-bar data

  1. The role of eating frequency on total energy intake and diet quality in a low-income, racially diverse sample of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E Whitney; Jacques, Paul F; Dallal, Gerard E; Sacheck, Jennifer; Must, Aviva

    2015-02-01

    The relationship of meal and snacking patterns with overall dietary intake and relative weight in children is unclear. The current study was done to examine how eating, snack and meal frequencies relate to total energy intake and diet quality. The cross-sectional associations of eating, meal and snack frequencies with total energy intake and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), were examined in separate multivariable mixed models. Differences were examined between elementary school-age participants (9-11 years) and adolescents (12-15 years). Two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls were collected from children attending four schools in the greater Boston area, MA, USA. One hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren, aged 9-15 years. Overall, 82% of participants consumed three daily meals. Eating, meal and snack frequencies were statistically significantly and positively associated with total energy intake. Each additional reported meal and snack was associated with an 18·5% and a 9·4% increase in total energy intake, respectively (Pquality differed by age category. In elementary school-age participants, total eating occasions and snacks increased HEI-2005 score. In adolescents, each additional meal increased HEI-2005 score by 5·40 points (P=0·01), whereas each additional snack decreased HEI-2005 score by 2·73 points (P=0·006). Findings suggest that snacking increases energy intake in schoolchildren. Snacking is associated with better diet quality in elementary school-age children and lower diet quality in adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of snacking in excess weight gain in children and adolescents.

  2. The reorganization of the nuclear sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    In November 2000, the French ministry of economy, finances and industry presented a project of reorganization of the overall French nuclear sector which aims at grouping together the activities of CEA-Industrie, Cogema and Framatome in a single huge industrial group. This group will comprise two main poles, a purely nuclear one around Cogema and Framatome, and a pole devoted to new technologies with the connector activities of Framatome and the shares of CEA-Industrie in STMicroelectronics. This new group should make a funded turnover of 10 billions of euros with a net result (share of the group) of 500 millions of euros. It will employ 45000 people. (J.S.)

  3. Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.

    2010-12-01

    We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian

  4. Reorganizing Care With the Implementation of Electronic Medical Records: A Time-Motion Study in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Nadia; Parisien, Geneviève; Charette, Sylvie; Arpin, Elizabeth; Brunet, Fabrice; Jouvet, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To assess caregivers' patient care time before and after the implementation of a reorganization of care plan with electronic medical records. A prospective, observational, time-motion study. A level 3 PICU. Nurses and orderlies caring for intubated patients during an 8-hour work shift before (2008-2009) and after (2016) implementation of reorganization of care in 2013. The reorganization plan included improved telecommunication for healthcare workers, increased tasks delegated to orderlies, and an ICU-specific electronic medical record (Intellispace Critical Care and Anesthesia information system, Philips Healthcare). Time spent completing various work tasks was recorded by direct observation, and proportion of time in tasks was compared for each study period. A total of 153.7 hours was observed from 22 nurses and 14 orderlies. There was no significant difference in the proportion of nursing patient care time before (68.8% [interquartile range, 48-72%]) and after (55% [interquartile range, 51-57%]) (p = 0.11) the reorganization with electronic medical record. Direct patient care task time for nurses was increased from 27.0% (interquartile range, 30-37%) before to 34.7% (interquartile range, 33-75%) (p = 0.336) after, and indirect patient care tasks decreased from 33.6% (interquartile range, 23-41%) to 18.6% (interquartile range, 16-22%) (p = 0.036). Documentation time significantly increased from 14.5% (interquartile range, 12-22%) to 26.2% (interquartile range, 23-28%) (p = 0.032). Nursing productivity ratio improved from 28.3 to 26.0. A survey revealed that nursing staff was satisfied with the electronic medical record, although there was a concern for the maintenance of oral communication in the unit. The reorganization of care with the implementation of an ICU-specific electronic medical record in the PICU did not change total patient care provided but improved nursing productivity, resulting in improved efficiency. Documentation time was significantly

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging research progress on brain functional reorganization after peripheral nerve injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiwei; Liu Hanqiu

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging technology the brain plasticity and functional reorganization are hot topics in the central nervous system imaging studies. Brain functional reorganization and rehabilitation after peripheral nerve injury may have certain regularity. In this paper, the progress of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging technology and its applications in the world wide clinical and experimental researches of the brain functional reorganization after peripheral nerve injury is are reviewed. (authors)

  6. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    with sunflower meal as protein source and ground corn as energy source (MI. The ground corn was partially substituted by soybean hulls (CS or by corn germ meal (FGM. Lignin and indigestible ADF (iADF, NDF (iNDF and lignin (i-lignin determined by 144 h of in vitro digestion were used as markers to estimate the total and partial diet digestibility of diets. The fiber intake was higher on CS diet, however no effect on dry matter intake was observed. Lignin underestimated significantly the digestibility. Indigestible ADF, iNDF and i-lignin was able to estimate total digestibility, however iADF and i-lignina did not estimate adequately the partial digestibility. Ruminal ADF digestibility was influenced by diets with higher values for CS and similar values for FGM, in relation to MI. Total ADF digestibility was higher in diet CS, but the other nutrients digestibility were not affected by different energy sources. Energy digestibility and NDT values did not differ among diets, with average of 61.5%. Soybean hulls and corn germ meal, on partial substitution of ground corn, were satisfactory alternative sources for inclusion on steer diets.

  7. FORTRAN 4 programs for the extraction of potential well parameters from the energy dependence of total elastic scattering cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudde, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to keep the programs as subroutine oriented as possible. Usually only the main programs are directly concerned with the problem of total cross sections. In particular the subroutines POLFIT, BILINR, GASS59/MAXLIK, SYMOR, MATIN, STUDNT, DNTERP, DIFTAB, FORDIF, EPSALG, REGFAL and ADSIMP are completely general, and are concerned only with the problems of numerical analysis and statistics. Each subroutine is independently documented.

  8. 7 CFR 4290.470 - Prior approval of merger, consolidation, or reorganization of RBIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... merge, consolidate, change form of organization (corporation, limited liability company, or limited partnership) or reorganize without the Secretary's prior written approval. Any such merger, consolidation, or...

  9. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  10. Fast calculation of molecular total energy with ABEEMσπ/MM method – For some series of organic molecules and peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Lin, Xiao-Ting; Zhao, Dong-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ABEEMσπ/MM method can be used to fast and accurately calculate the molecular total energy. • The energy obtained by ABEEMσπ/MM is in fair agreement with those from MP2/6-311++G(d, p). • ABEEMσπ charge can represent the anisotropy of the partial atomic charge. - Abstract: A new ABEEMσπ/MM method for fast calculation of molecular total energy is established by combining ABEEMσπ model with force field representation, where ABEEMσπ is the atom-bond electronegativity equalization model at the σπ level. The calibrated parameters are suitable and transferable. This paper demonstrates that the total molecular energies for series of alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and peptides calculated by ABEEMσπ/MM method are in fair agreement with those obtained from calculations of ab initio MP2/6-311++G(d, p) method with mean absolute deviation (MAD) being 1.45 kcal/mol and their linear correlation coefficients being 1.0000. Thus it opens good prospects for wide applications to chemical and biological systems.

  11. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Campbell, Karen J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-08-14

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0-24 months. Data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0-11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  12. Measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering and total cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of 546 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swol, R.W. van.

    1985-01-01

    The transformation of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) from a fixed target machine into a colliding beam facility allowed the study of antiproton-proton scattering at a centre-of-mass (CM) energy of 546 GeV. This thesis describes the measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering and the antiproton-proton total cross section, sigmasub(tot)(anti pp), at the CERN anti pp Collider. The aim of the experiment is to establish the considerable rise with energy of the total cross section, which was predicted after the discovery of rising proton-proton total cross sections at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), covering an energy range of 20-60 GeV. The experimental method used for measuring sigmasub(tot)(anti pp) with an accuracy of 1-2% consists of the simultaneous measurement of both the elastic scattering event rate at small scattering angles and the inelastic interaction rate. Using the optical theorem, the total and the elastic cross sections can then be obtained without a determination of the machine luminosity. (Auth.)

  13. Lipid reorganization induced by Shiga toxin clustering on planar membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Windschiegl

    Full Text Available The homopentameric B-subunit of bacterial protein Shiga toxin (STxB binds to the glycolipid Gb(3 in plasma membranes, which is the initial step for entering cells by a clathrin-independent mechanism. It has been suggested that protein clustering and lipid reorganization determine toxin uptake into cells. Here, we elucidated the molecular requirements for STxB induced Gb(3 clustering and for the proposed lipid reorganization in planar membranes. The influence of binding site III of the B-subunit as well as the Gb(3 lipid structure was investigated by means of high resolution methods such as fluorescence and scanning force microscopy. STxB was found to form protein clusters on homogenous 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC/cholesterol/Gb(3 (65:30:5 bilayers. In contrast, membranes composed of DOPC/cholesterol/sphingomyelin/Gb(3 (40:35:20:5 phase separate into a liquid ordered and liquid disordered phase. Dependent on the fatty acid composition of Gb(3, STxB-Gb(3 complexes organize within the liquid ordered phase upon protein binding. Our findings suggest that STxB is capable of forming a new membrane phase that is characterized by lipid compaction. The significance of this finding is discussed in the context of Shiga toxin-induced formation of endocytic membrane invaginations.

  14. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Zochowski, Michal R; Sander, Leonard M; Parent, Jack M; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells

  15. Reorganization of the power distribution sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossani, Rafiq

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the central issues for electricity-sector reform in India, as they grew out of the reform process that began in 1991, and within the context of the sector's organization, regulatory structure, and other institutional characteristics. The paper argues that India's current reform policies will not be sufficient to achieve reliable, efficient power because distribution reform has not been done. Undertaking distribution reform is a difficult path to tread because of the absence of global consensus on best practices and conflicting forces, both economic and political. The paper analyzes alternative institutional structures for reform in the distribution sector. The findings include that the objectives of coverage and efficiency may conflict, that economically efficient reorganization may be politically unachievable and that the small, municipally owned firm may be the best compromise. Since many Indian states are economically and politically diverse from each other, and include both large served and unserved areas, there is scope to vary the organizational structure depending on the state's situation. This paper provides a means to do so. The agenda for policymakers is to identify the situation in their respective states and choose a reorganization path that is the best compromise

  16. Reorganizing Complex Network to Improve Large-Scale Multiagent Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale multiagent teamwork has been popular in various domains. Similar to human society infrastructure, agents only coordinate with some of the others, with a peer-to-peer complex network structure. Their organization has been proven as a key factor to influence their performance. To expedite team performance, we have analyzed that there are three key factors. First, complex network effects may be able to promote team performance. Second, coordination interactions coming from their sources are always trying to be routed to capable agents. Although they could be transferred across the network via different paths, their sources and sinks depend on the intrinsic nature of the team which is irrelevant to the network connections. In addition, the agents involved in the same plan often form a subteam and communicate with each other more frequently. Therefore, if the interactions between agents can be statistically recorded, we are able to set up an integrated network adjustment algorithm by combining the three key factors. Based on our abstracted teamwork simulations and the coordination statistics, we implemented the adaptive reorganization algorithm. The experimental results briefly support our design that the reorganized network is more capable of coordinating heterogeneous agents.

  17. Anthropogenic Reorganization of Critical Zone in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Anders, A. M.; Bettis, E. A., III; Blair, N. E.; Filley, T. R.; Grimley, D. A.; Le, P. V.; Lin, H.; Lin, Y. F. F.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Muste, M.; Packman, A. I.; Papanicolaou, T.; Rhoads, B. L.; Richardson, M.; Schnoebelen, D. J.; Stumpf, A.; Ward, A. S.; Wilson, C. G.; Woo, D.; Yan, Q.; Goodwell, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agricultural practices has resulted in some of the most profound global impacts in the Anthropocene. These include eutrophication of lakes, rivers, and oceans from nutrient loading, degradation of arable land from the loss of fertile organic soils through erosion, and loss and degradation of soil organic matter from mechanical impacts on the soil, among others. As we prepare to feed additional 2 billion people by 2050 along with the emerging practices of farming for bioenergy production, these practices will intensify further whose goal is to overcome bio-geo-physical rate limitations and rate limiting states to enhance agricultural productivity. These rate-enhancing efforts generally target the fast response production processes, creating an imbalance with the slower assimilative processes in the Critical Zone that cascade through complex inter-dependencies across carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological systems. These imbalances modify stores and create gradients for flux, which over time reorganize the landscape, both in structure and function. In this presentation we show how these reorganizations are occurring in the Critical Zone of intensively managed landscapes, and argue that an integrated understanding of such profound changes are necessary for developing sustainable solutions for maintaining agricultural productivity and mitigating agriculture based environmental impacts.

  18. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high γ-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for γ-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate method of calculating the peak-to-total ratio of other composite detectors, is shown. Experimental validation of our approach (for energies up to 8 MeV) has been confirmed considering the data of the SPI spectrometer. We have discussed about comparisons between various modes of operation and suppression cases. The present paper is the fifth in the series of papers on composite germanium detectors and for the first time discusses about the change in fold distribution and peak-to-total ratio for sophisticated detectors consisting of several modules of miniball, cluster and SPI detectors. Our work could provide a guidance in designing new composite detectors and in performing experimental studies with the existing detectors for high energy gamma-rays.

  19. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high γ-energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-12-01

    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for γ-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate method of calculating the peak-to-total ratio of other composite detectors, is shown. Experimental validation of our approach (for energies up to 8 MeV) has been confirmed considering the data of the SPI spectrometer. We have discussed about comparisons between various modes of operation and suppression cases. The present paper is the fifth in the series of papers on composite germanium detectors and for the first time discusses about the change in fold distribution and peak-to-total ratio for sophisticated detectors consisting of several modules of miniball, cluster and SPI detectors. Our work could provide a guidance in designing new composite detectors and in performing experimental studies with the existing detectors for high energy gamma-rays.

  20. Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

    2014-12-01

    A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  2. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  3. Fission fragment yields and total kinetic energy release in neutron-induced fission of235,238U,and239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovesson, F.; Duke, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Manning, B.; Mayorov, D.; Mosby, S.; Schmitt, K.

    2018-03-01

    Different aspects of the nuclear fission process have been studied at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) using various instruments and experimental techniques. Properties of the fragments emitted in fission have been investigated using Frisch-grid ionization chambers, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the SPIDER instrument which employs the 2v-2E method. These instruments and experimental techniques have been used to determine fission product mass yields, the energy dependent total kinetic energy (TKE) release, and anisotropy in neutron-induced fission of U-235, U-238 and Pu-239.

  4. Determination of Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy of Alfalfa meal for Ostrich via Chromic Oxide Marker and Total Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ayaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn of Alfalfa meal for male ostrich at 90 d of age. Experiment was done as a completely randomized design with 5 treatments of 4 replicate and 4 chicks each. Different levels of Alfalfa meal (0, 15, 30 and 40% were replaced to the basal diet. AME and AMEn were determined via chromic oxid marker and total collection methods. The AME and AMEn of alfalfa meal was 2250±274, 2522±110, 2044±268 and 2366±107 kcal/kg at 40 % of replacement that calculated via chromic oxide marker and total collection excreta respectively. Measurement of TME and TMEn of Alfalfa meal in this experiment calculated by the different levels of feedstuff and were 3165 and 2877 kcal/kg respectively. The result of this experiment showed that using the ME data which calculated via adult leghorn cockerel to formulating the starter diet of ostrich is not suitable and determination of ME via ostrich to using it in the formulation of their diets is necessary.

  5. A study of the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross section of stable systems at intermediate energies: An application to 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liyuan; Song, Yushou; Hou, Yingwei; Liu, Huilan; Li, Hui

    2018-07-01

    A semi-microscopic analytical expression of the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross section (σR) was proposed based on the strong absorption model. It is suitable for stable nuclei at intermediate energies. The matter density distributions of nuclei and the nucleon-nucleon total cross section were both considered. Particularly, the Fermi motion effect of the nucleons in a nucleus was also taken into account. The parametrization of σR was applied to the colliding systems including 12C. The experimental data at energies from 30 to 1000 MeV/nucleon were well reproduced, according to which an approach of deriving σR without adjustable parameters was developed. The necessity of considering the Fermi motion effect in the parametrization was discussed.

  6. Measurement of the Total Cross Section for Hadronic Production by e+e- Annihilation at Energies between 2.6-5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chen, Y. Q.

    2000-01-01

    Using the upgraded Beijing Spectrometer, we have measured the total cross section for e + e - annihilation into hadronic final states at center-of-mass energies of 2.6, 3.2, 3.4, 3.55, 4.6, and 5.0 GeV. Values of R , σ(e + e - →hadrons )/σ(e + e - → μ + μ - ) , are determined. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Total cross section for hadron production by electron-positron annihilation between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV center-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Dakin, J.T.; Feldman, G.J.; Fischer, G.E.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Lyon, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Briggs, D.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Kadyk, J.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Zipse, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The total cross section for hadron production by e + e - annihilation has been measured at center-of-mass energies between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV. Aside from the very narrow resonances psi (3105) and psi (3695), the cross section varies between 32 and 17 nb over this region with structure in the vicinity of 4.1 GeV

  8. Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly labeled water technique in women from 60 to 70 years of age from Havana City, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Porrata, C.; Estrada, G.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Bayley, H.; McCormack, B.A.; Jones, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: With the purpose to measure the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and to validate the Cuban Dietary Energy Allowance for elderly subjects, energy expenditure was assessed by the doubly labeled water technique in 11 women aged 65.9 ± 2.8 y with a mean BMI of 21.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2 during 14 days under free-living conditions in their own environment in Havana City. Materials and Methods: After taking a basal urine sample, the women received an oral dose of 2.5 g H218O (10%) and 0.12 g 2H2O (99.8%) body weight and samples of saliva and urine were collected 14 days after. Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) was estimated by the Schofield equations proposed by the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Committee Report and energy intake was measured by trained dietitians using the 3-day weighed dietary record. A mean value of the food quotient of 0.85 was used for the calculations of the CO2 production by the isotopic method. Results: In spite of the expected variability, the differences between TEE measured by the isotopic method (7.57 MJ/d) and estimated according to FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985 (7.24 MJ/d) were not significant (0.625). The recommended dietary allowance for energy valid for Cuban elderly subjects (7.66 MJ/d) was only slight over the value of the measured TEE. The value of energy expenditure measured in free-living elderly women from Havana City was in the range of acceptable values (6-8 MJ/d) for this group of age. Conclusions: The total energy expenditure of elderly women from Havana City was lower than reported values for women living in developed countries but coincident with those of women of the developing world. The differences between dietary energy intake and TEE measured by the isotopic method were around 27% and coincident with previous reports in elderly people. The Cuban allowance for dietary energy for elderly women was enough for covering their energy requirements

  9. Measurements of the total neutron cross-sections of poly- and mono-germanium crystals at neutron energies below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Abbas, Y.; Habib, N.; Adib, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1983-12-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been performed for poly and mono-germanium crystals in the energy range from 2 meV-1eV. The measurements were performed using two TOF and a double axis crystal spectrometer installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The obtained neutron cross-sections were analyzed using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the total neutron cross-section of Ge and the analysis of its neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and thermal diffuse scattering cross-sections of Ge were estimated from the analysis of the total cross-section data obtained for Ge mono-crystal

  10. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  11. First measurement of the total proton-proton cross section at the LHC energy of √s =7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csörgõ, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, M.R.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajícek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mercadante, A.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vítek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2011-01-01

    TOTEM has measured the differential cross-section for elastic proton-proton scattering at the LHC energy of √s = 7TeV analyzing data from a short run with dedicated large Beta∗ optics. A single exponential fit with B = 20.1GeV**−2 (all errors are given in the text) describes the lowest range of the squared four-momentum transfer |t| from 0.02 to 0.3GeV**2. After the extrapolation to |t| = 0, a total elastic scattering cross-section of 24.8mb was obtained. Applying the Optical Theorem and using the luminosity measurement from CMS, a total proton-proton cross-section of 98.3mb was deduced which is in good agreement with the expectation from the overall fit of previously measured data over a large range of energies. From the total and elastic pp cross-section measurements, an inelastic pp cross-section of (73:5{\\pm}0:6stat +1:8 -1:3 syst) mb was inferred. PACS 13.60.Hb: Total and inclusive cross sections

  12. Life-cycle analysis of the total Danish energy system. An assessment of the present Danish energy system and selected furture scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, B; Soerensen, B

    1997-01-01

    The promise of life-cycle analysis (LCA) is to enable the incorporation of environmental and social impacts into decision-making processes. The challenge is to do it on the basis of the always incomplete and uncertain data available, in a way that is sufficiently transparent to avoid that the modeller introduces any particular bias into the decision process, by the way of selecting and treating the incomplete data. The life-cycle analysis of the currently existing system is to be seen as a reference, against which alternative solutions to the same problem is weighed. However, as it takes time to introduce new systems, the alternative scenarios are for a future situation, which is chosen as the middle of the 21st century. The reason for using a 30-50 year period is a reflection on the time needed for a smooth transition to an energy system based on sources different from the ones used today, with implied differences all the way through the conversion and end-use system. A scenario will only be selected if it has been identified and if there is social support for it, so construction of more exotic scenarios by the researcher would only be meaningful, if its advantages are so convincing that an interest can be created and the necessary social support be forthcoming. One may say that the energy scenarios based on renewable energy sources are in this category, as they were identified by a minority group (of scientists and other individuals) and successfully brought to the attention of the public debate during 1970ies. In any case it should be kept in mind, that no claim of having identified the optimum solution can be made after assessing a finite number of scenarios. (EG) 88 refs.

  13. 77 FR 55182 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 151 Under Alternative Site Framework Findlay, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1855] Reorganization of Foreign-Trade... option for the establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Findlay/Hancock County Chamber of Commerce, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 151, submitted an application to the Board (FTZ Docket 20-2012...

  14. Limitations to Plasticity of Language Network Reorganization in Localization Related Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbwana, J.; Berl, M. M.; Ritzl, E. K.; Rosenberger, L.; Mayo, J.; Weinstein, S.; Conry, J. A.; Pearl, P. L.; Shamim, S.; Moore, E. N.; Sato, S.; Vezina, L. G.; Theodore, W. H.; Gaillard, W. D.

    2009-01-01

    Neural networks for processing language often are reorganized in patients with epilepsy. However, the extent and location of within and between hemisphere re-organization are not established. We studied 45 patients, all with a left hemisphere seizure focus (mean age 22.8, seizure onset 13.3), and 19 normal controls (mean age 24.8) with an fMRI…

  15. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses material reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Maximilian F; Töpker, Michael; Lazar, Mathias; Weber, Michael; Kasparek, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul; Kubista, Bernd; Windhager, Reinhard; Ringl, Helmut

    2018-06-07

    To evaluate the influence of different scan parameters for single-energy CT and dual-energy CT, as well as the impact of different material used in a TKA prosthesis on image quality and the extent of metal artifacts. Eight pairs of TKA prostheses from different vendors were examined in a phantom set-up. Each pair consisted of a conventional CoCr prosthesis and the corresponding anti-allergic prosthesis (full titanium, ceramic, or ceramic-coated) from the same vendor. Nine different (seven dual-energy CT and two single-energy CT) scan protocols with different characteristics were used to determine the most suitable CT protocol for TKA imaging. Quantitative image analysis included assessment of blooming artifacts (metal implants appear thicker on CT than they are, given as virtual growth in mm in this paper) and streak artifacts (thick dark lines around metal). Qualitative image analysis was used to investigate the bone-prosthesis interface. The full titanium prosthesis and full ceramic knee showed significantly fewer blooming artifacts compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (mean virtual growth 0.6-2.2 mm compared to 2.9-4.6 mm, p energy CT protocols showed less blooming (range 3.3-3.8 mm) compared to single-energy protocols (4.6-5.5 mm). The full titanium and full ceramic prostheses showed significantly fewer streak artifacts (mean standard deviation 77-86 Hounsfield unit (HU)) compared to the standard CoCr prosthesis (277-334 HU, p energy CT protocols had fewer metal streak artifacts (215-296 HU compared to single-energy CT protocols (392-497 HU)). Full titanium and ceramic prostheses were ranked superior with regard to the image quality at the bone/prosthesis interface compared to a standard CoCr prosthesis, and all dual-energy CT protocols were ranked better than single-energy protocols. Dual-energy CT and ceramic or titanium prostheses reduce CT artifacts and provide superior image quality of total knee arthroplasty at the bone/prosthesis interface

  16. Protein degradation during reconsolidation as a mechanism for memory reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Kiun Kaang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a reference formed from a past experience that is used to respond to present situations. However, the world is dynamic and situations change, so it is important to update the memory with new information each time it is reactivated in order to adjust the response in the future. Recent researches indicate that memory may undergo a dynamic process that could work as an updating mechanism. This process which is called reconsolidation involves destabilization of the memory after it is reactivated, followed by restabilization. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the initial destabilization process of reconsolidation requires protein degradation. Using protein degradation inhibition as a method to block reconsolidation, recent researches suggest that reconsolidation, especially the protein degradation-dependent destabilization process is necessary for memory reorganization.

  17. Analysis of Septin Reorganization at Cytokinesis Using Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly McQuilken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Septins are conserved filament-forming proteins that act in diverse cellular processes. They closely associate with membranes and, in some systems, components of the cytoskeleton. It is not well understood how filaments assemble into higher-order structures in vivo or how they are remodeled throughout the cell cycle. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, septins are found through most of the cell cycle in an hourglass organization at the mother-bud neck until cytokinesis when the collar splits into two rings that disassemble prior to the next cell cycle. Experiments using polarized fluorescence microscopy have suggested that septins are arranged in ordered, paired filaments in the hourglass and undergo a coordinated 90° reorientation during splitting at cytokinesis. This apparent reorganization could be due to two orthogonal populations of filaments disassembling and reassembling or being preferentially retained at cytokinesis. In support of this idea, we report a decrease in septin concentration at the mother-bud neck during cytokinesis consistent with other reports and the timing of the decrease depends on known septin regulators including the Gin4 kinase. We took a candidate-based approach to examine what factors control reorientation during splitting and used polarized fluorescence microscopy to screen mutant yeast strains deficient in septin interacting proteins. Using this method, we have linked known septin regulators to different aspects of the assembly, stability, and reorganization of septin assemblies. The data support that ring splitting requires Gin4 activity and an anillin-like protein Bud4, and normal accumulation of septins at the ring requires phosphorylation of Shs1. We found distinct regulatory requirements for septin organization in the hourglass compared to split rings. We propose that septin subpopulations can vary in their localization and assembly/disassembly behavior in a cell-cycle dependent manner at cytokinesis.

  18. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Tun; Li, Chia-Wei; Vértes, Petra E; Wu, Changwei Wesley; Achard, Sophie; Hsieh, Chao-Hsien; Liou, Chien-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-02-01

    Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness.

  19. Unilateral hearing during development: hemispheric specificity in plastic reorganizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej eKral

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hemispheric contributions of neuronal reorganization following early single-sided hearing (unilateral deafness. The experiments were performed on ten cats from our colony of deaf white cats. Two were identified in early hearing screening as unilaterally congenitally deaf. The remaining eight were bilaterally congenitally deaf, unilaterally implanted at different ages with a cochlear implant. Implanted animals were chronically stimulated using a single-channel portable signal processor for two to five months. Microelectrode recordings were performed at the primary auditory cortex under stimulation at the hearing and deaf ear with bilateral cochlear implants. Local field potentials (LFPs were compared at the cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the hearing ear. The focus of the study was on the morphology and the onset latency of the LFPs. The data revealed that effects of hearing experience were more pronounced when stimulating the hearing ear. With respect to morphology of LFPs, pronounced hemisphere-specific effects were observed. Morphology of amplitude-normalized LFPs for stimulation of the deaf and the hearing ear was similar for responses recorded at the same hemisphere. However, when comparisons were performed between the hemispheres, the morphology was more dissimilar even though the same ear was stimulated. This demonstrates hemispheric specificity of some cortical adaptations irrespective of the ear stimulated. The results suggest a specific adaptation process at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear, involving specific (down-regulated inhibitory mechanisms not found in the contralateral hemisphere. Finally, onset latencies revealed that the sensitive period for the cortex ipsilateral to the hearing ear is shorter than that for the contralateral cortex. Unilateral hearing experience leads to a functionally-asymmetric brain with different neuronal reorganizations and different sensitive

  20. Unilateral hearing during development: hemispheric specificity in plastic reorganizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Andrej; Heid, Silvia; Hubka, Peter; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the hemispheric contributions of neuronal reorganization following early single-sided hearing (unilateral deafness). The experiments were performed on ten cats from our colony of deaf white cats. Two were identified in early hearing screening as unilaterally congenitally deaf. The remaining eight were bilaterally congenitally deaf, unilaterally implanted at different ages with a cochlear implant. Implanted animals were chronically stimulated using a single-channel portable signal processor for two to five months. Microelectrode recordings were performed at the primary auditory cortex under stimulation at the hearing and deaf ear with bilateral cochlear implants. Local field potentials (LFPs) were compared at the cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the hearing ear. The focus of the study was on the morphology and the onset latency of the LFPs. With respect to morphology of LFPs, pronounced hemisphere-specific effects were observed. Morphology of amplitude-normalized LFPs for stimulation of the deaf and the hearing ear was similar for responses recorded at the same hemisphere. However, when comparisons were performed between the hemispheres, the morphology was more dissimilar even though the same ear was stimulated. This demonstrates hemispheric specificity of some cortical adaptations irrespective of the ear stimulated. The results suggest a specific adaptation process at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear, involving specific (down-regulated inhibitory) mechanisms not found in the contralateral hemisphere. Finally, onset latencies revealed that the sensitive period for the cortex ipsilateral to the hearing ear is shorter than that for the contralateral cortex. Unilateral hearing experience leads to a functionally-asymmetric brain with different neuronal reorganizations and different sensitive periods involved.

  1. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  2. Anomaly transform methods based on total energy and ocean heat content norms for generating ocean dynamic disturbances for ensemble climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In our study we use the anomaly transform, a special case of ensemble transform method, in which a selected set of initial oceanic anomalies in space, time and variables are defined and orthogonalized. The resulting orthogonal perturbation patterns are designed such that they pick up typical balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables. The metric used to set up the eigen problem is taken either as the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, or the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choices of a reference state for defining the initial anomalies are such that either perturbations on seasonal timescales and or on interannual timescales are constructed. These project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the El Nino Southern Oscillation regions. An additional set of initial conditions is designed to fit in a least square sense data from global ocean reanalysis. Applying the AT produced sets of disturbances to oceanic initial conditions initialized by observations of the MPIOM-ESM coupled model on T63L47/GR15 resolution, four ensemble and one hind-cast experiments were performed. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instabilities or error growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the magnitude of the scaling amplitudes of the perturbation patterns. In contrast to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests a different source of uncertainty generation in the ocean than in the atmosphere mainly associated with changes in the density field.

  3. Investigation of the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation we study the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data. The parametrization used for the hadron-hadron total cross sections at high energy is inspired by recent results obtained by Giordano and Meggiolaro [J. High Energy Phys. 03 (2014) 002, 10.1007/JHEP03(2014)002] using a nonperturbative approach in the framework of QCD, and it reads σtot˜B ln2s +C ln s ln ln s . We critically investigate if B and C can be obtained by means of best-fits to data for proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering, including recent data obtained at the LHC, and also to data for other meson-baryon and baryon-baryon scattering processes. In particular, following the above-mentioned nonperturbative QCD approach, we also consider fits where the parameters B and C are set to B =κ Bth and C =κ Cth, where Bth and Cth are universal quantities related to the QCD stable spectrum, while κ (treated as an extra free parameter) is related to the asymptotic value of the ratio σel/σtot. Different possible scenarios are then considered and compared.

  4. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  5. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Dose and Energy Spectra From Neutron Induced Radioactivity in Medical Linear Accelerators Following High Energy Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M; Franich, R; Smith, R; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk posed by neutron induced activation of components in medical linear accelerators (linacs) following the delivery of high monitor unit 18 MV photon beams such as used in TBI. Methods: Gamma spectroscopy was used to identify radioisotopes produced in components of a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy following delivery of photon beams. Dose and risk estimates for TBI were assessed using dose deliveries from an actual patient treatment. A 1 litre spherical ion chamber (PTW, Germany) has been used to measure the dose at the beam exit window and at the total body irradiation (TBI) treatment couch following large and small field beams with long beam-on times. Measurements were also made outside of the closed jaws to quantify the benefit of the attenuation provided by the jaws. Results: The radioisotopes produced in the linac head have been identified as 187 W, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al, which have half-lives from between 2.3 min to 24 hours. The dose at the beam exit window following an 18 MV 2197 MU TBI beam delivery was 12.6 µSv in ten minutes. The dose rate at the TBI treatment couch 4.8 m away is a factor of ten lower. For a typical TBI delivered in six fractions each consisting of four beams and an annual patient load of 24, the annual dose estimate for a staff member at the treatment couch for ten minutes is 750 µSv. This can be further reduced by a factor of about twelve if the jaws are closed before entering the room, resulting in a dose estimate of 65 µSv. Conclusion: The dose resulting from the activation products for a representative TBI workload at our clinic of 24 patients per year is 750 µSv, which can be further reduced to 65 µSv by closing the jaws

  6. Charge dependence of the ratio of double to total ionization of a helium-like ion by Compton scattering of a high energy photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suric, T.; Pisk, K.; Pratt, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the charge (Z) dependence of the nonrelativistic high energy limit for the double to total ionization ratio by Compton scattering of a photon, as well as by the photoeffect, utilizing our approach based on the impulse approximation or on the generalized shake-off theory. For all Z our high energy Compton ratio is about half the corresponding photoeffect ratio, calculated using the same assumptions or, alternatively, the ratio of double ionization by Compton scattering to double ionization by the photoeffect is about half the ratio for single ionization. We conclude that all current Compton calculations are consistent with this result, and we show that the recent calculation of Amusia and Mikhailov [Phys. Lett. A 199 (1995) 209] corresponds to our high Z results. (orig.)

  7. A study of events with large total transverse energy produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, H.

    1994-09-01

    Properties of events originating from proton-antiproton interactions in which the total transverse energy, Σ|E T |, of the event exceeded 400 GeV are presented. These events were produced at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV and recorded in the D0 detector. The authors describe their analysis method which minimizes the effect of multiple interactions in the data sample. Based on a data sample of 5.45 ± 0.65 pb -1 , the topology of these hard scattering events as well as preliminary results for the cross-section, dσ/dΣ|E T |, are presented and discussed

  8. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.) [de

  9. Total electron scattering cross sections of molecules containing H, C, N, O and F in the energy range 0.2–6.0 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, Meera Devi; Ariyasinghe, W.M., E-mail: wickram_ariyasinghe@baylor.edu

    2017-03-15

    Based on the effective atomic total electron scattering cross sections (EATCS) of atoms in a molecular environment, a simple model is proposed to predict the total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of H, C, N, O, and F containing molecules. The EATCS for these five atoms are reported for 0.2–6.0 keV energies. The predicted TCS by this model are compared with experimental TCS in the literature. The experimental TCS of CHF{sub 3}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 4}F{sub 6}, and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} have been obtained for 0.2–4.5 keV electrons by measuring the attenuation of the electron beam through a gas cell.

  10. ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Military Large-Scale Experiment (LSE-1): system design and support activities. Final report, November 23, 1976-November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy System will include a concentrating solar collector field of several acres. During periods of direct insolation, a heat-transfer fluid will be circulated through the collector field and thus heated to 500 to 600/sup 0/F. Some of the fluid will be circulated through a steam generator to drive a turbine-generator set; additional fluid will be stored in insulated tanks for use when solar energy is not available. The electrical output will satisfy a portion of the electrical load at Fort Hood's 87,000 Troop Housing Complex. Heat extracted from the turbine exhaust in the form of hot water will be used for space heating, absorption air conditioning, and domestic water heating at the 87,000 Complex. Storage tanks for the hot water are also included. The systems analysis and program support activities include studies of solar availability and energy requirements at Fort Hood, investigation of interfacing LSE-1 with existing energy systems at the 87,000 Complex, and preliminary studies of environmental, health, and safety considerations. An extensive survey of available concentrating solar collectors and modifications to a computerized system simulation model for LSE-1 use are also reported. Important program support activities are military liaison and information dissemination. The engineering test program reported involved completion of the Solar Engineering Test Module (SETM) and extensive performance testing of a single module of the linear-focusing collector.

  11. Total cross section for hadron production by e+e--annihilation at center of mass energies between 3.6 and 5.2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandelik, R.; Braunschweig, W.; Ludwig, J.; Mess, K.H.; Orito, S.; Suda, T.; Tokyo Univ.

    1978-03-01

    The total cross section for e + e - annihilation into hadronic final states between 3.6 and 5.2 GeV was measured by the nonmagnetic inner detector of DASP, which has similar trigger and detection efficeincies for photons and charged particles. The measured difference in R = sigmasub(had)/sigmasub(μμ) between 3.6 GeV and 5.2 GeV is ΔR = 2.1 +- 0.3. We observe three peaks at cm energies of 4.04, 4.16 and 4.417 GeV, the parameters of which, when interpreted as resonances, are given. (orig.) [de

  12. Investigation of total cross sections for reactions induced by {sup 6}He interaction with silicon nuclei at energies between 5 and 50 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdrakhimova, G. D., E-mail: gaukharkd@gmail.com [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Sobolev, Yu. G.; Kuhtina, I. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kuterbekov, K. A. [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Mendibaev, K. O.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Experimental excitation functions in terms of the total cross sections for {sup 6}He + Si nuclear reactions are analyzed in the energy range between 5 and 50 MeV/A, and a brief survey of the procedures used to obtain experimental data is given. Particular attention is given to describing experiments performed in beams of radioactive nuclei from the accelerators of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). The experimental data in question are analyzed on the basis of a semimicroscopic optical model.

  13. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  14. Temporal evolution of brain reorganization under cross-modal training: insights into the functional architecture of encoding and retrieval networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora T.

    2015-03-01

    This study is based on the recent discovery of massive and well-structured cross-modal memory activation generated in the primary visual cortex (V1) of totally blind people as a result of novel training in drawing without any vision (Likova, 2012). This unexpected functional reorganization of primary visual cortex was obtained after undergoing only a week of training by the novel Cognitive-Kinesthetic Method, and was consistent across pilot groups of different categories of visual deprivation: congenitally blind, late-onset blind and blindfolded (Likova, 2014). These findings led us to implicate V1 as the implementation of the theoretical visuo-spatial 'sketchpad' for working memory in the human brain. Since neither the source nor the subsequent 'recipient' of this non-visual memory information in V1 is known, these results raise a number of important questions about the underlying functional organization of the respective encoding and retrieval networks in the brain. To address these questions, an individual totally blind from birth was given a week of Cognitive-Kinesthetic training, accompanied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and just after training, and again after a two-month consolidation period. The results revealed a remarkable temporal sequence of training-based response reorganization in both the hippocampal complex and the temporal-lobe object processing hierarchy over the prolonged consolidation period. In particular, a pattern of profound learning-based transformations in the hippocampus was strongly reflected in V1, with the retrieval function showing massive growth as result of the Cognitive-Kinesthetic memory training and consolidation, while the initially strong hippocampal response during tactile exploration and encoding became non-existent. Furthermore, after training, an alternating patch structure in the form of a cascade of discrete ventral regions underwent radical transformations to reach complete functional

  15. Downsizing and reorganization: demands, challenges and ambiguity for registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Anna; Nilsson, Kerstin; Theorell, Töres; Larsson, Ullabeth Sätterlund

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s were characterized by substantial financial cuts, and related staff redundancies and reorganizations in the Swedish health care sector. A large hospital in Sweden was selected for the study, in which downsizing had occurred between 1995 and 1997. The number of staff in the hospital was reduced by an average of 20%, and 10% were relocated to other departments. The aims of this study were to explore registered nurses' experiences of psychosocial 'stressors' and 'motivators', and how they handled their work situations, following a period of personnel reductions and ongoing reorganization. Interviews were undertaken with 14 nurses working in one Swedish hospital. Nurses were interviewed in 1997 about the recent and last round of redundancies, and were followed up 1 year later in 1998 and again in 2001. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed for thematic content. Five themes emerged in relation to nurses' perceived stressors, motivators, and coping options: 'distrust towards the employer', 'concurrent demands and challenges', 'professional ambiguity, 'a wish for collaboration', and 'efforts to gain control'. A common feature was duality and ambiguity in nurses' descriptions of the phenomena studied, meaning that identified themes had underlying sub-themes with both negative and positive dimensions. The concurrence of 'ever-growing job demands' and 'work going unrewarded' contributed to a feeling of being taken advantage of by the employer. The 'waste of human resources' and 'competence drain' that followed redundancies provoked anger. Unfulfilled collaboration with doctors was a major stress producer, which related to both the downsized work organization, and the complex 'deference-dominance' doctor-nurse relationship. The well-being of nurses depends on being an equal/parallel health professional in a comprehensive team that shares knowledge and improves collaborative care of patients. A consciously formulated nursing philosophy emerged as a

  16. Reorganization of Language Areas in Patient with a Frontal Lobe Low Grade Glioma – fMRI Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kośla, Katarzyna; Bryszewski, Bartosz; Jaskólski, Dariusz; Błasiak-Kołacińska, Nina; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies results in case of an adult patient with low grade glioma (LGG) in dominant hemisphere suggest brain plasticity process with acquisition of language functions by the non-dominant hemisphere speech regions. A 36-years old right-handed woman was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery for surgical treatment of brain tumor. An MRI examination revealed a pathological mass in the left frontal lobe, in close topographical relationship to the Broca’s area. A left fronto-parietal craniotomy was performed, with an intraoperative awake language mapping procedure. A total resection of the pathological mass was achieved. The tumor was examined histologically as LGG. In the follow-up MRI exam 32 months after the operation a tumor recurrence was suggested. The fMRI exams performed preoperative and 3, 32 and 41 months after the operation showed changes in language regions activation patterns, with a progressive right-sided activation of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Pre- and postoperative cognitive evaluation by a neuropsychologist did not detect any language impairment. We present a running process of reorganization of language areas in a patient after brain tumor resection, from strong left-sided to symmetrical lateralization. 1. FMRI results in comparison with the psychological status of the patient proved contribution of functional reorganization to the preservation of language performance. 2. A slow growing LGG as well as the recurrence of the tumor near the left Broca’s area might be the factors leading to reorganization of language-related areas by recruiting the right hemisphe

  17. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  18. Energy loss, range and fluence distributions, total reaction and projectile fragment production cross sections for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihver, L.; Kanai, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computer code for calculations of energy loss (dE/dx) and range distributions for heavy ions in any media. The results from our calculations are in very good agreement with previous calculations. We have developed semiempirical total reaction cross section formulae for proton-nucleus (with Z p ≤26) and nucleus-nucleus (with Z p and Z t ≤26) reactions. These formulae apply for incident energies above 15 MeV and 100 MeV/nucleon respectively. From the total reaction cross sections, we can calculate the mean free paths and the fluence distributions of protons and heavy ions in any media. We have compared all the calculated reaction cross sections and the mean free paths with experimental data, and the agreement is good. We have also constructed a procedure for calculating projectile fragment production cross sections, by scaling semiempirical proton-nucleus partial cross section systematics. The scaling is performed using a scaling parameter deduced from our reaction cross sections formulae, and additional enhancements factors. All products with atomic number ranging from that of the projectile (Z p ) down to Z=2 can be calculated. The agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is better than earlier published results. (author)

  19. Doctor Referral of Overweight People to a Low-Energy Treatment (DROPLET) in primary care using total diet replacement products: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Susan A; Astbury, Nerys M; Tearne, Sarah; Nickless, Alecia; Aveyard, Paul

    2017-08-04

    The global prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in recent decades. There is a pressing need to identify effective interventions to treat established obesity that can be delivered at scale. The aim of the Doctor Referral of Overweight People to a Low-Energy Treatment (DROPLET) study is to determine the clinical effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of referral to a low-energy total diet replacement programme compared with usual weight management interventions in primary care. The DROPLET trial is a randomised controlled trial comparing a low-energy total diet replacement programme with usual weight management interventions delivered in primary care. Eligible patients will be recruited through primary care registers and randomised to receive a behavioural support programme delivered by their practice nurse or a referral to a commercial provider offering an initial 810 kcal/d low-energy total diet replacement programme for 8 weeks, followed by gradual food reintroduction, along with weekly behavioural support for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. The secondary outcomes are weight change at 3 and 6 months, the proportion of participants achieving 5% and 10% weight loss at 12 months, and change in fat mass, haemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 12 months. Data will be analysed on the basis of intention to treat. Qualitative interviews on a subsample of patients and healthcare providers will assess their experiences of the weight loss programmes and identify factors affecting acceptability and adherence. This study has been reviewed and approved by the National Health ServiceHealth Research Authority (HRA)Research Ethics Committee (Ref: SC/15/0337). The trial findings will be disseminated to academic and health professionals through presentations at meetings and peer-reviewed journals and to the public through the media. If the intervention is effective, the results

  20. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. THE MAIN OPERATIONS OF REORGANIZATION THROUGH MERGERS OF TRADING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Gabriela Rolea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the optimistic forecasts issued by experts a couple of years ago, the economic predicaments of the European Union’s member states, including Romania, are far from being settled. The extension of the economic and financial dowturn, the continuing process of globalization and the financial markets’ volatility have imposed an unparalleled flexibility upon the economic agents, in that the amount of mergers and acquisitions has risen at a both national and international level. This background calls for a detailed but nonetheless approachable study of the reorganization of the trading companies though mergers, aimed mainly at the business environment. In order to reach the aforementioned objectives, the theoretical endeavor seeks to explore the relevant legal provisions, including the European Directives. The juridical and accounting operations of mergers, their legal consequences and concrete implications on the activity of the trading companies will also be analysed. Some particular approaches embraced by the legal practice are to be presented, as in Romania mergers are submitted to the control of the court. The study will have a positive impact on the economic agents, who are fostered to conclude this type of restructuring, by altering the line of thought shaped a few years ago, according to which mergers are difficult, isolated and sometimes even unacceptable operations.

  2. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-13

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (alpha) and higher (above beta) band coherence during 3~min epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3~min epochs of heart non-coherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher (above beta) band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  3. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Keun eKim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(alpha and higher(above beta band coherence during 3 minute epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3 minute epochs of heart noncoherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher(above beta band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  4. Emotional Prosody Processing in Epilepsy: Some Insights on Brain Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alba-Ferrara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant epilepsy is one of the most complex, multifactorial and polygenic neurological syndrome. Besides its dynamicity and variability, it still provides us with a model to study brain-behavior relationship, giving cues on the anatomy and functional representation of brain function. Given that onset zone of focal epileptic seizures often affects different anatomical areas, cortical but limited to one hemisphere, this condition also let us study the functional differences of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. One lateralized function in the human brain is emotional prosody, and it can be a useful ictal sign offering hints on the location of the epileptogenic zone. Besides its importance for effective communication, prosody is not considered an eloquent domain, making resective surgery on its neural correlates feasible. We performed an Electronic databases search (Medline and PsychINFO from inception to July 2017 for studies about prosody in epilepsy. The search terms included “epilepsy,” “seizure,” “emotional prosody,” and “vocal affect.” This review focus on emotional prosody processing in epilepsy as it can give hints regarding plastic functional changes following seizures (preoperatively, resection (post operatively, and also as an ictal sign enabling the assessment of dynamic brain networks. Moreover, it is argued that such reorganization can help to preserve the expression and reception of emotional prosody as a central skill to develop appropriate social interactions.

  5. EMMPRIN regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell adhesion in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) versus malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion, and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  7. Serial functional imaging poststroke reveals visual cortex reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodtmann, Amy; Puce, Aina; Darby, David; Donnan, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Visual cortical reorganization following injury remains poorly understood. The authors performed serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on patients with visual cortex infarction to evaluate early and late striate, ventral, and dorsal extrastriate cortical activation. Patients were studied with fMRI within 10 days and at 6 months. The authors used a high-level visual activation task designed to activate the ventral extrastriate cortex. These data were compared to those of age-appropriate healthy control participants. The results from 24 healthy control individuals (mean age 65.7 +/- SE 3.6 years, range 32-89) were compared to those from 5 stroke patients (mean age 73.8 +/- SE 7 years, range 49-86). Patients had infarcts involving the striate and ventral extrastriate cortex. Patient activation patterns were markedly different to controls. Bilateral striate and ventral extrastriate activation was reduced at both sessions, but dorsal extrastriate activated voxel counts remained comparable to controls. Conversely, mean percent magnetic resonance signal change increased in dorsal sites. These data provide strong evidence of bilateral poststroke functional depression of striate and ventral extrastriate cortices. Possible utilization or surrogacy of the dorsal visual system was demonstrated following stroke. This activity could provide a target for novel visual rehabilitation therapies.

  8. Should a reorganization of France's nuclear industry be envisaged?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent proposals to reorganize the French reactor industry to increase its export capability are reviewed here. Based on its criticism of the technology on offer to export markets, the Rousselly report recommended making the national electricity company a lead company free to negotiate the sale of reactors of its choosing (including Gen2 reactors) and to make the French manufacturer the sub-contractor of the former. The Government did not adopt these recommendations and rightly so. Based on an analysis of the changing world market for reactors, perspective can be gained on the criticism made of Areva about its marketing thrust, as well as the advantage to be gained by broadening its reactor catalogue. This analysis brings out and underlines the significance of the technological and industrial resources of Areva relative to competitors and the relatively meagre advantage of architect/assembler and operator provided by the national electricity company in the conquest of export markets. In the final analysis, the mercantile approach proposed by the champions of this reform to improve competitiveness with low cost nuclear newcomers was ruled out the Government, even before the Fukushima accident. What is really required is a little more export coordination between the two entities. (author)

  9. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development.

  10. Emotional Prosody Processing in Epilepsy: Some Insights on Brain Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Ferrara, Lucy; Kochen, Silvia; Hausmann, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Drug resistant epilepsy is one of the most complex, multifactorial and polygenic neurological syndrome. Besides its dynamicity and variability, it still provides us with a model to study brain-behavior relationship, giving cues on the anatomy and functional representation of brain function. Given that onset zone of focal epileptic seizures often affects different anatomical areas, cortical but limited to one hemisphere, this condition also let us study the functional differences of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. One lateralized function in the human brain is emotional prosody, and it can be a useful ictal sign offering hints on the location of the epileptogenic zone. Besides its importance for effective communication, prosody is not considered an eloquent domain, making resective surgery on its neural correlates feasible. We performed an Electronic databases search (Medline and PsychINFO) from inception to July 2017 for studies about prosody in epilepsy. The search terms included "epilepsy," "seizure," "emotional prosody," and "vocal affect." This review focus on emotional prosody processing in epilepsy as it can give hints regarding plastic functional changes following seizures (preoperatively), resection (post operatively), and also as an ictal sign enabling the assessment of dynamic brain networks. Moreover, it is argued that such reorganization can help to preserve the expression and reception of emotional prosody as a central skill to develop appropriate social interactions.

  11. Relation between holiday weight gain and total energy expenditure among 40- to 69-y-old men and women (OPEN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad M; Subar, Amy F; Troiano, Richard P; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-03-01

    A significant proportion of the average annual body weight (BW) gain in US adults (~0.5-1 kg/y) may result from modest episodes of positive energy balance during the winter holiday season. We tested whether holiday BW gain was reduced in participants with high baseline total energy expenditure (TEE) or whether it varied by BMI (in kg/m(2)). In a secondary analysis of previously published data, ΔBW normalized over 90 d from mid-September/mid-October 1999 to mid-January/early March 2000 was analyzed by sex, age, and BMI in 443 men and women (40-69 y of age). TEE was measured by doubly labeled water. High or low energy expenditure was assessed as residual TEE after linear adjustment for age, height, and BW. No correlations between ΔBW and TEE or TEE residuals were found. Sixty-five percent of men and 58% of women gained ≥0.5 kg BW, with ~50% of both groups gaining ≥1% of preholiday BW. Obese men (BMI ≥30) gained more BW than did obese women. A high preholiday absolute TEE or residual TEE did not protect against BW gain during the winter holiday quarter. It is not known whether higher than these typical TEE levels would protect against weight gain or if the observed gain may be attributed to increased food consumption and/or reduced physical activity during the holiday quarter.

  12. Effects on mortality, treatment, and time management as a result of routine use of total body computed tomography in blunt high-energy trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Raoul; Kool, Digna R; Deunk, Jaap; Edwards, Michael J R

    2012-03-01

    Currently, total body computed tomography (TBCT) is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. With this review, we aim to evaluate the clinical implications-mortality, change in treatment, and time management-of the routine use of TBCT in adult blunt high-energy trauma patients compared with a conservative approach with the use of conventional radiography, ultrasound, and selective computed tomography. A literature search for original studies on TBCT in blunt high-energy trauma patients was performed. Two independent observers included studies concerning mortality, change of treatment, and/or time management as outcome measures. For each article, relevant data were extracted and analyzed. In addition, the quality according to the Oxford levels of evidence was assessed. From 183 articles initially identified, the observers included nine original studies in consensus. One of three studies described a significant difference in mortality; four described a change of treatment in 2% to 27% of patients because of the use of TBCT. Five studies found a gain in time with the use of immediate routine TBCT. Eight studies scored a level of evidence of 2b and one of 3b. Current literature has predominantly suboptimal design to prove terminally that the routine use of TBCT results in improved survival of blunt high-energy trauma patients. TBCT can give a change of treatment and improves time intervals in the emergency department as compared with its selective use.

  13. Measurements of the total energy lost per electron-ion pair lost in low-pressure inductive argon, helium, oxygen and nitrogen discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Kwang; Ku, Ju-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the total energy lost per electron-ion pair lost, ε T , were performed in a low-pressure inductive atomic gases (Ar, He) and molecular gases (O 2 , N 2 ) discharge. The value of ε T was determined from a power balance based on the electropositive global (volume-averaged) model. A floating harmonic method was employed to measure ion fluxes and electron temperatures at the discharge wall. In the pressure range 5-50 mTorr, it was found that the measured ε T ranged from about 70 to 150 V for atomic gases, but from about 180 to 1300 V for molecular gases. This difference between atomic and molecular discharge is caused by additional collisional energy losses of molecular gases. For argon discharge, the stepwise ionization effect on ε T was observed at relatively high pressures. For different gases, the measured ε T was evaluated with respect to the electron temperature, and then compared with the calculation results, which were derived from collisional and kinetic energy loss. The measured ε T and their calculations showed reasonable agreement.

  14. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectra and total energy distribution of 3-pentyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one: DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, S; Saleem, H; Erdogdu, Y; Rajarajan, G; Thanikachalam, V

    2011-11-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded for 3-pentyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (PDPO) sample in solid state. The equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared and the Raman scattering intensities were computed using DFT/6-31G(d,p) level. Results obtained at this level of theory were used for a detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra, based on the total energy distribution (TED) of the normal modes. Molecular parameters such as bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles were calculated and compared with X-ray diffraction data. This comparison was good agreement. The intra-molecular charge transfer was calculated by means of natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). Hyperconjugative interaction energy was more during the π-π* transition. Energy gap of the molecule was found using HOMO and LUMO calculation, hence the less band gap, which seems to be more stable. Atomic charges of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen were calculated using same level of calculation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and evaluation of totally implantable ventricular assist system using a vibrating flow pump and transcutaneous energy transmission system with amorphous fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, T; Hashimoto, H; Kobayashi, S; Sonobe, T; Naganuma, S; Nanka, S S; Matsuki, H; Yoshizawa, M; Tabayashi, K; Takayasu, H; Takeda, H; Nitta, S

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a vibrating flow pump (VFP) that can generate oscillated blood flow with a relatively high frequency (10-50 Hz) for a totally implantable ventricular assist system (VAS). To evaluate the newly developed VAS, left heart bypasses, using the VFP, were performed in chronic animal experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded in a data recorder in healthy adult goats during an awake condition and analyzed in a personal computer system through an alternating-direct current converter. Basic performance of the total system with a transcutaneous energy transmission system were satisfactory. During left ventricular assistance with the VFP, Mayer wave fluctuations of hemodynamics were decreased in the power spectrum, the fractal dimensions of the hemodynamics were significantly decreased, and peripheral vascular resistance was significantly decreased. These results suggest that cardiovascular regulatory nonlinear dynamics, which mediate the hemodynamics, may be affected by left ventricular bypass with oscillated flow. The decreased power of the Mayer wave in the spectrum caused the limit cycle attractor of the hemodynamics and decreased peripheral resistance. These results suggest that this newly developed VAS is useful for the totally implantable system with unique characteristics that can control hemodynamic properties.

  16. Energies and raw material. Annual report; Energies et matieres premieres. Rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The annual report of the french General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Material (DGEMP) deals with the energy policy. The following subjects are analysed: the french program of fight against the global warming; the biogas; the radioactive wastes management program; the french nuclear industry re-organization; Tchernobyl; the electric power and gas public service; the risk prevention concerning the electric power production; the international Gaz De France protocol; the closing of the Ales mine; the cooperation ELF and TOTAL; the french para-petroleum industry; the raw material prices; the french mining situation; the french energy policy audit by the AIE; the energy accidents of december. The DGEMP organization chart with contacts and the publications are also included. (A.L.B.)

  17. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A; Engberg Pedersen, T; Joergensen, K [and others

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  18. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A.; Engberg Pedersen, T.; Joergensen, K. (and others)

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  19. Grading Gradients: Evaluating Evidence for Time-dependent Memory Reorganization in Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G. Akers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, hippocampal damage typically produces temporally graded retrograde amnesia, with relative sparing of remote memories compared to recent memories. This observation led to the idea that as memories age, they are reorganized in a time-dependent manner. Here, we evaluate evidence for time-dependent memory reorganization in animal models. We conclude that, although hippocampal lesions may not always produce temporal gradients under all conditions, studies using alternate experimental approaches consistently support the idea that memories reorganize over time—becoming less dependent on the hippocampus and more dependent on a cortical network. We further speculate on the processes that drive memory reorganization such as sleep, memory reactivation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis.

  20. Manipulation of Auditory Inputs as Rehabilitation Therapy for Maladaptive Auditory Cortical Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Okamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data suggest that the brains of not only children but also adults are reorganized based on sensory inputs and behaviors. Plastic changes in the brain are generally beneficial; however, maladaptive cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex may lead to hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Recent studies attempted to noninvasively visualize pathological neural activity in the living human brain and reverse maladaptive cortical reorganization by the suitable manipulation of auditory inputs in order to alleviate detrimental auditory symptoms. The effects of the manipulation of auditory inputs on maladaptively reorganized brain were reviewed herein. The findings obtained indicate that rehabilitation therapy based on the manipulation of auditory inputs is an effective and safe approach for hearing disorders. The appropriate manipulation of sensory inputs guided by the visualization of pathological brain activities using recent neuroimaging techniques may contribute to the establishment of new clinical applications for affected individuals.

  1. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F.

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left

  2. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left

  3. Point-by-point model description of average prompt neutron data as a function of total kinetic energy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudora, A.

    2013-01-01

    The experimental data of average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of total kinetic energy of fragments <ν>(TKE) exhibit, especially in the case of 252 Cf(SF), different slopes dTKE/dν and different behaviours at low TKE values. The Point-by-Point (PbP) model can describe these different behaviours. The higher slope dTKE/dν and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE exhibited by a part of experimental data sets is very well reproduced when the PbP multi-parametric matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a double distribution Y(A,TKE). The lower slope and the almost linear behaviour over the entire TKE range exhibited by other data sets is well described when the same matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a single distribution Y(A). In the case of average prompt neutron energy in SCM as a function of TKE, different dTKE/dε slopes are also obtained by averaging the same PbP matrix ε(A,TKE) over Y(A,TKE) and over Y(A). The results are exemplified for 3 fissioning systems benefiting of experimental data as a function of TKE: 252 Cf(SF), 235 U(n th ,f) and 239 Pu(n th ,f). In the case of 234 U(n,f) for the first time it was possible to calculate <ν>(TKE) and <ε>(TKE) at many incident energies by averaging the PbP multi-parametric matrices over the experimental Y(A,TKE) distributions recently measured at IRMM for 14 incident energies in the range 0.3- 5 MeV. The results revealed that the slope dTKE/dν does not vary with the incident energy and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE values is more pronounced at low incident energies. The average model parameters dependences on TKE resulted from the PbP treatment allow the use of the most probable fragmentation approach, having the great advantage to provide results at many TKE values in a very short computing time compared to PbP and Monte Carlo treatments. (author)

  4. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    brackish waters (palgae and bacteria) in the sediment and a high annual temperature sum, resulted in high methylation rates. In conclusion, concentrations of neutral Hg-sulfides and availability of energy rich organic matter, but also total Hg concentrations in sediments are important factors behind net production and accumulation of MeHg . References: (1) Drott et. al. submitted, (2) Drott, A.; Lambertsson, L.; Björn, E.; Skyllberg, U. Importance of dissolved neutral mercury sulfides for methyl mercury production in contaminated sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 2007, 41, 2270-2276.

  5. The association between workers' employability and burnout in a reorganization context: longitudinal evidence building upon the conservation of resources theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; Raeder, Sabine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Wittekind, Anette

    2012-04-01

    This longitudinal study probes the relationship between employability and burnout among employees from a company undergoing reorganization. We advanced employability as a personal resource that relates negatively to burnout. We expected that this hypothesis would hold for different operationalizations of employability, including (1) job-related and (2) transferable skills, (3) willingness to change jobs and (4) to develop competences, (5) opportunity awareness, (6) self-esteem, and (7) self-perceived employability (i.e., perceived employment opportunities). In a similar vein, we expected that the hypothesis would hold for the different dimensions of burnout; namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. We used longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to test our hypotheses. Employees from a Swiss company undergoing a major reorganization were surveyed at three times with a total time lag of 19 months (Time 1: N = 287; Time 2: N = 128; Time 3: N = 107). Our results indicate that particularly self-esteem, but also job-related and transferable skills as indicators of one's employability were important predictors of burnout, with all relationships being negative. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Database Reorganization in Parallel Disk Arrays with I/O Service Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabback, Peter; Onyuksel, Ibrahim; Scheuermann, Peter; Weikum, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for data reorganization in parallel disk systems that is geared towards load balancing in an environment with periodic access patterns. Data reorganization is performed by disk cooling, i.e. migrating files or extents from the hottest disks to the coldest ones. We develop an approximate queueing model for determining the effective arrival rates of cooling requests and discuss its use in assessing the costs versus benefits of cooling.

  7. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  8. Dependence of J/ψ suppression in heavy ion collisions on total transverse energy, nucleon numbers and J/ψ transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnik, J.; Lichard, P.

    1989-01-01

    We present a set of semiquantitative predictions for the behaviour of J/ψ suppression in heavy ion collisions as a function of the total transverse energy, nucleon numbers of colliding ions and the J/ψ transverse momentum. These predictions are based on the assumption that all of J/ψ suppression is due to J/ψ and χ disintegrations in collisions with hadrons in a dense hadronic gas formed in the heavy ion collisions. The hydrodynamic evolution of the hadron gas is taken into account. The onset of the quark-gluon plasma formation should manifest itself by clear qualitative deviations from J/ψ suppression calculated in this way, in particular as thresholds or kinks in the E T -dependence, or as a threshold for J/ψ suppression as a function of the atomic number of the target, expected at Cu or below. (orig.)

  9. Reorganization of plasma membrane lipid domains during conidial germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Filipa C; Fernandes, Andreia S; Antunes, Catarina A C; Moreira, Filipe P; Videira, Arnaldo; Marinho, H Susana; de Almeida, Rodrigo F M

    2017-02-01

    Neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus, in the unicellular conidial stage has ideal features to study sphingolipid (SL)-enriched domains, which are implicated in fundamental cellular processes ranging from antifungal resistance to apoptosis. Several changes in lipid metabolism and in the membrane composition of N. crassa occur during spore germination. However, the biophysical impact of those changes is unknown. Thus, a biophysical study of N. crassa plasma membrane, particularly SL-enriched domains, and their dynamics along conidial germination is prompted. Two N. crassa strains, wild-type (WT) and slime, which is devoid of cell wall, were studied. Conidial growth of N. crassa WT from a dormancy state to an exponential phase was accompanied by membrane reorganization, namely an increase of membrane fluidity, occurring faster in a supplemented medium than in Vogel's minimal medium. Gel-like domains, likely enriched in SLs, were found in both N. crassa strains, but were particularly compact, rigid and abundant in the case of slime cells, even more than in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa, our results suggest that the melting of SL-enriched domains occurs near growth temperature (30°C) for WT, but at higher temperatures for slime. Regarding biophysical properties strongly affected by ergosterol, the plasma membrane of slime conidia lays in between those of N. crassa WT and S. cerevisiae cells. The differences in biophysical properties found in this work, and the relationships established between membrane lipid composition and dynamics, give new insights about the plasma membrane organization and structure of N. crassa strains during conidial growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  11. Reorganization of Basolateral Amygdala-Subiculum Circuitry in Mouse Epilepsy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eMa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reorganized basolateral amygdala (BLA-subiculum pathway in a status epilepticus (SE mouse model with epileptic episodes induced by pilocarpine. We have previously observed a dramatic loss of neurons in the CA1-3 fields of the hippocampus in epileptic mice. Herein, we observed a 43-57 % reduction in the number of neurons in the BLA of epileptic mice. However, injection of an anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L into the BLA indicated 25.63 % increase in the number of PHA-L-immunopositive terminal-like structures in the ventral subiculum (v-Sub of epileptic mice as compared to control mice. These data suggest that the projections from the basal nucleus at BLA to the vSub in epileptic mice are resistant to epilepsy-induced damage. Consequently, these epileptic mice exhibit partially impairment but not total loss of context-dependent fear memory. Epileptic mice also show increased c-Fos expression in the BLA and vSub when subjected to contextual memory test, suggesting the participation of these 2 brain areas in foot shock-dependent fear conditioning. These results indicate the presence of functional neural connections between the BLA-vSub regions that participate in learning and memory in epileptic mice.

  12. Genome reorganization in Nicotiana asymmetric somatic hybrids analysed by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parokonny, A.S.; Kenton, A.Y.; Gleba, Y.Y.; Bennett, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    In situ hybridization was used to examine genome reorganization in asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana sylvestris obtained by fusion of gamma-irradiated protoplasts from one of the parents (donor) with non-irradiated protoplasts from the other (recipient). Probing with biotinylated total genomic DNA from either the donor or the recipient species unequivocally identified genetic material from both parents in 31 regenerant plants, each originating from a different nuclear hybrid colony. This method, termed genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), allowed intergenomic translocations containing chromosome segments from both species to be recognized in four regenerants. A probe homologous to the consensus sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana telomeric repeat (5'-TTTAGGG-3')n, identified telomeres on all chromosomes, including 'mini-chromosomes' originating from the irradiated donor genome. Genomic in situ hybridization to plant chromosomes provides a rapid and reliable means of screening for recombinant genotypes in asymmetric somatic hybrids. Used in combination with other DNA probes, it also contributes to a greater understanding of the events responsible for genomic recovery and restabilization following genetic manipulation in vitro

  13. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on total energy and material control (Survey on feasibility of structuring a circulation type society); 1999 nendo total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3. Junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Structuring a circulation type society indispensably requires effective utilization of energies and resources, to which approaches have been taken by industries independently. An approach upon structuring an industry crossing network may be taken effective for further effective utilization of the energies and resources. The present survey is intended to extract problems therefrom. It is also intended to perform surveys and studies on the following three points: (1) process-linking with different industries aimed at zero wasting in industrial complexes and electric furnaces dispersed adequately nationwide, (2) effective use and cascading utilization of energies and resources, and (3) a circulating type economic system simulation using metallic material industry as the core. It is further intended that problems shall be extracted; the results are compiled as the 'basic technology development for the metallic material circulating type economic system'; technological development themes are extracted; and the draft proposal shall be prepared. The total energy and materials control system (TECOS) activities are aimed at structuring a circulation type industrial structure, in which the following requirements are executed: the process-linking transcending the conventional industrial boundaries is performed; substances included in respective materials and discharges, and energies used in the processes are controlled comprehensively; the energies are utilized at ultra-high efficiency; and minimization of all the discharges is realized. (NEDO)

  14. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on total energy and material control (Survey on feasibility of structuring a circulation type society); 1999 nendo total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3. Junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Structuring a circulation type society indispensably requires effective utilization of energies and resources, to which approaches have been taken by industries independently. An approach upon structuring an industry crossing network may be taken effective for further effective utilization of the energies and resources. The present survey is intended to extract problems therefrom. It is also intended to perform surveys and studies on the following three points: (1) process-linking with different industries aimed at zero wasting in industrial complexes and electric furnaces dispersed adequately nationwide, (2) effective use and cascading utilization of energies and resources, and (3) a circulating type economic system simulation using metallic material industry as the core. It is further intended that problems shall be extracted; the results are compiled as the 'basic technology development for the metallic material circulating type economic system'; technological development themes are extracted; and the draft proposal shall be prepared. The total energy and materials control system (TECOS) activities are aimed at structuring a circulation type industrial structure, in which the following requirements are executed: the process-linking transcending the conventional industrial boundaries is performed; substances included in respective materials and discharges, and energies used in the processes are controlled comprehensively; the energies are utilized at ultra-high efficiency; and minimization of all the discharges is realized. (NEDO)

  15. Proteomic analysis of trans-hemispheric motor cortex reorganization following contralateral C7 nerve transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yin; Xu, Xiu-yue; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Nerve transfer is the most common treatment for total brachial plexus avulsion injury. After nerve transfer, the movement of the injured limb may be activated by certain movements of the healthy limb at the early stage of recovery, i.e., trans-hemispheric reorganization. Previous studies have focused on functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and growth associated protein 43, but there have been no proteomics studies. In this study, we designed a rat model of total brachial plexus avulsion injury involving contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and western blot assay were then used to screen differentially expressed proteins in bilateral motor cortices. We found that most differentially expressed proteins in both cortices of upper limb were associated with nervous system development and function (including neuron differentiation and development, axonogenesis, and guidance), microtubule and cytoskeleton organization, synapse plasticity, and transmission of nerve impulses. Two key differentially expressed proteins, neurofilament light (NFL) and Thy-1, were identified. In contralateral cortex, the NFL level was upregulated 2 weeks after transfer and downregulated at 1 and 5 months. The Thy-1 level was upregulated from 1 to 5 months. In the affected cortex, the NFL level increased gradually from 1 to 5 months. Western blot results of key differentially expressed proteins were consistent with the proteomic findings. These results indicate that NFL and Thy-1 play an important role in trans-hemispheric organization following total brachial plexus root avulsion and contralateral C7 nerve transfer. PMID:29557385

  16. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  17. Effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on resting energy production rate and total body substrate utilization in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, Matej; Voga, Gorazd

    2002-12-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) beta-blockers reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and improve myocardial efficiency by shifting myocardial substrate utilization from increased free fatty acid oxidation to increased glucose oxidation. The effect of selective and nonselective beta-blockers on total body resting energy production rate (EPR) and substrate utilization is not known. Twenty-six noncachectic patients with moderately severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III, left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.40) were treated with carvedilol (37.5 +/- 13.5 mg/12 h) or bisoprolol (5.4 +/- 3.0 mg/d) for 6 months. Indirect calorimetry was performed before and after 6 months of treatment. Resting EPR was decreased in carvedilol (5.021 +/- 0.803 to 4.552 +/- 0.615 kJ/min, P <.001) and bisoprolol group (5.230 +/- 0.828 to 4.978 +/- 0.640 kJ/min, P <.05; nonsignificant difference between groups). Lipid oxidation rate decreased in carvedilol and remained unchanged in bisoprolol group (2.4 +/- 1.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.9 mg m(2)/kg min versus 2.7 +/- 1.1 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05). Glucose oxidation rate was increased only in carvedilol (2.6 +/- 1.4 to 4.4 +/- 1.6 mg m(2)/kg min, P <.05), but did not change in bisoprolol group. Both selective and nonselective beta-blockers reduce total body resting EPR in noncachectic CHF patients. Carvedilol compared to bisoprolol shifts total body substrate utilization from lipid to glucose oxidation.

  18. H.R. 5448: a bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to reorganize the functions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by abolishing the Commission and in its place establishing the Nuclear Regulation and Safety Agency. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, August 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Omnibus Nuclear Safety Act of 1986 amends the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 by replacing the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a new entity, the Nuclear Regulation and Safety Agency. The purposes are to promote an energy policy that is better coordinated and more consistent with the protection of public health and safety. The new agency would also expedite licensing for construction and operation of nuclear power plants by using pre-approved standardized designs and sites

  19. The impact of high total cholesterol and high low-density lipoprotein on avascular necrosis of the femoral head in low-energy femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianshang; Zhan, Ke; Zhang, Lili; Zeng, Dan; Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao; Zhao, Mingdong; Lai, Zhicheng; Chen, Runzhen

    2017-02-17

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) typically constitutes 5 to 15% of all complications of low-energy femoral neck fractures, and due to an increasingly ageing population and a rising prevalence of femoral neck fractures, the number of patients who develop AVNFH is increasing. However, there is no consensus regarding the relationship between blood lipid abnormalities and postoperative AVNFH. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between blood lipid abnormalities and AVNFH following the femoral neck fracture operation among an elderly population. A retrospective, comparative study was performed at our institution. Between June 2005 and November 2009, 653 elderly patients (653 hips) with low-energy femoral neck fractures underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with cancellous screws (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee). Follow-up occurred at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after surgery. Logistic multi-factor regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors of AVNFH and to determine the effect of blood lipid levels on AVNFH development. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predetermined to focus on isolated freshly closed femoral neck fractures in the elderly population. The primary outcome was the blood lipid levels. The secondary outcome was the logistic multi-factor regression analysis. A total of 325 elderly patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures (AVNFH, n = 160; control, n = 165) were assessed. In the AVNFH group, the average TC, TG, LDL, and Apo-B values were 7.11 ± 3.16 mmol/L, 2.15 ± 0.89 mmol/L, 4.49 ± 1.38 mmol/L, and 79.69 ± 17.29 mg/dL, respectively; all of which were significantly higher than the values in the control group. Logistic multi-factor regression analysis showed that both TC and LDL were the independent factors influencing the postoperative AVNFH within femoral neck fractures. This evidence indicates that AVNFH was significantly

  20. Reorganization of retinotopic maps after occipital lobe infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaina, Lucia M; Soloviev, Sergei; Calabro, Finnegan J; Buonanno, Ferdinando; Passingham, Richard; Cowey, Alan

    2014-06-01

    hemisphere of PF. However, PF was only scanned at 3 and 7 months, and the biggest shifts in patient JS were found between 8 and 11 months. Thus, it is important to carry out a prospective study with a trained and untrained group so as to determine whether the patterns of reorganization that we have observed can be further promoted by training.

  1. Auditory cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users indicates audio-visual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stropahl, Maren; Debener, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading. As CI users were observed to show differences in multisensory integration, the question arises if cross-modal reorganization is related to audio-visual integration skills. The current electroencephalography study investigated cortical reorganization in experienced post-lingually deafened CI users ( n  = 18), untreated mild to moderately hearing impaired individuals (n = 18) and normal hearing controls ( n  = 17). Cross-modal activation of the auditory cortex by means of EEG source localization in response to human faces and audio-visual integration, quantified with the McGurk illusion, were measured. CI users revealed stronger cross-modal activations compared to age-matched normal hearing individuals. Furthermore, CI users showed a relationship between cross-modal activation and audio-visual integration strength. This may further support a beneficial relationship between cross-modal activation and daily-life communication skills that may not be fully captured by laboratory-based speech perception tests. Interestingly, hearing impaired individuals showed behavioral and neurophysiological results that were numerically between the other two groups, and they showed a moderate relationship between cross-modal activation and the degree of hearing loss. This further supports the notion that auditory deprivation evokes a reorganization of the auditory system

  2. Auditory cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users indicates audio-visual integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stropahl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading. As CI users were observed to show differences in multisensory integration, the question arises if cross-modal reorganization is related to audio-visual integration skills. The current electroencephalography study investigated cortical reorganization in experienced post-lingually deafened CI users (n = 18, untreated mild to moderately hearing impaired individuals (n = 18 and normal hearing controls (n = 17. Cross-modal activation of the auditory cortex by means of EEG source localization in response to human faces and audio-visual integration, quantified with the McGurk illusion, were measured. CI users revealed stronger cross-modal activations compared to age-matched normal hearing individuals. Furthermore, CI users showed a relationship between cross-modal activation and audio-visual integration strength. This may further support a beneficial relationship between cross-modal activation and daily-life communication skills that may not be fully captured by laboratory-based speech perception tests. Interestingly, hearing impaired individuals showed behavioral and neurophysiological results that were numerically between the other two groups, and they showed a moderate relationship between cross-modal activation and the degree of hearing loss. This further supports the notion that auditory deprivation evokes a reorganization of the

  3. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  4. Total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass in Korean adults aged 30 years and older: an analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2018-06-01

    Since gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is a gradual event and occurs due to a combination of lifestyle factors, assessment of dietary factors related to skeletal muscle is complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass. A total of 8,165 subjects ≥ 30 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011 were included in the analysis, and multivariate-adjusted regression analyses were performed to analyze the association of the quartiles of sarcopenia index (SI) with energy intake of the study population after adjusting for age and metabolic parameters. The increase in SI quartile was in proportion to the gradual decrease in systemic lipids and the anthropometric measurement of fat accumulation ( P energy and energy-producing nutrients than those in lower quartiles ( P energy intake gradually increased according to the increase in SI quartile, and the association between total energy intake and SI was more pronounced in men. However, the risk (odd ratio) of having a low SI was not affected by any single macronutrient intake. In this study, total energy intake was positively associated with SI and relative skeletal mass in both men and women. However, no significant association or a weak association was observed between any single macronutrient intake and skeletal muscle mass. The data indicated that acquiring more energy intake within the normal range of energy consumption may help to maintain skeletal muscle mass.

  5. Fingerprinting analysis of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds using high energy X-rays and the total scattering pair distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timur D.

    2011-12-01

    In the development of new medicinal products, poor oral bioavailability, due to the low solubilities of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), is increasingly a barrier for treatments to be administered using tablet or capsule formulations and one of the main challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry. Non-crystalline phases such as the amorphous and nanostructured states can confer increased solubility to a drug, and therefore, have recently garnered a lot of interest from pharmaceutical researchers. However, little is known about local ordering in non-crystalline pharmaceuticals due to the lack of reliable experimental probes, hindering the clinical application of these compounds. The powerful tools of crystallography begin to lose their potency for structures on the nanoscale; conventional X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns become broad and featureless in these cases and are not useful for differentiating between different local molecular packing arrangements. In this thesis, we introduce the use of high energy X-rays coupled with total scattering pair distribution function (TSPDF) and fingerprinting analysis to investigate the local structures of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds. The high energy X-rays allow us to experimentally collect diffuse scattering intensities, which contain information about a sample's local ordering, in addition to the Bragg scattering available in conventional XRPD experiments, while the TSPDF allows us to view the intra- and inter-molecular correlations in real space. The goal of this study was to address some fundamental problems involving fingerprinting non-crystalline APIs using TSPDF in order to lay the groundwork for the proper use of the technique by the pharmaceutical community. We achieved this by developing the methodology as well as the exploring the scientific implications. On the methodology side, we introduced PDFGetX3, a new software program for calculating TSPDFs that simplifies the procedure

  6. Hand-held indirect calorimeter offers advantages compared with prediction equations, in a group of overweight women, to determine resting energy expenditures and estimated total energy expenditures during research screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Karen E; Kim, Hyunsook; Behall, Kay M; Conway, Joan M

    2009-05-01

    To compare standardized prediction equations to a hand-held indirect calorimeter in estimating resting energy and total energy requirements in overweight women. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by hand-held indirect calorimeter and calculated by prediction equations Harris-Benedict, Mifflin-St Jeor, World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (WHO), and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Physical activity level, assessed by questionnaire, was used to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE). Subjects (n=39) were female nonsmokers older than 25 years of age with body mass index more than 25. Repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and fitted regression line of difference. A difference within +/-10% of two methods indicated agreement. Significant proportional bias was present between hand-held indirect calorimeter and prediction equations for REE and TEE (Pvalues and underestimated at higher values. Mean differences (+/-standard error) for REE and TEE between hand-held indirect calorimeter and Harris-Benedict were -5.98+/-46.7 kcal/day (P=0.90) and 21.40+/-75.7 kcal/day (P=0.78); between hand-held indirect calorimeter and Mifflin-St Jeor were 69.93+/-46.7 kcal/day (P=0.14) and 116.44+/-75.9 kcal/day (P=0.13); between hand-held indirect calorimeter and WHO were -22.03+/-48.4 kcal/day (P=0.65) and -15.8+/-77.9 kcal/day (P=0.84); and between hand-held indirect calorimeter and DRI were 39.65+/-47.4 kcal/day (P=0.41) and 56.36+/-85.5 kcal/day (P=0.51). Less than 50% of predictive equation values were within +/-10% of hand-held indirect calorimeter values, indicating poor agreement. A significant discrepancy between predicted and measured energy expenditure was observed. Further evaluation of hand-held indirect calorimeter research screening is needed.

  7. Burnout in health-care professionals during reorganizations and downsizing. A cohort study in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall-Lord Marie-Louise

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout is a psychological reaction triggered by interaction between personal characteristics and stress factors. Reorganizations and downsizing with increased workload imply stress for health-care professionals. This is a study of burnout in nurses during a period with two comprehensive reorganizations. Methods In this quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study, burnout was assessed in nurses with long work experience in three surveys during a 30 months' period with two comprehensive reorganizations and downsizing of a hospital unit with mostly seriously ill patients with cancer. Burnout was measured with Bergen Burnout Indicator (BBI at each survey, and "Sense of Coherence" (SOC with Antonovsky's questionnaire at the last survey. Results One man and 45 women aged 30 to 65 years were invited to the surveys. There was a significant increase in burnout during the study period, the mean increase in BBI-score was 12.5 pr year (p Conclusions There was a significant development of burnout in a group of nurses during a period with two reorganizations and downsizing. Burnout was associated with low SOC. Working with seriously ill patients with cancer has probably made the nurses exceptionally vulnerable to the stress and workload related to the reorganizations.

  8. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sleep Strengthens but does Not Reorganize Memory Traces in a Verbal Creativity Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Maier, Jonathan-Gabriel; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Sleep after learning promotes the quantitative strengthening of new memories. Less is known about the impact of sleep on the qualitative reorganization of memory content. This study tested the hypothesis that sleep facilitates both memory strengthening and reorganization as indexed by a verbal creativity task. Sixty healthy university students (30 female, 30 male, 20-30 years) were investigated in a randomized, controlled parallel-group study with three experimental groups (sleep, sleep deprivation, daytime wakefulness). At baseline, 60 items of the Compound Remote Associate (CRA) task were presented. At retest after the experimental conditions, the same items were presented again together with 20 new control items to disentangle off-line incubation from online performance effects. Sleep significantly strengthened formerly encoded memories in comparison to both wake conditions (improvement in speed of correctly resolved items). Offline reorganization was not enhanced following sleep, but was enhanced following sleep-deprivation in comparison to sleep and daytime wakefulness (solution time of previously incubated, newly solved items). Online performance did not differ between the groups (solution time of new control items). The results support the notion that sleep promotes the strengthening, but not the reorganization, of newly encoded memory traces in a verbal creativity task. Future studies are needed to further determine the impact of sleep on different types of memory reorganization, such as associative thinking, creativity and emotional memory processing, and potential clinical translations, such as the augmentation of psychotherapy through sleep interventions. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Characterization of changes in total body composition for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William; Alexander, Neil; Schipper, Matthew; Fig, Lorraine; Feng, Felix; Jolly, Shruti

    2014-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer experience significant weight loss secondary to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, we characterize total body composition changes during and after CCRT in order to develop novel clinical care models that will improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). Sixty DEXA scans were obtained from 12 patients undergoing CCRT for locally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer. DEXAs were performed at baseline, during treatment, completion of CCRT, and then 1 and 2 months posttreatment. Mean weight loss by treatment end was 9.5 kg (10.2%; p = .0002). On average, lean body mass (LBM) decreased 10.2% (p = .001), and fat body mass (FBM) decreased 11.1% (p = .001) during CCRT. LBM began to normalize after completion of treatment, whereas FBM continued to decline. Substantial loss of muscle and FBM occurs in patients undergoing CCRT for head and neck cancer. To prevent long-term disability and QOL decline after curative CCRT, clinical care interventions incorporating aggressive nutrition/exercise counseling are needed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reorganization of Kepco and lifetime management status in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    To date the Korea Electric Power Corporation ('KEPCO') has been a vertically integrated public utility. It has been the only company engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity with ownership of 94% of the total electricity generating capacity in Korea. The restructuring plan published last year by the Government involved a gradual transition to wholesale competition over four years, with the introduction of retail competition for small consumers after 2009. In the initial period, KEPCO's generation assets will be divided into six generation companies for divestment and/or privatisation. Subsequently, distribution assets will also be divided into a number of companies. KEPCO will remain as a national transmission company offering access to the Grid on non-discriminatory terms to promote the electricity market. Although many details will require further clarification in coming months, the Korean electricity supply industry will be moving towards a competitive market structure. The impending restructuring will force the nuclear sector to reassess the way they do business. The nuclear sector consisting of 16 units in operation and 4 units under construction has competitiveness over the conventional electricity resource. To survive in the competitive market and the deregulated industry, it is important to reduce the capital expenditure as well as fuel and O and M cost. It was already known in other countries that it is more efficient for competition in the market to better utilize the operating plants rather than to reduce the construction cost of new plants. In this context, consideration of lifetime extension for older nuclear units may naturally occur in parallel with elaborate evaluations to make massive capital investments into new power plants. Therefore, the first PLIM programme is applied for Kori 1, the oldest nuclear unit in Korea, which is scheduled to retire in 2008. The first phase of the programme identified that the life

  12. Presurgical fMRI evaluation of cerebral reorganization and motor deficit in patients with tumors and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, M.; Le Bas, J.F.; Segebarth, C.; Benabid, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate the motor reorganization (cerebral plasticity) and the risk of motor deficit in patients presenting with tumors and vascular malformations, within the framework of their pre-surgical planning. Functional MR imaging data was obtained from 17 patients. Ten patients (seven with tumors and three with vascular malformations) presented with motor reorganization. The results of the present study suggest that the evaluation of the cerebral reorganization is an essential step in predicting the risk of motor deficit in patients having surgical indication for treatment. Furthermore, the cerebral reorganization constitutes an important factor for surgical decision

  13. DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ON THE GROUND OF THE BASIC MODEL OF THE CYCLE OF REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this scientific research is application of the basic model of interaction between phases of a cycle of reorganization of organizational and technological processes underway at industrial enterprises. The authors describe interactions between all six phases of the process of reorganization within the framework of the basic model of a cycle that contemplates organizational and technological processes. Engineering studies are necessary to check for the feasibility of reorganization of industrial enterprises and application of results extracted from the design documentation with a view to reorganization of production activities and construction operations. Upon completion of the decision-making process concerning the need for reorganization in accordance with the basic model of interaction between phases, there occurs restructuring that incorporates processes of design and construction. The authors have demonstrated that reorganization of the basic model cycle should be used in the design of organizational and technological processes with a view to the integrated consideration of reorganization of enterprises in order to comprehend and improve the efficiency of reorganization at each stage, as well as the control over the reorganization of a construction facility.

  14. A major reorganization of Asian climate by the early Miocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Guo

    2008-08-01

    circulations, one from the ocean carrying moisture and another from the inland deserts transporting dust. The formation of the early Miocene paleosols resulted from interactive soil forming and dust deposition processes in these two seasonally alternating monsoonal circulations. The much stronger development of the early Miocene soils compared to those in the Quaternary loess indicates that summer monsoons were either significantly stronger, more persistent through the year, or both.

    These lines of evidence indicate a joint change in circulation and inland aridity by the early Miocene and suggest a dynamic linkage of them. Our recent sensitivity tests with a general circulation model, along with relevant geological data, suggest that the onset of these contrasting wet/dry responses, as well as the change from the "planetary" subtropical aridity pattern to the "inland" aridity pattern, resulted from the combined effects of Tibetan uplift and withdrawal of the Paratethys seaway in central Asia, as suggested by earlier experiments. The spreading of South China Sea also helped to enhance the south-north contrast of humidity. The Miocene loess record provides a vital insight that these tectonic factors had evolved by the early Miocene to a threshold sufficient to cause this major climate reorganization in Asia.

  15. Heterochromatin Reorganization during Early Mouse Development Requires a Single-Stranded Noncoding Transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Casanova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The equalization of pericentric heterochromatin from distinct parental origins following fertilization is essential for genome function and development. The recent implication of noncoding transcripts in this process raises questions regarding the connection between RNA and the nuclear organization of distinct chromatin environments. Our study addresses the interrelationship between replication and transcription of the two parental pericentric heterochromatin (PHC domains and their reorganization during early embryonic development. We demonstrate that the replication of PHC is dispensable for its clustering at the late two-cell stage. In contrast, using parthenogenetic embryos, we show that pericentric transcripts are essential for this reorganization independent of the chromatin marks associated with the PHC domains. Finally, our discovery that only reverse pericentric transcripts are required for both the nuclear reorganization of PHC and development beyond the two-cell stage challenges current views on heterochromatin organization.

  16. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The behavior of exciplex decay processes and interplay of radiationless transition and preliminary reorganization mechanisms of electron transfer in loose and tight pairs of reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Michael G; Soboleva, Irina V; Dolotova, Elena V

    2007-01-18

    Exciplex emission spectra and rate constants of their decay via internal conversion and intersystem crossing are studied and discussed in terms of conventional radiationless transition approach. Exciplexes of 9-cyanophenanthrene with 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene were studied in heptane, toluene, butyl acetate, dichloromethane, butyronitrile, and acetonitrile. A better description of spectra and rate constants is obtained using 0-0 transition energy and Gauss broadening of vibrational bands rather than the free energy of electron transfer and reorganization energy. The coincidence of parameters describing exciplex emission spectra and dependence of exciplex decay rate constants on energy gap gives the evidence of radiationless quantum transition mechanism rather than thermally activated medium reorganization mechanism of charge recombination in exciplexes and excited charge transfer complexes (contact radical ion pairs) as well as in solvent separated radical ion pairs. Radiationless quantum transition mechanism is shown to provide an appropriate description also for the main features of exergonic excited-state charge separation reactions if fast mutual transformations of loose and tight pairs of reactants are considered. In particular, very fast electron transfer (ET) in tight pairs of reactants with strong electronic coupling of locally excited and charge transfer states can prevent the observation of an inverted region in bimolecular excited-state charge separation even for highly exergonic reactions.

  18. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  19. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)