WorldWideScience

Sample records for total pulse energy

  1. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Li, L.; Ott, L.L.; Kolgani, Rajeswari M.; Yong, G.J.; Ali, Z.A.; Drury, O.B.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with ∼10 12 photons per ∼200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within (1- x ) Sr x MnO 3 sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response

  2. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Li, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Kolgani, Rajeswari M. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Yong, G.J. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Ali, Z.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ables, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Bionta, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with {approx}10{sup 12} photons per {approx}200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within <0.1%, taking into account thermal and mechanical stress to prevent melting in the LCLS beam due to its high energy density. We propose to use a magnetoresistive Nd{sub (1-} {sub x} {sub )}Sr {sub x} MnO{sub 3} sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response.

  3. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  4. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  5. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.H.; Gallacher, J.G.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z.X.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz

  6. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  7. Electromagnetic or other directed energy pulse launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The physical realization of new solutions of wave propagation equations, such as Maxwell's equations and the scaler wave equation, produces localized pulses of wave energy such as electromagnetic or acoustic energy which propagate over long distances without divergence. The pulses are produced by driving each element of an array of radiating sources with a particular drive function so that the resultant localized packet of energy closely approximates the exact solutions and behaves the same.

  8. Pulsed power liner for PLT energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armellino, C.A.; Bronner, G.; Murray, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    PLT is Princeton University's latest Tokamak machine in the controlled thermonuclear fusion research effort. The OH (ohmic heating) and SF (shaping field) systems for the machine place a very high energy pulsed current load on the AC line feeding them. This paper describes the two systems and the steps taken to insure minimum effect on line regulation during the pulsed operation

  9. Several peaks of total current in Trichel pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, O.; Golota, V.; Kadolin, B.; Mankovskyi, S.; Ostroushko, V.; Pashchenko, I.; Taran, G.; Zavada, L.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulations of negative corona at constant voltage in Trichel pulse mode are carried out in assumptions of presence and absence of photoemission from cathode. In absence of photoemission two peaks of total current or the step before the main peak were obtained for very small values of ion-electron emission coefficient. In presence of photoemission there were observed several maximums, connected with instability development of the process based on radiation of photons, photoemission, and avalanche multiplication

  10. The total energy policy in Flanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The policy of the Flemish region (Belgium) with regard to the total energy principle are presented. An overview of the main policy instruments to support energy saving and environmental-friendly investments as well as the development of new technologies is given. The total energy policy of the Flanders Region forms part of the general Flemish (energy) policy. (A.S.)

  11. Total energy system in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of energy systems from an exergy point of view is discussed. In total energy systems, we should employ multi-pass recycling consisting of thermal and chemical energies. The recycling system is supported by electrical energy, which is provided by a renewable energy source or by excess commercial electric power. This total energy system should be considered not only in one country, but all around the globe. (author). 6 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  12. Pulsed energy storage antennas for ionospheric modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Wuerker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesting, "new", very high peak-power pulsed radio frequency (RF antennas have been assembled at the HIPAS Observatory (Alaska, USA and also at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA, USA; namely, a pair of quarter wavelength (λ/4 long cylindrical conductors separated by a high voltage spark gap. Such a combination can radiate multi-megawatt RF pulses whenever the spark gap fires. The antenna at HIPAS is 53m long (λ/2 with a central pressurized SF6 spark gap. It is mounted 5 meters (λ/21 above a ground plane. It radiates at 2.85MHz. The two antenna halves are charged to ± high voltages by a Tesla coil. Spark gap voltages of 0.4 MV (at the instant of spark gap closure give peak RF currents of ~1200A which correspond to ~14 MW peak total radiated power, or ~56 MW of Effective Radiated Power (ERP. The RF pulse train is initially square, decaying exponentially in time with Qs of ~50. Two similar but smaller 80-MHz antennas were assembled at UCLA to demonstrate their synchronization with a pulsed laser which fired the spark gaps in the two antennas simultanoeously. These experiments show that one can anticipate a pulsed array of laser synchronized antennas having a coherent Effective Radiated Power (ERP>10GW. One can even reconsider a pulse array radiating at 1.43MHz which corresponds to the electron gyrofrequency in the Earth's magnetic field at ~200km altitude. These "new" pulsed high power antennas are hauntingly similar to the ones used originally by Hertz (1857-1894 during his (1886-1889 seminal verifications of Maxwell's (1864 theory of electrodynamics.

  13. Pulsed energy storage antennas for ionospheric modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Wuerker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesting, "new", very high peak-power pulsed radio frequency (RF antennas have been assembled at the HIPAS Observatory (Alaska, USA and also at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA, USA; namely, a pair of quarter wavelength (λ/4 long cylindrical conductors separated by a high voltage spark gap. Such a combination can radiate multi-megawatt RF pulses whenever the spark gap fires. The antenna at HIPAS is 53m long (λ/2 with a central pressurized SF6 spark gap. It is mounted 5 meters (λ/21 above a ground plane. It radiates at 2.85MHz. The two antenna halves are charged to ± high voltages by a Tesla coil. Spark gap voltages of 0.4 MV (at the instant of spark gap closure give peak RF currents of ~1200A which correspond to ~14 MW peak total radiated power, or ~56 MW of Effective Radiated Power (ERP. The RF pulse train is initially square, decaying exponentially in time with Qs of ~50. Two similar but smaller 80-MHz antennas were assembled at UCLA to demonstrate their synchronization with a pulsed laser which fired the spark gaps in the two antennas simultanoeously. These experiments show that one can anticipate a pulsed array of laser synchronized antennas having a coherent Effective Radiated Power (ERP>10GW. One can even reconsider a pulse array radiating at 1.43MHz which corresponds to the electron gyrofrequency in the Earth's magnetic field at ~200km altitude. These "new" pulsed high power antennas are hauntingly similar to the ones used originally by Hertz (1857-1894 during his (1886-1889 seminal verifications of Maxwell's (1864 theory of electrodynamics.

  14. Resonance capture reactions with a total energy detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of nuclear reaction rates is considered; the Moxon--Rae detector and pulse height weighting are reviewed. This method has been especially useful in measuring (n,γ) cross sections. Strength functions and level spacing can be derived from (n,γ) yields. The relevance of neutron capture data to astrophysical nucleosynthesis is pointed out. The total gamma energy detection method has been applied successfully to radiative neutron capture cross section measurements. A bibliography of most of the published papers reporting neutron capture cross sections measured by the pulse height weighting technique is included. 55 references

  15. Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Hayward, J.

    2006-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

  16. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  17. Energy-dependent losses in pulsed-feedback preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1978-11-01

    Energy dependent counting losses occur in most pulsed-feedback preamplifiers due to the loss of those pulses which activate the recharge system. A pulsed-feedback system that overcomes this inefficiency is described. Pulsed-light feedback as used with germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is discussed as used at high energies and high rates where those losses become significant. Experimental results are presented

  18. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Hayward, J.; Maisonnier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWh e with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  19. Very high pulse-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dominant trend in the development of pulsed power accelerator technology over the last decade has been towards higher power and shorter pulse widths. Limitations in high voltage, high current switch performance, and in power flow through vacuum insulator housings led to the development of highly modular designs. This modular approach requires precise synchronization of the various modules and efficient methods of combining the power from these modules to drive a common load. The need to drive very low impedance loads led to effective ways to combine these modules in parallel. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator I (PBFA I) and Saturn are representative of these designs. Hermes III represent a new approach towards the efficient generation of higher voltages. It is designed to drive a 22-MV, 730-kA, 40-ns electron beam diode and combines conventional, modular pulsed power technology with linear induction accelerator concepts. High-power induction accelerator cavities are combined with voltage addition along a MITL to generate the desired output. This design differs from a conventional linac in that the voltages are added by the MITL flow rather than by a drifting beam that gains kinetic energy at each stage. This design is a major extrapolation of previous state-of-the-art technology represented by the injector module of the Advanced Test Accelerator and has proven to be efficient and reliable. The design and performance of Hermes III are presented together with a discussion of the application of this technology to the light ion beam inertial confinement fusion program. 18 refs., 9 figs

  20. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  1. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Total energy calculations and bonding at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    Some of the concepts and theoretical techniques employed in recent ab initio studies of the electronic and structural properties of surfaces and interfaces are discussed. Results of total energy calculations for the 2 x 1 reconstructed diamond (111) surface and for stacking faults in Si are reviewed. 30 refs., 8 figs

  3. Atomic resonances above the total ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolen, G.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous result obtained using the theory associated with dilatation analytic potentials is that by performing a complex coordinate rotation, r/subj/ → r/subj/e/subi//sup theta/, on a Hamiltonian whose potential involves only pairwise Coulombic interactions, one can show that when theta = π/2, no complex eigenvalues (resonances) appear whose energies have a real part greater than the total ionization energy of the atomic system. This appears to conflict with experimental results of Walton, Peart, and Dolder, who find resonance behavior above the total ionization energy of the H -- system and also the theoretical stabilization results of Taylor and Thomas for the same system. A possible resolution of this apparent conflict is discussed and a calculation to check its validity is proposed

  4. Effects of laser wavelengths and pulse energy ratio on the emission enhancement in dual pulse LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Iqbal, Javed; Baig, M Aslam

    2015-01-01

    We present new studies on the effects of laser wavelengths, pulse energy ratio and interpulse delay between two laser pulses in the collinear dual pulse configuration of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on an iron sample in air using the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonics (532 nm) of Nd:YAG lasers. In the dual pulse LIBS, an optimum value of interpulse delay with an appropriate combination of laser wavelengths, and laser pulse energy ratio, yields a 30 times signal intensity enhancement in the neutral iron lines as compared with single pulse LIBS. A comparison in the spatial variations of electron temperature along the axis of the plume expansion in single and double pulse LIBS has also been studied. (letter)

  5. High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate high-energy infrared femtosecond pulse generation by a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme [Opt. Express19, 7190 (2011)]. By employing a 100 mJ pump laser, a signal pulse energy exceeding 20 mJ at a wavelength of 1.4 μm was achieved before dispersion compensation. A total output energy of 33 mJ was recorded. Under a further energy scaling condition, the signal pulse was compressed to an almost transform-limited duration of 27 fs using a fused silica prism compressor. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient and energy scalable, design parameters for obtaining 100 mJ level infrared pulses are presented, which are suitable as driver lasers for the energy scaling of high-order harmonic generation with sub-keV photon energy.

  6. High efficiency, monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for high energy femtosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Kim, Kyungbum; Mielke, Michael; Jennings, Stephen; Masor, Gordon; Stohl, Dave; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Nguyen, Dan T; Rhonehouse, Dan; Zong, Jie; Churin, Dmitriy; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-10-21

    A novel monolithic fiber-optic chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system for high energy, femtosecond pulse generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a high gain amplifier comprising merely 20 cm of high efficiency media (HEM) gain fiber, an optimal balance of output pulse energy, optical efficiency, and B-integral is achieved. The HEM amplifier is fabricated from erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber and yields gain of 1.443 dB/cm with slope efficiency >45%. We experimentally demonstrate near diffraction-limited beam quality and near transform-limited femtosecond pulse quality at 1.55 µm wavelength. With pulse energy >100 µJ and pulse duration of 636 fs (FWHM), the peak power is estimated to be ~160 MW. NAVAIR Public Release Distribution Statement A-"Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited".

  7. SBS pulse compression for excimer inertial fusion energy drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States). Space and Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    A key requirement for the development of commercial fusion power plants utilizing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as a source of thermonuclear power is the availability of reliable, efficient laser drivers. These laser drivers must be capable of delivering UV optical pulses having energies of the order of 5MJ to cryogenic deuterium-tritium (D/T) ICF targets. The current requirements for laser ICF target irradiation specify the laser wavelength, {lambda} ca. 250 nm, pulse duration, {tau}{sub p} ca. 6 ns, bandwidth, {Delta}{lambda} ca. 0.1 nm, polarization state, etc. Excimer lasers are a leading candidate to fill these demanding ICF driver requirements. However, since excimer lasers are not storage lasers, the excimer laser pulse duration, {tau}{sub pp}, is determined primarily by the length of the excitation pulse delivered to the excimer laser amplifier. Pulsed power associated with efficiently generating excimer laser pulses has a time constant, {tau}{sub pp} which falls in the range, 30 {tau}{sub p}<{tau}{sub pp}<100{tau}{sub p}. As a consequence, pulse compression is needed to convert the long excimer laser pulses to pulses of duration {tau}{sub p}. These main ICF driver pulses require, in addition, longer, lower power precursor pulses delivered to the ICF target before the arrival of the main pulse. Although both linear and non-linear optical (NLO) pulse compression techniques have been developed, computer simulations have shown that a ``chirped,`` self-seeded, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compressor cell using SF{sub 6} at a density, {rho} ca. 1 amagat can efficiently compress krypton fluoride (KrF) laser pulses at {lambda}=248 nm. In order to avoid the generation of output pulses substantially shorter than {tau}{sub p}, the optical power in the chirped input SBS ``seed`` beams was ramped. Compressed pulse conversion efficiencies of up to 68% were calculated for output pulse durations of {tau}{sub p} ca. ns.

  8. SBS pulse compression for excimer inertial fusion energy drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    A key requirement for the development of commercial fusion power plants utilizing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as a source of thermonuclear power is the availability of reliable, efficient laser drivers. These laser drivers must be capable of delivering UV optical pulses having energies of the order of 5MJ to cryogenic deuterium-tritium (D/T) ICF targets. The current requirements for laser ICF target irradiation specify the laser wavelength, λ ca. 250 nm, pulse duration, τ p ca. 6 ns, bandwidth, Δλ ca. 0.1 nm, polarization state, etc. Excimer lasers are a leading candidate to fill these demanding ICF driver requirements. However, since excimer lasers are not storage lasers, the excimer laser pulse duration, τ pp , is determined primarily by the length of the excitation pulse delivered to the excimer laser amplifier. Pulsed power associated with efficiently generating excimer laser pulses has a time constant, τ pp which falls in the range, 30 τ p pp p . As a consequence, pulse compression is needed to convert the long excimer laser pulses to pulses of duration τ p . These main ICF driver pulses require, in addition, longer, lower power precursor pulses delivered to the ICF target before the arrival of the main pulse. Although both linear and non-linear optical (NLO) pulse compression techniques have been developed, computer simulations have shown that a ''chirped,'' self-seeded, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compressor cell using SF 6 at a density, ρ ca. 1 amagat can efficiently compress krypton fluoride (KrF) laser pulses at λ=248 nm. In order to avoid the generation of output pulses substantially shorter than τ p , the optical power in the chirped input SBS ''seed'' beams was ramped. Compressed pulse conversion efficiencies of up to 68% were calculated for output pulse durations of τ p ca. ns

  9. Efficient modeling for pulsed activation in inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Yuste, P.; Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    First structural wall material (FSW) materials in inertial fusion energy (IFE) power reactors will be irradiated under typical repetition rates of 1-10 Hz, for an operation time as long as the total reactor lifetime. The main objective of the present work is to determine whether a continuous-pulsed (CP) approach can be an efficient method in modeling the pulsed activation process for operating conditions of FSW materials. The accuracy and practicability of this method was investigated both analytically and (for reaction/decay chains of two and three nuclides) by computational simulation. It was found that CP modeling is an accurate and practical method for calculating the neutron-activation of FSW materials. Its use is recommended instead of the equivalent steady-state method or the exact pulsed modeling. Moreover, the applicability of this method to components of an IFE power plant subject to repetition rates lower than those of the FSW is still being studied. The analytical investigation was performed for 0.05 Hz, which could be typical for the coolant. Conclusions seem to be similar to those obtained for the FSW. However, further future work is needed for a final answer

  10. Energy coupling to the plasma in repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Nishihara, Munetake; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Lempert, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    A new analytic quasi-one-dimensional model of energy coupling to nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas in plane-to-plane geometry has been developed. The use of a one-dimensional approach is based on images of repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge plasmas in dry air demonstrating that the plasma remains diffuse and uniform on a nanosecond time scale over a wide range of pressures. The model provides analytic expressions for the time-dependent electric field and electron density in the plasma, electric field in the sheath, sheath boundary location, and coupled pulse energy. The analytic model predictions are in very good agreement with numerical calculations. The model demonstrates that (i) the energy coupled to the plasma during an individual nanosecond discharge pulse is controlled primarily by the capacitance of the dielectric layers and by the breakdown voltage and (ii) the pulse energy coupled to the plasma during a burst of nanosecond pulses decreases as a function of the pulse number in the burst. This occurs primarily because of plasma temperature rise and resultant reduction in breakdown voltage, such that the coupled pulse energy varies approximately proportionally to the number density. Analytic expression for coupled pulse energy scaling has been incorporated into the air plasma chemistry model, validated previously by comparing with atomic oxygen number density measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. The results of kinetic modeling using the modified air plasma chemistry model are compared with time-resolved temperature measurements in a repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in air, by emission spectroscopy, and purely rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy showing good agreement.

  11. Pulsed energy conversion with a dc superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, M.; Cnare, E.C.; Leisher, W.B.; Tucker, W.K.; Wessenberg, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A generator system for pulsed power is described which employs a dc superconducting magnet in a magnetic flux compression scheme. Experience with a small-scale generator together with projections of numerical models indicate potential applications to fusion research and commercial power generation. When the system is large enough pulse energy can exceed that stored in the magnet and pulse rise time can range from several microseconds to tens of milliseconds. (author)

  12. Bragg Grating Inscription With Low Pulse Energy in Doped Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Rui; Ortega, Beatriz; Nielsen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    in the POFs without high pulse energy (mJ level) at 248-nm wavelength, which reduces maintenance costs. Furthermore, we can consider it as a solution to increase the lifetime of the laser system without high energy still allowing fast and efficient production of the FBGs for sensing applications.......We demonstrate that fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) can be written in a doped polymer optical fiber (POF) in a low ultraviolet (UV) pulse energy regime (60Jpulse) using a 248-nm krypton fluoride excimer laser system. The total energy density per inscription necessary to obtain Bragg gratings is between...

  13. Total energy calculations from self-energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Friera, P.

    2001-06-01

    Density-functional theory is a powerful method to calculate total energies of large systems of interacting electrons. The usefulness of this method, however, is limited by the fact that an approximation is required for the exchange-correlation energy. Currently used approximations (LDA and GGA) are not sufficiently accurate in many physical problems, as for instance the study of chemical reactions. It has been shown that exchange-correlation effects can be accurately described via the self-energy operator in the context of many-body perturbation theory. This is, however, a computationally very demanding approach. In this thesis a new scheme for calculating total energies is proposed, which combines elements from many-body perturbation theory and density-functional theory. The exchange-correlation energy functional is built from a simplified model of the self-energy, that nevertheless retains the main features of the exact operator. The model is built in such way that the computational effort is not significantly increased with respect to that required in a typical density-functional theory calculation. (author)

  14. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  15. Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1992-07-07

    A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

  16. Latest version of the Munich pulsed low energy positron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer-Kugelmann, W.; Sperr, P.; Koegel, G.; Triftshaeuser, W.

    2001-01-01

    Further improvements of the Munich pulsed low energy positron system have been performed. A new chopper, configured as a double plate deflection system with an external resonator and a new buncher working like a classical double gap buncher, are implemented. The complete rf-power electronic was redesigned and operates now at an overall master-frequency of 50 MHz for all bunching and chopping components. A new target station with an enlarged Faraday cage is installed. The sample temperature is variable between 30 K and 600 K. Up to ten samples can be stored in a magazine and transferred under vacuum conditions to the measuring position. With a primary source of 30 mCi 22 Na a count rate of up to 4 kHz can be achieved with a peak-to-background ratio of 3000:1. This ratio can be further improved by the use of a Wien filter. A beam diameter of about 2 mm was determined. The total time resolution (pulsing plus detector system) is 250 ps (FWHM). (orig.)

  17. Measurements of absorbed energy distributions in water from pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanney, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of a holographic interferometer to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from pulsed electron beams, together with a brief description of the interferometer and the technique of generating a hologram are presented. The holographic interferometer is used to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from various pulsed beams of monoenergetic electrons in the energy range from 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. These results are compared to those computed by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, ETRAN-15, for the same electron energies. After the discrepancies between the measured and computed results are evaluated, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed absorbed energy distributions as a function of depth in water. An evalutation of the response of the interferometer as a function of electron intensities is performed. A comparison among four energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with pulsed electron beams from a Febetron accelerator, model 705, is presented. These pulsed beams were produced by the same vacuum diode with the same charging voltage. The results indicate that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam is not always constant. A comparison of the energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with electron pulses from different vacuum diodes but the same charging voltage is presented. These results indicate again that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam may vary between vacuum diodes. These differences would not be realized by using a totally absorbing metal calorimeter and Faraday Cup

  18. On the controllability and run-away possibility of a totally free piston, pulsed compression reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roestenberg, T.; Glouchenkov, Maxim Joerjevisj; glushenkov, M.J.; Kronberg, Alexandre E.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2010-01-01

    The pulsed compression reactor promises to be a compact, economical and energy efficient alternative to conventional chemical reactors. While its design and operation is similar to that of a free piston internal combustion engine, it does not benefit from any controllability through the load.

  19. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ

  20. Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Cobus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available University of Stellenbosch WWW.LASER-RESEARCH.CO.ZA University of Stellenbosch Pulse Energy Control Through Dual Loop Electronic Feedback Cobus Jacobs, Steven Kriel Christoph Bollig, Thomas Jones Cobus Jacobs et al. Overview head2righthead2right...What is Laser Pulse Energy Control? head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it? head2righthead2rightHow do we get it? head2righthead2rightSimulation head2righthead2rightExperimental Setup head2righthead2rightResults Cobus Jacobs et al. head2righthead2right...

  1. Efficient delivery of 60 J pulse energy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Most of today's industrial Nd:YAG lasers use fibre-optic beam delivery. ... optical fibre and successfully delivered up to 60 J of pulse energy with .... and electrical pump input to laser output conversion efficiency is about 5%. ... [3] W Koechner, Solid state laser engineering, 5th edn (Springer, Berlin, 1999).

  2. Total energy calculations for structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Harmon, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    The structural integrity and physical properties of crystalline solids are frequently limited or enhanced by the occurrence of phase transformations. Martensitic transformations involve the collective displacement of atoms from one ordered state to another. Modern methods to determine the microscopic electronic changes as the atoms move are now accurate enough to evaluate the very small energy differences involved. Extensive first principles calculations for the prototypical martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to closepacked 9R structure in sodium metal are described. The minimum energy coordinate or configuration path between the bcc and 9R structures is determined as well as paths to other competing close-packed structures. The energy barriers and important anharmonic interactions are identified and general conclusions drawn. The calculational methods used to solve the Schrodinger equation include pseudopotentials, fast Fourier transforms, efficient matrix diagnonalization, and supercells with many atoms

  3. Structure analysis of liquids and disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction and total scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction·total scattering at pulsed neutron source is a powerful method to analyze the complex structure of disordered materials: liquids, glasses, amorphous materials and disordered crystals. The basic idea of the structure of disordered materials, the fundamental diffraction theory for disordered materials, and structure analysis of disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction·total scattering technique (TOF method) are described in detail. In addition, the precise information of the world highest class J-PARC MLF spallation neutron source and typical J-PARC neutron total scattering instrument NOVA are also given. Recent structural modelling methods of disordered materials such like reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation method is briefly described using an example of the analysis of a typical disordered material silica glass. (author)

  4. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Miller, A.R.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilkinson, M.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  5. Quantum energy duplication using super high output pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Tanimoto, Mitsumori; Saito, Naoaki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at elucidation on phenomena induced by strong electric field of super high output ultra short laser pulse to carry out development of basic technology required for promotion of a study on generation of high energy particle and photon using them, in order to contribute to application of super high output ultra short laser pulse and high energy plasma formed by it. In 1998 fiscal year of the last fiscal year in this study, by intending to increase the output by narrowing pulse width of the super high output laser, some basic experiments such as verification due to experiment on relativity theoretical self-convergence, generation of high energy particles, and so forth were carried out to establish a forecasting on future application. And, by conducting plasma generation experiment, self-guide and high energy particle formation experiment in plasma of super high intensity laser pulse important for its applications, and so forth, various technologies constituting foundation of future developments were developed, and more results could be obtained than those at proposal of this study. (G.K.)

  6. Pulsed power drivers for ICF and high energy density physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Nanosecond Pulsed Power Science and Technology has its origins in the 1960s and over the past decade has matured into a flexible and robust discipline capable of addressing key physics issues of importance to ICF and high Energy Density Physics. The major leverage provided by pulsed power is its ability to generate and deliver high energy and high power at low cost and high efficiency. A low-cost, high-efficiency driver is important because of the very large capital investment required for multi-megajoule ignition-class systems. High efficiency is of additional importance for a commercially viable inertial fusion energy option. Nanosecond pulsed power has been aggressively and successfully developed at Sandia over the past twenty years. This effort has led to the development of unique multi-purpose facilities supported by highly capable diagnostic, calculational and analytic capabilities. The Sandia Particle-beam Fusion Program has evolved as part of an integrated national ICF Program. It applies the low-cost, high-efficiency leverage provided by nanosecond pulsed power systems to the longer-term goals of the national program, i.e., the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and Inertial Fusion Energy. A separate effort has led to the application of nanosecond pulsed power to the generation of intense, high-energy laboratory x-ray sources for application to x-ray laser and radiation effects science research. Saturn is the most powerful of these sources to date. It generates ∼500 kilojoules of x-rays from a magnetically driven implosion (Z-pinch). This paper describes results of x-ray physics experiments performed on Saturn, plans for a new Z-pinch drive capability for PBFA-II, and a design concept for the proposed ∼15 MJ Jupiter facility. The opportunities for ICF-relevant research using these facilities will also be discussed

  7. Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

  8. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  9. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  10. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2∼1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm 2 . Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves

  11. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, M.; Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C.; Seiler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  12. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  13. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  14. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingping; Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: → To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. → Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. → A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  15. Energy constraints in pulsed phase control of chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meucci, R., E-mail: riccardo.meucci@ino.it [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Euzzor, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Zambrano, S. [Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano (Italy); Pugliese, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50100 Firenze (Italy); Francini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Arecchi, F.T. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Phase control of chaos is a powerful technique but little is known about its physical constraints, relevant for real systems. As a fact, it has not been explored whether this technique can also be applied when the controlling perturbation is not harmonic. Here we apply phase control on a driven double well Duffing oscillator using periodic rectangular pulsed perturbations instead of the classical sinusoidal perturbations. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations show that this kind of perturbation is also able to stabilize the chaotic orbits for an adequate selection of the phase. Furthermore, as the duty cycle of the perturbation (that is, the fraction of the time that the periodically pulsed control is active) is increased, two separate regimes occur. In the first one, the perturbations leading to stabilization of periodic solutions are of constant energy (taken as the product of the duty cycle and the amplitude) and in the second one, a saturation phenomenon occurs, implying that increasing energy values of the perturbations are wasted. Our results unveil the versatility of the pulsed phase control scheme and the importance of energy constraints.

  16. Energy constraints in pulsed phase control of chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meucci, R.; Euzzor, S.; Zambrano, S.; Pugliese, E.; Francini, F.; Arecchi, F.T.

    2017-01-01

    Phase control of chaos is a powerful technique but little is known about its physical constraints, relevant for real systems. As a fact, it has not been explored whether this technique can also be applied when the controlling perturbation is not harmonic. Here we apply phase control on a driven double well Duffing oscillator using periodic rectangular pulsed perturbations instead of the classical sinusoidal perturbations. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations show that this kind of perturbation is also able to stabilize the chaotic orbits for an adequate selection of the phase. Furthermore, as the duty cycle of the perturbation (that is, the fraction of the time that the periodically pulsed control is active) is increased, two separate regimes occur. In the first one, the perturbations leading to stabilization of periodic solutions are of constant energy (taken as the product of the duty cycle and the amplitude) and in the second one, a saturation phenomenon occurs, implying that increasing energy values of the perturbations are wasted. Our results unveil the versatility of the pulsed phase control scheme and the importance of energy constraints.

  17. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart.

  18. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Wang, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  19. Shock waves in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results of shock wave formation and propagation in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges are presented. To study the hydrodynamic structure of the shock waves, the direct shadow optical diagnostic device with time resolution of 5 ns and spatial resolution of 0.1 mm was designed and developed. Synchronization of the diagnostic and electrodischarge units by the fast optocouplers was carried out. The dependences of shock wave velocities after breakdown of interelectrode gap for various energy inputs (at range of ≤1 J) into discharge were obtained. Based on the experimental results the recommendations for the adjustment parameters of the power supply and load were suggested.

  20. Modelling of the energy density deposition profiles of ultrashort laser pulses focused in optical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, F; Lavertu, P-L; Bigaouette, N; Moore, F; Brunette, I; Giguere, D; Kieffer, J-C; Olivie, G; Ozaki, T

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in dense optical media is investigated theoretically by solving numerically the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the maximum energy density deposition as a function of the pulse energy presents a well-defined threshold that increases with the pulse duration. As a consequence of plasma defocusing, the maximum energy density deposition is generally smaller and the size of the energy deposition zone is generally larger for shorter pulses. Nevertheless, significant values of the energy density deposition can be obtained near threshold, i.e., at lower energy than for longer pulses

  1. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  2. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  3. Channels of energy redistribution in short-pulse laser interactions with metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics and channels of laser energy redistribution in a target irradiated by a short, 1 ps, laser pulse is investigated in computer simulations performed with a model that combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and relaxation of the conduction band electrons, based on the two-temperature model (TTM). The energy transferred from the excited electrons to the lattice splits into several parts, namely the energy of the thermal motion of the atoms, the energy of collective atomic motions associated with the relaxation of laser-induced stresses, the energy carried away from the surface region of the target by a stress wave, the energy of quasi-static anisotropic stresses, and, at laser fluences above the melting threshold, the energy transferred to the latent heat of melting and then released upon recrystallization. The presence of the non-thermal channels of energy redistribution (stress wave and quasi-static stresses), not accounted for in the conventional TTM model, can have important implications for interpretation of experimental results on the kinetics of thermal and mechanical relaxation of a target irradiated by a short laser pulse as well as on the characteristics of laser-induced phase transformations. The fraction of the non-thermal energy in the total laser energy partitioning increases with increasing laser fluence

  4. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

    1980-05-01

    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  5. Energy transfer from an alkene triplet state during pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwise, A.J.G.; Gorman, A.A.; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of a benzene solution of norbornene containing low concentrations of anthracene results in delayed formation of anthracene triplet: this is the result of diffusion-controlled energy transfer from the alkene triplet state which has a natural lifetime in benzene of 250 ns. The use of various hydrocarbon acceptors has indicated that Esub(T)=20 000+-500 cm -1 for the relaxed T 1 state of the alkene, at least 5000 cm -1 below that of the spectroscopic state. (Auth.)

  6. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  7. Comments on pulses of characteristic energy produced in solar flare detonations and its possible application to other astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, P.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative discussion of physical conditions at neutral sheets was developed in an attempt to explain the repetitive pulsed energy-production mechanism, which has been suggested for solar flares. A characteristic energy per pulse appears to depend critically on the magnetic field strength and dipole length applied to a high temperature plasma, and seem to be regulated by discrete characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment, following Syrovatskii's model. Discrete energy pulses are produced when neutral sheet thickness approaches to critical values, proportional to the characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment. Repetition of pulses may occur in multi-sheet configurations as magnetically complex active centres, or at a single sheet where the total system energy change exceeds the critical conditions. The time-scale of the pulsed energy release may be explained by the tearing mode instability, and the repetition time-scale might be understood by the Sweet mechanism in limit conditions. The mechanism might have attractive applications in other high temperature astrophysical plasmas. An empirical relation is derived for pulses' energy prediction, in orders of magnitude, and some possible tests were suggested. An attempt was made to interpret soft γ-ray events of cosmic origin. (Auth.)

  8. Comments on pulses of characteristic energy produced in solar flare detonations and its possible application to other astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1977-06-01

    A qualitative discussion of physical conditions at neutral sheets was developed in an attempt to explain the repetitive pulsed energy-production mechanism, which has been suggested for solar flares. A characteristic energy per pulse appears to depend critically on the magnetic field strength and dipole length applied to a high temperature plasma, and seem to be regulated by discrete characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment, following Syrovatskii's model. Discrete energy pulses are produced when neutral sheet thickness approaches to critical values, proportional to the characteristic relative changes in the magnetic moment. Repetition of pulses may occur in multi-sheet configurations as magnetically complex active centres, or at a single sheet where the total system energy change exceeds the critical conditions. The time-scale of the pulsed energy release may be explained by the tearing mode instability, and the repetition time-scale might be understood by the Sweet mechanism in limit conditions. The mechanism might have attractive applications in other high temperature astrophysical plasmas. An empirical relation is derived for pulses' energy prediction, in orders of magnitude, and some possible tests were suggested. An attempt was made to interpret soft ..gamma..-ray events of cosmic origin.

  9. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  10. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  11. Research on temperature characteristics of laser energy meter absorber irradiated by ms magnitude long pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qiao, Chunhong; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Jinghui; Yang, Gaochao

    2017-10-01

    The research on temperature characteristics for large-energy laser energy meter absorber is about continuous wave (CW) laser before. For the measuring requirements of millisecond magnitude long pulse laser energy, the temperature characteristics for absorber are numerically calculated and analyzed. In calculation, the temperature field distributions are described by heat conduction equations, and the metal cylinder cavity is used for absorber model. The results show that, the temperature of absorber inwall appears periodic oscillation with pulse structure, the oscillation period and amplitude respectively relate to the pulse repetition frequency and single pulse energy. With the wall deep increasing, the oscillation amplitude decreases rapidly. The temperature of absorber outerwall is without periodism, and rises gradually with time. The factors to affect the temperature rise of absorber are single pulse energy, pulse width and repetition frequency. When the laser irradiation stops, the temperature between absorber inwall and outerwall will reach agreement rapidly. After special technology processing to enhance the capacity of resisting laser damage for absorber inwall, the ms magnitude long pulse laser energy can be obtained with the method of measuring the temperature of absorber outerwall. Meanwhile, by optimization design of absorber structure, when the repetition frequency of ms magnitude pulse laser is less than 10Hz, the energy of every pulse for low repetition frequency pulse sequence can be measured. The work offers valuable references for the design of ms magnitude large-energy pulse laser energy meter.

  12. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  13. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method. (paper)

  14. Energy concentration on S-300 pulsed power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshaev, Yu Z; Chernenko, A S; Korolev, V D; Mizhiritskij, V I; Zazhivikhin, V V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Energy concentration in fast Z-pinch investigation experiments on an 8-module 10 TW pulsed power S-300 generator (1.3 MV, 45 ns FWHM, 0.15 Ohm) is realized by a 3-d vacuum energy concentrator. The concentrator was constructed on the basis of triplate MITLs connected in parallel at the central unit where the Z-pinch is formed. At some start-up experiments on the 8-module installation version at 700 kV incident wave amplitude on concentrator for a gas puff load current of 4 MA with rise time of about 60 ns was obtained. The efficiency or current transfer from the concentrator input to the load for both a gas liner and a short-circuited case was practically the same. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Medium properties and total energy coupling in underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological model is presented that allows the direct calculation of the effects of variations in medium properties on the total energy coupling between the medium and an underground explosion. The model presented is based upon the assumption that the shock wave generated in the medium can be described as a spherical blast wave at early times. The total energy coupled to the medium is then simply the sum of the kinetic and internal energies of this blast wave. Results obtained by use of this model indicate that the energy coupling is more strongly affected by the medium's porosity than by its water content. These results agree well with those obtained by summing the energy deposited by the blast wave as a function of range

  16. Dynamic energy spectrum and energy deposition in solid target by intense pulsed ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu; Xiao-Yun Le; Zheng Liu; Jie Shen; Yu I.Isakova; Hao-Wen Zhong; Jie Zhang; Sha Yan; Gao-Long Zhang; Xiao-Fu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A method for analyzing the dynamic energy spectrum of intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was proposed.Its influence on beam energy deposition in metal target was studied with IPIB produced by two types of magnetically insulated diodes (MID).The emission of IPIB was described with space charge limitation model,and the dynamic energy spectrum was further analyzed with time-of-flight method.IPIBs generated by pulsed accelerators of BIPPAB-450 (active MID) and TEMP-4M (passive MID) were studied.The dynamic energy spectrum was used to deduce the power density distribution of IPIB in the target with Monte Carlo simulation and infrared imaging diagnostics.The effect on the distribution and evolution of thermal field induced by the characteristics of IPIB dynamic energy spectrum was discussed.

  17. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  18. Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.; Deadrick, F.J.; Landt, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire is examined. Energy collected by the wire, load energy, peak load currents, and peak load voltages are found for a wide range of parameters, with particular emphasis on nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena. A series of time-sequenced plots is used to illustrate pulse propagation on wires when loads and wire ends are encountered

  19. Trichromatic π-Pulse for Ultrafast Total Inversion of a Four-Level Ladder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serrat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical solution for complete population inversion in a four-level ladder system obtained by using a full π-pulse illumination scheme with resonant ultrashort phase-locked Gaussian laser pulses. We find that a set of pulse areas such as √3π , √2π , and √3π completely inverts the four-level system considering identical effective dipole coupling coefficients. The solution is consistent provided the involved electric fields are not too strong and it is amply accurate also in the case of diverse transition dipole moments. We study the effect of detuning and chirp of the laser pulses on the complete population inversion using the level structure of atomic sodium interacting with ps and fs pulses as an example. Our result opens the door for multiple applications such as efficient ultrashort pulse lasing in the UV or the engineering of quantum states for quantum computing.

  20. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  1. Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Ustinov, Pavel; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.

  2. Energy-correction photon counting pixel for photon energy extraction under pulse pile-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Gyuseong, E-mail: gscho@kaist.ac.kr

    2017-06-01

    A photon counting detector (PCD) has been proposed as an alternative solution to an energy-integrating detector (EID) in medical imaging field due to its high resolution, high efficiency, and low noise. The PCD has expanded to variety of fields such as spectral CT, k-edge imaging, and material decomposition owing to its capability to count and measure the number and the energy of an incident photon, respectively. Nonetheless, pulse pile-up, which is a superimposition of pulses at the output of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) in each PC pixel, occurs frequently as the X-ray flux increases due to the finite pulse processing time (PPT) in CSAs. Pulse pile-up induces not only a count loss but also distortion in the measured X-ray spectrum from each PC pixel and thus it is a main constraint on the use of PCDs in high flux X-ray applications. To minimize these effects, an energy-correction PC (ECPC) pixel is proposed to resolve pulse pile-up without cutting off the PPT by adding an energy correction logic (ECL) via a cross detection method (CDM). The ECPC pixel with a size of 200×200 µm{sup 2} was fabricated by using a 6-metal 1-poly 0.18 µm CMOS process with a static power consumption of 7.2 μW/pixel. The maximum count rate of the ECPC pixel was extended by approximately three times higher than that of a conventional PC pixel with a PPT of 500 nsec. The X-ray spectrum of 90 kVp, filtered by 3 mm Al filter, was measured as the X-ray current was increased using the CdTe and the ECPC pixel. As a result, the ECPC pixel dramatically reduced the energy spectrum distortion at 2 Mphotons/pixel/s when compared to that of the ERCP pixel with the same 500 nsec PPT.

  3. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  4. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  5. A multisite interaction expansion of the total energy in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.C.; Gonis, A.

    1994-01-01

    The local-density approximation provides a proper setting for the decomposition of total energy into many-body (many-atom) contributions. Multiple scattering theory in turn provides a convenient framework for carrying out this process. We illustrate this concept with calculations on a linear chain of atoms in bulk copper

  6. Visualization and analysis of pulsed ion beam energy density profile with infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Infrared imaging technique was used as a surface temperature-mapping tool to characterize the energy density distribution of intense pulsed ion beams on a thin metal target. The technique enables the measuring of the total ion beam energy and the energy density distribution along the cross section and allows one to optimize the operation of an ion diode and control target irradiation mode. The diagnostics was tested on the TEMP-4M accelerator at TPU, Tomsk, Russia and on the TEMP-6 accelerator at DUT, Dalian, China. The diagnostics was applied in studies of the dynamics of the target cooling in vacuum after irradiation and in the experiments with target ablation. Errors caused by the target ablation and target cooling during measurements have been analyzed. For Fluke Ti10 and Fluke Ti400 infrared cameras, the technique can achieve surface energy density sensitivity of 0.05 J/cm2 and spatial resolution of 1-2 mm. The thermal imaging diagnostics does not require expensive consumed materials. The measurement time does not exceed 0.1 s; therefore, this diagnostics can be used for the prompt evaluation of the energy density distribution of a pulsed ion beam and during automation of the irradiation process.

  7. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lanbing; Hu Jinli

    2012-01-01

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  8. Schlieren Visualization of the Energy Addition by Multi Laser Pulse in Hypersonic Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental results of the energy addition by multi laser pulse in Mach 7 hypersonic flow are presented. Two high power pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers (TEA1 5.5 J, TEA2 3.9 J) were assembled sharing the same optical cavity to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The lasers can be triggered with a selectable time delay and in the present report the results obtained with delay between 30 μs and 80 μs are shown. The schlieren technique associated with a high speed camera was used to accomplish the influence of the energy addition in the mitigation of the shock wave formed on the model surface by the hypersonic flow. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to obtain the time history of the impact pressure at stagnation point of the model and the pressure reduction could be measured. The total recovery of the shock wave between pulses as well as the prolonged effect of the mitigation without recovery was observed by changing the delay

  9. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  10. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  11. Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data

  12. Calculus of the Power Spectral Density of Ultra Wide Band Pulse Position Modulation Signals Coded with Totally Flipped Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURNEA, T. N.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available UWB-PPM systems were noted to have a power spectral density (p.s.d. consisting of a continuous portion and a line spectrum, which is composed of energy components placed at discrete frequencies. These components are the major source of interference to narrowband systems operating in the same frequency interval and deny harmless coexistence of UWB-PPM and narrowband systems. A new code denoted as Totally Flipped Code (TFC is applied to them in order to eliminate these discrete spectral components. The coded signal transports the information inside pulse position and will have the amplitude coded to generate a continuous p.s.d. We have designed the code and calculated the power spectral density of the coded signals. The power spectrum has no discrete components and its envelope is largely flat inside the bandwidth with a maximum at its center and a null at D.C. These characteristics make this code suited for implementation in the UWB systems based on PPM-type modulation as it assures a continuous spectrum and keeps PPM modulation performances.

  13. Energy and dose characteristics of ion bombardment during pulsed laser deposition of thin films under pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominski, V.Yu.; Nevolin, V.N.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on pulsed laser deposition of Fe films on Si substrates were performed with the aim to analyze the role of factors determining the formation of an energy spectrum and a dose of ions bombarding the film in strong pulsed electric fields. The amplitude of the high-voltage pulse (-40 kV) applied to the substrate and the laser fluence at the Fe target were fixed during the deposition. Owing to the high laser fluence (8 J/cm 2 ) at a relatively low power (20 mJ), the ionization of the laser plume was high, but the Fe vapor pressure near the substrate was low enough to avoid arcing. Electric signals from a target exposed to laser radiation were measured under different conditions (at different delay times) of application of electric pulses. The Si(100) substrates were analyzed using Rutherford ion backscattering/channeling spectrometry. The ion implantation dose occurred to be the highest if the high-voltage pulse was applied at a moment of time when the ion component of the plume approached the substrate. In this case, the implanted ions had the highest energy determined by the amplitude of the electric pulse. An advance or delay in applying a high-voltage pulse caused the ion dose and energy to decrease. A physical model incorporating three possible modes of ion implantation was proposed for the interpretation of the experimental results. If a laser plume was formed in the external field, ions were accelerated from the front of the dense plasma, and the ion current depended on the gas-dynamic expansion of the plume. The application of a high-voltage pulse, at the instant when the front approached the substrate, maintained the mode that was characteristic of the traditional plasma immersion ion implantation, and the ion current was governed by the dynamics of the plasma sheath in the substrate-to-target gap. In the case of an extremely late application of a high-voltage pulse, ions retained in the entire volume of the experimental chamber (as a result of the

  14. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-micros risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001

  15. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2008-01-01

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  16. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  17. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy; TOTAL rapport societal and environnemental 2004. Notre energie en partage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  18. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  19. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  20. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  1. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-01-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk

  2. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. About total kinetic energy distribution between fragments of binary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Koblik, Yu.N.; Pikul, V.P.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    At the investigation of binary fission reactions one of the main characteristic of process is total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments and it distribution between them. From the values of these characteristics it is possible to extract the information about structure of fission fragments in the break up point of initial fissionable nuclear system. In our work TKE dependence from the deformation parameters of shape and density distribution of charge in the fission fragments are investigated. In the end of paper some generalizations of obtaining results are carried out and presented in the form of tables and figures

  4. Pulse distortion, energy extraction, and ASE in an HF amplifier with angular multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, E.J.

    1976-09-01

    It has been proposed that 1 ns pulses can be efficiently extracted from the e-beam initiated HF laser by angular multiplexing, i.e., filling the amplifier with the 1 ns pulses, 1 ns apart in time, each pulse at a slightly different angle; each pulse has an input intensity of 1 W/cm 2 per line and almost fills the amplifier. We have treated this in a one dimensional model, neglecting transverse amplified spontaneous emission. We conclude that the scheme is efficient, and that most of the pulses are amplified but not distorted. The first few pulses are distorted by transient effects and the last pulse has an enhanced tail. The ratio of peak pulse intensity to forward ASE at the output is 10 4 . We then include transverse ASE and find a drastically different situation. ASE saturates the inversion after a short time depending on pulse intensity (4 ns at I/sub o/ = 1 W/cm 2 , 7 ns at I/sub o/ = 100 W/cm 2 ). The saturation time is only weakly dependent on the transverse reflection coefficient. Calculations were done on an amplifier system designed for 10 KJ output. At an incident peak pulse intensity of 10 4 W/cm 2 -line (.77 MW/cm 2 for 77 lines) 2.5 KJ was obtained in amplified pulse energy, i.e., only 6 pulses of the 24 pulse train were fully amplified. The calculations indicate that double passing the pulse train through the amplifier would enhance the energy extracted

  5. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrashort pulse energy distribution for propulsion in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstue, Grant Jared

    This thesis effort focuses on the development of a novel, space-based ultrashort pulse transmission system for spacecraft. The goals of this research include: (1) ultrashort pulse transmission strategies for maximizing safety and efficiency; (2) optical transmission system requirements; (3) general system requirements including control techniques for stabilization; (4) optical system requirements for achieving effective ablative propulsion at the receiving spacecraft; and (5) ultrashort pulse transmission capabilities required for future missions in space. A key element of the research is the multiplexing device required for aligning the ultrashort pulses from multiple laser sources along a common optical axis for transmission. This strategy enables access to the higher average and peak powers required for useful missions in space.

  7. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  8. High-energy few-cycle pulse compression through self-channeling in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauri, C.; Merano, M.; Trisorio, A.; Canova, F.; Canova, L.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Ruchon, T.; Engquist, A.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Nonlinear spectral broadening of femtosecond optical pulses by intense propagation in a Kerr medium followed by temporal compression constitutes the Holy Grail for ultrafast science since it allows the generation of intense few-cycle optical transients from longer pulses provided by now commercially available femtosecond lasers. Tremendous progress in high-field and attosecond physics achieved in recent years has triggered the need for efficient pulse compression schemes producing few-cycle pulses beyond the mJ level. We studied a novel pulse compression scheme based on self-channeling in gases, which promises to overcome the energy constraints of hollow-core fiber compression techniques. Fundamentally, self-channeling at high laser powers in gases occurs when the self-focusing effect in the gas is balanced through the dispersion induced by the inhomogeneous refractive index resulting from optically-induced ionization. The high nonlinearity of the ionization process poses great technical challenges when trying to scale this pulse compression scheme to higher energies input energies. Light channels are known to be unstable under small fluctuations of the trapped field that can lead to temporal and spatial beam breakup, usually resulting in the generation of spectrally broad but uncompressible pulses. Here we present experimental results on high-energy pulse compression of self-channeled 40-fs pulses in pressure-gas cells. In the first experiment, performed at the Lund Laser Center in Sweden, we identified a particular self-channeling regime at lower pulse energies (0.8 mJ), in which the ultrashort pulses are generated with negative group delay dispersion (GDD) such that they can be readily compressed down to near 10-fs through simple material dispersion. Pulse compression is efficient (70%) and exhibits exceptional spatial and temporal beam stability. In a second experiment, performed at the LOA-Palaiseau in France, we

  9. Pulsed high energy synthesis of fine metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Repetitively pulsed plasma jets generated by a capillary arc discharge at high stagnation pressure (>15,000 psi) and high temperature (>10,000 K) are utilized to produce 0.1-10 .mu.m sized metal powders and decrease cost of production. The plasma jets impact and atomize melt materials to form the fine powders. The melt can originate from a conventional melt stream or from a pulsed arc between two electrodes. Gas streams used in conventional gas atomization are replaced with much higher momentum flux plasma jets. Delivering strong incident shocks aids in primary disintegration of the molten material. A series of short duration, high pressure plasma pulses fragment the molten material. The pulses introduce sharp velocity gradients in the molten material which disintegrates into fine particles. The plasma pulses have peak pressures of approximately one kilobar. The high pressures improve the efficiency of disintegration. High gas flow velocities and pressures are achieved without reduction in gas density. Repetitively pulsed plasma jets will produce powders with lower mean size and narrower size distribution than conventional atomization techniques.

  10. Electromagnetic pulse compression and energy localization in quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefferon, Gareth; Sharma, Ashutosh; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the intensity of a relativistic laser beam propagating through a dense quantum plasma is investigated, by considering different plasma regimes. A cold quantum fluid plasma and then a thermal quantum description(s) is (are) adopted, in comparison with the classical case of reference. Considering a Gaussian beam cross-section, we investigate both the longitudinal compression and lateral/longitudinal localization of the intensity of a finite-radius electromagnetic pulse. By employing a quantum plasma fluid model in combination with Maxwell's equations, we rely on earlier results on the quantum dielectric response, to model beam-plasma interaction. We present an extensive parametric investigation of the dependence of the longitudinal pulse compression mechanism on the electron density in cold quantum plasmas, and also study the role of the Fermi temperature in thermal quantum plasmas. Our numerical results show pulse localization through a series of successive compression cycles, as the pulse propagates through the plasma. A pulse of 100 fs propagating through cold quantum plasma is compressed to a temporal size of ∼1.35 attosecond and a spatial size of ∼1.08.10 -3 cm. Incorporating Fermi pressure via a thermal quantum plasma model is shown to enhance localization effects. A 100 fs pulse propagating through quantum plasma with a Fermi temperature of 350 K is compressed to a temporal size of ∼0.6 attosecond and a spatial size of ∼2.4.10 -3 cm.

  11. Basic principles of thermo-acoustic energy and temporal profile detection of microwave pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V G; Vdovin, V A

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles of a thermo-acoustic method developed for the detection of powerful microwave pulses of nanosecond duration are discussed.A proposed method is based on the registration of acoustic pulse profile originated from the thermal expansion of the volume where microwave energy was absorbed.The amplitude of excited acoustic transient is proportional to absorbed microwave energy and its temporal profile resembles one of a microwave pulse when certain conditions are satisfied.The optimal regimes of microwave pulse energy detection and sensitivity of acoustic transient registration with piezo-transducer are discussed.It was demonstrated that profile of a microwave pulse could be detected with temporal resolution of 1 - 3 nanosecond.

  12. Hadronic vs. electromagnetic pulse shape discrimination in CsI(Tl) for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S.; Roney, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    Pulse shape discrimination using CsI(Tl) scintillators to perform neutral hadron particle identification is explored with emphasis towards application at high energy electron-positron collider experiments. Through the analysis of the pulse shape differences between scintillation pulses from photon and hadronic energy deposits using neutron and proton data collected at TRIUMF, it is shown that the pulse shape variations observed for hadrons can be modelled using a third scintillation component for CsI(Tl), in addition to the standard fast and slow components. Techniques for computing the hadronic pulse amplitudes and shape variations are developed and it is shown that the intensity of the additional scintillation component can be computed from the ionization energy loss of the interacting particles. These pulse modelling and simulation methods are integrated with GEANT4 simulation libraries and the predicted pulse shape for CsI(Tl) crystals in a 5 × 5 array of 5 × 5 × 30 cm3 crystals is studied for hadronic showers from 0.5 and 1 GeV/c KL0 and neutron particles. Using a crystal level and cluster level approach for photon vs. hadron cluster separation we demonstrate proof-of-concept for neutral hadron detection using CsI(Tl) pulse shape discrimination in high energy electron-positron collider experiments.

  13. Influence of energy and duration of laser pulses on stability of dielectric nanoparticles in optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Quang Quy; Mai Van Luu; Hoang Dinh Hai

    2010-01-01

    In this article the gradient force of optical trap using two counter- propagating pulsed Gaussian beam and the Brownian motion in optical force field are investigated. The influence of the energy and duration time of optical pulsed Gaussian beams on stability of nano-particle in trap is simulated and discussed. (author)

  14. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  15. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  16. High-energy-throughput pulse compression by off-axis group-delay compensation in a laser-induced filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Alisauskas, S.; Muecke, O. D.; Pugzlys, A.; Baltuska, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Off-axial beam dynamics of ultrashort laser pulses in a filament enable a radical energy-throughput improvement for filamentation-assisted pulse compression. We identify regimes where a weakly diverging wave, produced on the trailing edge of the pulse, catches up with a strongly diverging component, arising in the central part of the pulse, allowing sub-100-fs millijoule infrared laser pulses to be compressed to 20-25-fs pulse widths with energy throughputs in excess of 70%. Theoretical predictions have been verified by experimental results on filamentation-assisted compression of 70-fs, 1.5-μm laser pulses in high-pressure argon.

  17. A Front End for Multipetawatt Lasers Based on a High-Energy, High-Average-Power Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, V.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a high-energy, high-average-power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier developed as the front end for the OMEGA EP laser. The amplifier provides a gain larger than 109 in two stages leading to a total energy of 400 mJ with a pump-to-signal conversion efficiency higher than 25%

  18. Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

    1994-01-01

    A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000.

  19. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  20. Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of Fused Silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellouard, Y.J.; Dugan, M.; Said, A.A.; Bado, P.

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond laser irradiation has various noticeable effects on fused silica. Of particular interest, pulses with energy levels below the ablation threshold can locally increase the refractive index and the material etching selectivity to hydrofluoric acid. The mechanism responsible for these

  1. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  2. HIGH ENERGY REPLACEMENT FOR TEFLON PROPELLANT IN PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  3. Remedial pulse programme for the production of monoenergetic ion beams of low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olubuyide, O.A.

    1975-01-01

    The technique involves an extension of sequential pulse techniques. An ion swarm is produced in a conventional mass-spectrometer ion source by a short electron beam pulse. Immediately, this swarm is accelerated impulsively by a short high voltage pulse on the repeller. The principal disadvantage of impulsive acceleration is that the final energy distribution of the ion swarm is broad especially at the lowest energies. At some instant during the passage of the ion swarm across the chamber second pulse is applied to the repeller--a ''remedial'' pulse which will accelerate the ions throughout the remainder of their passage and whose amplitude will be time-dependent. Slower ions must travel a greater distance in this ''remedial'' field than faster ions and will experience a proportionately greater increase in velocity from it. In this way, the remedial pulse can cause all the ions to acquire the same velocity at the exit slit. A limited experimental investigation has been made to examine the application of the proposed remedial pulse technique to existing ion sources. Application of the remedial pulse to impulsively-accelerated ion swarms reduced the energy distribution in the manner predicted by the theory but the quantitative reduction measured experimentally--a factor of approximately 2--was substantially less than the theoretical prediction of a factor of approximately 4. The limitations were characterized and a means of overcoming them was suggested in a new ion source of improved design. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  4. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Novel high-frequency energy-efficient pulsed-dc generator for capacitively coupled plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2018-03-01

    The circuit design, assembly, and operating tests of a high-frequency and high-voltage (HV) pulsed dc generator (PDG) for capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge inside a vacuum chamber are reported. For capacitive loads, it is challenging to obtain sharp rectangular pulses with fast rising and falling edges, requiring intense current for quick charging and discharging. The requirement of intense current generally limits the pulse operation frequency. In this study, we present a new type of PDG consisting of a pair of half-resonant converters and a constant current-controller circuit connected with HV solid-state power switches that can deliver almost rectangular high voltage pulses with fast rising and falling edges for CCP discharge. A prototype of the PDG is assembled to modulate from a high-voltage direct current (HVdc) input into a pulsed HVdc output, while following an input pulse signal and a set current level. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 500 ns and 800 ns, respectively, and the minimum pulse width is 1 µs. The maximum voltage for a negative pulse is 1000 V, and the maximum repetition frequency is 500 kHz. During the pulse on time, the plasma discharge current is controlled steadily at the set value. The half-resonant converters in the PDG perform recovery of the remaining energy from the capacitive load at every termination of pulse discharge. The PDG performed with a high energy efficiency of 85% from the HVdc input to the pulsed dc output at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and with stable plasma operation in various discharge conditions. The results suggest that the developed PDG can be considered to be more efficient for plasma processing by CCP.

  6. Novel high-frequency energy-efficient pulsed-dc generator for capacitively coupled plasma discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2018-03-01

    The circuit design, assembly, and operating tests of a high-frequency and high-voltage (HV) pulsed dc generator (PDG) for capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge inside a vacuum chamber are reported. For capacitive loads, it is challenging to obtain sharp rectangular pulses with fast rising and falling edges, requiring intense current for quick charging and discharging. The requirement of intense current generally limits the pulse operation frequency. In this study, we present a new type of PDG consisting of a pair of half-resonant converters and a constant current-controller circuit connected with HV solid-state power switches that can deliver almost rectangular high voltage pulses with fast rising and falling edges for CCP discharge. A prototype of the PDG is assembled to modulate from a high-voltage direct current (HVdc) input into a pulsed HVdc output, while following an input pulse signal and a set current level. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 500 ns and 800 ns, respectively, and the minimum pulse width is 1 µs. The maximum voltage for a negative pulse is 1000 V, and the maximum repetition frequency is 500 kHz. During the pulse on time, the plasma discharge current is controlled steadily at the set value. The half-resonant converters in the PDG perform recovery of the remaining energy from the capacitive load at every termination of pulse discharge. The PDG performed with a high energy efficiency of 85% from the HVdc input to the pulsed dc output at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and with stable plasma operation in various discharge conditions. The results suggest that the developed PDG can be considered to be more efficient for plasma processing by CCP.

  7. Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, N.; Hartmann, G.; Heider, R.; Wagner, M. S.; Ilchen, M.; Buck, J.; Lindahl, A. O.; Benko, C.; Grünert, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Liu, J.; Lutman, A. A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Moeller, S. P.; Planas, M.; Robinson, J.; Kazansky, A. K.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Viefhaus, J.; Feurer, T.; Kienberger, R.; Coffee, R. N.; Helml, W.

    2018-04-01

    The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science.

  8. Frontiers in pulse-power-based high energy density plasma physics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this volume of report were presented at the Symposium on Frontiers in Pulse-power-based High Energy Density Physics' held by National Institute for Fusion Science. The topics include the present status of high energy density plasma researches, extreme ultraviolet sources, intense radiation sources, high power ion beams, and R and D of related pulse power technologies. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  10. Energy losses estimation during pulsed-laser seam welding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, Hana; Havelková, M.; Chmelíčková, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1116-1121 ISSN 1073-5615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser welding * pulsed-laser * Nd:YAG laser Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2014

  11. Energy management for cost reduction in the production. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management; Energiemanagement zur Kostensenkung in der Produktion. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westkaemper, Engelbert; Verl, Alexander (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the workshop of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) at 6th October, 2009, in Stuttgart the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Engelbert Westkaemper); (2) TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management - ''With energy management to an energy efficient production'' (Alexander Schloske); (3) DIN EN 16001 Introduction of an energy management system - utilization and advantages for companies (Sylvia Wahren); (4) Analysis of the energy efficiency with power flow - Support and implementation at factory planning and optimization of production (Klaus Erlach); (5) Total Energy Efficiency Management - Approaches at the company Kaercher in injection moulding for example (Axel Leschtar); (6) Modelling the embodied product energy (Shahin Rahimifard); (7) Acquisition of energy data in the production - Technologies and possibilities (Joachim Neher); (8) Active energy management by means of an ''energy control centre'' - Analysis of the real situation and upgrading measures in the production using coating plants as an example (Wolfgang Klein); (9) Visualisation and simulation of energy values in the digital factory (Carmen Constantinescu, Axel Bruns).

  12. Note: A well-confined pulsed low-energy ion beam: Test experiments of Ar+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Tian, Shan Xi

    2018-06-01

    Here we report a pulsed low-energy ion beam source for ion-molecule reaction study, in which the ions produced by the pulsed electron impact are confined well in the spatial size of each bunch. In contrast to the ion focusing method to reduce the transverse section of the beam, the longitudinal section in the translational direction is compressed by introducing a second pulse in the ion time-of-flight system. The test experiments for the low-energy argon ions are performed. The present beam source is ready for applications in the ion-molecule reaction dynamics experiments, in particular, in combination with the ion velocity map imaging technique.

  13. Research on Pulsed Jet Flow Control without External Energy in a Blade Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To control the flow separation in the compressors, a novel pulsed jet concept without external energy injection is proposed. The new concept designs a slot in the middle of the blade and sets a micro device to switch the slot periodically. Such a structure is expected to generate a pulsed jet by the pressure difference between the pressure side and the suction side of the blade. In order to analyze the interaction between the pulsed jet and unsteady separated flow, our numerical and experimental study is based on a specific cascade (with a flow separation inside and a pulsed jet (one of the unsteady flow control method. The experimental and numerical results both show that when the frequency of pulsed jet is approximate to that of the separation vortex, then the control tends to be more effective. Based on the numerical simulations, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is then used to reveal the control mechanism, extracting the different time-space structures from the original field. The results with the aid of POD show that the pulsed jet can redistribute the kinetic energy of each mode, and strengthen or weaken certain modes, particularly, while the steady jet reduces the kinetic energy of high-order modes in whole. Also, pulsed jet with proper parameters can transfer the energy from higher modes to the first flow mode (averaged flow, which is due to the conversion of the spatial vortical structures and the time evolution of the modes.

  14. Consistency check of pulse shape discrimination for broad energy germanium detectors using double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Heng-Ye [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment was built to study fundamental neutrino properties via neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). 0νββ events are single-site events (SSE) confined to a scale about millimeter. However, most of backgrounds are multi-site events (MSE). Broad Energy Germanium detectors (BEGes) offer the potential merits of improved pulse shape recognition efficiencies of SSE/MSE. They allow us to reach the goal of Phase II with a background index of 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the ROI. BEGe detectors with a total target mass of 3.63 kg have been installed to the Gerda setup in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in July 2012 and are collecting data since. A consistency check of the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) efficiencies by comparison of calibration data and 2νββ data will be presented. The PSD power of these detectors is demonstrated.

  15. Measurement of the energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Gordon Andrew; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Dropinski, Steven Clark; Hanson, Donald L.; Johnson, William Arthur; York, Mathew William; Lewis, D.F.; Korde, R.; Haslett, C.L.; Wall, D.L.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Ramirez, L.E.; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; McKenney, John Lee; Bryce, Edwin Anthony; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Torres, Jose A.; Mills, Jerry Alan; Leeper, Ramon Joe; McGurn, John Stephen; Fehl, David Lee; Spielman, R. B.; Pyle, John H.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Ives III, Harry Crockett; Seamen, Johann F.; Simpson, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a diagnostic system that measures the spectrally integrated (i.e. the total) energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source. The total-energy-and-power (TEP) diagnostic system is optimized for blackbody temperatures between 50 and 350 eV. The system can view apertured sources that radiate energies and powers as high as 2 MJ and 200 TW, respectively, and has been successfully tested at 0.84 MJ and 73 TW on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The TEP system consists of two pinhole arrays, two silicon-diode detectors, and two thin-film nickel bolometers. Each of the two pinhole arrays is paired with a single silicon diode. Each array consists of a 38 x 38 square array of 10-(micro)m-diameter pinholes in a 50-(micro)m-thick tantalum plate. The arrays achromatically attenuate the x-ray flux by a factor of ∼1800. The use of such arrays for the attenuation of soft x rays was first proposed by Turner and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 656 (1999)RSINAK0034-674810.1063/1.1149385]. The attenuated flux from each array illuminates its associated diode; the diode's output current is recorded by a data-acquisition system with 0.6-ns time resolution. The arrays and diodes are located 19 and 24 m from the source, respectively. Because the diodes are designed to have an approximately flat spectral sensitivity, the output current from each diode is proportional to the x-ray power. The nickel bolometers are fielded at a slightly different angle from the array-diode combinations, and view (without pinhole attenuation) the same x-ray source. The bolometers measure the total x-ray energy radiated by the source and--on every shot--provide an in situ calibration of the array-diode combinations. Two array-diode pairs and two bolometers are fielded to reduce random uncertainties. An analytic model (which accounts for pinhole-diffraction effects) of the sensitivity of an array-diode combination is presented

  16. Vib--rotational energy distributions and relaxation processes in pulsed HF chemical lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shaul, A.; Kompa, K.L.; Schmailzl, U.

    1976-01-01

    The rate equations governing the temporal evolution of photon densities and level populations in pulsed F+H 2 →HF+H chemical lasers are solved for different initial conditions. The rate equations are solved simultaneously for all relevant vibrational--rotational levels and vibrational--rotational P-branch transitions. Rotational equilibrium is not assumed. Approximate expressions for the detailed state-to-state rate constants corresponding to the various energy transfer processes (V--V, V--R,T, R--R,T) coupling the vib--rotational levels are formulated on the basis of experimental data, approximate theories, and qualitative considerations. The main findings are as follows: At low pressures, R--T transfer cannot compete with the stimulated emission, and the laser output largely reflects the nonequilibrium energy distribution in the pumping reaction. The various transitions reach threshold and decay almost independently and simultaneous lasing on several lines takes place. When a buffer gas is added in excess to the reacting mixture, the enhanced rotational relaxation leads to nearly single-line operation and to the J shift in lasing. Laser efficiency is higher at high inert gas pressures owing to a better extraction of the internal energy from partially inverted populations. V--V exchange enhances lasing from upper vibrational levels but reduces the total pulse intensity. V--R,T processes reduce the efficiency but do not substantially modify the spectral output distribution. The photon yield ranges between 0.4 and 1.4 photons/HF molecule depending on the initial conditions. Comparison with experimental data, when available, is fair

  17. Impurities in semiconductors: total energy and infrared absorption calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1987-01-01

    A new method to calculate the electronic structure of infinite nonperiodic system is discussed. The calculations are performed using atomic pseudopotentials and a basis of atomic Gaussiam wave functions. The Hartree-Fock self consistent equations are solved in the cluster-Bethe lattice system. Electron correlation is partially included in second order pertubation approximation. The formalism is applied to hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Total energy calculations of finite clusters of silicon atom in the presence of impurities, are also presented. The results show how atomic oxygen breaks the covalent silicon silicon bond forming a local configuration similar to that of SiO 2 . Calculations of the infrared absorption due to the presence of atomic oxygen in cristalline silicon are presented. The Born Hamiltonian to calculate the vibrational modes of the system and a simplied model to describe the infrared absorption mechanism are used. The interstitial and the the substitutional cases are considered and analysed. The position of the main infrared absorption peak, their intensities and their isotope shifts are calculated. The results are satisfactory agreement with the available data. (author) [pt

  18. Repetitively pulsed, high energy KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.C.; Sethian, J.D.; Giuliani, J.L.; Lehmberg, R.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M.F.; Hegeler, F.; Friedman, M.; Jones, T.C.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Rose, D.

    2004-01-01

    Krypton fluoride (KrF) lasers produce highly uniform beams at 248 nm, allow the capability of 'zooming' the spot size to follow an imploding pellet, naturally assume a modular architecture and have been developed into a pulsed-power- based industrial technology that readily scales to a fusion power plant sized system. There are two main challenges for the fusion power plant application: to develop a system with an overall efficiency of greater than 6% (based on target gains of 100) and to achieve a durability of greater than 3 x 10 8 shots (two years at 5 Hz). These two issues are being addressed with the Electra (700 J, 5 Hz) and Nike (3000 J, single shot) KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory. Based on recent advances in pulsed power, electron beam generation and transport, hibachi (foil support structure) design and KrF physics, wall plug efficiencies of greater than 7% should be achievable. Moreover, recent experiments show that it may be possible to realize long lived electron beam diodes using ceramic honeycomb cathodes and anode foils that are convectively cooled by periodically deflecting the laser gas. This paper is a summary of the progress in the development of the critical KrF technologies for laser fusion energy. (author)

  19. Determination of pulse energy dependence for skin denaturation from 585nm fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Ascencio, S.; Velazquez-Gonzalez, J. S.; Mujica-Ascencio, C.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis for the determination of pulse energy from a Q-switched Yb3+-doped fibre laser is required in Port Wine Stain (PWS) treatment. The pulse energy depends on average power, gain, volume, repetition rate and pulse duration. In some treatments such as Selective Photothermolysis (SP), the peak power at the end of the optical fibre and pulse duration can be obtained and modified via a cavity design. For that purpose, a 585nm optical fibre laser full design which considers all of the above besides the average losses through the optical devices proposed for the design and the Ytterbium optical fibre overall gain will be presented.

  20. Proposals of electronic-vibrational energy relaxation studies by using laser pulses synchronized with IR-SR pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is expected to be the sharp infrared light source for the advanced experiments on IR and FIR spectroscopy in wide research fields. Especially, synchronized use of SR with VIS and/or UV laser light is to be a promising technique for the research on the dynamical properties of the photo-excited states in condensed materials. Some proposals are attempted for high resolution IR spectroscopy to elucidate fine interaction of molecular ions in crystalline solids with their environmental field and for time-resolved IR spectroscopic studies on the electronic and vibrational energy relaxation by using laser pulses synchronized with IR-SR pulses. Several experimental results are presented in relevance to the subjects; on high-resolution FTIR spectra of cyanide ions and metal cyanide complexes in cadmium halide crystals, on the energy up-conversion process among the vibrational levels of cyanide ions in alkali halide crystals, and on the electronic-to-vibrational energy conversion process in metal cyanide complexes. (author)

  1. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  2. Tangible and fungible energy: Hybrid energy market and currency system for total energy management. A Masdar City case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Kennedy, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We propose the introduction of an energy-based parallel currency as a means to ease the transition to energy-conscious living. Abundant fossil energy resources mask the internal and external energy costs for casual energy consumers. This situation is challenging communities that draw a significant fraction of their primary energy consumption from renewable energy sources. The Masdar Energy Credit (MEC) system is a way of translating the fundamental aspects behind energy generation and usage into a tangible reality for all users with built-in fungibility to incentivize collectively sustainable behavior. The energy credit currency (ergo) corresponds with a chosen unit of energy so that the total amount of ergos issued equals the energy supply of the community. Ergos are distributed to users (residents, commercial entities, employees, and visitors) on a subscription basis and can be surrendered in exchange for the energy content of a service. A spot market pricing mechanism is introduced to relate ergos to 'fiat' currency using a continuously variable exchange rate to prevent depletion of the sustainable energy resource. The MEC system is intended to: (i) meet the sustainable energy balance targets of a community (ii) support peak shaving or load shifting goals, and (iii) raise energy awareness.

  3. High-energy-density physics researches based on pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Sasaki, Toru; Kondo, Kotaro; Yano, Yuuri

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas driven by pulse power device are of interest, concerning the researches on high-energy-density (HED) physics. Dense plasmas are produced using pulse power driven exploding discharges in water. Experimental results show that the wire plasma is tamped and stabilized by the surrounding water and it evolves through a strongly coupled plasma state. A shock-wave-heated, high temperature plasma is produced in a compact pulse power device. Experimental results show that strong shock waves can be produced in the device. In particular, at low initial pressure condition, the shock Mach number reaches 250 and this indicates that the shock heated region is dominated by radiation processes. (author)

  4. The use of logarithmic pulse height and energy scales in organic scintillator spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of logarithmic pulse height and energy scales is advantageous for organic for organic scintillator neutron spectroscopy, providing an expanded dynamic range and economy of computer usage. An experimental logarithmic pulse height analysis system is shown to be feasible. A pulse height spectrum from a neutron measurement has been analysed using linear and logarithmic scales; the latter reduced the computer storage requirements by a factor of 13 and analysis time by 8.7, and there was no degradation of the analysed spectrum. Most of the arguments favouring use of logarithmic scales apply equally well to other types of scintillation spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Pulse-by-pulse energy measurement at the Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, G.; Briggs, D.; Collins, B.; Petree, M.

    1992-01-01

    The stanford Linear Collider (SLC) collides a beam of electrons and positrons at 92 GeV. It is the first colliding linac, and produces Z 0 particles for High-Energy Physics measurements. The energy of each beam must be measured to one part in 10 4 on every collision (120 Hz). An Energy Spectrometer in each beam line after collision produces two stripes of high-energy synchrotron radiation with critical energy of a few MeV. The distance between these two stripes at an imaging plane measures the beam energy. The Wire- Imaging Synchrotron Radiation Detector (WISRD) system comprises a novel detector, data acquisition electronics, readout and analysis. The detector comprises an array of wires for each synchrotron stripe. The electronics measure secondary emission charge on each wire of each array. A Macintosh II (using THINK C, THINK Class Library) and DSP coprocessor (using ANSI C) acquire and analyze the data, and display and report the results for SLC operation

  6. Pulse-by-pulse energy measurement at the Stanford Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, G.; Briggs, D.; Collins, B.; Petree, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) collides a beam of electrons and positrons at 92 GeV. It is the first colliding linac, and produces Z(sup 0) particles for High-Energy Physics measurements. The energy of each beam must be measured to one part in 10(exp 4) on every collision (120 Hz). An Energy Spectrometer in each beam line after the collision produces two stripes of high-energy synchrotron radiation with critical energy of a few MeV. The distance between these two stripes at an imaging plane measures the beam energy. The Wire-Imaging Synchrotron Radiation Detector (WISRD) system comprises a novel detector, data acquisition electronics, readout, and analysis. The detector comprises an array of wires for each synchrotron stripe. The electronics measure secondary emission charge on each wire of each array. A Macintosh II (using THINK C, THINK Class Library) and DSP coprocessor (using ANSI C) acquire and analyze the data, and display and report the results for SLC operation.

  7. The energy spectrum of the 'runaway' electrons from a high voltage pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruset, C.

    1985-01-01

    Some experimental results are presented on the influence of the pressure upon the energy spectrum of the runaway electrons generated into a pulsed high voltage argon discharge. These electrons enter a state of continuous acceleration between two collisions with rapidly increasing free path. The applied discharge current varies from 10 to 300 A, the pulse time is about 800 ns. Relativistic effects are taken into consideration. Theoretical explanation is based on the pnenomenon of electron spreading on plasma oscillations. (D.Gy.)

  8. The Space-, Time-, and Energy-distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Plane Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Arne

    1962-05-15

    The space-, time- and energy-distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, plane, high energy source in an infinite medium is determined in a diffusion approximation. For simplicity the moderator is first assumed to be hydrogen gas but it is also shown that the method can be used for a moderator of arbitrary mass.

  9. Relaxation of ion energy spectrum just after turbulent heating pulse in TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1982-07-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial profile of the ion energy spectrum just after the application of a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in the TRIAM-1 tokamak and also numerically using the Fokker-Planck equation. The two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to a single one within tausub(i) (the ion collision time).

  10. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  11. Economics of total energy schemes in the liberalised European energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampret, Peter

    This thesis is concerned with the liberalisation of the European Energy markets and the affects this has had on total energy systems. The work concentrates on a number of case studies all of which are located in the area surrounding Gelsenkirchen - Bottrop - Gladbeck, the centre of the Ruhr region of Germany.The thesis describes briefly how the legislation of the parliament of the extended European Union has been interpreted and enacted into German legislation and its affects on production, transport, sales and customers. Primarily the legislation has been enacted to reduce energy costs by having a competitive market while enabling security of supply. The legislation whose development has accelerated since 1999 can lead to negative effects and these have been highlighted for the case studies chosen.The legislation and technological advances, each of them successful by themselves, do not provide the expected reduction of carbon dioxide emissions when applied to total energy system. The introduction of human behaviour as a missing link makes the problems evident and gives a theoretical basis to overcome these problems. The hypothesis is proven by eight detailed research projects and four concisely described ones.The base of the research is the experience gained on approximately 1,000 operation years of the simplest total energy system, that of centralised heating. This experience is transferred to different solutions for total energy systems and their economics in combination with the changing legislation and observation of human behaviour.The variety of topics of the case studies includes the production of heat by boiler, solar or combined heat and power and the use of fuel cells. Additionally the transfer of heat, at the place of demand is considered, either as an individual boiler in a building or as de-centralised district heating.The various results of these projects come together in a final project which covers four different heating systems in identical

  12. Few-cycle high energy mid-infrared pulse from Ho:YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, development of high-energy ultrafast laser sources has led to important breakthroughs in attoscience and strong-field physics study in atoms and molecules. Coherent pulse synthesis of few-cycle high-energy laser pulse is a promising tool to generate isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonics generation (HHG). An effective way to extend the HHG cut-off energy to higher values is making use of long mid-infrared (MIR) driver wavelength, as the ponderomotive potential scales quadratically with wavelength. If properly scaled in energy to multi-mJ level and few-cycle duration, such pulses provide a direct path to intriguing attoscience experiments in gases and solids, which even permit the realization of bright coherent table-top HHG sources in the water-window and keV X-ray region. However, the generation of high-intensity long-wavelength MIR pulses has always remained challenging, in particular starting from high-energy picosecond 2-μm laser driver, that is suitable for further energy scaling of the MIR pulses to multi-mJ energies by utilizing optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). In this thesis, a front-end source for such MIR OPA is presented. In particular, a novel and robust strong-field few-cycle 2-μm laser driver directly from picosecond Ho:YLF laser and utilizing Kagome fiber based compression is presented. We achieved: a 70-fold compression of 140-μJ, 3.3-ps pulses from Ho:YLF amplifier to 48 fs with 11 μJ energy. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates a straightforward path towards generation of few-cycle MIR pulses and we believe that in the future the ultrafast community will benefit from this enabling technology. The results are summarized in mainly four parts: The first part is focused on the development of a 2-μm, high-energy laser source as the front-end. Comparison of available technology in general and promising gain media at MIR wavelength are discussed. Starting from the basics of an OPA, the design criteria

  13. Few-cycle high energy mid-infrared pulse from Ho:YLF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, Krishna

    2017-04-15

    Over the past decade, development of high-energy ultrafast laser sources has led to important breakthroughs in attoscience and strong-field physics study in atoms and molecules. Coherent pulse synthesis of few-cycle high-energy laser pulse is a promising tool to generate isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonics generation (HHG). An effective way to extend the HHG cut-off energy to higher values is making use of long mid-infrared (MIR) driver wavelength, as the ponderomotive potential scales quadratically with wavelength. If properly scaled in energy to multi-mJ level and few-cycle duration, such pulses provide a direct path to intriguing attoscience experiments in gases and solids, which even permit the realization of bright coherent table-top HHG sources in the water-window and keV X-ray region. However, the generation of high-intensity long-wavelength MIR pulses has always remained challenging, in particular starting from high-energy picosecond 2-μm laser driver, that is suitable for further energy scaling of the MIR pulses to multi-mJ energies by utilizing optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). In this thesis, a front-end source for such MIR OPA is presented. In particular, a novel and robust strong-field few-cycle 2-μm laser driver directly from picosecond Ho:YLF laser and utilizing Kagome fiber based compression is presented. We achieved: a 70-fold compression of 140-μJ, 3.3-ps pulses from Ho:YLF amplifier to 48 fs with 11 μJ energy. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates a straightforward path towards generation of few-cycle MIR pulses and we believe that in the future the ultrafast community will benefit from this enabling technology. The results are summarized in mainly four parts: The first part is focused on the development of a 2-μm, high-energy laser source as the front-end. Comparison of available technology in general and promising gain media at MIR wavelength are discussed. Starting from the basics of an OPA, the design criteria

  14. Note: A high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator with novel insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Su, Jiancang; Fan, Xuliang

    2017-09-01

    A 10-GW high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator is developed with an improved insulating liquid based on a modified Tesla pulser—TPG700, of which the pulse forming line (PFL) is filled with novel insulating oil instead of transformer oil. Properties of insulating oil determining the stored energy density of the PFL are analyzed, and a criterion for appropriate oil is proposed. Midel 7131 is chosen as an application example. The results of insulating property experiment under tens-of-microsecond pulse charging demonstrate that the insulation capability of Midel 7131 is better than that of KI45X transformer oil. The application test in Tesla pulser TPG700 shows that the output power is increased to 10.5 GW with Midel 7131. The output energy density of TPG700 increases for about 60% with Midel 7131.

  15. The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.

  16. Improvement of Polytetrafluoroethylene Surface Energy by Repetitive Pulse Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in Atmospheric Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoqing; Zhang Guanjun; Zhang Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy by non-thermal plasma treatment is presented, using a nanosecond-positive-edge repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge generator in atmospheric air. The electrical parameters including discharging power, peak and density of micro-discharge current were calculated, and the electron energy was estimated. Surface treatment experiments of polytetrafluoroethylene films were conducted for both different applied voltages and different treating durations. Results show that the surface energy of polytetrafluoroethylene film could be improved to 40 mJ/m 2 or more by plasma treatment. Surface roughness measurement and surface X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are chemical etching and implantation of polar oxygen groups in the sample surface treating process, resulting in the improvement of the sample surface energy. Compared with an AC source of 50 Hz, the dielectric barrier discharges generated by a repetitive pulsed source could provide higher peak power, lower mean power, larger micro-discharge current density and higher electron energy. Therefore, with the same applied peak voltage and treating duration, the improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy using repetitive pulsed plasma is more effective, and the plasma treatment process based on repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in air is thus feasible and applicable.

  17. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  18. Time gating for energy selection and scatter rejection: High-energy pulsed neutron imaging at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Alicia; Schirato, Richard; McKigney, Edward; Hunter, James; Temple, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a linear accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico that accelerates a proton beam to 800 MeV, which then produces spallation neutron beams. Flight path FP15R uses a tungsten target to generate neutrons of energy ranging from several hundred keV to ~600 MeV. The beam structure has micropulses of sub-ns width and period of 1.784 ns, and macropulses of 625 μs width and frequency of either 50 Hz or 100 Hz. This corresponds to 347 micropulses per macropulse, or 1.74 x 104 micropulses per second when operating at 50 Hz. Using a very fast, cooled ICCD camera (Princeton Instruments PI-Max 4), gated images of various objects were obtained on FP15R in January 2015. Objects imaged included blocks of lead and borated polyethylene; a tungsten sphere; and a tungsten, polyethylene, and steel cylinder. Images were obtained in 36 min or less, with some in as little as 6 min. This is novel because the gate widths (some as narrow as 10 ns) were selected to reject scatter and other signal not of interest (e.g. the gamma flash that precedes the neutron pulse), which has not been demonstrated at energies above 14 MeV. This proof-of-principle experiment shows that time gating is possible above 14MeV and is useful for selecting neutron energy and reducing scatter, thus forming clearer images. Future work (simulation and experimental) is being undertaken to improve camera shielding and system design and to precisely determine optical properties of the imaging system.

  19. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  20. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN VERY-HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS AND GIANT RADIO PULSES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Federici, S., E-mail: schroedter@veritas.sao.arizona.edu, E-mail: mccann@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: nepomuk.otte@gmail.com [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a joint observational campaign between the Green Bank radio telescope and the VERITAS gamma-ray telescope, which searched for a correlation between the emission of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays (E {sub {gamma}} > 150 GeV) and giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 8.9 GHz. A total of 15,366 GRPs were recorded during 11.6 hr of simultaneous observations, which were made across four nights in 2008 December and in 2009 November and December. We searched for an enhancement of the pulsed gamma-ray emission within time windows placed around the arrival time of the GRP events. In total, eight different time windows with durations ranging from 0.033 ms to 72 s were positioned at three different locations relative to the GRP to search for enhanced gamma-ray emission which lagged, led, or was concurrent with, the GRP event. Furthermore, we performed separate searches on main pulse GRPs and interpulse GRPs and on the most energetic GRPs in our data sample. No significant enhancement of pulsed VHE emission was found in any of the preformed searches. We set upper limits of 5-10 times the average VHE flux of the Crab pulsar on the flux simultaneous with interpulse GRPs on single-rotation-period timescales. On {approx}8 s timescales around interpulse GRPs, we set an upper limit of 2-3 times the average VHE flux. Within the framework of recent models for pulsed VHE emission from the Crab pulsar, the expected VHE-GRP emission correlations are below the derived limits.

  1. Search for a Correlation Between Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays and Giant Radio Pulses in the Crab Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a joint observational campaign between the Green Bank radio telescope and the VERITAS gamma-ray telescope, which searched for a correlation between the emission of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays ( E(sub Gamma) > 150 GeV) and giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 8.9 GHz. A total of 15,366 GRPs were recorded during 11.6 hr of simultaneous observations, which were made across four nights in 2008 December and in 2009 November and December. We searched for an enhancement of the pulsed gamma-ray emission within time windows placed around the arrival time of the GRP events. In total, eight different time windows with durations ranging from 0.033 ms to 72 s were positioned at three different locations relative to the GRP to search for enhanced gamma-ray emission which lagged, led, or was concurrent with, the GRP event. Furthermore, we performed separate searches on main pulse GRPs and interpulse GRPs and on the most energetic GRPs in our data sample. No significant enhancement of pulsed VHE emission was found in any of the preformed searches. We set upper limits of 5-10 times the average VHE flux of the Crab pulsar on the flux simultaneous with interpulse GRPs on single-rotation-period timescales. On approx. 8 s timescales around interpulse GRPs, we set an upper limit of 2-3 times the average VHE flux. Within the framework of recent models for pulsed VHE emission from the Crab pulsar, the expected VHE-GRP emission correlations are below the derived limits.

  2. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  3. Targeting for energy efficiency and improved energy collaboration between different companies using total site analysis (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Andersson, Eva; Harvey, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Rising fuel prices, increasing costs associated with emissions of green house gases and the threat of global warming make efficient use of energy more and more important. Industrial clusters have the potential to significantly increase energy efficiency by energy collaboration. In this paper Sweden's largest chemical cluster is analysed using the total site analysis (TSA) method. TSA delivers targets for the amount of utility consumed and generated through excess energy recovery by the different processes. The method enables investigation of opportunities to deliver waste heat from one process to another using a common utility system. The cluster consists of 5 chemical companies producing a variety of products, including polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), amines, ethylene, oxygen/nitrogen and plasticisers. The companies already work together by exchanging material streams. In this study the potential for energy collaboration is analysed in order to reach an industrial symbiosis. The overall heating and cooling demands of the site are around 442 MW and 953 MW, respectively. 122 MW of heat is produced in boilers and delivered to the processes. TSA is used to stepwise design a site-wide utility system which improves energy efficiency. It is shown that heat recovery in the cluster can be increased by 129 MW, i.e. the current utility demand could be completely eliminated and further 7 MW excess steam can be made available. The proposed retrofitted utility system involves the introduction of a site-wide hot water circuit, increased recovery of low pressure steam and shifting of heating steam pressure to lower levels in a number heat exchangers when possible. Qualitative evaluation of the suggested measures shows that 60 MW of the savings potential could to be achieved with moderate changes to the process utility system corresponding to 50% of the heat produced from purchased fuel in the boilers of the cluster. Further analysis showed that after implementation

  4. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  5. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  6. Effects of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    industrially polluted soils were performed. At a current density of 0.1mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 2, there was no difference on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals between pulse current and constant current experiments, but at higher current experiments (i.e., 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0......The aims of this paper were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR) and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of heavy metals. Eight experiments with constant and pulse current in the different.......8mA/cm2 in soil 2) the energy was saved 67% and 60% and the removal of heavy metals was increased 17–76% and 31–51% by pulse current in soil 1 and soil 2, respectively. When comparing the voltage drop at different parts of EDR cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across cation...

  7. On total cross sections and slopes at superhigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremyan, Sh.S.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative analysis of hadron-hadron interactions in theories with critical and supercritical pomerons is carried out. The main characteristics of binary interactions in both theories are shown practically to coincide to each other in the whole range of accessible energies. Also an analysis of characteristics of hadron-nuclei interactions is given in the framework of Reggeon field theory with critical and supercritical pomerons and multiple scattering theory. The results obtained agree with available experimental data on proton-nuclei interactions at superhigh energies

  8. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, William P; Cain, Clarence P; Narayan, Drew G; Noojin, Gary D; Boppart, Stephen A; Birngruber, Reginald; Fujimoto, James G; Toth, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 microm diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  9. Total-energy global optimizations using nonorthogonal localized orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Mauri, F.; Galli, G.

    1995-01-01

    An energy functional for orbital-based O(N) calculations is proposed, which depends on a number of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals larger than the number of occupied states in the system, and on a parameter, the electronic chemical potential, determining the number of electrons. We show that the minimization of the functional with respect to overlapping localized orbitals can be performed so as to attain directly the ground-state energy, without being trapped at local minima. The present approach overcomes the multiple-minima problem present within the original formulation of orbital-based O(N) methods; it therefore makes it possible to perform O(N) calculations for an arbitrary system, without including any information about the system bonding properties in the construction of the input wave functions. Furthermore, while retaining the same computational cost as the original approach, our formulation allows one to improve the variational estimate of the ground-state energy, and the energy conservation during a molecular dynamics run. Several numerical examples for surfaces, bulk systems, and clusters are presented and discussed

  10. Self-sustained Oscillation Pulsed Air Blowing System for Energy Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Maolin; XU Weiqing

    2010-01-01

    Currently, many studies have been made for years on dimensions of pneumatic nozzle, which influence the flow characteristic of blowing system. For the purpose of outputting the same blowing force, the supply pressure could be reduced by decreasing the ratio of length to diameter of nozzle. The friction between high speed air and pipe wall would be reduced if the nozzle is designed to be converging shape comparing with straight shape. But the volume flow and pressure, discussed in these studies, do not describe energy loss of the blowing system directly. Pneumatic power is an innovative principle to estimate pneumatic system's energy consumption directly. Based on the above principle, a pulse blowing method is put forward for saving energy. A flow experiment is carried out, in which the high speed air flows from the pulse blowing system and continuous blowing system respectively to a plate with grease on top. Supply pressure and the volume of air used for removing the grease are measured to calculate energy consumption. From the experiment result, the pulse blowing system performs to conserve energy comparing with the continuous blowing system. The frequency and duty ratio of pulse flow influence the blowing characteristic. The pulse blowing system performs to be the most efficient at the specified frequency and duty ratio. Then a pneumatic self-oscillated method based on air operated valve is put forward to generate pulse flow. A simulation is made about dynamic modeling the air operated valve and calculating the motion of the valve core and output pressure. The simulation result verifies the system to be able to generate pulse flow, and predicts the key parameters of the frequency and duty ratio measured by experiment well. Finally, on the basis of simplifying and solution of the pulse blowing system's mathematic model, the relationship between system's frequency duty ratio and the dimensions of components is simply described with four algebraic equations. The

  11. Low energy total cross section of 36Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Magurno, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    To compare the predictions of the valence model with measured partial radiative widths of 36 Ar an accurate knowledge of the bound-level parameters is required. This is achieved by carrying out a Breit-Wigner parameter fit to the total cross section of 36 Ar measured by Chrien et al and renormalized to the recommended values of the thermal capture and scattering cross sections. (1 figure, 1 table) (U.S.)

  12. Method and apparatus for obtaining very high energy laser pulses: photon cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, V.; Krogstad, R.S.; Goldstein, R.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is arranged in selected embodiments of several combinations, each sometimes being referred to as a system, and each embodiment establishing a large enclosable chamber containing a laser energy reacting medium through which a laser beam is created. When laser energy pulses of such a beam are created, they are guided in a continuous path using reflectors in this chamber, and they receive supplemental energy units from multiple spaced laser pumps. Each laser pump is effective in respect to its own inverted population laser energy source, and each laser pump is triggered by an overall excitation control system. The laser beam is thereby supplemented to a higher level at each laser pump. Yet at all times the laser energy reacting medium remains at a level below super radiance. A working unit or working pulse of a laser beam is allowed to escape from each large enclosable chamber through an escape exit only when a preselected very high energy level is reached. The escape exit of this chamber may be designed to be destroyed by the exiting high level pulse energy of the laser beam. Also an escape exit may be opened upon the operation of a piezoelectric decoupler. (U.S.)

  13. Surface modification of TC4 titanium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) with different pulsed energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yu-kui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The hardness changes were determined by nanoindention method. •The surface integrity changes were investigated by different techniques. •The mechanism was analyzed based on AFM and TEM investigations. -- Abstract: Surface changes including surface topography and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated for TC4 titanium alloy by different energy densities of high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB). The surface topography was characterized by SEM and AFM, and cross-sectional TEM observation was performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TC4 titanium alloy by HCPEB. The surface roughness was modified by HCPEB and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM. The fine grain structure inherited from the rapid solidification of the melted layer as well as the strain hardening of the sub-surface are two of the factors responsible the increase in nanohardness

  14. High-voltage many-pulses generator with inductive energy store and fuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.P.; Diyankov, V.S.; Kormilitsin, A.I.; Lavrent'ev, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    The high-voltage generator with inductive energy store and fuses as opening switch that generate series of powerful pulses is considered. This generator differs from the ordinary generator with inductive store by the cross-section of the series copper wires. The parameters of the wires are chosen based on empirical relations. The generation principle was tested on the two high-voltage generators with characteristic impedance 2.2 ohm, 4 ohm and with output voltages of 140 kV and 420 kV, respectively. Copper wires 0.1 to 0.23 mm in diameter were used. Series of 2 to 5 pulses of 100 to 300 ns duration, 400 to 1000 kV amplitude and 1 - 10 GW power were obtained. Pulses can be both the same and different. Two successive bremsstrahlung radiation pulses were obtain on the EMIR-M and IGUR-3 devices. Series power megavolt pulses can be generated with a power exceeding 10 11 W, pulse duration of 10 -3 to 10 -6 s, and time interval between them 10 -7 to 10 -5 s. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs

  15. High-voltage many-pulses generator with inductive energy store and fuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V P; Diyankov, V S; Kormilitsin, A I; Lavrent` ev, B N [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The high-voltage generator with inductive energy store and fuses as opening switch that generate series of powerful pulses is considered. This generator differs from the ordinary generator with inductive store by the cross-section of the series copper wires. The parameters of the wires are chosen based on empirical relations. The generation principle was tested on the two high-voltage generators with characteristic impedance 2.2 ohm, 4 ohm and with output voltages of 140 kV and 420 kV, respectively. Copper wires 0.1 to 0.23 mm in diameter were used. Series of 2 to 5 pulses of 100 to 300 ns duration, 400 to 1000 kV amplitude and 1 - 10 GW power were obtained. Pulses can be both the same and different. Two successive bremsstrahlung radiation pulses were obtain on the EMIR-M and IGUR-3 devices. Series power megavolt pulses can be generated with a power exceeding 10{sup 11} W, pulse duration of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} s, and time interval between them 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} s. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  16. A novel method of calculating the energy deposition curve of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Xinying; Lu, Jiayu; Cui, Quansheng; Pang, Lei; Di, Dongxu; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the energy deposition curve is very important in the fields to which nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges (NPDBDs) are applied. It helps the understanding of the discharge physics and fast gas heating. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model, composed of three capacitances, is introduced and a method of calculating the energy deposition curve is proposed for a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge (NPSDBD) plasma actuator. The capacitance C d and the energy deposition curve E R are determined by mathematically proving that the mapping from C d to E R is bijective and numerically searching one C d that satisfies the requirement for E R to be a monotonically non-decreasing function. It is found that the value of capacitance C d varies with the amplitude of applied pulse voltage due to the change of discharge area and is dependent on the polarity of applied voltage. The bijectiveness of the mapping from C d to E R in nanosecond pulse volumetric dielectric barrier discharge (NPVDBD) is demonstrated and the feasibility of the application of the new method to NPVDBD is validated. This preliminarily shows a high possibility of developing a unified approach to calculate the energy deposition curve in NPDBD. (paper)

  17. Millijoule Pulse Energy Second Harmonic Generation With Single-Stage Photonic Bandgap Rod Fiber Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a single-stage Q-switched single-mode (SM) ytterbium-doped rod fiber laser delivering record breaking pulse energies at visible and UV light. We use a photonic bandgap rod fiber with a mode field diameter of 59μm based on a new distributed...

  18. Dynamics of bubble generated by low energy pulsed electric discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu

    2012-01-01

    Results of investigations of bubble formation and dynamics for discharge in water are presented. Experiments were carried out in discharge chamber with axisymmetric electrode system “wire to wire”. Interelectrode gap was varied from 1 to 10 mm. Energy in a pulse was <1 J. Velocity of bubble expantion and collapse is about several hundreds meter per second at early stage of discharge. Bubble pulsation period is 0.5 – 1 ms. Increasing of energy released in the discharge gap will increase bubble pulsation period. Little bubble was formed by reducing energy input into discharge. But the main stage of discharge always followed by bubble formation. Specific erosion is measured for different energy in pulse and matched up with bubble collapse.

  19. Numerical investigation of energy transfer for fast gas heating in an atmospheric nanosecond-pulsed DBD under different negative slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yifei; Wu, Yun; Cui, Wei; Li, Yinghong; Jia, Min

    2013-01-01

    A validated one-dimensional air plasma kinetics model (13 species and 37 processes) for a nanosecond discharge under atmospheric pressure was developed to reveal the energy transfer mechanism for fast gas heating of a plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Calculations for voltage profiles with three different negative slopes were performed. Results have shown that 72% of the total heating energy goes to quench heating, which results in a temperature rise across the gap, the remaining 28% goes to ion collisions, thus heating the cathode sheath in a higher power density. The relationships between ion collision heating, quench heating and reduced electric field are given as two functions, which indicates that 10 13  W m −3 is the peak magnitude of power density produced by ion collisions in the nanosecond-pulsed DBD under atmospheric pressure, and a further increase in E/N does not increase the higher quench heating power. The steepness of the negative slope mainly affects the energy transfer efficiency, and the percentage of two heating sources in the total heating power. A short pulse will couple positive and negative slopes and provide a higher transient total heating power but lower energy transfer efficiency. By uncoupling the positive slope, steady stage and negative slope, the energy transfer efficiency under a certain voltage amplitude (20 kV in this paper) is found to have a maximum value of 68.5%. Two wave crests of temperature rise near the cathode sheath are observed, one is caused by a positive slope and the other by a negative slope. (paper)

  20. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  1. Relaxation of ion energy spectrum just after turbulent heating pulse in TRIAM-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial profile of the ion energy spectrum just after the application of a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in the TRIAM-1 tokamak and also numerically using the Fokker-Planck equation. The two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to a single one within tausub(i) (the ion collision time). (author)

  2. Electromagnetic cascade in high-energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-06-01

    The interaction of high-energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high-energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when three-dimensional effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high-energy e-beam interacting with a counterstreaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.

  3. Transformation between divacancy defects induced by an energy pulse in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Liu, XiaoYi; Zhou, Wei; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2016-07-08

    The mutual transformations among the four typical divacancy defects induced by a high-energy pulse were studied via molecular dynamics simulation. Our study revealed all six possible mutual transformations and found that defects transformed by absorbing energy to overcome the energy barrier with bonding, debonding, and bond rotations. The reversibility of defect transformations was also investigated by potential energy analysis. The energy difference was found to greatly influence the transformation reversibility. The direct transformation path was irreversible if the energy difference was too large. We also studied the correlation between the transformation probability and the input energy. It was found that the transformation probability had a local maxima at an optimal input energy. The introduction of defects and their structural evolutions are important for tailoring the exceptional properties and thereby performances of graphene-based devices, such as nanoporous membranes for the filtration and desalination of water.

  4. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design and development of a 7 meter diameter parabolic dish solar collector are discussed. Each of the four main subsystems of the collector: (1) reflector, (2) mount and drives, (3) receiver and (4) the controls, is discussed briefly with the major emphasis on the receiver design. To minimize development risks and production costs, a dish design based on use of stamped aluminum petals (sectors) was chosen. This design is similar to the design of a communication antenna already commercially produced. The reflective surface of the petals has a total reflectance of .86 and a specularity (dispersion) of 8 mrd. This performance is obtained by mechanical polishing and chemical brightening of the petal surface, followed by application of a clear RTV silicone protective coating. Selection of the material and weather proofing coated are discussed. Results from performance tests on an engineering development dish collector are presented and compared with pretest predictions.

  5. Particle-in-cell simulations of high energy electron production by intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susumu, Kato; Eisuke, Miura; Kazuyoshi, Koyama [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsumori, Tanimoto [Meisei Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Hino, Tokyo (Japan); Masahiro, Adachi [Hiroshima Univ., Graduate school of Advanced Science of Matter, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When the ratio of the laser power to the critical power of relativistic self-focusing gets the optimal value, the laser pulse propagates in a steady way and electrons have maximum energies. (author)

  6. Particle-in-cell simulations of high energy electron production by intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susumu, Kato; Eisuke, Miura; Kazuyoshi, Koyama; Mitsumori, Tanimoto; Masahiro, Adachi

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When the ratio of the laser power to the critical power of relativistic self-focusing gets the optimal value, the laser pulse propagates in a steady way and electrons have maximum energies. (author)

  7. Physical model of reactor pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, A.; Ravnik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse experiments have been performed at J. Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor since 1991. In total, more than 130 pulses have been performed. Extensive experimental information on the pulse physical characteristics has been accumulated. Fuchs-Hansen adiabatic model has been used for predicting and analysing the pulse parameters. The model is based on point kinetics equation, neglecting the delayed neutrons and assuming constant inserted reactivity in form of step function. Deficiencies of the Fuchs-Hansen model and systematic experimental errors have been observed and analysed. Recently, the pulse model was improved by including the delayed neutrons and time dependence of inserted reactivity. The results explain the observed non-linearity of the pulse energy for high pulses due to finite time of pulse rod withdrawal and the contribution of the delayed neutrons after the prompt part of the pulse. The results of the improved model are in good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  8. A constrained optimization algorithm for total energy minimization in electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang Linwang

    2006-01-01

    A new direct constrained optimization algorithm for minimizing the Kohn-Sham (KS) total energy functional is presented in this paper. The key ingredients of this algorithm involve projecting the total energy functional into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking the minimizer of total energy functional within each subspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy functional not only provides a search direction along which the KS total energy functional decreases but also gives an optimal 'step-length' to move along this search direction. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that this new direct constrained optimization algorithm can be more efficient than the self-consistent field (SCF) iteration

  9. Experimental determination of the thermal contact conductance between two solid surfaces by the energy pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Gerson Antonio

    1979-01-01

    An experimental procedure for the determination of the thermal contact conductance between two solid surfaces as a function of the contact pressure and the energy of the laser radiation has been developed using the laser pulse method. A rubi laser with variable energy levels was employed as a radiating pulse energy source. The laser beam was allowed to impinge perpendicularly on the front face of a electrolytic iron 73 4 . The temperature fluctuations resulting on the back surface of the sample was detected by a thermocouple, which Is coupled to a PDP-11/45 Computer 32 Kbytes of memory, through a Analog-Digital Converter. A theoretical function, derived exclusively for the problem mentioned in this work, was adjusted by a method of least square fitting of experimental results. This adjustment yielded the value of a parameter related to the contact conductance between two surfaces. The experimental error obtained for the thermal contact conductance was +- 4.9%. (author)

  10. Numerical study on increasing mass flow ratio by energy deposition of high frequency pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Diankai; Hong Yanji; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The mass flow ratio (MFR) of air breathing ramjet inlet would be decreased, when the Mach number is lower than the designed value. High frequency pulsed laser energy was deposited upstream of the cowl lip to reflect the stream so as to increase the MFR. When the Mach number of the flow was 5.0, and the static pressure and temperature of the flow were 2 551.6 Pa and 116.7 K, respectively, two-dimensional non-stationary compressible RANS equations were solved with upwind format to study the mechanisms of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition. The laser deposition frequency was 100 kHz and the average power was 500 W. The crossing point of the first forebody oblique shock and extension line of cowl lip was selected as the expected point. Then the deposition position was optimized by searching near the expected point. The results indicate that with the optimization of laser energy deposition position, the MFR would be increased from 63% to 97%. The potential value of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition was proved. The method for selection of the energy deposition position was also presented. (authors)

  11. Kinetic-energy induced smoothening and delay of epitaxial breakdown in pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byungha; Aziz, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We have isolated the effect of kinetic energy of depositing species from the effect of flux pulsing during pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on surface morphology evolution of Ge(001) homoepitaxy at low temperature (100 deg. C). Using a dual molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) PLD chamber, we compare morphology evolution from three different growth methods under identical experimental conditions except for the differing nature of the depositing flux: (a) PLD with average kinetic energy 300 eV (PLD-KE); (b) PLD with suppressed kinetic energy comparable to thermal evaporation energy (PLD-TH); and (c) MBE. The thicknesses at which epitaxial breakdown occurs are ranked in the order PLD-KE>MBE>PLD-TH; additionally, the surface is smoother in PLD-KE than in MBE. The surface roughness of the films grown by PLD-TH cannot be compared due to the early epitaxial breakdown. These results demonstrate convincingly that kinetic energy is more important than flux pulsing in the enhancement of epitaxial growth, i.e., the reduction in roughness and the delay of epitaxial breakdown

  12. Increase in the energy absorption of pulsed plasma by the formation of tungsten nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, D.; Ohno, N.; Domon, F.; Kajita, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.

    2017-06-01

    The synergistic effects of steady-state and pulsed plasma irradiation to material have been investigated in the device NAGDIS-PG (NAGoya DIvertor Simulator with Plasma Gun). The duration of the pulsed plasma was ~0.25 ms. To investigate the pulsed plasma heat load on the materials, we developed a temperature measurement system using radiation from the sample in a high time resolution. The heat deposited in response to the transient plasma on a tungsten surface was revealed by using this system. When the nanostructures were formed by helium plasma irradiation, the temperature increase on the bulk sample was enhanced. The result suggested that the amount of absorbed energy on the surface was increased by the formation of nanostructures. The possible mechanisms causing the phenomena are discussed with the calculation of a sample temperature in response to the transient heat load.

  13. High pulse energy sub-nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserteg, Andras; Guillemet, Sebastien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-02-01

    We report a core pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifier that generates 1.4 μJ pulses at 1980 nm with a repetition rate of 3.6 MHz preserving the original spectral bandwidth of the oscillator. The amplifier chain is seeded by a passively modelocked fiber laser with 5 mW output power and the pulses are stretched to 800 picoseconds. The amplifier is core pumped by a single mode erbium fiber laser. The slope efficiency is 35%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of sub nanosecond pulses with energies higher than 1 μJ coming out of a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.

  14. Calculational models for the treatment of pulsed/intermittent activation within fusion energy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, S.E.; Sisolak, J.E.; Henderson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Two calculationally efficient methods have been developed to compute the induced radioactivity due to pulsed/intermittent irradiation histories as encountered in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy devices. The numerical algorithms are based on the linear chain method (Bateman Equations) and employ series reduction and matrix algebra. The first method models the case in which the irradiated materials are present throughout a series of irradiation pulses. The second method treats the case where a fixed amount of radioactive and transmuted material is created during each pulse. Analytical solutions are given for each method for a three nuclide linear chain. Numerical results and comparisons are presented for a select number of linear chains. (orig.)

  15. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  16. Energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy design for wireless sensor networks through reduced idle listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization is crucial to wireless sensor networks due to their decentralized structure. We propose an energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy to achieve this goal. The basic idea is to reduce idle listening by intentionally introducing a large refractory period in the sensors’ cooperation. The large refractory period greatly reduces idle listening in each oscillation period, and is analytically proven to have no influence on the time to synchronization. Hence, it significantly reduces the total energy consumption in a synchronization process. A topology control approach tailored for pulse-coupled synchronization is given to guarantee a k-edge strongly connected interaction topology, which is tolerant to communication-link failures. The topology control approach is totally decentralized and needs no information exchange among sensors, and it is applicable to dynamic network topologies as well. This facilitates a completely decentralized implementation of the synchronization strategy. The strategy is applicable to mobile sensor networks, too. QualNet case studies confirm the effectiveness of the synchronization strategy. PMID:24307831

  17. Deposition of thin films and surface modification by pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Pengxun; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    The use of pulsed high energy density plasma is a new low temperature plasma technology for material surface treatment and thin film deposition. The authors present detailed theoretical and experimental studies of the production mechanism and physical properties of the pulsed plasma. The basic physics of the pulsed plasma-material interaction has been investigated. Diagnostic measurements show that the pulsed plasma has a high electron temperature of 10-100 eV, density of 10 14 -10 16 cm -3 , translation velocity of ∼10 -7 cm/s and power density of ∼10 4 W/cm 2 . Its use in material surface treatment combines the effects of laser surface treatment, electron beam treatment, shock wave bombardment, ion implantation, sputtering deposition and chemical vapor deposition. The metastable phase and other kinds of compounds can be produced on low temperature substrates. For thin film deposition, a high deposition ratio and strong film to substrate adhesion can be achieved. The thin film deposition and material surface modification by the pulsed plasma and related physical mechanism have been investigated. Thin film c-BN, Ti(CN), TiN, DLC and AlN materials have been produced successfully on various substrates at room temperature. A wide interface layer exists between film and substrate, resulting in strong adhesion. Metal surface properties can be improved greatly by using this kind of treatment

  18. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete....... With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically...... positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high...

  19. The effects of pulsed low frequency magnetic field in early rehabilitation of patients with cementless total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early rehabilitation of patients with cementless total hip arthroplasty (cTHA includes different physical modalities and pulsed low frequency magnetic field (PLFMF, which effects have not been explored yet. Objective: To investigate the effects of PLFMF which was applied in different doses in early rehabilitation of patients with cTHA. Method: Prospective, controlled, clinical study included 90 patients, divided in three groups with 30 patients each. First two groups were treated with high (group A or low (group B doses of PLFMF, in addition to kinesitherapy. Control group C was treated only with kinesitherapy. Study was completed in three weeks. Results: Subjects of group A had significantly lower pain than group B (p<0.01 and group C (p<0.001 subjects in the first postoperative week. Pain in group B subjects was significantly lower than in group C in all three postoperative weeks (p<0.01. In relation to other two groups, subjects of group A had higher hip Harris score values at the end of the third postoperative week (p<0.05, and they were faster on 10-meter distance at the end of the first postoperative week (p<0.01. Conclusion: PLFMF used in low and high doses for patients with cTHA had significant effects on pain abatement, especially at higher doses. Improvement of function was earlier and more manifested in the group treated with high doses of PLFMF.

  20. Ion energy distributions in bipolar pulsed-dc discharges of methane measured at the biased cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, C; Rubio-Roy, M; Bertran, E; Portal, S; Pascual, E; Polo, M C; Andujar, J L, E-mail: corbella@ub.edu [FEMAN Group, IN2UB, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The ion fluxes and ion energy distributions (IED) corresponding to discharges in methane (CH{sub 4}) were measured in time-averaged mode with a compact retarding field energy analyser (RFEA). The RFEA was placed on a biased electrode at room temperature, which was powered by either radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) or asymmetric bipolar pulsed-dc (250 kHz) signals. The shape of the resulting IED showed the relevant populations of ions bombarding the cathode at discharge parameters typical in the material processing technology: working pressures ranging from 1 to 10 Pa and cathode bias voltages between 100 and 200 V. High-energy peaks in the IED were detected at low pressures, whereas low-energy populations became progressively dominant at higher pressures. This effect is attributed to the transition from collisionless to collisional regimes of the cathode sheath as the pressure increases. On the other hand, pulsed-dc plasmas showed broader IED than RF discharges. This fact is connected to the different working frequencies and the intense peak voltages (up to 450 V) driven by the pulsed power supply. This work improves our understanding in plasma processes at the cathode level, which are of crucial importance for the growth and processing of materials requiring controlled ion bombardment. Examples of industrial applications with these requirements are plasma cleaning, ion etching processes during fabrication of microelectronic devices and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of hard coatings (diamond-like carbon, carbides and nitrides).

  1. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focused on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy analyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimentary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpretation. It was found that the ion energy distribution functions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum

  2. Laser ablation of UHMWPE-polyethylene by 438 nm high energy pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Mezzasalma, A.M.; Visco, A.M.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Boody, F.P

    2004-04-15

    Pulsed laser ablation of ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) is investigated at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) Laboratory. The high ablation yield as a function of laser energy is presented at 438 nm laser wavelength. The mechanisms of the polymer ablation are studied on the base of ''in situ'' analysis, such as mass quadrupole spectrometry and time-of-flight measurements, and ''ex situ'' analysis, such as SEM investigations and Raman spectroscopy. Results show that the laser irradiation induces a strong polymer dehydrogenation and molecular emission due to different C{sub x}H{sub y} groups having high kinetic energy and high charge state. At a laser pulse energy of 150 J the H{sup +}, C{sup n+} ions (n=1 to 6) are emitted from the plasma with velocities of the order of 10{sup 8} cm/s, while the C{sub x}H{sub y} groups and the carbon clusters, detected up to C{sub 16}, have a velocity about one or two order magnitude lower. The laser ablation process produces a deep crater in the polymer, which depth depends on the laser pulse energy and it is of the order of 500 {mu}m. The crater volume increases with the laser pulse energy. Results demonstrated that the laser radiation modifies the polymer chains because dehydrogenated material and carbon-like structures are detected in the crater walls and in the bottom of the crater, respectively. A comparison of the experimental results with the data available in literature is presented and discussed.

  3. Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)

  4. Mid-infrared source with 0.2 J pulse energy based on nonlinear conversion of Q-switched pulses in ZnGeP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakestad, Magnus W; Fonnum, Helge; Lippert, Espen

    2014-04-07

    Mid-infrared (3-5 μm) pulses with high energy are produced using nonlinear conversion in a ZnGeP(2)-based master oscillator-power amplifier, pumped by a Q-switched cryogenic Ho:YLF oscillator. The master oscillator is based on an optical parametric oscillator with a V-shaped 3-mirror ring resonator, and the power amplifier is based on optical parametric amplification in large-aperture ZnGeP(2) crystals. Pulses with up to 212 mJ energy at 1 Hz repetition rate are obtained, with FWHM duration 15 ns and beam quality M(2) = 3.

  5. Parametric generation of high-energy 14.5-fs light pulses at 1.5 mum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, M; Stagira, S; De Silvestri, S; Svelto, O; Valiulis, G; Varanavicius, A

    1998-04-15

    High-energy light pulses that are tunable from 1.1 to 2.6 mum, with a duration as short as 14.5 fs were generated in a type II phase-matching beta-BaB(2)O(4) traveling-wave parametric converter pumped by 18-fs pulses obtained from a Ti:sapphire laser with chirped-pulse amplification, followed by a hollow-fiber compressor.

  6. Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihao Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an energy-input based directional distance function, we calculated the shadow price of four types of energy (i.e., coal, oil, gas and electricity among 30 areas in China from 1998 to 2012. Moreover, a macro-energy efficiency index in China was estimated and divided into intra-provincial technical efficiency, allocation efficiency of energy input structure and inter-provincial energy allocation efficiency. It shows that total energy efficiency has decreased in recent years, where intra-provincial energy technical efficiency drops markedly and extensive mode of energy consumption rises. However, energy structure and allocation improves slowly. Meanwhile, lacking an integrated energy market leads to the loss of energy efficiency. Further improvement of market allocation and structure adjustment play a pivotal role in the increase of energy efficiency.

  7. Application of pulse power technology to ultra high energy electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents in this paper a review of the application of pulse power technology to the development of high gradient electron accelerators. The technology demands are relatively modest compared to the ultra high power technology used for inertial confinement fusion drivers. With the advent of magnetic switching intense electron beams can be generated with a sufficiently high repetition rate to be of interest for high energy electron accelerator driver applications. Most of the techniques considered rely on the excitation of large amplitude waves on the beams. Within this framework there are two broad categories of accelerator, those in which the waves are directly excited in and supported by the medium and, secondly, those where the waves are used to generate radiofrequency signals which are then coupled via structures to the beam being accelerated. In what follows we shall consider both approaches. Present-day pulse power technology limits pulse durations to about 100 nsec. Consequently, if these sources are to be used, we will need to use high group velocity structures to avoid the need for short accelerator module lengths. An advantage of the short pulse duration is that the available acceleration voltage gradient increases compared to that obtained using conventional rf drivers. 19 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  8. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Zeyad Ghaleb; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.

  9. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs. PMID:28056020

  10. Investigation of the fundamentals of low-energy nanosecond pulse ignition: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Anqi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Biruduganti, Munidhar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bihari, Bipin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Matusik, Katarzyna E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Duke, Daniel J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Powell, Christopher F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kastengren, Alan L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the fundamentals of low-energy nanosecond pulse ignition was performed with the objective to overcome the barrier presented by limited knowledge and characterization of nonequilibrium plasma ignition for realistic internal combustion engine applications (be it in the automotive or power generation field) and shed light on the mechanisms which improve the performance of the advanced TPS ignition system compared to conventional state-of-the-art hardware. Three main tasks of the research included experimental evaluation on a single-cylinder automotive gasoline engine, experimental evaluation on a single-cylinder stationary natural gas engine and energy quantification using x-ray diagnostics.

  11. Research on the decomposition model for China’s National Renewable Energy total target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Shi, Yuren; Yan, Jianming; Ou, Xunmin; Lieu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial that China’s renewable energy national target in 2020 is effectively decomposed into respective period targets at the provincial level. In order to resolve problems arising from combining the national and local renewable energy development plan, a total target and period target decomposition model of renewable energy is proposed which considers the resource distribution and energy consumption of different provinces as well as the development characteristics of various renewable energy industries. In the model, the total proposed target is comprised of three shares: basic share, fixed share and floating share target. The target distributed for each province is then determined by the preference relation. That is, when total renewable energy target is distributed, the central government is more concerned about resources potential or energy consumption. Additionally, the growth models for various renewable energy industries are presented, and the period targets of renewable energy in various provinces are proposed in line with regional economic development targets. In order to verify whether the energy target can be achieved, only wind power, solar power, and hydropower are considered in this study. To convenient to assess the performance of local government, the two year period is chosen as an evaluation cycle in the paper. The renewable energy targets per two-year period for each province are calculated based on the overall national renewable energy target, energy requirements and resources distribution. Setting provincial period targets will help policy makers to better implement and supervise the overall renewable energy plan. - Highlights: It is very importance that the national target of renewable energy in 2020 can be effectively decomposed into the stages target of various province. In order to resolve the relation the plan between the national and local renewable energy development planning, a total target and phase target decomposition model

  12. Correlations between muons and low energy pulses at LSD of the Mont Blanc laboratory near the time of SN1987A explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadykin, V.L.; Khalchukov, F.F.; Korchagin, P.V.; Korolkova, E.V.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Mal'gin, A.S.; Ryasny, V.G.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Yakushev, V.F.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.; Turin Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed the data of LSD from February 10, 1987, to March 7, 1987, in order to search for autocorrelations between all pulses detected by LSD with energy higher than 5 MeV like those occurred at ∼ 3:00 UT on February 23, 1987, between the pulses detected by 3 neutrino telescopes and 2 gravitational wave antennae. We have found 9 pairs of correlated pulses (muon + low energy pulse) from 5:42 UT to 10:13 UT on February 23, 1987. The time differences of pulses in the pairs are less than 2 s, the first pulse in the pair being either muon or low energy pulse. The frequency of such random poissonian fluctuations is ∼1/(10 years). There are no correlations outside statistics between low energy, low energy pulses and muon, muon pulses detected by LSD during the whole time period

  13. A 16.3 pJ/pulse low-complexity and energy-efficient transmitter with adjustable pulse parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jun; Zhao Yi; Shao Ke; Chen Hu; Xia Lingli; Hong Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, fully integrated transmitter for 3-5 GHz pulsed UWB. The BPSK modulation transmitter has been implemented in SMIC CMOS 0.13 μm technology with a 1.2-V supply voltage and a die size of 0.8 x 0.95 mm 2 . This transmitter is based on the impulse response filter method, which uses a tunable R paralleled with a LC frequency selection network to realize continuously adjustable pulse parameters, including bandwidth, width and amplitude. Due to the extremely low duty of the pulsed UWB, a proposed output buffer is employed to save power consumption significantly. Finally, measurement results show that the transmitter consumes only 16.3 pJ/pulse to achieve a pulse repetition rate of 100 Mb/s. Generated pulses strictly comply with the FCC spectral mask. The continuously variable pulse width is from 900 to 1.5 ns and the amplitude with the minimum 178 mVpp and the maximum 432 mVpp can be achieved. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. The Use of Trust Regions in Kohn-Sham Total Energy Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang, Lin-wang

    2006-01-01

    The Self Consistent Field (SCF) iteration, widely used for computing the ground state energy and the corresponding single particle wave functions associated with a many-electron atomistic system, is viewed in this paper as an optimization procedure that minimizes the Kohn-Sham total energy indirectly by minimizing a sequence of quadratic surrogate functions. We point out the similarity and difference between the total energy and the surrogate, and show how the SCF iteration can fail when the minimizer of the surrogate produces an increase in the KS total energy. A trust region technique is introduced as a way to restrict the update of the wave functions within a small neighborhood of an approximate solution at which the gradient of the total energy agrees with that of the surrogate. The use of trust region in SCF is not new. However, it has been observed that directly applying a trust region based SCF(TRSCF) to the Kohn-Sham total energy often leads to slow convergence. We propose to use TRSCF within a direct constrained minimization(DCM) algorithm we developed in dcm. The key ingredients of the DCM algorithm involve projecting the total energy function into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking the minimizer of the total energy function within each subspace. The minimizer of a subspace energy function, which is computed by TRSCF, not only provides a search direction along which the KS total energy function decreases but also gives an optimal 'step-length' that yields a sufficient decrease in total energy. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate that the combination of TRSCF and DCM is more efficient than SCF

  15. Design, Construction and Testing of a Pulsed High Energy Inductive Superconducting Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    10,000 tim;es larger tnan the resistive voltaje and can be !-½vce evough to de;tr,)y electronic equip-ient. This task car. be accu)rplmshrd by...2.67 kH. FA 2483 231 E cNu 42 1 o Time 0.2 ms/cm Figure 128 Single pulse of current to 0.2 2 load delivered by helium switch. Firingj voltaj - 2,000 V

  16. Electron energy device for LINAC based Pulse Radiolysis Facility of RPCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toley, M.A.; Shinde, S.J.; Chaudhari, B.B.; Sarkar, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    The pulse radiolysis facility is the experimental centerpiece of the radiation chemistry activities of the Radiation and Photochemistry Division (RPCD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This facility was created in 1986 which is based on a 7 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator (LINAC) procured from M/s Radiation Dynamics Ltd., UK. The electron energy is one of the principal parameters that influence the dose distribution within the sample irradiated with a beam of energetic electrons. An easy-to-use and robust device has been developed that can reliably detect day-today small variations in the beam energy. It consists of two identical aluminum plates except for their thickness, which are electrically insulated from each other. The thickness of each plate is carefully selected depending on the electron beam energy. The charge (or current) collected by each plate, under irradiation is measured. The ratio of the charge (or current) signal from the front plate to the sum of the signals from the front and rear plates is very sensitive to the beam energy. The high sensitivity and robustness make this device quite suitable for Electron energy measurement for Pulse radiolysis Facility at RPCD. (author)

  17. Evaluation of burnup characteristics and energy deposition during NSRR pulse irradiation tests on irradiated BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio

    2000-11-01

    Pulse irradiation tests of irradiated fuel are performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate the fuel behavior under Reactivity Initiated Accident Conditions (RIA). The severity of the RIA is represented by energy deposition or peak fuel enthalpy during the power excursion. In case of the irradiated fuel tests, the energy deposition varies depending both on the amounts and distribution of residual fissile and neutron absorbing fission products generated during the base irradiation. Thus, proper fuel burnup characterization, especially for low enriched commercial fuels, is important, because plutonium (Pu) takes a large part of fissile and its generation depends on the neutron spectrum during the base irradiation. Fuel burnup calculations were conducted with ORIGEN2, RODBURN and SWAT codes for the BWR fuels tested in the NSRR. The calculation results were compared with the measured isotope concentrations and used for the NSRR neutron calculations to evaluate energy depositions of the test fuel. The comparison of the code calculations and the measurements revealed that the neutron spectrum change due to difference in void fraction altered Pu generation and energy deposition in the NSRR tests considerably. With the properly evaluated neutron spectrum, the combined burnup and NSRR neutron calculation gave reasonably good evaluation of the energy deposition. The calculations provided radial distributions of the fission product accumulation during the base irradiation and power distribution during the NSRR pulse irradiation, which were important for the evaluation of both burnup characteristics and fission gas release behavior. (author)

  18. Energy balance and efficiency of power stations with a pulsed Tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, P.A.; Mitchell, J.T.D.; Darvas, J.; Foerster, S.; Sack, B.

    1976-06-01

    The energy balance of a fusion power station based on the TOKAMAK concept is examined with the aid of a model comprising three distinct elements: the reactor, the energy converter and the reactor operation equipment. The efficiency of each element is expressed in terms of the various energy flows and the product of these efficiencies gives the net station efficiency. The analysis takes account of pulsed operation and has general applicability. Numerical values for the net station efficiency are derived from detailed estimates of the energy flows for a TOKAMAK reactor and its auxiliary equipment operating with advanced energy converters. The derivation of these estimates is given in eleven appendices. The calculated station efficiencies span ranges similar to those quoted for the current generation of fission reactors, though lower than those predicted for HTGR and LMFBR stations. Credible parameter domains for pulsed TOKAMAK operation are firmly delineated and factors inimical to improved performance are indicated. It is concluded that the net thermal efficiency of a TOKAMAK reactor power station based on present designs and using advanced thermal converters will be approximately 0.3 and is unlikely to exceed 0.33. (orig.) [de

  19. The total Hartree-Fock energy-eigenvalue sum relationship in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Using the well known relationships for the isoelectronic changes in the total Hartree-Fock energy, nucleus-electron attraction energy and electron-electron repulsion energy in atoms a simple polynomial expansion in Z is obtained for the sum of the eigenvalues which can be used to calculate the total Hartree-Fock energy. Numerical results are presented for 2-10 electron series to show that the present relationship is a better approximation than the other available energy-eigenvalue relationships. (author)

  20. Energy efficiency improvement: A strong driver for Total operations and R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnaud, Frederic; Rocher, Anne

    2010-09-15

    Total has implemented an energy efficiency action plan for both producing fields and new projects linked to a dedicated R and D program. The Energy efficiency assessment methodology is described, with an example: base line of the current situation, energy efficiency plan, contribution to best practices at corporate level. A methodology to assess the energy efficiency of a new development has been defined and implemented within Total. This methodology as well as related indicators is presented. Examples of R and D results dedicated to improve energy efficiency in two major areas of future developments are given: sour gas production and deep offshore field architecture.

  1. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Healing of damaged metal by a pulsed high-energy electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukudzhanov, K. V.; Levitin, A. L.

    2018-04-01

    The processes of defect (intergranular micro-cracks) transformation are investigated for metal samples in a high-energy short-pulsed electromagnetic field. This investigation is based on a numerical coupled model of the impact of high-energy electromagnetic field on the pre-damaged thermal elastic-plastic material with defects. The model takes into account the melting and evaporation of the metal and the dependence of its physical and mechanical properties on the temperature. The system of equations is solved numerically by finite element method with an adaptive mesh using the arbitrary Euler–Lagrange method. The calculations show that the welding of the crack and the healing of micro-defects under treatment by short pulses of the current takes place. For the macroscopic description of the healing process, the healing and damage parameters of the material are introduced. The healing of micro-cracks improves the material healing parameter and reduces its damage. The micro-crack shapes practically do not affect the time-dependence of the healing and damage under the treatment by the current pulses. These changes are affected only by the value of the initial damage of the material and the initial length of the micro-crack. The time-dependence of the healing and the damage is practically the same for all different shapes of micro-defects, provided that the initial lengths of micro-cracks and the initial damages are the same for these different shapes of defects.

  3. A Kinematically Beamed, Low Energy Pulsed Neutron Source for Active Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, D.; Hagmann, C.; Kerr, P.; Nakae, L.; Rowland, M.; Snyderman, N.; Stoeffl, W.; Hamm, R.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of SNM (Special Nuclear Materials) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals, (1) Energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) Neutrons with an energy of approximately 60 to 100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n,2n) or (n,n') processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM

  4. Corrosion behaviour of AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to massive laser shock peening impacts with different pulse energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Z.; Qi, H.; Luo, K.Y.; Luo, M.; Cheng, X.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Laser shock peening caused an obvious increase of corrosion resistance of 304 steel. •Corrosion resistance of stainless steel increased with increasing pulse energy. •Mechanism of laser shock peening on corrosion behaviour was also entirely determined. -- Abstract: Effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) impacts with different pulse energies on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility, fracture appearance and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by slow strain rate test, potentiodynamic polarisation test and scanning electron microscope observation. The influence mechanism of massive LSP impacts with different pulse energies on corrosion behaviour was also determined. Results showed that massive LSP impacts effectively caused a significant improvement on UTS, SCC resistance, and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel. Increased pulse energy can also gradually improve its corrosion resistance

  5. Degenerative and regenerative phenomena in pigmented rabbit irides following irradiation with the Xenon arc lamp at different pulse energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, A.; Portmann, H.; Zypen, E. van der; Fauckhauser, F.

    1980-01-01

    The morphological condition of the pigmented rabbit iris following irradiation with a Xenon arclamp at four different pulse energies was analyzed. It was shown that: 1. There is a direct relationship between the applied pulse energy and the extent, as well as the rate, of secondary-degenerative transformations. 2. Secondary-degenerative and repair processes occur simultaneously. 3. As opposed to the primary damage event, secondary degeneration appears to progress from the back to the front of the iris. 4. As a rule, pulse energies of less than 1 Joule do not lead to secondary perforation of the iris. Fifteen weeks after the damage event, regeneration of connective tissue and the larger blood vessels, as well as of myelinated and unmyelinated nerves may be found. 5. The inducing factors, as well as those sustaining the process of secondary degeneration after irradiation of the rabbit iris with high pulse energies, cannot be explained on the basis of morphological findings alone. (orig.) [de

  6. Heat pulse analysis in JET and relation to local energy transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Han, W.; Sack, C.; Taroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of a perturbation T e of the electron temperature depends on the linearised expression of the heat flux q e and may be not simply related to the local value of the electron heat conductivity χ e . It is possible that local heat transport models predicting similar temperature profiles and global energy confinement properties, imply a different propagation of heat pulses. We investigate here this possibility for the case of two models developed at JET. We also present results obtained at JET on a set of discharges covering the range of currents from 2 to 5 MA. Only L-modes, limiter discharges are considered here. Experimental results on the scaling of χ HP , the value of χ e related to heat pulse propagation, are compared with those of χ HP derived from the models. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Monitoring system of energy characteristics of electron beam during shaping process of power bremsstrahlung pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordasov, N.G.; Ulimov, V.N.; Bryksin, V.A.; Shiyan, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    One proposes a procedure and a device to monitor dynamic and integral characteristics of electron power beams of high-current pulsed accelerators (HCPA) operating under Bremsstrahlung radiation mode. One obtained static and dynamic transfer characteristics for various types of heterogenous targets-converters under operation of UIN-10 HCPA with up to 4 MeV energy electrons, up to 60 kA current and 6 x 10 -8 -2 x 10 -6 s pulse efficient duration. One demonstrated the capabilities of the complex diagnostics of acceleration of electron beams by HCPA with simultaneous determination of parameters of the Bremsstrahlung radiation at the local point of the field behind the target-converter [ru

  8. Principles for construction of control and stabilization systems for pulse energy sources on the base of compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukaev, I.Kh.; Kuchinskij, V.G.; Titov, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Principles of construction of control and stabilization systems for a compression-generator (CG)-sources of power energy pulses- are considered. CG is an electromechanical energy converter, the principle of its operation is based on magnetic flux compression with periodic change of mutual inductance of two rotating windings. In each period, with the decrease of intrinsic inductance the generator forms in the load the pulse leading edge, and in the phase rise a pulse decay. To obtain the same pulse in the following period it is neccessary that the magnetic flux initial value should be restored in the generator winding. Problems of attaining pule shaper amplitude stability are considered. The method of pulse amplitude control in the load at the expense of the change in switch moment of capacitive storage to CG windings is suggested. The block-diagram of stabilization system is presented and its operation principle is described. The control system is assembled using K 155 and K 511 microcircuits and it was tested with CG at the pulse energy to 10 kJ. The tests have shown, that already to the third pulse the system provided quite shaped series of pulses

  9. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  10. Machine Learning methods in fitting first-principles total energies for substitutionally disordered solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and first-principles description of solid structures and total energies. However, it is highly time-consuming to calculate structures with hundreds of atoms in the unit cell and almost not possible to calculate thousands of atoms. We apply and adapt machine learning algorithms, including compressive sensing, support vector regression and artificial neural networks to fit the DFT total energies of substitutionally disordered boron carbide. The nonparametric kernel method is also included in our models. Our fitted total energy model reproduces the DFT energies with prediction error of around 1 meV/atom. The assumptions of these machine learning models and applications of the fitted total energies will also be discussed. Financial support from McWilliams Fellowship and the ONR-MURI under the Grant No. N00014-11-1-0678 is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.; Christenson, M.; Curreli, D.; Bryniarski, C.; Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m 2 and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m 2 . A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed

  12. New circuits high-voltage pulse generators with inductive-capacitive energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, V.S.; Myskov, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes new electric circuits of multi-cascade generators based on stepped lines. The distinction of the presented circuits consists in initial storage of energy in electric and magnetic fields simultaneously. The circuit of each generator,relations of impedances,values of initial current and charge voltages are selected in such a manner that the whole of initially stored energy is concentrated at the generator output as a result of transient wave processes. In ideal case the energy is transferred with 100% efficiency to the resistive load where a rectangular voltage pulse is formed, whose duration is equals to the double electrical length of the individual cascade. At the same time there is realized a several time increase of output voltage as compared to the charge voltage of the generator. The use of the circuits proposed makes it possible to ensure a several time increase (as compared to the selection of the number of cascades) of the generator energy storage, pulse current and output electric power

  13. Optimal design of waveform digitisers for both energy resolution and pulse shape discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Jirong; Xue, Tao; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Ma, Hao; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Yinong

    2018-04-01

    Fast digitisers and digital pulse processing have been widely used for spectral application and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) owing to their advantages in terms of compactness, higher trigger rates, offline analysis, etc. Meanwhile, the noise of readout electronics is usually trivial for organic, plastic, or liquid scintillator with PSD ability because of their poor intrinsic energy resolution. However, LaBr3(Ce) has been widely used for its excellent energy resolution and has been proven to have PSD ability for alpha/gamma particles. Therefore, designing a digital acquisition system for such scintillators as LaBr3(Ce) with both optimal energy resolution and promising PSD ability is worthwhile. Several experimental research studies about the choice of digitiser properties for liquid scintillators have already been conducted in terms of the sampling rate and vertical resolution. Quantitative analysis on the influence of waveform digitisers, that is, fast amplifier (optional), sampling rates, and vertical resolution, on both applications is still lacking. The present paper provides quantitative analysis of these factors and, hence, general rules about the optimal design of digitisers for both energy resolution and PSD application according to the noise analysis of time-variant gated charge integration.

  14. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S., E-mail: jung73@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Christenson, M.; Curreli, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Bryniarski, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m{sup 2}. A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed.

  15. Long-Pulse Operation and High-Energy Particle Confinement Study in ICRF Heating of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, Takashi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Seki, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    Long-pulse operation and high-energy particle confinement properties were studied using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating for the Large Helical Device. For the minority-ion mode, ions with energies up to 500 keV were observed by concentrating the ICRF heating power near the plasma axis. The confinement of high-energy particles was studied using the power-modulation technique. This confirmed that the confinement of high-energy particles was better with the inward-shifted configuration than with the normal configuration. This behavior was the same for bulk plasma confinement. Long-pulse operation for more than 2 min was achieved during the experimental program in 2002. This was mainly due to better confinement of the helically trapped particles and accumulation of fewer impurities in the region of the plasma core, in conjunction with substantial hardware improvements. Currently, the plasma operation time is limited by an unexpected density rise due to outgassing from the chamber materials. The temperature of the local carbon plates of the divertor exceeded 400 deg, C, and a charge-coupled device camera observed the hot spots. The hot spot pattern was well explained by a calculation of the accelerated-particle orbits, and those accelerated particles came from outside the plasma near the ICRF antenna

  16. Energy calibration of CsI(Tl) scintillator in pulse-shape identification technique

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeichikov, V; Golubev, P; Jakobsson, B; Colonna, N

    2003-01-01

    A batch of 16 CsI(Tl) scintillator crystals, supplied by the Bicron Company, has been studied with respect to precise energy calibration in pulse-shape identification technique. The light corresponding to pulse integration within the time interval 1.6-4.5 mu s (long gate) and 0.0-4.5 mu s (extra-long gate) exhibits a power law relation, L(E,Z,A)=a1(Z,A)E sup a sup 2 sup ( sup Z sup , sup A sup ) , for sup 1 sup , sup 2 sup , sup 3 H isotopes in the measured energy range 5-150 MeV. For the time interval 0.0-0.60 mu s (short gate), a significant deviation from the power law relation is observed, for energy greater than approx 30 MeV. The character of the a2(p)-a2(d) and a2(p)-a2(t) correlations for protons, deuterons and tritons, reveals 3 types of crystals in the batch. These subbatches differ in the value of the extracted parameter a2 for protons, and in the value of the spread of a2 for deuterons and tritons. This may be explained by the difference in the energy dependence of the fast decay time component an...

  17. Study of phonon-induced energy transfer processes in crystals using heat pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.R.

    1978-03-01

    The artificial generation of acoustic lattice vibrations by a heat pulse technique is developed in order to probe phonon interactions in molecular crystals. Specifically, the phonon-assisted delocalization of ''trapped'' excited triplet state energy in the aromatic crystal 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) is studied in a quantitative manner by monitoring the time-resolved decrease in trap phosphorescence intensity due to the propagation of a well-defined heat pulse. The excitation distribution in a single trap system, such as the X-trap in neat h 2 -TCB, is discussed in terms of the energy partition function relating the temperature dependence of the trap phosphorescence intensity to the trap depth, exciton bandwidth, and the number of exciton band states. In a multiple trap system, such as the hd and h 2 isotopic traps in d 2 -TCB, the excitation distribution is distinctly non-Boltzmann; yet it may be discussed in terms of a preferential energy transfer between the two trap states via the exciton band. For both trap systems, a previously developed kinetic model is presented which relates the efficiency of trap-band energy exchange to the density of band states and the trap-phonon coupling matrix elements. A bolometric technique for determining the thermal response time of the heater/crystal system is presented. The phonon mean free path in the crystal is size-limited, and the heater/crystal boundary conductance is reasonably close to previously reported values. The theory of heat pulse phonon spectroscopy is presented and discussed in terms of black-body phonon radiation

  18. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  19. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  20. How fast is the growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Sohail-Afzal, Tahir; Ayub-Faridi, M; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2003-01-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.

  1. Control of the Effective Free-Energy Landscape in a Frustrated Magnet by a Field Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Moessner, Roderich

    2017-10-01

    Thermal fluctuations can lift the degeneracy of a ground state manifold, producing a free-energy landscape without accidentally degenerate minima. In a process known as order by disorder, a subset of states incorporating symmetry breaking may be selected. Here, we show that such a free-energy landscape can be controlled in a nonequilibrium setting as the slow motion within the ground state manifold is governed by the fast modes out of it. For the paradigmatic case of the classical pyrochlore X Y antiferromagnet, we show that a uniform magnetic field pulse can excite these fast modes to generate a tunable effective free-energy landscape with minima at thermodynamically unstable portions of the ground state manifold.

  2. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media.

  3. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  4. Applications of pulsed energy sources and hydrodynamic response to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, F.; Nelson, W.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic response of materials to pulsed, relativistic electron beams was studied for materials science applications over two decades ago. Presently, intense light ion beams are being explored for materials science applications. These include the Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) of materials for producing stronger and more corrosion-resistant materials and the evaporative deposition of polycrystalline thin films. Laser sources are also being extensively utilized as pulsed energy sources in medical science and in clinical applications. In particular, laser-tissue interactions are being investigated for laser angioplasty and surgery as well as cancer therapy. The understanding of the energy deposition and hydrodynamic response of a wide range of materials is essential to the success of these applications. In order to address these materials science applications, the authors are utilizing and developing high quality, energy deposition-hydrodynamic code techniques which can aid in the design and interpretation of experiments. Consequently, the authors strongly encourage the development of 3-dimensional, species-selective diagnostic techniques, e.g. Resonant Holographic Interferometry Spectroscopy (RHIS), to be used in analyzing the ablation plume in the thin film deposition experiments. In this presentation they show the results and discuss the limitations of calculations for these materials applications. They also discuss the status of the RHIS diagnostic

  5. Improved fission neutron energy discrimination with {sup 4}He detectors through pulse filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ting, E-mail: ting.zhu@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Liang, Yinong; Rolison, Lucas; Barker, Cathleen; Lewis, Jason; Gokhale, Sasmit [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Chandra, Rico [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Räffelstrasse 11, Zürich (Switzerland); Kiff, Scott [Sandia National Laboratories, CA (United States); Chung, Heejun [Korean Institute for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, 1534 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ray, Heather; Baciak, James E.; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-11

    This paper presents experimental and computational techniques implemented for {sup 4}He gas scintillation detectors for induced fission neutron detection. Fission neutrons are produced when natural uranium samples are actively interrogated by 2.45 MeV deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction neutrons. Fission neutrons of energies greater than 2.45 MeV can be distinguished by their different scintillation pulse height spectra since {sup 4}He detectors retain incident fast neutron energy information. To enable the preferential detection of fast neutrons up to 10 MeV and suppress low-energy event counts, the detector photomultiplier gain is lowered and trigger threshold is increased. Pile-up and other unreliable events due to the interrogating neutron flux and background radiation are filtered out prior to the evaluation of pulse height spectra. With these problem-specific calibrations and data processing, the {sup 4}He detector's accuracy at discriminating fission neutrons up to 10 MeV is improved and verified with {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutrons. Given the {sup 4}He detector's ability to differentiate fast neutron sources, this proof-of-concept active-interrogation measurement demonstrates the potential of special nuclear materials detection using a {sup 4}He fast neutron detection system.

  6. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  7. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  8. Pulse Power Capability Of High Energy Density Capacitors Based on a New Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Paul; Scholz, Tim; Hudis, Martin; Slenes, Kirk M.

    1999-01-01

    A new dielectric composite consisting of a polymer coated onto a high-density metallized Kraft has been developed for application in high energy density pulse power capacitors. The polymer coating is custom formulated for high dielectric constant and strength with minimum dielectric losses. The composite can be wound and processed using conventional wound film capacitor manufacturing equipment. This new system has the potential to achieve 2 to 3 J/cu cm whole capacitor energy density at voltage levels above 3.0 kV, and can maintain its mechanical properties to temperatures above 150 C. The technical and manufacturing development of the composite material and fabrication into capacitors are summarized in this paper. Energy discharge testing, including capacitance and charge-discharge efficiency at normal and elevated temperatures, as well as DC life testing were performed on capacitors manufactured using this material. TPL (Albuquerque, NM) has developed the material and Aerovox (New Bedford, MA) has used the material to build and test actual capacitors. The results of the testing will focus on pulse power applications specifically those found in electro-magnetic armor and guns, high power microwave sources and defibrillators.

  9. Influence of wave-front curvature on supercontinuum energy during filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potemkin, F. V.; Mareev, E. I.; Smetanina, E. O.

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that using spatially divergent incident femtosecond 1240-nm laser pulses in water leads to an efficient supercontinuum generation in filaments. Optimal conditions were found when the focal plane is placed 100 -400 μ m before the water surface. Under sufficiently weak focusing conditions [numerical aperture (NA )laser pulses, the supercontinuum energy generated in divergent beams is higher than the supercontinuum energy generated in convergent beams. Analysis by means of the unidirectional pulse propagation equation shows a dramatic difference between filamentation scenarios of divergent and convergent beams, that explains corresponding features of the supercontinuum generation. Under strong focusing conditions (NA ⩾0.2 ) and high-energy laser pulses, the supercontinuum generation is suppressed for convergent beams in contrast to divergent beams that nevertheless are shown experimentally to allow supercontinuum generation. The presented technique of the supercontinuum generation in divergent beams in water is highly demanded in a development of femtosecond optical parametric amplifiers.

  10. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  11. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  12. Reliability of high-voltage pulse capacitors operating in large energy storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskij, G.S.; Fedorova, V.S.; Shilin, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the reliability of pulse capacitors operating in capacitive energy storages, processes, resulting in break-down of capacitor insulation were investigated. A statistic model of failures was constructed and reliability of real capacitors, functioning at operating electric intensity Usub(oper) equal 70 kV/mm and at elevated intensity 90 kV/mm was calculated. Results of testing the IK50-ZU4 capacitor are given. The form of the capacitor service life distribution function was specified. To provide and confirm the assigned capacitor reliability, it is necessary to speed up tests at a higher voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper). To improve the capacitor reliability, it is advisable to conduct acceptance tests, which include hold at increased constant voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper) during 1-3 min and the effect of pulses of increased voltage (1.2-1.3) Usub(oper) with the pulse shape corresponding to operating conditions

  13. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  14. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  15. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  16. Flood pulse influence and anthropic impact on the chemical composition and energy content of Oryza glumaepatula in an Amazonian lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enrich-Prast

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the flood pulse influence and the anthropic impact caused by bauxite tailings on the chemical composition of O. glumaepatula in Batata lake (PA, Brazil. Sampling was carried out in stands of O. glumaepatula in the low-water, filling, high-water, and drawdown periods in impacted and natural areas of Batata lake. During the low-water and drawdown periods the stands of O. glumaepatula were exposed, and in the filling and high-water periods the water depth was respectively 1.4 and 3.8 m. The collected material was dried at 70ºC, ground, and concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and energy content were determined. The results indicate that the biomass increase, caused by the rise in water level, has a dilution effect on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in O. glumaepatula. The energy contents did not present significant differences in any of the studied periods. The results suggest that from the low water to filling period, nitrogen becomes more limiting to O. glumaepatula in the impacted area, whereas phosphorus becomes more limiting in the natural area. The population of O. glumaepatula contributes to the recovery of the impacted area of Batata lake as the detritus from this species accumulates over the sediment. This accumulation impedes future re-suspension of the bauxite tailings and increases the organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the impacted sediment.

  17. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  18. Highly efficient actively Q-switched Yb:LGGG laser generating 3.26 mJ of pulse energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Ruwei; Zhang, Baitao; He, Jingliang; Jia, Zhitai; Tao, Xutang

    2018-05-01

    An efficient acousto-optic Q-switched laser operation of Yb:(LuxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 (x = 0.062) (Yb:LGGG) crystal is demonstrated, producing stable pulses with repetition rate ranging from 1 to 20 kHz. Under the absorbed pump power of 8.75 W, the maximum average output power of 3.26 W is obtained at the pulse repletion rate of 1 kHz, corresponding to the slope efficiency as high as 52%. The pulse width of 14.5 ns is achieved with the pulse energy and peak power of 3.26 mJ and 225 kW, respectively. It indicates great potential of Yb:LGGG crystal for generating pulsed lasers.

  19. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Zhang Jiasheng; Huang Jianjun; Sun Jianfeng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  20. Role of temperature and energy density in the pulsed laser deposition of zirconium oxide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittra, Joy; Abraham, G.J.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Present work brings out the effects of energy density and substrate temperature on pulsed laser deposition of zirconium oxide thin film on Zr-base alloy substrates. The ablation of sintered zirconia has been carried out using a KrF excimer laser having 30 ns pulse width and 600 mJ energy at source at 10 Hz repetition rate. To comprehend effects of these parameters on the synthesized thin film, pure zirconia substrate has been ablated at two different energy densities, 2 J.cm -2 and 5 J.cm -2 , keeping the substrate at 300 K, 573 K and 873 K, respectively. After visual observation, deposited thin films have been examined using Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS). It has been found that the oxide deposited at 300 K temperature does not show good adherence with the substrate and deteriorates further with the reduction in energy density of the incident laser. The oxide films, deposited at 573 K and 873 K, have been found to be adherent with the substrate and appear lustrous black. These indicate that the threshold for adherence of the zirconia film on the Zr-base alloy substrate lies in between 300 K and 573 K. Analysis of Raman spectra has indicated that thin films of zirconia, deposited using pulsed laser, on the Zr-base metallic substrate are initially in amorphous state. Experimental evidence has indicated a strong link among the degree of crystallinity of the deposited oxide film, the substrate temperature and the energy density. It also has shown that the crystallization of the oxide film is dependent on the substrate temperature and the duration of holding at high temperature. The O:Zr ratios of the films, analyzed from the XPS data, have been found to be close to but less than 2. This appears to explain the reason for the transformation of amorphous oxide into monoclinic and tetragonal phases, below 573 K, and not into cubic phase, which is reported to be more oxygen deficient. (author)

  1. Studies on widely tunable ultra-short laser pulses using energy transfer distributed feedback dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, M.B.; Ramalingam, A.; Palanisamy, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental study of the characteristics of Nd: YAG laser pumped energy transfer distributed feedback dye laser (ETDFDL). Using theoretical model proposed, the behavior of ETDFDL such as the characteristics of donor DFDL, the acceptor DFDL, the dependence of their pulse width and output power on donor-acceptor concentrations and pump power are studied for dye mixture Rhodamine 6G and Cresyl Violet in detail. Experimentally using prism-dye cell configuration, the ETDFDL output is obtained and the output energy of DFDL is measured at the emission peaks of donor and acceptor dyes for different pump powers and donor-acceptor concentrations. In addition, the DFDL linewidth measurement has been carried out at the lasing wavelengths of the donor and acceptor dyes using Fabry-Perot etalon and the tunability of DFDL is measured to be in the wavelength range of 545-680 nm

  2. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development.

  3. Efficient energy absorption of intense ps-laser pulse into nanowire target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habara, H.; Honda, S.; Katayama, M.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakagami, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nagai, K. [Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Science, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The interaction between ultra-intense laser light and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes is investigated to demonstrate efficient laser-energy absorption in the ps laser-pulse regime. Results indicate a clear enhancement of the energy conversion from laser to energetic electrons and a simultaneously small plasma expansion on the surface of the target. A two-dimensional plasma particle calculation exhibits a high absorption through laser propagation deep into the nanotube array, even for a dense array whose structure is much smaller than the laser wavelength. The propagation leads to the radial expansion of plasma perpendicular to the nanotubes rather than to the front side. These features may contribute to fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion and laser particle acceleration, both of which require high current and small surface plasma simultaneously.

  4. A 10 TW pulsed energy complex PIRIT-2000 for investigation of short-wave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Pikar` , A S; Vorontsov, V I; Kotel` nikov, D V; Melkozerov, A V [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results of investigation of a pulsed plasma x-ray source at the PIRIT-2000 fast operating capacitor bank are reported. The maximum energy stored in a primary 54-module capacitive storage at the output voltage of 500 kV reaches 2 MJ. The capacitor bank energizes a vacuum inductive storage, which is commutated by a plasma opening switch. The plasma diode consists of a tube cathode of diameter 15 cm and of a larger tube anode with six plasma injecting guns. The current amplitude and the current rise time at the plasma load amounts to 4 MA and 150 ns, respectively. The x-ray doses were measured by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters and the integral radiation output by means of a thermocouple calorimeter. The radiation output as high as 100 kJ was achieved at the stored energy of 1 MJ. (J.U.). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  5. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  6. Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2018-01-01

    We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.

  7. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  8. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B.; Lee, E.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  9. Generation of dual-wavelength, synchronized, tunable, high energy, femtosecond laser pulses with nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-K.; Siegal, Y.; Lü, C.; Mazur, E.

    1992-07-01

    We use self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber to produce broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Subsequent amplification through two Bethune cells yields high-energy, tunable, pulses synchronized with the output of an amplified colliding-pulse-modelocked (CPM) laser. We routinely obtain tunable 200 μJ pulses of 42 fs (fwhm) duration with a nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile. Although self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber is widely used in femtosecond laser systems, amplification of a fiber-generated supercontinuum in a Bethune cell amplifier is a new feature which maintains the high-quality spatial profile while providing high gain. This laser system is particularly well suited for high energy dual-wavelength pump=probe experiments and time-resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy.

  10. Pulse energy dependence of refractive index change in lithium niobium silicate glass during femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Poumellec, Bertrand; Brisset, François; Lancry, Matthieu

    2018-03-19

    Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index changes in lithium niobium silicate glass were explored at high repetition rate (300 fs, 500 kHz) by polarized light microscopy, full-wave retardation plate, quantitative birefringence microscopy, and digital holographic microscopy. We found three regimes on energy increase. The first one corresponds to isotropic negative refractive index change (for pulse energy ranging 0.4-0.8 μJ/pulse, 0.6 NA, 5μm/s, 650μm focusing depth in the glass). The second one (0.8-1.2 μJ/pulse) corresponds to birefringence with well-defined slow axis orientation. The third one (above 1.2 μJ/pulse) is related to birefringence direction fluctuation. Interestingly, these regimes are consistent with crystallization ones. In addition, an asymmetric orientational writing effect has been detected on birefringence. These topics extend the possibility of controlling refractive index change in multi-component glasses.

  11. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  12. Conductive graphene as passive saturable absorber with high instantaneous peak power and pulse energy in Q-switched regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuikafly, Siti Nur Fatin; Khalifa, Ali; Ahmad, Fauzan; Shafie, Suhaidi; Harun, SulaimanWadi

    2018-06-01

    The Q-switched pulse regime is demonstrated by integrating conductive graphene as passive saturable absorber producing relatively high instantaneous peak power and pulse energy. The fabricated conductive graphene is investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The single wavelength Q-switching operates at 1558.28 nm at maximum input pump power of 151.47 mW. As the pump power is increased from threshold power of 51.6 mW to 151.47 mW, the pulse train repetition rate increases proportionally from 47.94 kHz to 67.8 kHz while the pulse width is reduced from 9.58 μs to 6.02 μs. The generated stable pulse produced maximum peak power and pulse energy of 32 mW and 206 nJ, respectively. The first beat node of the measured signal-to-noise ratio is about 62 dB indicating high pulse stability.

  13. Two-dimensional angular energy spectrum of electrons accelerated by the ultra-short relativistic laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovskiy, A. V. [Department of Computer Science and Cybernetics, Baikal State University of Economics and Law, 11 Lenin Street, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Galkin, A. L. [Coherent and Nonlinear Optics Department, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics of MBF, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovitianov Street, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, M. P., E-mail: galkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short-Time Spectroscopy, 2a Max-Born-Strasse, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The new method of calculating energy spectra of accelerated electrons, based on the parameterization by their initial coordinates, is proposed. The energy spectra of electrons accelerated by Gaussian ultra-short relativistic laser pulse at a selected angle to the axis of the optical system focusing the laser pulse in a low density gas are theoretically calculated. The two-peak structure of the electron energy spectrum is obtained. Discussed are the reasons for its appearance as well as an applicability of other models of the laser field.

  14. Project of the electron linear accelerator on the biperiodical accelerating structure with deep energy retuning in a pulse mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.Yu.; Zavadtsev, D.A.; Kaminskij, V.I.; Sobenin, N.P.; Fadin, A.I.; Zavadtsev, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The schemes of the electron linear accelerator (ELA), realized on the basis of a biperiodical accelerating structure and ensuring the possibility of deep retuning of the beam energy in a pulse mode, are considered. Advantages and shortcomings of the proposed methods of pulse regulation of the electron energy are discussed. A project of a two-section ELA with two levels of energy (10 and 4 MeV) is presented as a base version. The beam dynamics is calculated for two versions of the ELA. Their main parameters are given [ru

  15. PULSED VERY HIGH ENERGY γ-RAY EMISSION CONSTRAINTS FOR PSR B1951+32 FROM STACEE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweerink, J.; Ball, J.; Carson, J. E.; Jarvis, A.; Ong, R. A.; Kildea, J.; Hanna, D. S.; Lindner, T.; Mueller, C.; Ragan, K.; Covault, C. E.; Driscoll, D. D.; Fortin, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Williams, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based telescope that uses the wave-front-sampling technique to detect very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. STACEE's sensitivity in the energy range near 100 GeV permits useful observations of pulsars with the potential to discriminate between various proposed mechanisms for pulsed gamma-ray emission. Based on the 11.3 hr of data taken during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons, we derive an upper limit on the pulsed gamma-ray emission from PSR B1951+32 of -11 photons cm -2 s -1 above an energy threshold of 117 GeV.

  16. Advances towards a portable pulsed source of neutrons and X-ray with energy of work close to 1 Joule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, C.; Moreno, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro; Barbaglia, Mario O.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma Focus devices are pulsed sources of X and neutron radiation from intense electrical discharges in deuterium. Classically these devices operate at energies between a few KJ to 1 MJ. In this work we present the design and feasibility studies of a Plasma Focus operating at energies close to 1 Joule. Experimental evidence of focalization is presented, and the optimum parameter relations at such low energies are discussed. The results indicate the device will be able to emit pulses about 1000 neutrons per J. (author) [es

  17. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  18. Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) Performance Analysis of High Temperature Energy Storage Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 milestones and lessons learned; performance in 1983; a typical day's operation; collector field performance and thermal losses; and formal testing are highlighted. An initial test that involves characterizing the high temperature storage (hts) subsystem is emphasized. The primary element is on 11,000 gallon storage tank that provides energy to the steam generator during transient solar conditions or extends operating time. Overnight, thermal losses were analyzed. The length of time the system is operated at various levels of cogeneration using stored energy is reviewed.

  19. Ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi

    1981-01-01

    Temporal evolution and spatial profile of ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in TRIAM-1 and numerically with a Fokker-Planck equation. Two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to single one within tau sub(i) (ion collision time). (author)

  20. Ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Temporal evolution and spatial profile of ion energy spectrum just after the application of current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in TRIAM-1 and numerically with a Fokker-Planck equation. Two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to single one within tau sub(i) (ion collision time).

  1. Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korunur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the Møller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.

  2. PENERAPAN PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD PADA PASTEURISASI SARI BUAH APEL VARIETAS ANA: KAJIAN KARAKTERISTIK NILAI GIZI, SIFAT FISIK, SIFAT KIMIAWI DAN MIKROBIA TOTAL Application of Pulsed Electric Field in Pasteurization of Apple Juice of Ana Cultivar : Study on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Choviya Hawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, extracted from apple of ana cultivar , was pasteurized using a pulsed electric field (PEF method. The aimof this research was to analyze the changes on nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes from apple juice after pasteurization. The research was conducted from July until Oktober 2009 located in Malang. The PEF treatment was carried out using treatment time variation for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. Several parameters of vitamin A and C, water content, density, pH, total soluable solid and total microbes were observed. The results showed that PEF treatment did not significantly change nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes after pasteurization with PEF in compared with no treatment pasteurization. The highest degradation was found in treatment time for 60 seconds, i.e. 93.53 %. ABSTRAK Sari buah apel, yang diekstrak dari apel varietas ana, dipasteurisasi dengan metode pulsed electric field (PEF. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan karakteristik nilai gizi, sifat fisik, kimiawi dan total mikrobia sari buah apel sesudah dipasteurisasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Juli sampai dengan Oktober 2009 di Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi waktu pengolahan 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 dan 60 detik. Parameter pengamatan yaitu vitamin A dan C, kadar air, berat jenis, pH, total padatan terlarut dan total mikrobia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai gizi, sifat fisik dan kimiawi dari sari apel  tidak mengalami perubahan signifikan dibandingkan sari apel tanpa perlakuan PEF. Penurunan total mikrobia terbesar pada waktu perlakuan 60 detik dengan efektivitas pembunuhan sebesar 93,53%.

  3. Relation between total shock energy and mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenma, Taro; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Masaya; Mizukami, Kazuya; Kamada, Rui; Takahashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Ryo; Maeno, Motoki; Okamoto, Kaori; Chiba, Yuki; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2018-05-15

    Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) shocks have been associated with mortality. However, no study has examined the relation between total shock energy and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the association of total shock energy with mortality, and to determine the patients who are at risk of this association. Data from 316 consecutive patients who underwent initial ICD implantation in our hospital between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. We collected shock energy for 3 years from the ICD implantation, and determined the relation of shock energy on mortality after adjusting confounding factors. Eighty-seven ICD recipients experienced shock(s) within 3 years from ICD implantation and 43 patients had died during the follow-up. The amount of shock energy was significantly associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.26 (per 100 joule increase), p energy accumulation (≥182 joule) was lower (p energy accumulation (energy accumulation and all-cause death was remarkable in the patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) or atrial fibrillation (AF). Increase of shock energy was related to mortality in ICD recipients. This relation was evident in patients with low LVEF or AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ion kinetic energy distribution in a pulsed vacuum arc with a straight magnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, L; Grondona, D; Kelly, H; Minotti, F

    2008-01-01

    In vacuum arcs of interest for film deposition the ion kinetic energy is of importance because it influences the coating properties. In this kind of discharge, the ions come out from the cathode spots with a high kinetic energy (20-150 eV). In the present work, we present measurements of vacuum arc ion energy distributions in a pulsed vacuum arc with a straight magnetic filter. A retarding field analyser (RFA) was used to perform the measurements that were carried out with a variable magnetic field strength (of the order of 10 mT). Since the interpretation of the results obtained from the RFA lies in the knowledge of the plasma and floating potential values, we have employed also Langmuir probes for determining those quantities. The obtained results for the ion kinetic energy are similar to those reported by other authors, but they were also found to be independent of the magnetic field strength. The electron temperature was also found to be independent of the magnetic field strength and of the axial position along the filter, indicating the absence of collisions.

  5. Comparison of stress and total energy methods for calculation of elastic properties of semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P

    2013-01-16

    We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.

  6. Pulsed neutron generators based on plasma focus devices of low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The plasma focus is a pulsed neutron source especially suited for applications because it reduces the danger of contamination of conventional isotopic radioactive sources. As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed neutron generator for industrial applications we constructed two very small plasma focus operating at an energy level of the order of a) tens of joules (PF-50J, 160nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100J, ∼150ns first quarter of period) and b) hundred of joules (PF-400J, 880nF, 20-35kV, 176-539J, ∼300ns first quarter of period). In this article we present results related to design and construction of these small plasma foci (PF-50J and PF-400J). Neutron yield vs. deuterium. pressure has been obtained, a maximum emission of the order of 7x10 4 and 10 6 neutrons per shot has been measured in the PF-50J and PF-400J respectively (author)

  7. Environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency of Taiwan's service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chin-Yi; Hu, Jin-Li; Lou, Tze-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study computes the pure technical efficiency (PTE) and energy-saving target of Taiwan's service sectors during 2001–2008 by using the input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with the assumption of a variable returns-to-scale (VRS) situation. This paper further investigates the effects of industry characteristics on the energy-saving target by applying the four-stage DEA proposed by Fried et al. (1999). We also calculate the pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) scores in these service sectors. There are three inputs (labor, capital stock, and energy consumption) and a single output (real GDP) in the DEA model. The most energy efficient service sector is finance, insurance and real estate, which has an average TFEE of 0.994 and an environment-adjusted TFEE (EATFEE) of 0.807. The study utilizes the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model with the energy-saving target (EST) as the dependent variable. Those service industries with a larger GDP output have greater excess use of energy. The capital–labor ratio has a significantly positive effect while the time trend variable has a significantly negative impact on the EST, suggesting that future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors. - Highlights: • The technical efficiency and energy-saving target of service sectors are assessed. • The pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency scores in services are assessed. • The industrial characteristic differences are examined by the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model. • Labor, capital, and energy and an output (GDP) are included in the DEA model. • Future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors

  8. An ultra-low-power pulse oximeter implemented with an energy-efficient transimpedance amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, M; Turicchia, L; Sarpeshkar, R

    2010-02-01

    Pulse oximeters are ubiquitous in modern medicine to noninvasively measure the percentage of oxygenated hemoglobin in a patient's blood by comparing the transmission characteristics of red and infrared light-emitting diode light through the patient's finger with a photoreceptor. We present an analog single-chip pulse oximeter with 4.8-mW total power dissipation, which is an order of magnitude below our measurements on commercial implementations. The majority of this power reduction is due to the use of a novel logarithmic transimpedance amplifier with inherent contrast sensitivity, distributed amplification, unilateralization, and automatic loop gain control. The transimpedance amplifier, together with a photodiode current source, form a high-performance photoreceptor with characteristics similar to those found in nature, which allows LED power to be reduced. Therefore, our oximeter is well suited for portable medical applications, such as continuous home-care monitoring for elderly or chronic patients, emergency patient transport, remote soldier monitoring, and wireless medical sensing. Furthermore, our design obviates the need for an A-to-D and digital signal processor and leads to a small single-chip solution. We outline how extensions of our work could lead to submilliwatt oximeters.

  9. Optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems with hydrogen storage for total energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-01-01

    A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the solar array and hydrogen storage size for any given system configuration and geographical site. Sensitivity analyses have been performed to study the effect of subsystem efficiencies on the total system performance and sizing, and also to identify possibilities for further improvements. Optimum system configurations have also been derived. The results indicate that a solar-hydrogen energy system is a very promising potential alternative for low power applications requiring a total electricity self-sufficiency. (Author).

  10. DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed

  11. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  12. Hadronic multiplicity and total cross-section: a new scaling in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylinsky, N.A.; Martynov, E.S.; Shelest, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of mean multiplicity to total cross-section is shown to be the same for all the Regge models and to rise with energy as lns which is confirmed by experimental data. Hence, a power of multiplicity growth is unambiguously connected with that of total cross-section. As regards the observed growth, approximately ln 2 s, it tells about a dipole character of pomeron singularity

  13. Total cross sections of hadron interactions at high energies in low constituents number model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovskij, V.A.; Radchenko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider QCD hadrons interaction model in which gluons density is low in initial state wave function in rapidity space and real hadrons are produced from color strings decay. In this model behavior of total cross sections of pp, pp bar, π ± p, K ± p, γp, and γγ interactions is well described. The value of proton-proton total cross section at LHC energy is predicted

  14. Characteristics of (Ti,Ta)N thin films prepared by using pulsed high energy density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wenran [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen Guangliang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Li [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lv Guohua [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Xianhui [College of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Niu Erwu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Chizi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Size [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-07-21

    (Ti,Ta)N films were prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) from a coaxial gun in N{sub 2} gas. The coaxial gun is composed of a tantalum inner electrode and a titanium outer one. Material characteristics of the (Ti,Ta)N film were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The microstructure of the film was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The elemental composition and the interface of the film/substrate were analysed using Auger electron spectrometry. Our results suggest that the binary metal nitride film (Ti,Ta)N, can be prepared by PHEDP. It also shows that dense nanocrystalline (Ti,Ta)N film can be achieved.

  15. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison

  16. Collisionless energy absorption in the short-pulse intense laser-cluster interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.; Bauer, D.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)] we have shown by means of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and a simple rigid-sphere model that nonlinear resonance absorption is the dominant collisionless absorption mechanism in the intense, short-pulse laser cluster interaction. In this paper we present a more detailed account of the matter. In particular we show that the absorption efficiency is almost independent of the laser polarization. In the rigid-sphere model, the absorbed energy increases by many orders of magnitude at a certain threshold laser intensity. The particle-in-cell results display maximum fractional absorption around the same intensity. We calculate the threshold intensity and show that it is underestimated by the common overbarrier ionization estimate

  17. A comment on the calculation of the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index originally proposed by Hu and Wang (2006). The TFEE index serves as a very well-known and popular means of estimating overall energy efficiency. While many previous studies have used the indicator of energy inefficiency, including the indicator of energy intensity (i.e., Energy input/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) to measure energy efficiency, Hu and Kao (2007) point out that the indicator of energy intensity is not only a partial-factor energy efficiency indicator, but that this partial-factor ratio is also quite inappropriate for analyzing the impact of changing energy use over time. The TFEE index overcomes the disadvantage of the indicator of energy intensity as mentioned above, but five steps are needed to calculate the TFEE score. In this study, we provide a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the TFEE score. Furthermore, we extend this no-output growth model to an output growth model. This study concludes that the output growth model not only makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index than the model proposed by Hu and Wang (2006) and Hu and Kao (2007), but that it can also obtain better TFEE scores. - Highlights: ► The comment is on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index. ► Two extension models are no-output growth model and output growth model. ► The model in this study makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index.

  18. Activation of endogenous opioid gene expression in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts by pulsed radiofrequency energy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffett J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available John Moffett,1 Linley M Fray,1 Nicole J Kubat21Life Science Department, 2Independent Consultant, Regenesis Biomedical Inc, Scottsdale, AZ, USABackground: Pulsed radiofrequency energy (PRFE fields are being used increasingly for the treatment of pain arising from dermal trauma. However, despite their increased use, little is known about the biological and molecular mechanism(s responsible for PRFE-mediated analgesia. In general, current therapeutics used for analgesia target either endogenous factors involved in inflammation, or act on endogenous opioid pathways.Methods and Results: Using cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK, we investigated the effect of PRFE treatment on factors, which are involved in modulating peripheral analgesia in vivo. We found that PRFE treatment did not inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme activity, but instead had a positive effect on levels of endogenous opioid precursor mRNA (proenkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, prodynorphin and corresponding opioid peptide. In HEK cells, increases in opioid mRNA were dependent, at least in part, on endothelin-1. In HDF cells, additional pathways also appear to be involved. PRFE treatment was also followed by changes in endogenous expression of several cytokines, including increased levels of interleukin-10 mRNA and decreased levels of interleukin-1β mRNA in both cell types.Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying PRFE-mediated analgesia reported in the clinical setting.Keywords: peripheral analgesia, endogenous opioids, endothelin-1, endothelin receptor A, endothelin receptor B, pulsed radiofrequency energy field, cyclooxygenase

  19. A Practice-Oriented Bifurcation Analysis for Pulse Energy Converters: A Stability Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Monovskaya, Anna

    The popularity of systems of pulse energy conversion (PEC-systems) for practical applications is due to the heightened efficiency of energy conversion processes with comparatively simple realizations. Nevertheless, a PEC-system represents a nonlinear object with a variable structure, and the bifurcation analysis remains the basic tool to describe PEC dynamics evolution. The paper is devoted to the discussion on whether the scientific viewpoint on the natural nonlinear dynamics evolution can be involved in practical applications. We focus on the problems connected with stability boundaries of an operating regime. The results of both small-signal analysis and computational bifurcation analysis are considered in the parametrical space in comparison with the results of the experimental identification of the zonal heterogeneity of the operating process. This allows to propose an adapted stability margin as a sufficiently safe distance before the point after which the operating process begins to lose the stability. Such stability margin can extend the permissible operating domain in the parametrical space at the expense of using cause-and-effect relations in the context of natural regularities of nonlinear dynamics. Reasoning and discussion are based on the experimental and computational results for a synchronous buck converter with a pulse-width modulation. The presented results can be useful, first of all, for PEC-systems with significant variation of equivalent inductance and/or capacity. We believe that the discussion supports a viewpoint by which the contemporary methods of the computational and experimental bifurcation analyses possess both analytical abilities and experimental techniques for promising solutions which could be practice-oriented for PEC-systems.

  20. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  1. The conditions for total reflection of low-energy atoms from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The critical angles for the total reflection of low-energy particles from Cu rows and (001) planes have been investigated, using the binary collision approximation computer simulation code MARLOWE Breakthrough angles were evaluated for H, N, Ne, Ar, Cu, Xe, and Au in the energy range from 0.1 to 7.5 keV. In both the axial and the planar cases, recoiling of the target atoms lowers the energy barrier which the target surface presents to the heavy projectiles. Consequently, the breakthrough angles are reduced for heavy projectiles below the values expected either from observations on light projectiles or from analytical channeling theory. (orig.) [de

  2. Total cross section for hadron production by e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Godermann, E.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.

    1979-10-01

    The cross section for the process e + e - → multihadrons has been measured at the highest PETRA energies. We measure R (the total cross-section in units of the point-like e + e - → μ + μ - cross-section) to be 2.9 +- 0.7, 4.0 +- 0.5, 4.6 +- 0.4 and 4.2 +- 0.6 at √s of 22, 27.7, 30 and 31.6 GeV respectively. The observed average multiplicity, together with existing low energy data, indicate a rapid increase in multiplicity with increasing energy. (orig.)

  3. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  4. Effects of single pulse energy on the properties of ceramic coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Precision/Ultra-precision Manufacturing Equipments and Control, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Du, Mao-Hua [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Han, Fu-Zhu, E-mail: hanfuzhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Precision/Ultra-precision Manufacturing Equipments and Control, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single pulse energy remarkably influences the properties of ceramic coating prepared by MAO on Ti alloy. • The accumulative time of impulse width is an important parameter in the scientific and rational measurement of the film forming law of ceramic coating. • The ceramic coating thickness approximately linearly increases with the cumulative time of impulse width. • Larger impulse width resulted in higher single pulse energy, film forming rates and thicker ceramic coating thickness. • The effects of single pulse energy on the micro-hardness and phase composition of ceramic coating are not as evident as those of frequency and duty cycle. - Abstract: The effects of single pulse energy on the properties of ceramic coating fabricated on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in aqueous solutions containing aluminate, phosphate, and some additives are investigated. The thickness, micro-hardness, surface and cross-sectional morphology, surface roughness, and compositions of the ceramic coating are studied using eddy current thickness meter, micro-hardness tester, JB-4C Precision Surface roughness meter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Single pulse energy remarkably influences the ceramic coating properties. The accumulative time of impulse width is an important parameter in the scientific and rational measurement of the film forming law of ceramic coating. The ceramic coating thickness approximately linearly increases with the cumulative time of impulse width. Larger impulse width resulted in higher single pulse energy, film forming rates and thicker ceramic coating thickness. The sizes of oxide particles, micro-pores and micro-cracks slightly increase with impulse width and single pulse energy. The main surface conversion products generated during MAO process in aqueous solutions containing aluminate are rutile TiO{sub 2}, anatase TiO{sub 2}, and a large amount of Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. The effects of

  5. Pulsed Power Supply Based on Magnetic Energy Storage for Non-Destructive High Field Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, G.; Defoug, S.; Joss, W.; Sala, P.; Dubois, M.; Kuchinsk, V.

    2004-11-01

    The first test results of a recently built pulsed power supply based on magnetic energy storage will be described. The system consists of the 16 kV shock alternator with a short-circuit power of 3600 MVA of the VOLTA Testing Center of the Schneider Electric SA company, a step-down transformer with a ratio of 1/24, a three-phase diode bridge designed for a current rising exponentially to 120 kA, and a big, 10 ton, heavy, 10 mH aluminum storage coil. The system is designed to store 72 MJ, normal operation will be at 50 MJ, and will work with voltages up to 20 kV. A transfer of 20% of the stored energy into the high field coil should be possible. Special making switches and interrupters have been developed to switch the high currents in a very short time. For safety and redundancy two independent monitoring systems control the energy transfer. A sequencing control system operates the switches on the ac side and protective switches on the dc side, a specially developed real-time control-monitoring system checks several currents and voltages and commands the dc circuit breakers and making switches.

  6. Generation of intense, high-energy ion pulses by magnetic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A system based on the magnetic compression of ion rings, for generating intense (High-current), high-energy ion pulses that are guided to a target without a metallic wall or an applied external magnetic field includes a vacuum chamber; an inverse reflex tetrode for producing a hollow ion beam within the chamber; magnetic coils for producing a magnetic field, bo, along the axis of the chamber; a disc that sharpens a magnetic cusp for providing a rotational velocity to the beam and causing the beam to rotate; first and second gate coils for producing fast-rising magnetic field gates, the gates being spaced apart, each gate modifying a corresponding magnetic mirror peak (Near and far peaks) for trapping or extracting the ions from the magnetic mirror, the ions forming a ring or layer having rotational energy; a metal liner for generating by magnetic flux compression a high, time-varying magnetic field, the time-varying magnetic field progressively increasing the kinetic energy of the ions, the magnetic field from the second gate coil decreasing the far mirror peak at the end of the compression for extracting the trapped rotating ions from the confining mirror; and a disc that sharpens a magnetic half-cusp for increasing the translational velocity of the ion beam. The system utilizes the self-magnetic field of the rotating, propagating ion beam to prevent the beam from expanding radially upon extraction

  7. Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwała Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers.

  8. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  9. Mechanical properties of carbynes investigated by ab initio total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Salvestrini, Paolo; Manini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    As sp carbon chains (carbynes) are relatively rigid molecular objects, can we exploit them as construction elements in nanomechanics? To answer this question, we investigate their remarkable mechanical properties by ab initio total-energy simulations. In particular, we evaluate their linear...

  10. The high-energy pulsed X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 as observed with OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, G. S.; Dennis, B. R.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Cutler, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed from August 30 to September 10, 1977, by using the high-energy X-ray scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO 8 satellite. The observation, during which the source was monitored continually for nearly an entire ON-state, covered the energy range from 16 to 280 keV. Pulsed-flux measurements as a function of binary orbit and binary phase are presented for energies between 16 and 98 keV. The pulsed flux between 16 and 33 keV exhibited a sharp decrease following the fourth binary orbit and was consistent with zero pulsed flux thereafter. Only weak evidence was found for temporal variation in the pulsed flux between 33 and 98 keV. The pulsed spectrum has been fitted with a power law, a thermal spectrum without features, and a thermal spectrum with a superposed Gaussian centered at 55 keV. The latter fit has the smallest value of chi-square per degree of freedom, and the resulting integrated line intensity is approximately 0.0015 photon/sec per sq cm for a width of 3.1 (+9.1, -2.6) keV. This result, while of low statistical significance, agrees with the value observed by Truemper (1978) during the same ON-state.

  11. Pulse shaping system research of CdZnTe radiation detector for high energy x-ray diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Zhao, Mingkun; Ding, Keyu; Zhou, Shousen; Zhou, Benjie

    2018-02-01

    As one of the typical wide band-gap semiconductor materials, the CdZnTe material has high detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution for the hard X-ray and the Gamma ray. The generated signal of the CdZnTe detector needs to be transformed to the pseudo-Gaussian pulse with a small impulse-width to remove noise and improve the energy resolution by the following nuclear spectrometry data acquisition system. In this paper, the multi-stage pseudo-Gaussian shaping-filter has been investigated based on the nuclear electronic principle. The optimized circuit parameters were also obtained based on the analysis of the characteristics of the pseudo-Gaussian shaping-filter in our following simulations. Based on the simulation results, the falling-time of the output pulse was decreased and faster response time can be obtained with decreasing shaping-time τs-k. And the undershoot was also removed when the ratio of input resistors was set to 1 to 2.5. Moreover, a two stage sallen-key Gaussian shaping-filter was designed and fabricated by using a low-noise voltage feedback operation amplifier LMH6628. A detection experiment platform had been built by using the precise pulse generator CAKE831 as the imitated radiation pulse which was equivalent signal of the semiconductor CdZnTe detector. Experiment results show that the output pulse of the two stage pseudo-Gaussian shaping filter has minimum 200ns pulse width (FWHM), and the output pulse of each stage was well consistent with the simulation results. Based on the performance in our experiment, this multi-stage pseudo-Gaussian shaping-filter can reduce the event-lost caused by pile-up in the CdZnTe semiconductor detector and improve the energy resolution effectively.

  12. Parameterization of α-nucleus total reaction cross section at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, M A; Abdulmomen, M A

    2008-01-01

    Applying a Coulomb correction factor to the Glauber model we have derived a closed expression for α-nucleus total reaction cross section, σ R . Under the approximation of rigid projectile model, the elastic S-matrix element S el (b) is evaluated from the phenomenological N-α amplitude and a Gaussian fit to the Helm's model form factor. Excellent agreements with the experimental data have been achieved by performing two-parameter fits to the α-nucleus σ R data in the energy range about 75 to 193 MeV. One of the parameters was found to be energy independent while the other, as expected, shows the energy dependence similar to that of N-α total cross section.

  13. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  14. Fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions of spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) distributions are evaluated in a quantum mechanical framework using elongation, mass asymmetry, neck degree of freedom as the relevant collective parameters in the Fourier shape parametrization recently developed by us. The potential energy surfaces (PES) are calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic model based on the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD), the Yukawa-folded (YF) single-particle potential and a monopole pairing force. The PES are presented and analysed in detail for even-even Plutonium isotopes with A = 236-246. They reveal deep asymmetric valleys. The fission-fragment mass and TKE distributions are obtained from the ground state of a collective Hamiltonian computed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the WKB approach by introducing a neck-dependent fission probability. The calculated mass and total kinetic energy distributions are found in good agreement with the data.

  15. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Morcelle, V.

    2010-06-01

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range 6 Li- 238 U, and 158 projectile nuclei from 2 H up to 84 Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  16. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  17. Neutron resonance transmission spectroscopy with high spatial and energy resolution at the J-PARC pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shinohara, T.; Kai, T.; Ooi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2–4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Shiota, Y. [Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8 Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2014-05-11

    The sharp variation of neutron attenuation at certain energies specific to particular nuclides (the lower range being from ∼1 eV up to ∼1 keV), can be exploited for the remote mapping of element and/or isotope distributions, as well as temperature probing, within relatively thick samples. Intense pulsed neutron beam-lines at spallation sources combined with a high spatial, high-timing resolution neutron counting detector, provide a unique opportunity to measure neutron transmission spectra through the time-of-flight technique. We present the results of experiments where spatially resolved neutron resonances were measured, at energies up to 50 keV. These experiments were performed with the intense flux low background NOBORU neutron beamline at the J-PARC neutron source and the high timing resolution (∼20 ns at epithermal neutron energies) and spatial resolution (∼55 µm) neutron counting detector using microchannel plates coupled to a Timepix electronic readout. Simultaneous element-specific imaging was carried out for several materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼150 µm. The high timing resolution of our detector combined with the low background beamline, also enabled characterization of the neutron pulse itself – specifically its pulse width, which varies with neutron energy. The results of our measurements are in good agreement with the predicted results for the double pulse structure of the J-PARC facility, which provides two 100 ns-wide proton pulses separated by 600 ns, broadened by the neutron energy moderation process. Thermal neutron radiography can be conducted simultaneously with resonance transmission spectroscopy, and can reveal the internal structure of the samples. The transmission spectra measured in our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of mapping elemental distributions using this non-destructive technique, for those elements (and in certain cases, specific isotopes), which have resonance energies below a few keV, and with lower

  18. Influence of media size on energy distribution of pulsed thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowska, J.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to the investigation of the diffusion cooling phenomenon of pulsed thermalized neutron fields in bounded media. It is aimed at the examination of the validity of the neutron temperature model that involves the assumption that an asymptotic energy distribution of neutrons in bounded media can be described by the Maxwell distribution but with a shifted temperature, lower than a temperature of medium. The research carried out entirely by means of Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron transport was preceded by a measurement of the time decay constants obtained in all variants of Monte Carlo simulations of the experiment and the measured one was stated. The form of asymptotic energy distribution of neutrons and its dependence on the size of medium was investigated in three kinds of materials of different thermal neutron transport properties: energy independent scatterer with negligible absorption (silica), energy dependent scatterer with 1/v absorption (borated silica) and energy dependent scatterer with 1/v absorption (water). As it was expected, in the case of large media, which can be treated as infinite, neutrons attained the Maxwell energy distribution at the temperature of the medium. For all materials under investigation the average and the most probable values of the energy distribution steadily decreased with decreasing geometric dimensions of the media. At the same time a growing distortion from the pure Maxwellian energy distribution was observed, which means that the concept of the neutron temperature fails in the case of small media. Although the spectra under investigation in general did not have the Maxwellian shape, the most probable velocity in a neutron density distribution decreased linearly with the increasing geometric buckling of the medium. This dependence manifested a stronger cooling than the one predicted by a certain approximate formula. The neutron spectrum in a small medium of pure silica was cooler than the spectrum in

  19. High-energy pulse compressor using self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (3) with a net positive dispersion. Furthermore, the net positive dispersion in the dispersive unit at least partially compensates for the negative nonlinear phase variation and the negative group-velocity dispersion produced by the bulk quadratic nonlinear medium when the optical pulse passes......A method and a pulse compressor (1) for compressing an optical pulse, wherein the pulse compressor comprising a bulk quadratic nonlinear medium (2) adapted for generating a negative nonlinear phase variation on the optical pulse and having a negative group-velocity dispersion, and a dispersive unit...

  20. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  1. Time moments of the energy flow of optical pulses in highly dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Lipsa; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2010-01-01

    We use the time moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse to characterize the traversal times and temporal pulse widths as the pulse propagates in highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with the propagation distance is analysed in three canonical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, a Raman gain doublet amplifying medium and a medium exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that superluminal pulse propagation in the first two cases with anomalous dispersion is usually accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation. In a medium with electromagnetically induced transparency with large normal dispersion, we identify a range of frequencies for which the pulse undergoes minimal temporal expansion while propagating with ultra-slow speed.

  2. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  3. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L.G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  4. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  5. Forward elastic scattering and total cross-section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    1985-01-01

    The successful cooling technique of antiproton beams at CERN has recently allowed the acceleration of proton and antiproton bunches simultaneously circulating in opposite directions in the SPS. Hadron-hadron collisions could so be produced at a centre-of-mass energy one order of magnitude higher than previously available, thus opening a new wide range of energies to experimentation. This technique also made it possible to replace one of the two proton beams in the ISR by a beam of antiprotons, allowing a direct precise comparison, by the same detectors, of pp and anti pp processes at the same energies. The recent results are summarized of the forward elastic scattering and total cross-section in this new energy domain. (Mori, K.)

  6. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  7. Treatment of complex biological mixtures with pulsed electric fields An energy transfer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrive, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a complex biological mixture and a problematic by-product because of valorisation restrictions. In order to limit its production, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were studied because of their biological effects and their potentially physico-chemical action. This work demonstrated a paradoxical phenomenon: cell lysis triggered a respirometric activation followed by a delayed lethality. This phenomenon was related to the leakage of internal compounds which were immediately bio-assimilated. At high energy expense, the plasmic membrane permeabilization led to cell death. Practically, with the technical configuration of the equipment, no hydrolysis was detected. This limitation decreases the interest for excess sludge reduction, but for the same reason, PEF cold sterilization technique can be assessed as a promising process. The representation of the electric energy transfer from electrodes to cell was exchanged by the study of mass transfer from the biological cell to the surrounding media under an electromotive force. Thus, the survival rate was modelled by a Sherwood number taking account of electrical, biological and hydraulic parameters. (author) [fr

  8. Lower energy and pulse stacking. A safer alternative for skin tightening using fractional CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Marcos Matias; Stelini, Rafael Fantelli; Calderoni, Davi Reis; Gilioli, Rovilson; Kharmandayan, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different energies and stacking in skin shrinkage. Three decreasing settings of a fractional CO2 laser were applied to the abdomen of Twenty five Wistar rats divided into three groups. Group I (n=5) was histologically evaluated for microthermal zones dimensions. Groups II and III (n=10 each) were macroscopic evaluated with freeware ImageJ for area contraction immediately and after 30 and 60 days. No statistical significance was found within microthermal zone histological dimensions (Group I) in all settings studied. (Ablation depth: 76.90 to 97.18µm; Coagulation depth: 186.01 to 219.84 µm). In Group II, macroscopic evaluation showed that all settings cause significant immediate skin contraction. The highest setting cause significant more intense tightening effect initially, contracting skin area from 258.65 to 179.09 mm2. The same pattern was observed in Group III. At 30 and 60 days, the lowest setting significantly sustained contraction. Lower fractional CO2 laser energies associated to pulse stacking could cause consistent and long lasting tissue contraction in rats.

  9. Erosion of pyrolytic carbon under high surface energy deposition from a pulsed hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon materials are widely applied as plasma facing materials in nuclear fusion devices and are also the prime candidate materials for the next generation of experimental fusion reactors. During operation these materials are frequently subjected to high energy deposition from plasma disruptions. The erosion of carbon materials is regarded as the main issue governing the operational lifetime of plasma facing components. Laboratory experiments have been performed to study the thermal erosion behaviour of carbon in a plasma environment. In the experiments the surface of pyrolytic carbon specimens was exposed to pulsed energy deposition of up to 3.8 MJ m -2 from a hydrogen plasma. The behaviour of the eroded carbon species in the plasma was measured by time-resolved and space-resolved spectroscopy. Intense line radiation of ionic carbon has been measured in the plasma in front of the carbon surface. The results show that the eroded carbon is immediately ionised in the vicinity of the material surface, with a fraction of it being ionised to the double-charged state. (Author)

  10. Optimal size of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal systems for maximal energy efficiency in coding pulse signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; Liu, Liwei

    2014-03-01

    The generation and conduction of action potentials (APs) represents a fundamental means of communication in the nervous system and is a metabolically expensive process. In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency of neural systems in transferring pulse signals with APs. By analytically solving a bistable neuron model that mimics the AP generation with a particle crossing the barrier of a double well, we find the optimal number of ion channels that maximizes the energy efficiency of a neuron. We also investigate the energy efficiency of a neuron population in which the input pulse signals are represented with synchronized spikes and read out with a downstream coincidence detector neuron. We find an optimal number of neurons in neuron population, as well as the number of ion channels in each neuron that maximizes the energy efficiency. The energy efficiency also depends on the characters of the input signals, e.g., the pulse strength and the interpulse intervals. These results are confirmed by computer simulation of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model with a detailed description of the ion channel random gating. We argue that the tradeoff between signal transmission reliability and energy cost may influence the size of the neural systems when energy use is constrained.

  11. Total integrated energy system (TIES) feasibility analysis for the downtown redevelopment project, Pasadena, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the most desirable method of serving the energy needs of a commercial development to be constructed in Pasadena, California. The factors that determine maximum desirability consist of the following: (1) maximum economic benefit to the energy user and to the surrounding community; (2) minimum usage of energy by both the energy user and the surrounding community; and (3) minimum introduction of pollutants into the community. The methods studied were the Total Integrated Energy System (TIES) concept in several configurations. The TIES concept differs from the ''total energy concept'' in the respect that the electric power output of the local power generation plant goes into the utility company distribution grid, rather than to the user. The user is served power from the grid, as with a conventional system, but also receives heating and cooling media produced from power generation by-product heat from the TIES plant. The effect of this concept is that a very large source-sink for electric energy is provided by the utility company grid. This, in turn, permits the plant to operate in response to instantaneous thermal demand, rather than instantaneous power demand. No auxiliary firing is ever required. No waste of unneeded by-product energy to atmosphere ever occurs. Balance is achieved by either delivering excess power into the grid or by withdrawing power production deficiency from the grid. Near-optimum efficiency is achieved during all operating conditions. There is no need whatsoever for the power-generating plant to be sized to meet the power demand, since it seldom, if ever, tracks the power demand. Sizing of the electric generation is solely a function of economics and the demand for waste heat.

  12. Pulse-shape discrimination of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, G.H.; Kurfess, J.D.; Theus, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination can be used to separate neutron and gamma-ray interactions depositing energies up to in excess of 50 MeV in NaI(Tl) crystals. The secondary alpha particles, deuterons and protons produced in the neutron interactions are also resolvable. (Auth.)

  13. Dependence of the quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshai, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence of the quasipotential of one-boson exchange on the total energy of the system is calculated. It is shown that despite the nonlocal form of the obtained quasipotential the three-dimensional equations for the waves function can be reduced by a partial expansion to one-dimensional equations. The influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behavior in the coordinate representation is discussed

  14. On the dependence of quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the framework of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence is calculated of the one-boson exchange potential on the total energy of the system. It is shown that in spite of a nonlocal form of the quasipotential obtained, three-dimensional equations for the wave function are reduced to one-dimensional ones by means of partial expansion. Influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behaviour in the coordinate representation is discussed

  15. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  16. Mid-South solar total energy: institutional analysis. Final report, May 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powe, R.E.; Carley, C.T.; Forbes, R.E.; Johnson, L.R.; Stiffler, A.K.; Hodge, B.K.; Bouchillon, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was undertaken to determine the current usage of energy by the Mississippi State University, considering electricity and fuel separately. A variety of individual components likely to be employed in total energy systems are then considered in detail, including: solar assisted space heating system, space cooling system design, solar electric system, flat plate solar collector system, central solar receiver, and geothermal heat pump system. Also, algorithms have been developed for the approximate prediction of building heating and cooling loads based on gross parameters such as floor area, type of wall construction, etc. System considerations and evaluation are then presented. (LEW)

  17. Preliminary results of total kinetic energy modelling for neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visan, I.; Giubega, G.; Tudora, A.

    2015-01-01

    The total kinetic energy as a function of fission fragments mass TKE(A) is an important quantity entering in prompt emission calculations. The experimentally distributions of TKE(A) are referring to a limited number of fission systems and incident energies. In the present paper, a preliminary model for TKE calculation in neutron induced fission system is presented. The range of fission fragments is chosen as in the Point by Point treatment. The model needs as input only mass excesses and deformation parameters taken from available nuclear databases being based on the following approximations: total excitation energy of fully accelerated fission fragments TXE is calculated from energy balance of neutron-induced fission systems as sum of the total excitation energy at scission E*sciss and deformation energy Edef. The deformation energy at scission is given by minimizing the potential energy at the scission configuration. At the scission point, the fission system is described by two spheroidal fragments nearly touching by a pre-scission distance or neck caused by the nuclear forces between fragments. Therefore, the Columbian repulsion depending on neck and, consequently, on the fragments deformation at scission, is essentially in TKE determination. An approximation is made based on the fission modes. For the very symmetric fission, the dominant super long channel is characterized by long distance between fragments leading to low TKE values. Due to magic and double-magic shells closure, the dominant S1 fission mode for pairs with heavy fragment mass AH around 130-134 is characterized by spherical heavy fragment shape and easily deformed light fragment. The nearly spherical shape of the complementary fragments are characterized by minimum distance, and consequently to maximum TKE values. The results obtained for TKE(A) are in good agreement with existing experimental data for many neutron induced fission systems, e.g. ''2''3''3&apos

  18. Energy of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    The energies of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser beam were determined experimentally. The experiments were performed with the use of targets prepared from a number of metals, such as aluminum, copper, silver and lead (which belong to different periods of the periodic table) under irradiation by pulses of the first and third harmonics of the PALS iodine laser at a radiation intensity of approximately 10 14 W/cm 2 . It was found that, for heavy metals, like for light solid materials, the fraction of laser radiation energy converted into the energy of a shock wave under irradiation by a laser pulse of the third harmonic considerably (by a factor of 2-3) exceeds the fraction of laser radiation energy converted under irradiation by a laser pulse of the first harmonic. The influence of radiation processes on the efficiency of conversion of the laser energy into the energy of the shock wave was analyzed

  19. A Practice-Oriented Bifurcation Analysis for Pulse Energy Converters. Part 2: An Operating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Monovskaya, Anna

    The paper continues the discussion on bifurcation analysis for applications in practice-oriented solutions for pulse energy conversion systems (PEC-systems). Since a PEC-system represents a nonlinear object with a variable structure, then the description of its dynamics evolution involves bifurcation analysis conceptions. This means the necessity to resolve the conflict-of-units between the notions used to describe natural evolution (i.e. evolution of the operating process towards nonoperating processes and vice versa) and the notions used to describe a desirable artificial regime (i.e. an operating regime). We consider cause-effect relations in the following sequence: nonlinear dynamics-output signal-operating characteristics, where these characteristics include stability and performance. Then regularities of nonlinear dynamics should be translated into regularities of the output signal dynamics, and, after, into an evolutional picture of each operating characteristic. In order to make the translation without losses, we first take into account heterogeneous properties within the structures of the operating process in the parametrical (P-) and phase (X-) spaces, and analyze regularities of the operating stability and performance on the common basis by use of the modified bifurcation diagrams built in joint PX-space. Then, the correspondence between causes (degradation of the operating process stability) and effects (changes of the operating characteristics) is decomposed into three groups of abnormalities: conditionally unavoidable abnormalities (CU-abnormalities); conditionally probable abnormalities (CP-abnormalities); conditionally regular abnormalities (CR-abnormalities). Within each of these groups the evolutional homogeneity is retained. After, the resultant evolution of each operating characteristic is naturally aggregated through the superposition of cause-effect relations in accordance with each of the abnormalities. We demonstrate that the practice

  20. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  1. Total β-decay energies of neutron-rich zinc isotopes, A=75-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Fogelberg, B.; Sangariyavanish, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation involves improved measurements of the Qsub(β)-values of 75-78 Zn and determinations of the total decay energies of sup(79,80)Zn which are not reported in the literature before. Also 81 Zn was detected but at the time for the experiment the ion-source was not efficient enough to yield sufficient activity for an accurate Qsub(β)-determination. (orig./HSI)

  2. Total binding energy of heavy positive ions including density treatment of Darwin and Breit corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of total energies of neutral atoms is first generalised to heavy positive ions. To facilitate quantitative contact with the numerical predictions of Dirac-Fock theory, Darwin and Breit corrections are expressed in terms of electron density, and computed using input again from relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory. These corrections significantly improve the agreement between the two seemingly very different theories. (author)

  3. Reaction and total cross sections for low energy π+ and π- on isospin zero nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, A.; Ho/ibraten, S.; Kraushaar, J.J.; Kriss, B.J.; Peterson, R.J.; Ristinen, R.A.; Brack, J.T.; Hofman, G.; Gibson, E.F.; Morris, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reaction and total cross sections for π + and π - on targets of 2 H, 6 Li, C, Al, Si, S, and Ca have been measured for beam energies from 42 to 65 MeV. The cross sections are proportional to the target mass at 50 MeV, consistent with transparency to these projectiles. The cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  5. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ∼2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying k

  6. Nonlinear High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    power kW at nm in a C-GIMF segment in the lowest order mode ; this pulse can be ob- tained from a typical titanium –sapphire mode-locked laser . A much...single- andmulticore double- clad and PCF lasers . He was a Senior Research Scientist at Corning Inc. from 2005 to 2008. He is currently an Assistant...High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1

  7. Effect of Ge nanocluster assembly self-organization at pulsed irradiation by low-energy ions during heteroepitaxy on Si

    CERN Document Server

    Dvurechenskij, A V; Smagina, Z V

    2001-01-01

    Using the method of scanning microscopy one studied experimentally size distribution of Ge clusters formed in course of experiments of two types at Ge heteroepitaxy on Si(111): regular process of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE); pulse irradiation by approx = 200 eV energy Ge ions. The experiments were conducted at 350 deg C temperature. Pulse irradiation by an ion beam during heteroepitaxy was detected to result in reduction of the average size of Ge clusters, in compacting of their density and in reduction of mean square deviation from the average value in contrast to similar values in experiments devoted to regular MBE

  8. Efficient atomization of cesium metal in solid helium by low energy (10 $\\mu$J) femtosecond pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Melich, Mathieu; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Jacquier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Metal atoms in solid and liquid helium-4 have attracted some interest either as a way to keep the atoms in a weakly perturbing matrix, or using them as a probe for the helium host medium. Laser sputtering with nanosecond pulsed lasers is the most often used method for atom production, resulting however in a substantial perturbation of the matrix. We show that a much weaker perturbation can be obtained by using femtosecond laser pulses with energy as low as 10 µJ. As an...

  9. Efficient atomization of cesium metal in solid helium by low energy (10 μJ) femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melich, M.; Dupont-Roc, J.; Jacquier, Ph.

    2009-10-01

    Metal atoms in solid and liquid helium-4 have attracted some interest either as a way to keep the atoms in a weakly perturbing matrix, or using them as a probe for the helium host medium. Laser sputtering with nanosecond pulsed lasers is the most often used method for atom production, resulting however in a substantial perturbation of the matrix. We show that a much weaker perturbation can be obtained by using femtosecond laser pulses with energy as low as 10 μJ. As an unexpected benefit, the atomic density produced is much higher.

  10. Investigation on the Effect of Pulsed Energy on Strength of Fillet Lap Laser Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. N. M.; Ishak, M.; Aiman, M. H.; Idris, S. R. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.

    2017-09-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy have been hugely applied in the aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries. However, welding thin sheet AZ31B was challenging due to its properties which is easily to evaporated especially using conventional fusion welding method such as metal inert gas (MIG). Laser could be applied to weld this metal since it produces lower heat input. The application of fiber laser welding has been widely since this type of laser could produce better welding product especially in the automotive sectors. Low power fiber laser was used to weld this non-ferrous metal where pulse wave (PW) mode was used. Double fillet lap joint was applied to weld as thin as 0.6 mm thick of AZ31B and the effect of pulsed energy on the strength was studied. Bond width, throat length, and penetration depth also was studied related to the pulsed energy which effecting the joint. Higher pulsed energy contributes to the higher fracture load with angle of irradiation lower than 3 °

  11. The effects of electrode cleaning and conditioning on the performance of high-energy, pulsed-power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, M.E.

    1998-09-01

    High-energy pulsed-power devices routinely access field strengths above those at which broad-area, cathode-initiated, high-voltage vacuum-breakdown occur (> 1e7--3e7 V/m). Examples include magnetically-insulated-transmission-lines and current convolutes, high-current-density electron and ion diodes, high-power microwave devices, and cavities and other structures for electrostatic and RF accelerators. Energy deposited in anode surfaces may exceed anode plasma thermal-desorption creation thresholds on the time-scale of the pulse. Stimulated desorption by electron or photon bombardment can also lead to plasma formation on electrode or insulator surfaces. Device performance is limited above these thresholds, particularly in pulse length and energy, by the formation and expansion of plasmas formed primarily from electrode contaminants. In-situ conditioning techniques to modify and eliminate the contaminants through multiple high-voltage pulses, low base pressures, RF discharge cleaning, heating, surface coatings, and ion- and electron-beam surface treatment allow access to new regimes of performance through control of plasma formation and modification of the plasma properties. Experimental and theoretical progress from a variety of devices and small scale experiments with a variety of treatment methods will be reviewed and recommendations given for future work.

  12. Total energy supply for remote human habitations (Or 'Nuclear North of 60')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will examine the direct application of nuclear energy solutions in the north, and remote areas of Canada. Further it will challenge the existing energy network based on the shipment of fossil fuels to remote areas, and examine the use of small, modular, and/or deployable nuclear plants in these communities. The use of these small reactors and some newly emerging technologies will likely provide a near total energy supply for these communities. In particular low grade heat processes, district heating, the 'local' production of motive fuels, and local food production will be examined. Additionally the economic and social impact of moving the value added side of many of these processes to the local communities will also be briefly discussed.

  13. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  14. Framework for Evaluating the Total Value Proposition of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, J. E.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional valuation techniques fail to include many of the financial advantages of clean energy technologies. By omitting benefits associated with risk management, emissions reductions, policy incentives, resource use, corporate social responsibility, and societal economic benefits, investors and firms sacrifice opportunities for new revenue streams and avoided costs. In an effort to identify some of these externalities, this analysis develops a total value proposition for clean energy technologies. It incorporates a series of values under each of the above categories, describing the opportunities for recapturing investments throughout the value chain. The framework may be used to create comparable value propositions for clean energy technologies supporting investment decisions, project siting, and marketing strategies. It can also be useful in policy-making decisions.

  15. The rise of the proton-(anti)proton total cross section at tevatron energies and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluit, P.M.; Timmermans, J.

    1987-12-01

    A dispersion relation analysis of the UA4 result on the real part of the panti p elastic scattering amplitude is presented. The interpretation is twofold. Assuming that the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically identical, a steep rise is deduced of the total cross section in the 1-4 TeV domain. In case the pp and panti p cross sections are asymptotically different, it is deduced that there is a crossing of the total cross section of pp and panti p between ISR and Spanti pS energies followed by a steep rise of the difference of the pp and panti p total cross sections. It is shown that in both cases this rise can be accounted for if we add an additional term with an energy cut-off to the usual Amaldi parametrisation of the total cross section: ln 2 (s/s cut ) in the first case, or ln(s/s cuto ) in the second case, where √s cut lies around 500 GeV and √s cuto around 63 GeV. Both quantities can be interpreted as a threshold of a new process. For the first case, a continuous parametrisation without a threshold is also proposed with an extra term of the form ln 2 (1+ s/s 1 ), where √s 1 equals 700 GeV. 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. The total energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic fields in a dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Michael E.

    2017-08-01

    mv. Newtonian fluids can behave very much like dust with the same energy-momentum tensor. The energy and momentum conservation properties of light propagating in the vacuum were long-ago cast in the energy-momentum tensor formalism in terms of the electromagnetic energy density and electromagnetic momentum density. However, extrapolating the tensor theory of energy-momentum conservation for propagation of light in the vacuum to propagation of light in a simple linear dielectric medium has proven to be problematic and controversial. A dielectric medium is not "otherwise empty" and it is typically assumed that optically induced forces accelerate and decelerate nanoscopic material constituents of the dielectric. The corresponding material energy-momentum tensor is added to the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor to form the total energy-momentum tensor, thereby ensuring that the total energy and the total momentum of the thermodynamically closed system remain constant in time.

  17. The Atlas pulsed power facility for high energy density physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, R B; Barr, G W; Bowman, D W; Cochrane, J C; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Griego, J R; Hicks, R D; Hinckley, W B; Hosack, K W; Nielsen, K E; Parker, J V; Parsons, M O; Rickets, R L; Salazar, H R; Sánchez, P G; Scudder, D W; Shapiro, C; Thompson, M C; Trainor, R J; Valdez, G A; Vigil, B N; Watt, R G; Wysocki, F J; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. Here, the authors describe how the primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently- removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the Marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-ys risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line compo...

  18. Preparation of Ta(C)N films by pulsed high energy density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wenran [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Chen Guangliang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Zhang Yan [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Gu Weichao [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Zhang Guling [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Niu Erwu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Liu Chizi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Yang Size [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China)

    2007-04-07

    The pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) is generated in the working gas due to a high-voltage high-current discharge, within a coaxial gun. In PHEDP surface modification, discharge is applied for preparing the amorphous and nanostructured high-melting materials as thin films deposited on various substrates. In this investigation, Ta(C)N films were deposited using PHEDP on stainless steel. Pure tantalum and graphite were used as the inner and outer electrodes of the PHEDP coaxial gun, respectively. Nitrogen was used as the working gas and also one of the reactants. Preliminary study on the films prepared under different conditions shows that the formation of Ta(C)N is drastically voltage dependent. At lower gun voltage, no Ta(C)N was detected in the films; when the gun voltage reaches or exceeds 3.0 kV, Ta(C)N occurred. The films are composed of densely stacked nanocrystallines with diameter less than 30 nm, and some grains are within 10 nm in diameter.

  19. Surface modification of TA2 pure titanium by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2011-01-01

    Surface integrity changes of TA2 pure titanium including surface topography, microstructure and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated by different techniques of low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments (LEHCPEBTs). The surface topography was characterized by SEM. Moreover, the TEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TA2 pure titanium by LEHCPEBTs. The surface roughness was modified by electron beam treatment and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM and TEM. The results show that the surface finish obtains good polishing quality and there is no phase transformation but the dislocations by LEHCPEBT. Furthermore, the nanohardness in the surface modified layer is improved. The remelt and fine-grain microstructure of surface layer caused by LEHCPEBTs are the main polishing mechanism and the reason of modification of surface topography and the increment in nanohardness is mainly due to the dislocations and fine grains in the modified layer induced by LEHCPEBT.

  20. Generation of a pulsed low-energy electron beam using the channel spark device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgarhy, M. A. I., E-mail: elgarhy@azhar.edu.eg; Hassaballa, S. E.; Rashed, U. M.; ElSabbagh, M. M.; Saudy, A. H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Soliman, H. M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Enshas (Egypt)

    2015-12-15

    For the generation of low-energy electron beam, the design and characteristics of channel spark discharge (CSD) operating at a low voltage are presented in this paper. The discharge voltage, discharge current, X-ray emissions, and electron beam current were experimentally determined. The effects of the applied voltage, working gas pressure, and external capacitance on the CSD and beam parameters were measured. At an applied voltage of 11 kV, an oxygen gas pressure of 25 mTorr, and an external capacitance of 16.45 nF, the maximum measured current was 900 A. The discharge current increased with the increase in the pressure and capacitance, while its periodic time decreased with the increase in the pressure. Two types of the discharge were identified and recorded: the hollow cathode discharge and the conduction discharge. A Faraday cup was used to measure the beam current. The maximum measured beam current was 120 A, and the beam signal exhibited two peaks. The increase in both the external capacitance and the applied discharge voltage increased the maximum electron beam current. The electron-beam pulse time decreased with the increase in the gas pressure at a constant voltage and increased with the decrease in the applied discharge voltage. At an applied voltage of 11 kV and an oxygen gas pressure of 15 mTorr, the maximum beam energy was 2.8 keV. The X-ray signal intensity decreased with the increase in the gas pressure and increased with the increase in the capacitance.

  1. Development of high energy pulsed plasma simulator for plasma-lithium trench experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soonwook

    To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device, a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. An overall objective of the project is to develop a compact device that can produce 100 MW/m2 to 1 GW/m2 of plasma heat flux (a typical heat flux level in a major fusion device) in ~ 100 mus (≤ 0.1 MJ/m2) for a liquid lithium plasma facing component research. The existing theta pinch device, DEVeX, was built and operated for study on lithium vapor shielding effect. However, a typical plasma energy of 3 - 4 kJ/m2 is too low to study an interaction of plasma and plasma facing components in fusion devices. No or little preionized plasma, ringing of magnetic field, collisions of high energy particles with background gas have been reported as the main issues. Therefore, DEVeX is reconfigured to mitigate these issues. The new device is mainly composed of a plasma gun for a preionization source, a theta pinch for heating, and guiding magnets for a better plasma transportation. Each component will be driven by capacitor banks and controlled by high voltage / current switches. Several diagnostics including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, optical emission measurement, Rogowski coil, flux loop, and fast ionization gauge are used to characterize the new device. A coaxial plasma gun is manufactured and installed in the previous theta pinch chamber. The plasma gun is equipped with 500 uF capacitor and a gas puff valve. The increase of the plasma velocity with the plasma gun capacitor voltage is consistent with the theoretical predictions and the velocity is located between the snowplow model and the weak - coupling limit. Plasma energies measured with the calorimeter ranges from 0.02 - 0.065 MJ/m2 and increases with the voltage at the capacitor bank. A cross-check between the plasma energy measured with the calorimeter and the triple probe

  2. Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.

  3. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  4. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  5. Urinary 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomic Fingerprinting Reveals Biomarkers of Pulse Consumption Related to Energy-Metabolism Modulation in a Subcohort from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Gambin, Francisco; Llorach, Rafael; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Almanza-Aguilera, Enrique; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2017-04-07

    Little is known about the metabolome fingerprint of pulse consumption. The study of robust and accurate biomarkers for pulse dietary assessment has great value for nutritional epidemiology regarding health benefits and their mechanisms. To characterize the fingerprinting of dietary pulses (chickpeas, lentils, and beans), spot urine samples from a subcohort from the PREDIMED study were stratified using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Urine samples of nonpulse consumers (≤4 g/day of pulse intake) and habitual pulse consumers (≥25 g/day of pulse intake) were analyzed using a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach combined with multi- and univariate data analysis. Pulse consumption showed differences through 16 metabolites coming from (i) choline metabolism, (ii) protein-related compounds, and (iii) energy metabolism (including lower urinary glucose). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to design a combined model of pulse exposure, which resulted in glutamine, dimethylamine, and 3-methylhistidine. This model was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 90% in both training and validation sets). The application of NMR-based metabolomics to reported pulse exposure highlighted new candidates for biomarkers of pulse consumption and the impact on energy metabolism, generating new hypotheses on energy modulation. Further intervention studies will confirm these findings.

  6. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  7. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  8. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  9. Total, partial and differential ionization cross sections in proton-hydrogen collisions at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Shiyang [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, School of Mathematical and Physical Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Pichl, Lukas [University of Aizu, Foundation of Computer Science Laboratory, Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Kimura, Mineo [Yamaguchi Univ., Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kato, Takako [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Single-differential, partial and total ionization cross sections for the proton-hydrogen collision system at low energy range (0.1-10 keV/amu) are determined by using the electron translation factor corrected molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Full convergence of ionization cross sections as a function of H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular basis size is achieved by including up to 10 bound states, and 11 continuum partial waves. The present cross sections are in an excellent agreement with the recent experiments of Shah et al., but decrease more rapidly than the cross sections measured by Pieksma et al. with decreasing energy. The calculated cross section data are included in this report. (author)

  10. Determination of the total neutron cross section using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.

  11. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194

  12. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  13. Pulse pileup effects of plasma electron temperature measurements by soft x-ray energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, G.R.; Neilson, G.H.; Kelley, G.G.

    1978-10-01

    The electron temperature of hot plasmas is conveniently derived from bremsstrahlung spectra obtained by pulse-height analysis using a lithium-compensated silicon detector. Time-resolved temperature measurements require high counting rates, with ultimate rate limited by pulse pileup. To evaluate this limit, spectral distortion due to pileup and consequent effects on temperature determination are investigated. Expressions for distorted spectra are derived as functions of Maxwellian temperature and pileup fraction for both square and triangular pulse shapes. A comparison of temperatures obtained from distorted spectra with actual values indicates that measurements with less than 10% error can be made in the absence of line radiation, even from spectra containing 40% pileup

  14. HiRadMat: A high‐energy, pulsed beam, material irradiation facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    HiRadMat is a facility constructed in 2011, designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where different material samples or accelerator components can be tested. The facility, located at the CERN SPS accelerator complex, uses a 440 GeV proton beam with a pulse length up to 7.2 μs and a maximum intensity up to 1E13 protons / pulse. The facility, a unique place for performing state-of-the art beam-to-material experiments, operates under transnational access and welcomes and financially supports, under certain conditions, experimental teams to perform their experiments.

  15. Solar total energy: large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia Site. Annual report, June 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, E.J.

    1979-07-01

    A background summary and a complete description of the progress and current status of activities relative to the Cooperative Agreement for the Solar Total Energy - Large Scale Experiment at the Bleyle Knitwear Plant at Shenandoah, Georgia are presented. A statement of objectives and an abstract of progress to date are included. This is followed by a short introduction containing a project overview, a summary of the participants and their respective roles, a brief description of the Solar Total Energy System (STES) design concept, and a chronological summary of progress to date. A general description of the site is given, a detailed report of progress is reported, and drawings and equipment lists are included. The closed-loop solar energy system planned for Shenandoah begins with circulation of Syltherm 800, a heat transfer fluid of the Dow-Corning Corporation, through the receiver tubes of a parabolic dish solar collector field. As solar energy is focused on the receivers, the heat transfer fluid is heated to approximately 399/sup 0/C (750/sup 0/F) and is pumped to a heat exchanger for immediate use, or to a thermal storage system for later use. Once in the heat exchanger, the fluid heats a working fluid that produces the steam required for operating the turbine. After performing this task, the heat transfer fluid returns to the collectors to repeat the cycle, while the steam turbine-generator system supplies the electrical demands for the knitwear plant and the STES. During STES operation, maximum thermal and electrical requirements of the application are expected to be at 1.08 MWth and 161 kWe, respectively. During the power generation phase, some of the steam is extracted for use as process steam in the knitwear manufacturing process, while exhaust steam from the turbine is passed through a condenser to produce hot water for heating, domestic use, and absorption air conditioning. (WHK)

  16. Analytic properties of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation and the total energy of atomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Senatore, G.

    1985-06-01

    The analytic properties of solutions of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation which tend to zero at infinity are first examined, the neutral atom solution being a member of this class. A new length is shown to enter the theory, proportional to the square root of the fine structure constant. This information is used to develop a perturbation expansion around the neutral atom solution, corresponding to positive atomic ions with finite but large radii. The limiting law relating ionic radius to the degree of ionization is thereby displayed in functional form, and solved explicitly to lowest order in the fine structure constant. To embrace this knowledge of heavy positive ions, as well as results from the one-electron Dirac equation, a proposal is then advanced as to the analytic form of the relativistic total energy E(Z,N) of an atomic ion with nuclear charge Ze and total number of electrons N. The fact that, for N>1, the nucleus is known only to bind Z+n electrons, where n is 1 or 2, indicates non-analyticity in the complex Z plane, represented by a circle of radius Z approx.= N. Such non-analyticity is also a property of the non-relativistic energy derived from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. The relativistic theory, however, must also embody a second type of non-analyticity associated with the known property for N=1 that the Dirac equation predicts electron-positron pair production when the electronic binding energy becomes equal to twice the electron rest mass energy. This corresponds to a second circle of non-analyticity in E(Z,N), and hence to a Taylor-Laurent expansion of this quantity in the atomic number Z. The relation of this expansion to the Layzer-Bahcall series is finally discussed. (author)

  17. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  18. Fiber Based Optical Amplifier for High Energy Laser Pulses Final Report CRADA No. TC02100.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cunningham, P. [Boeing Company, Springfield, VA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and The Boeing Company to develop an optical fiber-based laser amplifier capable of producing and sustaining very high-energy, nanosecond-scale optical pulses. The overall technical objective of this CRADA was to research, design, and develop an optical fiber-based amplifier that would meet specific metrics.

  19. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  20. Robust total energy demand estimation with a hybrid Variable Neighborhood Search – Extreme Learning Machine algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Oro, J.; Duarte, A.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The total energy demand in Spain is estimated with a Variable Neighborhood algorithm. • Socio-economic variables are used, and one year ahead prediction horizon is considered. • Improvement of the prediction with an Extreme Learning Machine network is considered. • Experiments are carried out in real data for the case of Spain. - Abstract: Energy demand prediction is an important problem whose solution is evaluated by policy makers in order to take key decisions affecting the economy of a country. A number of previous approaches to improve the quality of this estimation have been proposed in the last decade, the majority of them applying different machine learning techniques. In this paper, the performance of a robust hybrid approach, composed of a Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm and a new class of neural network called Extreme Learning Machine, is discussed. The Variable Neighborhood Search algorithm is focused on obtaining the most relevant features among the set of initial ones, by including an exponential prediction model. While previous approaches consider that the number of macroeconomic variables used for prediction is a parameter of the algorithm (i.e., it is fixed a priori), the proposed Variable Neighborhood Search method optimizes both: the number of variables and the best ones. After this first step of feature selection, an Extreme Learning Machine network is applied to obtain the final energy demand prediction. Experiments in a real case of energy demand estimation in Spain show the excellent performance of the proposed approach. In particular, the whole method obtains an estimation of the energy demand with an error lower than 2%, even when considering the crisis years, which are a real challenge.

  1. Test of the universal rise of hadronic total cross sections at super-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the total cross sections at very high energies described by log 2 (s/s 0 ) appears to be confirmed. In the analysis of the COMPETE collaboration in the Particle Data Group (2006), the Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) was assumed to extend the universal rise of all the total hadronic cross sections to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. We test if the assumption on the universality of B is justified, through investigation of the values of B for π ± p(K ± p) and pp,pp scatterings. We search for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, using a constraint from the FESR of the P' type for π -+ p scatterings and constraints that are free from the unphysical regions for the pp, pp and K ± p scatterings. By including rich information of the low-energy scattering data owing to the use of FESR, the errors of the B parameters decrease especially for πp. The resulting value of B pp is consistent with B πp within two standard deviations, which appears to support the universality hypothesis. (orig.)

  2. Relativistic analysis of the dielectric Einstein box: Abraham, Minkowski and total energy-momentum tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Tomas; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The definition of the momentum of light inside matter is studied. → Fully relativistic analysis of the dielectric 'Einstein box' thought experiment. → Minkowski, Abraham and the total energy-momentum tensors are derived in detail. → Some assumptions hidden in the usual Einstein box argument are identified. → The Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case. - Abstract: We analyse the 'Einstein box' thought experiment and the definition of the momentum of light inside matter. We stress the importance of the total energy-momentum tensor of the closed system (electromagnetic field plus material medium) and derive in detail the relativistic expressions for the Abraham and Minkowski momenta, together with the corresponding balance equations for an isotropic and homogeneous medium. We identify some assumptions hidden in the Einstein box argument, which make it weaker than it is usually recognized. In particular, we show that the Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case.

  3. High-pulse energy supercontinuum laser for high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipids in the 1650-1850 nm region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasa, Manoj Kumar; Markos, Christos; Maria, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective high-pulse energy supercontinuum (SC) source based on a telecom range diode laser-based amplifier and a few meters of standard single-mode optical fiber, with a pulse energy density as high as ∼25 nJ/nm in the 1650-1850 nm regime (factor >3 times higher than any SC...... discrimination of two different lipids (cholesterol and lipid in adipose tissue) and the photoacoustic cross-sectional scan of lipid-rich adipose tissue at three different locations. The proposed high-pulse energy SC laser paves a new direction towards compact, broadband and cost-effective source...

  4. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  5. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2

  6. Electron energy distributions and electron impact source functions in Ar/N{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas using pulsed power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Michael D., E-mail: mdlogue@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    In plasma materials processing, such as plasma etching, control of the time-averaged electron energy distributions (EEDs) in the plasma allows for control of the time-averaged electron impact source functions of reactive species in the plasma and their fluxes to surfaces. One potential method for refining the control of EEDs is through the use of pulsed power. Inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) are attractive for using pulsed power in this manner because the EEDs are dominantly controlled by the ICP power as opposed to the bias power applied to the substrate. In this paper, we discuss results from a computational investigation of EEDs and electron impact source functions in low pressure (5–50 mTorr) ICPs sustained in Ar/N{sub 2} for various duty cycles. We find there is an ability to control EEDs, and thus source functions, by pulsing the ICP power, with the greatest variability of the EEDs located within the skin depth of the electromagnetic field. The transit time of hot electrons produced in the skin depth at the onset of pulse power produces a delay in the response of the EEDs as a function of distance from the coils. The choice of ICP pressure has a large impact on the dynamics of the EEDs, whereas duty cycle has a small influence on time-averaged EEDs and source functions.

  7. Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Manero, F.

    1996-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  9. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  10. Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM tm) Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Phillip R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) has completed the sponsored project entitled, Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM) Curriculum. The project involved the development of a structured professional development program to improve the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies of engineers and operators of commercial buildings. TE2AM advances a radically different approach to commercial building design, operation, maintenance, and end of life disposition. By employing asset management principles to the lifecycle of a commercial building, owners and occupants will realize improved building performance, reduced energy consumption and positive environmental impacts. Through our commercialization plan, we intend to offer TE2AM courses and certificates to the professional community and continuously improve TE2AM course materials. The TE2AM project supports the DOE Strategic Theme 1 Energy Security; and will further advance the DOE Strategic Goal 1.4 Energy Productivity. Through participation in the TE2AM curriculum, engineers and operators of commercial buildings will be eligible for a professional certificate; denoting the completion of a prescribed series of learning activities. The project involved a comprehensive, rigorous approach to curriculum development, and accomplished the following goals: 1. Identify, analyze and prioritize key learning needs of engineers, architects and technical professionals as operators of commercial buildings. 2. Design and develop TE2AM curricula and instructional strategies to meet learning needs of the target learning community. 3. Establish partnerships with the sponsor and key stakeholders to enhance the development and delivery of learning programs. 4. Successfully commercialize and sustain the training and certificate programs for a substantial time following the term of the award. The project team was successful in achieving the goals and

  11. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coating by pulse laser deposition technique on stainless steel 316 L by varying laser energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Himanshu; Singh, Gurbhinder; Agrawal, Khelendra; Prakash, Satya; Agarwal, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite coating was successfully deposited on stainless steel substrate by pulse laser deposition at different energy levels (i.e. 300 mJ and 500 mJ, respectively). ► Variation in laser energy affects the surface characteristic of hydroxyapatite coating (particle size, surface roughness, uniformity, Ca/P ratio). ► Laser energy between 300 mJ and 500 mJ is the optimal choice for obtaining ideal Ca/P ratio. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite is an attractive biomaterial mainly used in bone and tooth implants because it closely resembles human tooth and bone mineral and has proven to be biologically compatible with these tissues. In spite of this advantage of hydroxyapatite it has also certain limitation like inferior mechanical properties which do not make it suitable for long term load bearing applications; hence a lot of research is going on in the development of hydroxyapatite coating over various metallic implants. These metallic implants have good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is to deposit hydroxyapatite coating over stainless steel grade 316 L by pulse laser deposition technique by varying laser energy. To know the effect of this variation, the coatings were than characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, finite emission-scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  12. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  13. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    The current most important solar energy utilization fields are solar energy power generation (solar heat and photovoltaic power generation), and solar heat cooling and heating. A solar heat power system collects or stores solar thermal energy as energy source of power systems, and converts it to electric power through heat exchange systems. To establish such system, not only R and D on a collector, absorption capsule, storage unit and heat transfer unit, but also complete study on an optimum system configuration and environmental impact are necessary. A photovoltaic power system converts solar energy to electric power directly by photoelectric conversion device such solar cell. Except specific local uses, drastic cost reduction and improvement of a conversion efficiency (at present 12-15%) and life (several years) are necessary for solar cells. Although a lot of solar heat cooling and heating systems is in practical use in Japan, for its further diffusion an important research task is development of heat collector excellent in efficiency, cost, life and maintainability. (NEDO)

  14. The Los Alamos 600 MJ, 1500 MW inertial energy storage and pulsed power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    A 1430 MVA synchronous generator from a cancelled nuclear power plant has been installed and commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to be used as the pulsed power generator for physics experiments. The generator is mounted on a spring foundation to prevent dynamic forces from being transmitted to the substructure and into the ground. A 6 MW load-commutated inverter drive accelerates the machine from standstill to the maximum operating speed of 1800 rpm and from 1260 rpm to 1800 rpm between load pulses. The generator cooling method has been changed from hydrogen to air cooling to facilitate operation. A current limiting fuse, with a fuse clearing current of 90 kA, will protect the generator output against short circuit currents. An overview of the installation is presented. The paper also addresses the overload capability of the generator for pulsed loads. 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Ceramic to metal joining by using 1064 nm pulsed and CW laser energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Min; Kim, Soo Won; Choi, Hae Woon; Kim, Joo Han

    2013-01-01

    A novel joining method for ceramic and metallic layers is proposed using laser drilling and surface tension driven liquid metal filling. A high intensity laser beam irradiated a 500 µm thick ceramic filter, and the irradiated laser drilled the ceramic layer. The pulsed or CW laser transmitted through the ceramic layer irradiated the bottom metallic layer; the molten metallic layer then filled the drilled ceramic holes by the capillary force between the liquid metal and ceramic layer. As process variables, average laser power, pulse duration, and the number of pulses were used. The scattering optical properties were also studied for both green and red lasers. There was no significant difference between the colors and the estimated extinction coefficients were -26.94 1/mm and -28.42 1/mm for the green and red lasers, respectively.

  16. The impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.; Vujic, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) and magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plants will probably operate in a pulsed mode. The two different schemes, however, will have quite different time periods. Typical repetition rates for IFE power plants will be 1-5 Hz. MFE power plants will ramp up in current for about 1 hour, shut down for several minutes, and repeat the process. Traditionally, activation calculations for IFE and MFE power plants have assumed continuous operation and used either the ''steady state'' (SS) or ''equivalent steady state'' (ESS) approximations. It has been suggested recently that the SS and ESS methods may not yield accurate results for all radionuclides of interest. The present work expands that of Sisolak, et al. by applying their formulae to conditions which might be experienced in typical IFE and MFE power plants. In addition, complicated, multi-step reaction/decay chains are analyzed using an upgraded version of the ACAB radionuclide generation/depletion code. Our results indicate that the SS method is suitable for application to MFE power plant conditions. We also find that the ESS method generates acceptable results for radionuclides with half-lives more than a factor of three greater than the time between pulses. For components that are subject to 0.05 Hz (or more frequent) irradiation (such as coolant), use of the ESS method is recommended. For components or materials that are subject to less frequent irradiation (such as high-Z target materials), pulsed irradiation calculations should be used

  17. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  18. Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total energy of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J E; Sterne, P A

    2004-01-01

    We develop expressions for the electrostatic potential and total energy of crystalline solids which are amenable to direct evaluation in real space. Unlike conventional reciprocal space formulations, no Fourier transforms or reciprocal lattice summations are required, and the formulation is well suited for large-scale, parallel computations. The need for reciprocal space expressions is eliminated by replacing long-range potentials by equivalent localized charge distributions and incorporating long-range interactions into boundary conditions on the unit cell. In so doing, a simplification of the conventional reciprocal space formalism is obtained. The equivalence of the real- and reciprocal space formalisms is demonstrated by direct comparison in self-consistent density-functional calculations

  19. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  20. Laser-energy scaling law for neutrons generated from nano particles Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakabe, Shuji; Hashida, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the feasibility of compact neutron sources the yield of laser produced neutrons is scaled by the laser energy. High-energy ions are generated by Coulomb explosion of clusters through intense femtosecond laser-cluster interactions. The laser energy scaling law of the neutron yield is estimated using the laser intensity scaling law for the energy of ions emitted from clusters Coulomb-exploded by an intense laser pulse. The neutron yield for D (D, n) He shows the potential of compact neutron sources with modern laser technology, and the yield for p (Li, n) Be shows much higher than that for Li (p, n) Be with the assumption of 500 nm-class cluster Coulomb explosion. (author)

  1. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Transcutaneous Energy Transmission Systemfor Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Koshiji, Kohji

    Transcutaneous Energy Transmission (TET) is one way of providing the energy needed to power a totally implantable artificial heart (TIAH). In the present study, an externally coupled TET system was implanted in a prototype human phantom to evaluate emission and immunity. In the emission evaluation, measurements were conducted based on CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871 standards, while immunity tests were based on the standards of the IEC 61000-4 series. The magnetic field of the radiated emission was measured using a loop antenna. At 0.1[MHz], we found the greatest magnetic field of 47.8 [dBμA/m], somewhat less than CISPR’s upper limit of 54 [dBμA/m]. For the conducted emission, by installing a noise filter and ferrite beads in the input section of the DC-power supply, conducted emission could be kept within the allowable limits of CISPR Pub.11 and VDE 0871. Finally, the immunity tests against radiated and conducted emission, electrostatic discharge and voltage fluctuation proved that the prototype could withstand the maximum level of disturbance. These results confirmed that the TET system implanted in a human phantom could, through modification, meet the emission and immunity standards.

  2. Classical calculation of the total ionization energy of helium-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum mechanics rejects the classical modelling of microworld. One of the reasons is that the Bohr's rules can not be applied for many-electron atoms and molecules. But the many-body problem in classical mechanics has no analytical solution even for 3 particles. Numerical solutions should be used. The quantum Bohr's rule expressing the moment of momentum conservation for two particles is invalid in more complicated cases. Yet Bohr reached some success for helium-like atoms. The Bohr's formula concerning helim-like atoms is deduced again in this paper and its practical reliability is analyzed with contemporary data. The binding energy of the system is obtained in the simple form E=(Z-1/4) 2 α 2 mc 2 , where Z is the atomic number, α - the fine structure constant, M - the electron mass and c - the light speed in vacuum. The calculated values are compared with experimental data on the total ionization energy of the helium-like atoms from 2 He 4 to 29 Cu 64 . The error decreases quickly with the increasing of atomic mass, reaching zero for Cu. This indicated that the main source of error is the nucleus motion. The role of other possible causes is analyzed and proves negligible. (author). 1 tab, 4 refs

  3. Single- and dual energy QCT around acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty using 3-dimensional segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    of segmentation software and to compare bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in single- and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT) Materials and Methods: 24 male patients with total hip arthroplasty (12 cemented and 12 uncemented) were scanned and rescanned using SECT and virtual monochromatic DECT images. 3D- ROIs......Background: Bone density measurements around hip implants are challenged by artifacts and the complex anatomy of the acetabulum. We developed 3D segmentation software and used dual energy CT to reduce artifacts. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the between-scan agreement and reliability...... the cemented cup the mean BMD for SECT was 523 mg/ccm with a between-scan difference of 14 mg/ccm, p=0.25 and 186 mg/ccm in DECT with a difference of 6 mg/ccm, p=0.15. ICC was >0.95 with more narrow limits of agreement in DECT compared with SECT. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was 25% higher with DECT...

  4. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  5. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  6. Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.

    1993-11-01

    The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section dσ el /dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d 2 σ sd /dM 2 dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies √s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 ± 0.58 (16.98 ± 0.25) GeV -2 at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + ρ 2 )σ T is measured to be 62.64 ± 0.95 (81.83 ± 2.29) mb at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming ρ = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are σ el = 12.87 ± 0.30, σ T = 61.26 ± 0.93 and σ sd = 7.89 ± 0.33 mb (σ el = 19.70 ± 0.85, σ T = 80.03 ± 2.24 and σ sd = 9.46 ± 0.44 mb) at √s = 546 (1,800) GeV

  7. An energy harvesting converter to power sensorized total human knee prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, V; Sardini, E; Serpelloni, M; Baronio, G

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the internal loads acting in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) is fundamental aspect to improve their design. One of the main benefits of this improvement is the longer duration of the tibial inserts. In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvesting system, which is implantable in a TKP, is presented. This is conceived for powering a future implantable system that is able to monitor the loads (and, possibly, other parameters) that could influence the working conditions of a TKP in real-time. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, positioned into each condyle, and a coil that is placed in a pin of the tibial insert and connected to an implantable power management circuit. The magnetic flux variation and the induced voltage are generated by the knee's motion. A TKP prototype has been realized in order to reproduce the knee mechanics and to test the EHS performance. In the present work, the experimental results are obtained by adopting a resistive load of 2.2 kΩ, in order to simulate a real implanted autonomous system with a current consumption of 850 µA and voltage of 2 V. The tests showed that, after 7 to 30 s of walking with a gait cycle frequency of about 1.0 Hz, the EHS can generate an energy of about 70 μJ, guaranteeing a voltage between 2 and 1.4 V every 7.6 s. With this prototype we can verify that it is possible to power for 16 ms a circuit having a power consumption of 1.7 mW every 7.6 s. The proposed generator is a viable solution to power an implanted electronic system that is conceived for measuring and transmitting the TKP load parameters. (paper)

  8. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  9. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masanari; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Sakanaka, Junya; Nakamura, Masamichi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2011-01-01

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  10. Holistic virtual machine scheduling in cloud datacenters towards minimizing total energy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Garraghan, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumed by Cloud datacenters has dramatically increased, driven by rapid uptake of applications and services globally provisioned through virtualization. By applying energy-aware virtual machine scheduling, Cloud providers are able to achieve enhanced energy efficiency and reduced operation cost. Energy consumption of datacenters consists of computing energy and cooling energy. However, due to the complexity of energy and thermal modeling of realistic Cloud datacenter operation, tradi...

  11. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  12. Exploring the limits of case-to-capsule ratio, pulse length, and picket energy for symmetric hohlraum drive on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two years, we have been exploring low gasfill hohlraums (He fill at 0.3-0.6 mg/cc) as an alternate to the high gasfill hohlraums used in NIC and the High Foot campaigns (He fill at 1-1.6 mg/cc). These low fill hohlraums have significantly reduced laser-plasma instabilities and increased coupling to the target as compared to the high fill hohlraums and take us to a new region of parameter space where the hohlraum is limited by hydrodynamic motion of the hohlraum wall rather than by laser plasma interactions. The outer cone laser beams interacting with the hohlraum wall produce a ``bubble'' of low density, high Z material that moves toward the center of the hohlraum. This gold or depleted uranium bubble eventually intercepts the inner cone beams and prevents the inner cone beams from reaching the waist of the hohlraum-where they are needed to get a symmetric implosion. Thus, the speed of the bubble expansion sets the allowable pulse duration in a given size hohlraum. Data and simulations suggest that the bubble is launched by the early part of the laser pulse (``picket'') and the gold/gas interfaces moves nearly linearly in time toward the axis of the hohlraum. The velocity of the bubble is related to the square root of the energy in the picket of the pulse - thus the picket energy and pulse duration set the allowable hohlraum size and case-to-capsule ratio. In this talk, will discuss a data based model to describe the bubble motion and apply this model to a broad set of data from a variety of ablators (CH, HDC, Be), pulse durations (6-14 ns), case-to-capsule ratios (rhohl/rcap of 3-4.2), hohlraum sizes (5.4-6.7 mm diameter), and hohlraum gasfill densities (0.3-0.6 mg/cc). We will discuss how this model can help guide future designs and how improvements in the hohlraum (foam liners, hohlraum shape) can open up new parts of parameter space. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National

  13. Electrochemically enhanced reduction of hexavalent chromium in contaminated clay: Kinetics, energy consumption, and application of pulse current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran; Pamukcu, Sibel; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    the dependency of reaction rate on energy consumption. A modified electrophoresis cell with platinum wires as working electrodes was used to run experiments. Results showed that the reduction rate of Cr(VI) was significantly increased by application of current with the pseudo-first-order rate constant kpse from......,Fe)(OH)3] precipitates. XRD analysis suggested that the [(Cr,Fe)(OH)3] formed at the clay surface and grew into the pore fluid. SEM-EDX results indicated that the overall Fe(III):Cr(III) ratio of the precipitates was approximately 1.26:1. Application of pulse current decreased the non-productive energy......Electrochemically enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in clay medium is a technique based on inputting extra energy into the clay to drive the favorable redox reaction. In this study, the reducing reagent Fe(II) was transported into Cr(VI) spiked kaolinite clay by direct current to investigate...

  14. Droplet size characteristics and energy input requirements of emulsions formed using high-intensity-pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Sisson, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental methods have been developed to measure droplet size characteristics and energy inputs associated with the rupture of aqueous droplets by high-intensity-pulsed electric fields. The combination of in situ microscope optics and high-speed video cameras allows reliable observation of liquid droplets down to 0.5 μm in size. Videotapes of electric-field-created emulsions reveal that average droplet sizes of less than 5 μm are easily obtained in such systems. Analysis of the energy inputs into the fluids indicates that the electric field method requires less than 1% of the energy required from mechanical agitation to create comparable droplet sizes. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Effect of laser energy on the SPR and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Prahlad K.; Sharma, Ashwini K.; Khare, Alika

    2018-04-01

    The effect of incident laser energy on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized via pulsed laser ablation of silver immersed in distilled water is reported in this paper. The broadening in the plasmonic bandwidth of the synthesized nanoparticles with the increase in the laser energy incident onto the silver target indicates the reduction in size of the nanoparticles. This is confirmed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images which show a decrease in the average particle size of the nanoparticles from approximately 15 to 10 nm with the increase in incident laser energy from 30 to 70 mJ, respectively. The structural features as revealed by the selected area electron diffraction and ultra-high resolution TEM studies confirmed the formation of both silver as well as silver oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Energy spectrum measurement of high power and high energy(6 and 9 MeV) pulsed x-ray source for industrial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki [Hitachi, Ltd. Power Systems Company, Ibaraki (Japan); Murata, Isao [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Industrial X-ray CT system is normally applied to non-destructive testing (NDT) for industrial product made from metal. Furthermore there are some special CT systems, which have an ability to inspect nuclear fuel assemblies or rocket motors, using high power and high energy (more than 6 MeV) pulsed X-ray source. In these case, pulsed X-ray are produced by the electron linear accelerator, and a huge number of photons with a wide energy spectrum are produced within a very short period. Consequently, it is difficult to measure the X-ray energy spectrum for such accelerator-based X-ray sources using simple spectrometry. Due to this difficulty, unexpected images and artifacts which lead to incorrect density information and dimensions of specimens cannot be avoided in CT images. For getting highly precise CT images, it is important to know the precise energy spectrum of emitted X-rays. In order to realize it we investigated a new approach utilizing the Bayesian estimation method combined with an attenuation curve measurement using step shaped attenuation material. This method was validated by precise measurement of energy spectrum from a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In this study, to extend the applicable X-ray energy range we tried to measure energy spectra of X-ray sources from 6 and 9 MeV linear accelerators by using the recently developed method. In this study, an attenuation curves are measured by using a step-shaped attenuation materials of aluminum and steel individually, and the each X-ray spectrum is reconstructed from the measured attenuation curve by the spectrum type Bayesian estimation method. The obtained result shows good agreement with simulated spectra, and the presently developed technique is adaptable for high energy X-ray source more than 6 MeV.

  17. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (total system); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    For every solar energy utilization field, its background, feasibility, impact in practical use, and R and D policy in Japan were studied. Heating and hot water supply by solar energy are already practical because of less technical problems and reasonable profitability, and cooling is also practical as far as a technical viewpoint. At present, the technical level of solar heat power generation is in the stage of basic technology, however, in the future, development of economically reasonable systems will be demanded as well as establishment of its technology. The most difficult problem for realizing practical solar cell power generation systems is cost reduction. It is also another problem that a big demand of Si for solar cells further exceeds the current yield of Si in a semiconductor industry. A small-scale hybrid solar cell power generation system applicable to the roof of general residences is already feasible. Although a solar furnace is still poor in application to industrial fields, it is expected as the leading part for a future solar heat chemical industry. (NEDO)

  18. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K sat ) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  19. Public acceptance of fusion energy and scientific feasibility of a fusion reactor. Design of inductively driven long pulse tokamak reactors: IDLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Based on scientific data based adopted for designing ITER plasmas and on the advancement of fusion nuclear technology from the recent R and D program, the scientific feasibility of inductively-driven tokamak fusion reactors is studied. A low wall-loading DEMO fusion reactor is designed, which utilizes an austenitic stainless steel in conjunction with significant data bases and operating experiences, since we have given high priority to the early and reliable realization of a tokamak fusion plasma over the cost performance. Since the DEMO reactor with the relatively large volume (i.e., major radius of 10 m) is employed, plasma ignition is achievable with a low fusion power of 0.8 GW, and an operation period of 4 - 5 hours is available only with inductive current drive. Disadvantages of pulsed operation in commercial fusion reactors include fatigue in structural materials and the necessity of an energy storage system to compensate the electric power during the dwell time. To overcome these disadvantages, a pulse length is prolonged up to about 10 hours, resulting in the remarkable reduction of the total cycle number to 10 4 during the life of the fusion plant. (author)

  20. Projection potentials and angular momentum convergence of total energies in the full-potential Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Although the full-potential Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker Green function method yields accurate results for many physical properties, the convergence of calculated total energies with respect to the angular momentum cutoff is usually considered to be less satisfactory. This is surprising because accurate single-particle energies are expected if they are calculated by Lloyd’s formula and because accurate densities and hence accurate double-counting energies should result from the total energy variational principle. It is shown how the concept of projection potentials can be used as a tool to analyse the convergence behaviour. The key factor blocking fast convergence is identified and it is illustrated how total energies can be improved with only a modest increase of computing time. (paper)

  1. Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christer; Poulsen, Mikael Dahlerup; Peronne, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    We show experimentally that field-free alignment of iodobenzene molecules, induced by a single, intense, linearly polarized 1.4-ps-long laser pulse, can be strongly enhanced by dividing the pulse into two optimally synchronized pulses of the same duration. For a given total energy of the two...

  2. Bi-Annual Report 2010-2011: Shaping pulse flows to meet environmental and energy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    This report describes a bioenergetic model developed to allocate seasonal pulse flows to benefit salmon growth. The model links flow with floodplain inundation and production of invertebrate prey eaten by juvenile Chinook salmon. A unique quantile modeling approach is used to describe temporal variation among juvenile salmon spawned at different times. Preliminary model outputs are presented and future plans to optimize flows both to maximize salmon growth and hydropower production are outlined.

  3. Comparison of the heat shock response induced by conventional heating and two methods of delivery of pulsed radiofrequency energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, J.A.; University of Sydney, NSW; McKenzie, D.R.; Veas, L.; French, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 2001, we published a (hypothetical) mechanism by which radiofrequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones could induce cancer, via the chronic induction of the heat shock response (HSR). This hypothesis provides the focus for our research. Other groups have reported induction of the HSR by RF at apparently non thermal levels. The aim of this study was to determine whether the HSR induced by RF is (a) truly non thermal and (b) quantitatively or qualitatively different from that induced by conventional heating of cells. A rat mast cell line, RBL-2H3, was chosen as the target RBL-2H3 cells were exposed in an air incubator at 41.1 deg C for 45 minutes and 75 minutes, and then returned to a 37 deg C incubator. Sham exposures were performed in the same air incubator at 37 deg C. Cells were exposed for 1 hour in the two pulsed RF exposure systems. The first was a converted 750W microwave oven that emits a short burst of 2.45GHz pulses at the start of each contiguous six minute period. This exposes cells to an average specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of 20W/kg. The second system was a TEM cell, which simulates. GSM pulses - the earner frequency is 0.9GHz pulse modulated at 217Hz. The SAR was approx 0.1W/kg. Both of these exposure systems are housed in incubators maintained at 37 deg C. Sham exposures were performed in the two systems with the same conditions but with no RF radiation present. Cell samples for the conventional heating and microwave exposures were taken 0, 2. 5, 5 and 20 hours after exposure, and expression of heat shock proteins hsp 110, 90, 70, 60 and 56 were determined by Western Blotting and compared between exposures

  4. Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Energy Delivery: Pulse and Power Effects on Enamel Surface and Erosive Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renan Mota; de Souza, Vinicius Matsuzaki; Esteves, Camila Machado; de Oliveira Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Cassoni, Alessandra; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Brugnera Junior, Aldo

    2017-11-01

    High power lasers have been suggested as a useful tool for dental caries and erosion prevention due to the increase of enamel acid resistance. to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG (erbium,chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser irradiation pulse frequency and power on enamel surface and acid erosion resistance. By combining pulse frequency (5-75 Hz) and power settings (0.10-1.00 W), 20 irradiated groups and one nonirradiated control group were tested. A total of 63 bovine enamel blocks (n = 3/group) were prepared for surface hardness and roughness evaluation, performed in three phases: baseline, after irradiation, and after erosive challenge. Enamel blocks were irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser with MZ8 tip (iPlus; Waterlase, Biolase, CA) for 30 sec according to experimental group and submitted. Erosive challenge consisted of four cycles alternating immersion in 0.01 M HCl (5 mL/mm 2 ; 2 min; at 37°C) and immersion in artificial saliva for 3 h. Analysis of variance (three-way ANOVA), Tukey's test, and Pearson correlation were performed for the statistical analysis (p hardness. After erosive challenge, 5 and 75 W groups showed increase in surface hardness; 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 W groups showed minor alterations in surface roughness. the irradiation of Er,Cr:YSGG laser with different parameters of power and pulse frequency settings may alter enamel surface and erosive resistance differently. Pulse frequency of 30 Hz and power of 0.50 W was considered the best parameter to prevent enamel acid erosion.

  5. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Total β-decay energies and atomic masses in regions far from β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is a summary of experimental investigations on total β-decay energies and deduced atomic masses of nuclei far from the region of β-stability. The Qsub(β) values are given for isotopes of Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Rb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Fr, Ra and Ac, with β-unstable nuclei. These unstable nuclei have very short half-lives, often below 10s, and the experimental techniques for the production, separation and collection of these short-lived nuclei are described. Neutron deficient nuclides were produced by spallation, in the ISOLDE facility, and neutron deficient nuclides were produced by thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U in the OSIRIS facility. β-spectra were recorded using an Si(Li)-detector and a coincidence system. Qsub(β) values obtained from mass formulae have been compared with experimental values obtained in different mass regions and a comparison made between results obtained from different droplet mass formulae. (B.D.)

  8. A Gaussian quadrature method for total energy analysis in electronic state calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika

    This article reports studies by Fukushima and coworkers since 1980 concerning their highly accurate numerical integral method using Gaussian quadratures to evaluate the total energy in electronic state calculations. Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Laguerre quadratures were used for integrals in the finite and infinite regions, respectively. Our previous article showed that, for diatomic molecules such as CO and FeO, elliptic coordinates efficiently achieved high numerical integral accuracy even with a numerical basis set including transition metal atomic orbitals. This article will generalize straightforward details for multiatomic systems with direct integrals in each decomposed elliptic coordinate determined from the nuclear positions of picked-up atom pairs. Sample calculations were performed for the molecules O3 and H2O. This article will also try to present, in another coordinate, a numerical integral by partially using the Becke's decomposition published in 1988, but without the Becke's fuzzy cell generated by the polynomials of internuclear distance between the pair atoms. Instead, simple nuclear weights comprising exponential functions around nuclei are used. The one-center integral is performed with a Gaussian quadrature pack in a spherical coordinate, included in the author's original program in around 1980. As for this decomposition into one-center integrals, sample calculations are carried out for Li2.

  9. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Tattoo removal in micropigs with low-energy pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Hua; Wooden, W. A.; Cariveau, Mickael J.; Fang, Qiyin; Bradfield, J. F.; Kalmus, Gerhard W.; Vore, S. J.; Sun, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Treatment of pigmented lesions in skin with visible or near- infrared nanosecond (ns) laser pulses often causes significant collateral tissue damage because the current approach uses pulses with energy of 300 mJ or larger. Additionally, this requires large Q-switched laser systems. To overcome these disadvantages, we have investigated a different approach in delivering ns laser pulses for cutaneous lesion treatment. Tattoo removal in an animal model with a focused laser beam from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been investigated in two Yucatan micropigs tattooed with blue, black, green and red pigments. The tattoos were treated with a focused beam of 12-ns pulses at 1064 nm, with different depth under the skin surface, while the micropig was translated to achieve an effect of single pulse per ablation site in the skin. With the pulse energy reduced to a range from 38 to 63 mJ, we found that nearly complete clearance was achieved for blue and black tattoos while clearance of red and green tattoos was incomplete. Analysis of the skin appearance suggested that the pulse energy can be decreased to below 20 mJ which may lead to further reduction of the collateral tissue damage and improve the clearance of red and green tattoos.

  11. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  12. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  13. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirazita, M.

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  14. Effect of a novel low-energy pulsed-light device for home-use hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-03-01

    Removal of unwanted hair is the most popular skin treatment worldwide. Over the past decade, various lasers and light sources for epilation have been advocated for use in an office setting, although most people continue to treat unwanted hair with a variety of temporary physical methods (e.g., waxing, shaving) in a home setting, presumably due to cost and convenience factors. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-energy pulsed-light device intended for home-use hair removal. Twenty women (skin phototypes I-IV) with dark terminal hair in nonfacial sites (axilla, forearms, inguinal region, legs) self-administered three treatments at 2-week intervals using a handheld intense-pulsed-light device. Matched untreated skin sites were also studied. Hair counts and clinical photographs were obtained pretreatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the third treatment. Side effects and patient satisfaction scores were recorded. All patients showed a positive clinical response to treatment, with reduction of unwanted hair. No reduction of hair was noted in untreated matched areas. Hair counts were reduced 37.8% to 53.6% 6 months after the three treatments. Skin region influenced clinical response, with lower legs exhibiting greater hair reduction than arms and inguinal and axillary areas. Mild erythema was experienced in 25% of patients, but no other side effects or complications were encountered. Patient satisfaction scores were high, with all patients stating that they would purchase the device for future home use. CONCLUSIONS Low-energy pulsed light can be applied safely and effectively for at-home hair removal in a variety of nonfacial locations and skin phototypes I-IV.

  15. On the feasibility of tomographic-PIV with low pulse energy illumination in a lifted turbulent jet flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxx, I.; Carter, C. D.; Meier, W.

    2014-08-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomographic-PIV) is a recently developed measurement technique used to acquire volumetric velocity field data in liquid and gaseous flows. The technique relies on line-of-sight reconstruction of the rays between a 3D particle distribution and a multi-camera imaging system. In a turbulent flame, however, index-of-refraction variations resulting from local heat-release may inhibit reconstruction and thereby render the technique infeasible. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of tomographic-PIV in a turbulent flame. An additional goal was to determine the feasibility of acquiring usable tomographic-PIV measurements in a turbulent flame at multi-kHz acquisition rates with current-generation laser and camera technology. To this end, a setup consisting of four complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras and a dual-cavity Nd:YAG laser was implemented to test the technique in a lifted turbulent jet flame. While the cameras were capable of kHz-rate image acquisition, the laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of only 10 Hz. However, use of this laser allowed exploration of the required pulse energy and thus power for a kHz-rate system. The imaged region was 29 × 28 × 2.7 mm in size. The tomographic reconstruction of the 3D particle distributions was accomplished using the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique. The results indicate that volumetric velocimetry via tomographic-PIV is feasible with pulse energies of 25 mJ, which is within the capability of current-generation kHz-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

  16. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  17. Absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar8+ on Ar as a function of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute total and one and two electron transfer cross sections for Ar 8+ on Ar were measured as a function of projectile laboratory energy from 0.090 to 0.550 keV/amu. The effective one electron transfer cross section dominates above 0.32 keV/amu, while below this energy, the effective two electron transfer starts to become appreciable. The total cross section varies by a factor over the energy range explored. The overall error in the cross section measurement is estimated to be ± 15%

  18. Dependence of Parameters of Laser-Produced Au Plasmas on the Incident Laser Energy of Sub-Nanosecond and Picosecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Vankov, A.B.; Wolowski, J.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Rohlena, K.

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of Au plasma as functions of laser energy for ps pulses are presented and compared with the ones for sub-ns pulses at nearly the same densities of laser energy. The experiments were performed at the IPPLM with the use of CPA (chirped pulse amplification) Nd:glass laser system. Thick Au foil targets were irradiated by normally incident focused laser beams with maximum intensities of 8x10 16 and 2x10 14 W/cm 2 for ps and sub-ns laser pulses, respectively. The characteristics of ion streams were investigated with the use of ion diagnostics methods based on the time-of flight technique. In these experiments the laser energies were changed in the range from 90 to 700 mJ and the measurements were performed at a given focus position FP = 0 and along the target normal for both the laser pulses. The charge carried by the ions, the maximum ion velocities of fast and thermal ion groups, the maximum ion current density as well as the area of photopeak in dependence on the incident laser energy for sub-ns and ps pulses were investigated and discussed. (author)

  19. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir, E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2015-08-15

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system.

  20. Electrons in a relativistic-intensity laser field: generation of zeptosecond electromagnetic pulses and energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)

  1. Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film: Energy transfer in electron and lattice sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Mansoor, Saad; Sami Yilbas, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of an aluminum thin film is considered and energy transfer in the film is formulated using the Boltzmann equation. Since the heating duration is short and the film thickness is considerably small, thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems is incorporated in the analysis. The electron–phonon coupling is used to formulate thermal communication of both sub-systems during the heating period. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to account for the average energy of all phonons around a local point when they redistribute adiabatically to an equilibrium state. Temperature predictions of the Boltzmann equation are compared with those obtained from the two-equation model. It is found that temperature predictions from the Boltzmann equation differ slightly from the two-equation model results. Temporal variation of equivalent equilibrium temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity in the electron sub-system. The time occurrence of the peak equivalent equilibrium temperature differs for electron and lattice sub-systems, which is attributed to phonon scattering in the irradiated field in the lattice sub-system. In this case, time shift is observed for occurrence of the peak temperature in the lattice sub-system

  2. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  3. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-01-01

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor

  4. Optimization of Photospheric Electric Field Estimates for Accurate Retrieval of Total Magnetic Energy Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumme, E.; Pomoell, J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the photospheric magnetic, electric, and plasma velocity fields are essential for studying the dynamics of the solar atmosphere, for example through the derivative quantities of Poynting and relative helicity flux and using the fields to obtain the lower boundary condition for data-driven coronal simulations. In this paper we study the performance of a data processing and electric field inversion approach that requires only high-resolution and high-cadence line-of-sight or vector magnetograms, which we obtain from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The approach does not require any photospheric velocity estimates, and the lacking velocity information is compensated for using ad hoc assumptions. We show that the free parameters of these assumptions can be optimized to reproduce the time evolution of the total magnetic energy injection through the photosphere in NOAA AR 11158, when compared to recent state-of-the-art estimates for this active region. However, we find that the relative magnetic helicity injection is reproduced poorly, reaching at best a modest underestimation. We also discuss the effect of some of the data processing details on the results, including the masking of the noise-dominated pixels and the tracking method of the active region, neither of which has received much attention in the literature so far. In most cases the effect of these details is small, but when the optimization of the free parameters of the ad hoc assumptions is considered, a consistent use of the noise mask is required. The results found in this paper imply that the data processing and electric field inversion approach that uses only the photospheric magnetic field information offers a flexible and straightforward way to obtain photospheric magnetic and electric field estimates suitable for practical applications such as coronal modeling studies.

  5. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  6. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  7. Influence of Bipolar Pulse Poling Technique for Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters using Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Films on 200 mm SOI Wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, N; Fujimoto, K; Suzuki, K; Kobayashi, T; Itoh, T; Maeda, R; Suzuki, Y; Makimoto, N

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvester arrays using Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 thin films on 200 mm SOI wafers were fabricated. In-plane distribution of influence of bipolar pulse poling technique on direct current (DC) power output from the harvesters was investigated. The results indicate that combination poling treatment of DC and bipolar pulse poling increases a piezoelectric property and reduces a dielectric constant. It means that this poling technique improves the figure of merit of sensors and harvesters. Maximum DC power from a harvester treated by DC poling after bipolar pulse poling is about five times larger than a one treated by DC poling only

  8. Relationship between the Ca/P ratio of hydroxyapatite thin films and the spatial energy distribution of the ablation laser in pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishikawa, H.; Hasegawa, T; Miyake, A.; Tashiro, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Variation of the Ca/P ratio in hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) thin films was studied in relation to the spot size of the ablation laser for two different spatial energy distributions in pulsed laser deposition. One energy distribution is the defocus method with a raw distribution and the other is

  9. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Studies on a hydrogen energy total system; 1978 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Analysis was made on timing, patterns and scales of introducing hydrogen energy into the Japan's total energy system, and case studies were made on transfer of the comprehensive systems that can be realized in the years of 1985, 2000 and 2025. The basic conception for the analytic method employed a method to analyze and present theoretically the conditions in which prerequisites or results of the estimation can be established, rather than intending elucidation of the estimation itself. An energy model was used for the theoretical means thereof. The objective function to be optimized was assumed to maximize (estimate over the planned period of time) the total effectiveness of the hydrogen energy system converted into the present value being given appropriate discount. The economic performance measures for different secondary energies working as the comparison measures are the limiting production cost of each energy. A consideration was given to the point that the electrolytic hydrogen cannot compete with that made by using the thermo-chemical method (if developed successfully) using heat from high-temperature gas reactor if the fossil fuel price rises sharply. Considerations are also required in replaceability of hydrogen energy with other energies, and hydrogen utilization in petroleum refining. (NEDO)

  10. Energy supply scenarios and sustainable development: A total view on economy and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Sustainable development' is the guiding principle of the ecological, economic and development policy debate. Although the guiding principle of 'sustainable development' meets with unanimous approval as a general rule, there is a broad spectrum of views and interpretations of this guiding principle in terms of its normative and theoretical scientific basis as well as with regard to the aims and line of action to be taken. This applies especially to the energy sector. This lecture endeavours to concretise the guiding principle of 'sustainable development' for the energy sector, or to put in more exact terms, for the sector providing energy services. Major options for the supply of energy are classified and evaluated in terms of their importance for the sustainable provision of energy based on the results of a comprehensive review of materials and different types of energy. (orig.) [de

  11. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  12. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    A numerical model was prepared to express fields and size of hydrogen energy introduction in Japan's energy systems in the future. Dividing Japan into 13 weather sections, one to two energy bases (import and secondary production bases in coastal areas) were assumed on each section. Secondary energies produced in these energy bases are transported to intermediate bases, from which the energies are distributed into cities and consumed. For the purpose of simplification, final consumption departments are hypothesized to exist in these intermediate bases. Parameters that characterize the flows on networks in the processes of supply, distribution, production, storage, transportation and utilization are divided largely into energy efficiency and cost of the processes. The amount of energy demand in each final consumption department was defined as an amount to maximize the expected effects as a result of having satisfied the demand. The result of trial calculations revealed that, as long as the hydrogen to be introduced is limited to hydrogen produced via electrolysis using thermally generated power, the hydrogen introduction into the future energy systems is difficult in terms of economic performance. (NEDO)

  13. Total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle of low-energy photons reflected from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Srpko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle for water and initial photon energy range from 20 keV to 100 keV are presented in this pa per. A water shield in the form of a thick, homogenous plate and per pendicular incidence of the monoenergetic photon beam are assumed. The results were obtained through Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by means of the MCNP computer code. Calculated values for the total number albedo were compared with data previously published and good agreement was confirmed. The dependence of the average cosine of the polar angle on energy is studied in detail. It has been found that the total average cosine of the polar angle has values in the narrow interval of 0.66-0.67, approximately corresponding to the reflection angle of 48°, and that it does not depend on the initial photon energy.

  14. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  15. Local functional derivative of the total energy and the shell structure in atoms and molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, R.; Markvoort, Albert. J.; Santen, van R.A.; Hilbers, P.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The full and local Thomas–Fermi–Dirac energy functional derivatives are evaluated at Hartree–Fock densities for several atoms and molecules. These functions are interpreted as local chemical potentials and related mainly to kinetic energy functional derivatives. They are able to reveal the shell

  16. Total neutron cross sections at energies around 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Romero, J.L.; Martens, P.

    1990-09-01

    The results for measurements of total cross sections on C, Al, Mg, Cu, Ge and Pb at 17.6 and 19.8 MeV are reported. A detailed comparison is presented with previous data and with the global optical model by the Ohio group. We also discuss plans for total non elastic cross section measurements. 31 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1981 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this research, studies are conducted relative to the time point, form, and magnitude of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's total energy system. The research aims to construct a hydrogen energy total system consisting of hydrogen energy subsystems to be available in the future and to clearly define the stage at which transfer to the target system will be carried out. In the research for fiscal 1981, studies continue about the feasibility of hydrogen as automobile and aviation fuels and as a material for use in chemical engineering, about conversion into each other of hydrogen and various synthetic fuels and electric power with which hydrogen will have to compete in the domain into which it will be supplied, and about technologies of their utilization for comparison between such energies in the search for their interchangeability. Surveys are conducted on technical data about local energies. The Yakushima island is chosen, for instance, and a conceptual hydrogen energy base is constructed there and the cost for the construction is estimated. At the last part, the feasibility of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's energy system in the future is discussed for assessment. (NEDO)

  18. Sensitivity of energy-packed compounds based on superfine and nanoporous silicon to pulsed electrical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegrya, G. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Savenkov, G. G. [Saint-Petersburg State Engineering Institute (Technical University) (Russian Federation); Morozov, V. A. [Saint-Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Zegrya, A. G.; Ulin, N. V., E-mail: Ulin@mail.ioffe.ru; Ulin, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lukin, A. A. [Saint-Petersburg State Engineering Institute (Technical University) (Russian Federation); Bragin, V. A.; Oskin, I. A. [AO Scientific Production Association Poisk (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The sensitivity of an energy-packed compound based on nanoporous silicon and calcium perchlorate to a high-current electron beam is studied. The initiation of explosive transformations in a mixture of potassium picrate with a highly dispersed powder of boron-doped silicon by means of a high-voltage discharge is examined. It is shown that explosive transformation modes (combustion and explosion) appear in the energy-packed compound under study upon its treatment with an electron beam. A relationship is established between the explosive transformation modes and the density of the energy-packed compound and between the breakdown (initiation) voltage and the mass fraction of the silicon powder.

  19. High-pulse energy supercontinuum laser for high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipids in the 1650-1850 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasa, Manoj Kumar; Markos, Christos; Maria, Michael; Petersen, Christian R; Moselund, Peter M; Bang, Ole

    2018-04-01

    We propose a cost-effective high-pulse energy supercontinuum (SC) source based on a telecom range diode laser-based amplifier and a few meters of standard single-mode optical fiber, with a pulse energy density as high as ~25 nJ/nm in the 1650-1850 nm regime (factor >3 times higher than any SC source ever used in this wavelength range). We demonstrate how such an SC source combined with a tunable filter allows high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and the spectroscopy of lipids in the first overtone transition band of C-H bonds (1650-1850 nm). We show the successful discrimination of two different lipids (cholesterol and lipid in adipose tissue) and the photoacoustic cross-sectional scan of lipid-rich adipose tissue at three different locations. The proposed high-pulse energy SC laser paves a new direction towards compact, broadband and cost-effective source for spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging.

  20. Total β-decay energies and masses of tin, antimony and tellurium isotopes in the vicinity of 50132Sn82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Rudstam, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental β-decay energies for short-lived isotopes of tin, antimony and tellurium are presented. Mass-separated sources were produced at the on-line isotope separator OSIRIS. By applying β-γ coincidence methods, total β-decay energies have been determined for the following nuclides: 127-131 Sn, 128 130 131 134 Sb and 134 135 Te. The atomic mass excess has been derived for these nuclei, and comparisons are made with mass formula predictions. (Auth.)

  1. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  2. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Chiari, L. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Buckman, S. J., E-mail: Stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ingolfsson, O. [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107 (Iceland)

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  3. The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linse, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature

  4. ENERGY-EFFICIENT PASSIVE ANTENNA CODE PULSE MODULATION DUE TO THE REFLECTION OF MICROWAVE SIGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an antenna in a corner reflector with a p-i-n-diodes, integrated with the housing transceiver, which allows not only to provide bidirectional communication with the base station as a result of multipath radio three times, but with minimal energy consumption to provide digitally transmit information on the reflected wave flow of any complexity, which allow to eliminate energy in the transmit path and extend the life of the device. 

  5. Charge modes of pulsed high energy and high density plasma injection source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Detonation (snowplow), deflagration and other modes of discharge can be produced in a single coaxial plasma gun. Conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy together with the entropy production condition of the discharge phenomena are used to identify dense discharge modes. The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for a magnetized plasma is derived. Discussions of how to design a deflagration plasma gun to yield a prescribed plasma kinetic energy and plasma beam density are given

  6. From Swords to Plowshares: The US/Russian Collaboration in High Energy Density Physics Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, S.M.; Fowler, C.M.; Lindemuth, I.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Mokhov, V.N.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the institutes that designed the first nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union and the US, respectively, have been working together in fundamental research related to pulsed power and high energy density science. This collaboration has enabled scientists formerly engaged in weapons activities to redirect their attention to peaceful pursuits of wide benefit to the technical community. More than thirty joint experiments have been performed at Sarov and Los Alamos in areas as diverse as solid state physics in high magnetic fields, fusion plasma formation, isentropic compression of noble gases, and explosively driven-high current generation technology. Expanding on the introductory comments of the conference plenary presentation, this paper traces the origins of this collaboration and briefly reviews the scientific accomplishments. Detailed reports of the scientific accomplishments can be found in other papers in these proceedings and in other publications

  7. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  8. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  10. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt; Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Aumann, Thomas; Casarejos, Enrique; Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme; Heinz, Andreas; Jurado, Beatriz; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  11. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric [CEA DAM Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Arpajon (France); Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent [CNRS/IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay (France); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, Enrique [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Heinz, Andreas [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurado, Beatriz [CNRS/IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France); Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  12. The Effect of Varying Ultrafast Pulse Laser Energies on the Electrical Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khaled H.; Irannejad, Mehrdad; Wales, Benjamin; Sanderson, Joseph; Musselman, Kevin P.; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    Laser treatment of graphene oxide solution among other techniques is a well-established technique for producing reduced graphene sheets. However, production of high-quality ultra-low sheet resistance reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets in solution has been a challenge due to their high degree of randomness, defect-rich medium, and lack of controlability. Recent studies lack an in-depth analytic comparison of laser treatment parameters that yield the highest quality rGO sheets with a low defect ratio. Hence, in this study, we implement a comprehensive comparison of laser treatment parameters and their effect on the yielded rGO sheets from an electronic and physical standpoint. Ultra-low sheet resistance graphene oxide sheets were fabricated using ultrafast laser irradiation with different laser pulse energies in the range of 0.25-2 mJ. Laser treatment for 10 min using a pulse energy of 1 mJ resulted in an increase in the defect spacing, accompanied by a large red shift in the optical absorption of the C=C bond, indicating significant restoration of the s p 2 carbon bonds. These enhancements resulted in a significant reduction in the electrical resistance of the rGO flakes (up to 2 orders of magnitude), raising the electron mobility of the films produced using the irradiated graphene oxide a step closer to that of pristine graphene films. From this study, we can also deduce which exposure regimes result in the fabrication of quantum dots and continuous defect-free films.

  13. Deformation and failure in extreme regimes by high-energy pulsed lasers: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, Tane P. [The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Remington, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hahn, Eric N. [The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, Marc A., E-mail: mameyers@ucsd.edu [The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-03-14

    The use of high-power pulsed lasers to probe the response of materials at pressures of hundreds of GPa up to several TPa, time durations of nanoseconds, and strain rates of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 1}° s{sup −1} is revealing novel mechanisms of plastic deformation, phase transformations, and even amorphization. This unique experimental tool, aided by advanced diagnostics, analysis, and characterization, allows us to explore these new regimes that simulate those encountered in the interiors of planets. Fundamental Materials Science questions such as dislocation velocity regimes, the transition between thermally-activated and phonon drag regimes, the slip-twinning transition, the ultimate tensile strength of metals, the dislocation mechanisms of void growth are being answered through this powerful tool. In parallel with experiments, molecular dynamics simulations provide modeling and visualization at comparable strain rates (10{sup 8}–10{sup 10} s{sup −1}) and time durations (hundreds of picoseconds). This powerful synergy is illustrated in our past and current work, using representative face-centered cubic (fcc) copper, body-centered cubic (bcc) tantalum and diamond cubic silicon as model structures.

  14. Pulsed high-energy radiographic machine emitting x-rays: PHERMEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility that is used to provide radiography of explosives and explosive-driven systems is described. This facility allows precision flash radiography of large objects containing high atomic number materials. The facility consists of a high-current, three-cavity, 27-MeV linear electron accelerator; a 13.5-MW radiofrequency power source; a timing, firing, and signal detection system; and a data acquisition system. PHERMEX was built in the early part of the 1960s to complement other hydrodynamics facilities at Los Alamos and to implement studies related to shock waves, detonation, and other hydrodynamic phenomena. After 15 y of operation and several thousand explosive shots later, PHERMEX has proven to be a very important diagnostic tool in the study of hydrodynamic systems. The attractive features of PHERMEX are the following: very intense submicrosecond 27-MeV bremsstrahlung radiation; 1-mm diam spot size; 100 R at 1 m from a 200-ns pulse; precise determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the target

  15. Application of the Monte Carlo method in calculation of energy-time distribution from a pulsed photon source in homogeneous air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.D.; Vojvodic, V.I.; Orlic, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    The stochastic nature of photon interactions with matter and the characteristics of photon transport through real materials, are very well suited for applications of the Monte Carlo method in calculations of the energy-space distribution of photons. Starting from general principles of the Monte Carlo method, physical-mathematical model of photon transport from a pulsed source is given for the homogeneous air environment. Based on that model, a computer program is written which is applied in calculations of scattered photons delay spectra and changes of the photon energy spectrum. Obtained results provide the estimation of the timespace function of the electromagnetic field generated by photon from a pulsed source. (author)

  16. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  17. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  18. The state of the art in Japan's telecommunications energy systems - Strategy for Total Power Management -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroyama, Seiichi [NTT Power and Building Facilities Inc., Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The ''strategy for total power management (STPM)'' was developed for managing problems in relation to energy for multimedia services in a comprehensive manner from the viewpoints of risk, cost, and environment. To provide integrated services based on STPM, a DC power supply system, a highly reliable UPS, and a co-generation system have been developed. (orig.)

  19. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  20. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of the heavy nuclei fission with anomalously high values of the fission fragments total kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryachkov, Vitaly; Goverdovskii, Andrei; Ketlerov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Vecheslav; Sergachev, Alexei

    2018-03-01

    Binary fission of 232Th and 238U induced by fast neutrons were under intent investigation in the IPPE during recent years. These measurements were performed with a twin ionization chamber with Frisch grids. Signals from the detector were digitized for further processing with a specially developed software. It results in information of kinetic energies, masses, directions and Bragg curves of registered fission fragments. Total statistics of a few million fission events were collected during each experiment. It was discovered that for several combinations of fission fragment masses their total kinetic energy was very close to total free energy of the fissioning system. The probability of such fission events for the fast neutron induced fission was found to be much higher than for spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. For experiments with 238U target the energy of incident neutrons were 5 MeV and 6.5 MeV. Close analysis of dependence of fission fragment distribution on compound nucleus excitation energy gave us some explanation of the phenomenon. It could be a process in highly excited compound nucleus which leads the fissioning system from the scission point into the fusion valley with high probability.

  2. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in water: Influence of pulse energy and duration on the crystalline phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, E., E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Muniz Miranda, M.; Caporali, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Canton, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari, Via Torino, 30170 Venezia-Mestre (Italy); Marsili, P. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Vergari, C.; Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of Ti in water at 1064 nm and comparison of ns and ps temporal regimes. • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of the colloids: TiO{sub 2} is the predominant phase. • Determination of an energy window where ps ablation produces more anatase than rutile. • Modelling of the experimental dependence of anatase/rutile yield on pulse length and energy. - Abstract: We fabricated Ti oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of a Ti target in doubly deionized water with ps or ns pulses at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. Electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that, while with ns pulses the dominant oxide phase is rutile, with ps pulses anatase is the most abundant form in an intermediate energy window centered around 25 mJ per pulse. This experimental behavior can be described by a theoretical model which calculates the pressure and temperature evolution of the ablated material and, from this, the rutile and anatase yield.

  3. A panel data parametric frontier technique for measuring total-factor energy efficiency: An application to Japanese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the stochastic frontier analysis model, we estimate TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) scores for 47 regions across Japan during the years 1996–2008. We extend the cross-sectional stochastic frontier model proposed by Zhou et al. (2012) to panel data models and add environmental variables. The results provide not only the TFEE scores, in which statistical noise is taken into account, but also the determinants of inefficiency. The three stochastic TFEE scores are compared with a TFEE score derived using data envelopment analysis. The four TFEE scores are highly correlated with one another. For the inefficiency estimates, higher manufacturing industry shares and wholesale and retail trade shares correspond to lower TFEE scores. - Highlights: • This study estimates total-factor energy efficiency of Japanese regions using the stochastic frontier analysis model. • Determinants of inefficiency are also estimated. • The higher the manufacturing share and wholesale and retail trade share, the lower the energy efficiency

  4. A novel flattop current regulated energy discharge type pulsed power supply and magnet yielding 4.4 kGauss-meter for 6 milliseconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1989-07-01

    Most energy discharge power supplies obtain their bursts of power from the energy stored in charged capacitors when it is suddenly released into a load. This note describes the design of a similar small 800 Joules energy discharge type power supply and magnet. The magnet gap is 2 in.x2 in.x25-1/2 in. long and produces about 4.4 kGauss-meters at a rate of 12 pulses per minute. Each pulse is current regulated at the top for a duration of 6 msec. and varies less than 0.6% of set value. Current regulation at flattop is obtained by switching a resistor in and out of the discharge circuit with an IGBT at a rate of about 5 kHz. Most energy discharge systems produce half sine wave pulses, and current regulation is obtained by controlling the charge voltage at the energy storage capacitor, resulting only in a controlled peak current value of the half sine wave pulse. The current value at the top changes substantially during 6 msec. depending on the operating frequency

  5. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  6. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear energy is one of the clean options of electricity generation for the betterment of human life. India has an ambitious program for such electricity generation using different types of nuclear reactors. The safe and efficient generation of electricity from these reactors requires quality control of different nuclear materials, ...

  7. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  8. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  9. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  10. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  11. Research report of fiscal 1997. Study on total energy and material control (feasibility study on circulating society); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa (junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to construct real sustainable global environment and human society in the 21st century called the century of environment, not only the innovation of manufacturing processes technically supporting such the construction but also the conception including the innovation of the whole society from a wide viewpoint are essential. As a total energy and material control system (TEMCOS) concept, the view of an energy-saving circulating society is attempted which minimizes a total energy and material flow in Japan, and the role and issue of manufacturing industry, in particular, material industry are extracted. As one of the targets of such a concept, the conception of an eco-town is also described. Paying attention on some important material industries including a mass material flow and consuming a large amount of energy such as metal, plastics and automobile industries, the study result on a material flow for every industry is arranged, and some effective issues contributing to minimize a material flow and control energy consumption and CO2 emission are extracted. 80 refs., 67 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Structure determination of disordered organic molecules on surfaces from the Bragg spots of low-energy electron diffraction and total energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, H.C.; Weinert, M.; Saldin, D.K.; Stacchiola, D.; Zheng, T.; Tysoe, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    We show that an analysis of the intensity versus energy variation of Bragg spots due to low-energy electron diffraction from a disordered overlayer of molecules on a crystal surface allows a much more convenient method of determining the local adsorption geometries of such molecules than previously analyzed weak diffuse diffraction patterns. For the case of methanol on Pd(111), we show that the geometry determined by this means from experimental diffraction data is in excellent agreement with the predictions of density functional total energy calculations

  13. Harris functional and related methods for calculating total energies in density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, F.W.; Painter, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    The simplified energy functional of Harris has given results of useful accuracy for systems well outside the limits of weakly interacting fragments for which the method was originally proposed. In the present study, we discuss the source of the frequent good agreement of the Harris energy with full Kohn-Sham self-consistent results. A procedure is described for extending the applicability of the scheme to more strongly interacting systems by going beyond the frozen-atom fragment approximation. A gradient-force expression is derived, based on the Harris functional, which accounts for errors in the fragment charge representation. Results are presented for some diatomic molecules, illustrating the points of this study

  14. Current State and Future Perspectives of Energy Sources for Totally Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleszynski, Peter A; Luc, Jessica G Y; Schade, Peter; PhilLips, Steven J; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang

    There is a large population of patients with end-stage congestive heart failure who cannot be treated by means of conventional cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, or chronic catecholamine infusions. Implantable cardiac devices, many designated as destination therapy, have revolutionized patient care and outcomes, although infection and complications related to external power sources or routine battery exchange remain a substantial risk. Complications from repeat battery replacement, power failure, and infections ultimately endanger the original objectives of implantable biomedical device therapy - eliminating the intended patient autonomy, affecting patient quality of life and survival. We sought to review the limitations of current cardiac biomedical device energy sources and discuss the current state and trends of future potential energy sources in pursuit of a lifelong fully implantable biomedical device.

  15. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  16. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Third quarterly progress report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The application of Solar Total Energy System (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, etc.) in the United States is investigated. Candidate solar-thermal and solar-photovoltaic concepts are considered for providing on-site electrical power generation as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. The solar-thermal concepts include the use of solar concentrators (distributed or central-receiver) for collection of the thermal energy for conversion to electricity by means of a Rankine-cycle or Brayton-cycle power-conversion system. Recoverable waste heat from the power-generation process is utilized to help meet the building thermal-energy demand. Evaluation methodology is identified to allow ranking and/or selection of the most cost-effective concept for commercial-building applications.

  17. End-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with high energy and narrow pulse for glass carving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ming; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Wu, Zhi-chao; Liang, Zhu

    2009-05-01

    In order to raise the accuracy of glass carving and improve deep cutting, a novel diode end-pumed solid-state laser is researched. Selecting proper volume of laser crytal, one continue wave laser diode which longitudinally pumped Nd:YAG crystal is performed and an applied optics coupling system is designed with self focusing.Computing with ray trace software and MATLAB software, the best parameter is obtained, so pumping beam is coupled efficiently to Nd:YAG.Used a Cr4+:YAG crystal with the singnal transmission of 82% and a line plane-concave cavity, nanosecond narrow pulse is gotten. After two thermal-electrical coolers kept the laser to work at constant temperature instead of water cooling, the volume of laser is markedly reduced. The method of thermal-electrical cooling could increase the system efficiency,achieve the effect of low mode output.Experimental results indicate that the maximum laser output energy in 1064 nm is 118mJ,pulse width is 5 ns, conversion efficiency from light to light is 15.7% under the condition of the incident power of 5 W and the diameter of the output laser spot is less than 1 mm. This end-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with the light output of high quality and long life, which has 0.01 mm accuracy after lens focusing can satisfy the glass carving with higher precision, rapid speed as well as easy control. It can be used in carving all kinds of glass and replace current CO2 laser.

  18. Measuring the critical current in superconducting samples made of NT-50 under pulse irradiation by high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, P.G.; Vladimirova, N.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Goncharov, I.N.; Zajtsev, L.N.; Zel'dich, B.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Khvostov, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of tests of superconducting samples of an uninsulated wire of the 0.5 mm diameter, containing 1045 superconducting filaments of the 10 μm diameter made of NT-50 superconductor in a copper matrix, are given. The upper part of the sample (''closed'') is placed between two glass-cloth-base laminate plates of the 50 mm length, and the lower part (''open'') of the 45 mm length is immerged into liquid helium. The sample is located perpendicular to the magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid and it is irradiated by charged particle beams at the energy of several GeV. The measurement results of permissible energy release in the sample depending on subcriticality (I/Isub(c) where I is an operating current through the sample, and Isub(c) is a critical current for lack of the beam) and the particle flux density, as well as of the maximum permissible fluence depending on subcriticality. In case of the ''closed'' sample irradiated by short pulses (approximately 1 ms) for I/Isub(c) [ru

  19. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7. 5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-09-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and /sup 40/K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 R/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum.

  20. Managing talent flow : 2006 energy and resources talent pulse survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The Canadian energy sector is experiencing a labour shortage. It is expected that by 2025, the province of Alberta could face a shortfall of 332,000 workers. The impending shortage has already caused concern among energy sector organizations. This survey was conducted among 55 Canadian oil and gas, utilities, and mining organizations to better understand the extent of the talent crisis. The survey examined specific resources shortages, talent issues and their impacts on performance. Efforts on behalf of organizations to address the labour shortage were also reviewed. Respondents to the survey identified a clear link between talent management and organizational performance. Nearly 80 per cent of the respondents indicated that the talent shortage has limited productivity and efficiency in their organization. Fifty-five per cent indicated that the talent shortage will limit the ability to meet production requirements and customer demand, while 47 per cent said that the lack of skilled workers will affect their organization's ability to innovate. Attracting specific types of labour was seen as one of the top 3 issues facing organizations. The survey indicated that some organizations have increased their investment in recruiting experienced staff, but are relying on old recruiting tactics to meet changing needs. It was also noted that employees are now placing greater importance on opportunities for growth, development and communication, rather than on pay alone. It was stated that Deloitte's model for talent management was designed to optimize the employee experience in an environment where employees expect opportunities for personal growth. It was concluded that the future success of Canada's energy and resources sector will rely on how well organizations address the talent shortage. 8 figs.