WorldWideScience

Sample records for total power consumption

  1. Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.

  2. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  3. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  4. Power consumption optimization strategy for wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Kumar, Sanjay; Marchetti, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    in order to reduce the total power consumption in a multi cellular network. We present an algorithm for power optimization under no interference and in presence of interference conditions, targeting to maximize the network capacity. The convergence of the algorithm is guaranteed if the interference...

  5. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truşcă, M. R. C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Albert, Ş., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Tudoran, C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Soran, M. L., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Fărcaş, F., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Abrudean, M. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  6. Power Consumption of a MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Selkey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A MOSFET is defined as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. These electrical components are combined or integrated to form control and logic functions for laptop and desktop computers, power controls in printing devices, motor controls and are used in many other electrical circuits. All electrical devices consume electrical power based on current and voltage. For this paper we calculated the power consumption of a Toshiba 2SK3563 MOSFET during its triode mode by finding the area under the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  7. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC. Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software can be classified and detected through classification processing. Experiment results demonstrate that the function of an application and its power consumption have a close relationship, and our method can detect some typical malicious application software accurately.

  8. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Yang; Ruiwen Tang

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software...

  9. TARIFFS AND REGIMES OF POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Batsova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regimes of electro-consumption at RUP «BMZ» is carried out. It is shown that in conditions of rapid growth of prices for electric power one of the conditions of reduction of production expenses is to be the increase of efficiency of the electro-consumption regimes control.

  10. Power consumption in multicore fibre networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Jain, Saurabh; Jung, Yongmin

    2017-01-01

    We study potential energy savings in MCF-based networks compared to SMF-based ones in a Pan-European network topology based on the power consumption of recently fabricated cladding-pumped multi-core optical fibre amplifiers....

  11. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1990-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).

  12. Power Consumption in Refrigeration Systems - Modeling for Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Skovrup, Morten Juel

    2011-01-01

    Refrigeration systems consume a substantial amount of energy. Taking for instance supermarket refrigeration systems as an example they can account for up to 50−80% of the total energy consumption in the supermarket. Due to the thermal capacity made up by the refrigerated goods in the system...... there is a possibility for optimizing the power consumption by utilizing load shifting strategies. This paper describes the dynamics and the modeling of a vapor compression refrigeration system needed for sufficiently realistic estimation of the power consumption and its minimization. This leads to a non-convex function...... with possibly multiple extrema. Such a function can not directly be optimized by standard methods and a qualitative analysis of the system’s constraints is presented. The description of power consumption contains nonlinear terms which are approximated by linear functions in the control variables and the error...

  13. Power Consumption Optimization in Tooth Gears Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatnikov, N.; Harlamov, G.; Kanatnikova, P.; Pashmentova, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the issue of optimization of technological process of tooth gears production of the power consumption criteria. The authors dwell on the indices used for cutting process estimation by the consumed energy criteria and their applicability in the analysis of the toothed wheel production process. The inventors proposed a method for optimization of power consumptions based on the spatial modeling of cutting pattern. The article is aimed at solving the problem of effective source management in order to achieve economical and ecological effect during the mechanical processing of toothed gears. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-79-10316).

  14. Power Consumption Analysis of Electrical Installations at Healthcare Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Guillen-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for power consumption estimation considering harmonic and interharmonic content and then it is compared to the power consumption estimation commonly done by commercial equipment based on the fundamental frequency, and how they can underestimate the power consumption considering power quality disturbances (PQD. For this purpose, data of electrical activity at the electrical distribution boards in a healthcare facility is acquired for a long time period with proprietary equipment. An analysis in the acquired current and voltage signals is done, in order to compare the power consumption centered in the fundamental frequency with the generalized definition of power consumption. The results obtained from the comparison in the power consumption estimation show differences between 4% and 10% of underestimated power consumption. Thus, it is demonstrated that the presence of harmonic and interharmonic content provokes a significant underestimation of power consumption using only the power consumption centered at the fundamental frequency.

  15. Whole-house measurements of standby power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.P.; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the variation in standby power consumption in ten California homes. Total standby power in the homes ranged from 14-169W, with an average of 67 W. This corresponded to 5 percent-26 percent of the homes' annual electricity use. The appliances with the largest standby losses were televisions, set-top boxes and printers. The large variation in the standby power of appliances providing the same service demonstrates that manufacturers are able to reduce standby losses without degrading performance. Replacing existing units with appliances with 1 W or less of standby power would reduce standby losses by 68 percent

  16. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  17. LTE RF subsystem power consumption modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    the power consumption. An analysis of modeling approaches was conducted and the modeling approach with the least sum of squared errors is used to compute the emulation model. The neural networks applying the Pseudo-Gauss Newton algorithm for optimization proved to have the least sum of squared errors....... This approach was validated against a real life scenario with a relative error of 5.77%....

  18. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  19. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  20. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  1. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  2. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  3. Low power consumption mini rotary actuator with SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Luigi; Huan, Yu; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are smart materials widely used as actuators for their high power to weight ratio despite their well-known low energy efficiency and limited mechanical bandwidth. For robotic applications, SMAs exhibit limitations due to high power consumption and limited stroke, varying from 4% to 7% of the total length. Hysteresis, during the contraction and extension cycle, requires a complex control algorithm. On the positive side, the small size and low weight are eminently suited for the design of mini actuators for robotic platforms. This paper describes the design and construction of a light weight and low power consuming mini rotary actuator with on-board contact-less position and force sensors. The design is specifically intended to reduce (i) energy consumption, (ii) dimensions of the sensory system, and (iii) provide a simple control without any need for SMA characterisation. The torque produced is controlled by on-board force sensors. Experiments were performed to investigate the energy consumption and performance (step and sinusoidal angle profiles with a frequency varying from 0.5 to 10 Hz and maximal amplitude of {15}\\circ ). We describe a transient capacitor effect related to the SMA wires during the sinusoidal profile when the active SMA wire is powered and the antagonist one switched-off, resulting in a transient current time varying from 300 to 400 ms.

  4. Model for evaluation of power consumption of vented box loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Filip Sommer; Thorsen, Søren; Iversen, Niels Elkjær

    In the design of mobile sound systems an estimation of power consumption must be made in order to choose a battery of appropriate size and cost. However poor methods for power estimation tend to result in large and costly batteries. This paper aims to present a more precise method for estimating ...... at estimating the power consumption than simplifying the speaker as a resistor....

  5. Model for evauluating power consumption of vented box loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Filip Sommer; Thorsen, Søren; Iversen, Niels Elkjær

    2017-01-01

    In the design of mobile sound systems an estimation of power consumption must be made in order to choose a battery of appropriate size and cost. However poor methods for power estimation tend to result in large and costly batteries. This paper aims to present a more precise method for estimating ...... at estimating the power consumption than simplifying the speaker as a resistor....

  6. Did the electric power consumption in Norway really go down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Information about how the high prices in the Nordic power market have affected the power consumption in the North is important for the assessment of the ability of the power market to deal with shortage situations. The market has reacted less than expected, and some of the reduction of consumption is due to other factors than high prices. Energy intensive industry has cut its power consumption considerably, but some of this reduction is due to decline in economic activity. In the boiler market there has also been a strong reduction, but not as much as had been expected. Consumption has gone down in general, but with a considerable lag.

  7. Determinants of consumption expenditure and its share to total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion of household consumption spending of incomes of smallholder farmers reviewed with factors determining consumption in Ikwuano Abia State, Nigeria exposed relevant policy issues. A multi-stage random sampling technique guided the selection of a panel of 96 small-scale farmers who supplied cross-sectional ...

  8. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  9. Solid-state fast voltage compensator for pulsed power applications requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Magallanes, Francisco Cabaleiro; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for pulsed power converters based on capacitor-discharge topologies, integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This solution has been retained as a possible candidate for the CLIC project under study at CERN, which requires more than a thousand synchronously-operated klystron modulators producing a total pulsed power of almost 40 GW. The proposed Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to treat the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage, meaning that its dimensioning power and cost are minimized. This topology can be used to improve the AC power quality of any pulsed converters based on capacitor-discharge concept. A prototype has been built and exploited to validate the operating principle and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed solution.

  10. Comparison of Preamplifiers for Low-power Consumption Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Kyu Hong; Choi, Hyo Jeong; Na, Teresa W.; Ha, Jang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The commonly used electronic devices in radiation detector system are the preamplifier, the amplifier, ADC, and etc. to extract the signal from the detector and to process the signal. These components are composed of semiconductor devices like BJT, MOSFET, OPAMP, and etc. Performance and power consumption of these components are various according to the composition of semiconductor devices. In this study, preamplifiers, which are composed of high efficiency semiconductor devices, are compared to design low-power consumption and high performance preamplifier. To confirm the purpose, preamplifiers are designed for low-power consumption and high gain by some OPAMP (Operational Amplifier). The comparison was performed by experimental result and design simulation

  11. LED power consumption in joint illumination and communication system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Wu, Y.; Khalid, A.M.; Long, X.; Linnartz, J.-P.M.G.

    This paper addresses the power penalty in an illumination LED caused by visible light communication (VLC). This study models the extra power consumption of the LED by taking into account the convex relation between the dissipated electrical power versus the LED current on one hand and the concave

  12. Empirical multichannel power consumption model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; de Paiva, Getulio E. R.; Argentato, Marcio Colazza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified simu......-users, it is relevant to study channel number dependent power consumption for devising EDFA power efficient control and design.......In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified...... simultaneously contributes significantly, up to 48%, to the total power consumption due to the circuitry used for controlling the EDFA. As the number of simultaneous amplified WDM channels in high capacity long and medium reach transmission links reflects closely traffic patterns generated by end...

  13. Warm weather conditions moderated the increase of power consumption in Finland in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    Year 2000 was exceptionally warm in Finland. The amount of rainfalls in Northern Finland was larger than in 1999. This is shown clearly in the production of hydroelectric power. The wind conditions were also better, so the wind power generation doubled in 2000. The increase in power consumption in 2000 was only 1.7%. The power consumption rate was slightly over 79 TWh. The power consumption of household and agricultural sectors decreased by nearly 2% and in the public sector by 0.2%. The industrial power consumption increased by nearly 3%. Year 2000 was excellent for the industrial sector. The industrial production increased by 11%. The increment of power demand in heavy metal industry, chemical industry and forest industry was 5-7%. Power demand of process industry in 2000 exceeded 43.4 TWh, of which the share of building industry was more than 200 GWh. Process industry use about 55% of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000. The power demand of forest industry was 26.3 TWh, which is about 2% higher than in 1999. The corresponding figures for metal industry were 7.1 TWh and growth rate 3%. Chemical industry used in 2000 about 5.9 TWh of electric power. The growth rate was more that 4% higher in 2000 than in 1999. Power consumption of other industrial sectors in 2000 increased about 3% being now about 3.9 TWh. Hydroelectric power generation in 2000 was nearly 14.4 TWh, which is nearly 14.4 % higher than in 1999. The share of hydroelectric power generation of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000 was 18%. The wind power generation in 2000 was nearly 80 GWh, which are about 60% higher than in 1999. The number of wind power plants is 63, and the capacity of them 38 MW. The production of nuclear power in 2000 decreased by about 2% because of the longer and more thorough maintenance stoppages in the Loviisa 1 reactor. The utilisation rates of Finnish nuclear power plants in 2000 were high, Loviisa 1 by nearly 85%, Loviisa 2 by 91%, Olkiluoto 1 by 96

  14. Extending OFDM Symbols to Reduce Power Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Existing communication standards have limited capabilities to adapt to low SNR environments or to exploit low data rate requirements in a power efficient way. Existing techniques like e.g. control coding do not reduce the computational load when reducing data rates. In this paper, we introduce

  15. Methodology for calculating power consumption of planetary mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, S. I.; Voronov, V. P.; Evtushenko, E. I.; Yakovlev, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the methodology and equations for calculating the power consumption necessary to overcome the resistance of a dry mixture caused by the movement of cylindrical rods in the body of a planetary mixer, as well as the calculation of the power consumed by idling mixers of this type. The equations take into account the size and physico-mechanical properties of mixing material, the size and shape of the mixer's working elements and the kinematics of its movement. The dependence of the power consumption on the angle of rotation in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the working member is presented.

  16. Prediction of Chiller Power Consumption: An Entropy Generation Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saththasivam, Jayaprakash

    2016-06-21

    Irreversibilities in each component of vapor compression chillers contribute to additional power consumption in chillers. In this study, chiller power consumption was predicted by computing the Carnot reversible work and entropy generated in every component of the chiller. Thermodynamic properties namely enthalpy and entropy of the entire refrigerant cycle were obtained by measuring the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet of each primary component of a 15kW R22 water cooled scroll chiller. Entropy generation of each component was then calculated using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Good correlation was found between the measured and computed chiller power consumption. This irreversibility analysis can be also effectively used as a performance monitoring tool in vapor compression chillers as higher entropy generation is anticipated during faulty operations.

  17. RF power consumption emulation optimized with interval valued homotopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Anton, François; Yatskevich, Vital

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology towards the emulation of the electrical power consumption of the RF device during the cellular phone/handset transmission mode using the LTE technology. The emulation methodology takes the physical environmental variables and the logical interface between...... the baseband and the RF system as inputs to compute the emulated power dissipation of the RF device. The emulated power, in between the measured points corresponding to the discrete values of the logical interface parameters is computed as a polynomial interpolation using polynomial basis functions....... The evaluation of polynomial and spline curve fitting models showed a respective divergence (test error) of 8% and 0.02% from the physically measured power consumption. The precisions of the instruments used for the physical measurements have been modeled as intervals. We have been able to model the power...

  18. LTE modem power consumption, SAR and RF signal strength emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for emulating the LTE modem power consumption, emitted SAR and RF signal strength when transmitting an LTE signal. The inputs of the methodology are: modem logical/protocol commands, time advance, near-field specifier, and antenna characteristics. The power...... emulation model(s) are computed by a two layer 451 neural network based on physical power measurements. SAR is emulated by polynomial interpolation models based on FDTD simulations. The accuracies of the mathematical function approximations for the emulation models of power and SAR are 5.19% and 3...

  19. Controlling Power Consumption for Displays With Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Backlight dimming of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technology which aims at saving power and improving visual quality. The evolution of energy standards and the increasing public expectations regarding power consumption have made it necessary for backlight systems to manage their power....... Such a control is challenging to implement, because for LCD displays quality and power are closely interlinked, and one cannot be modified without affecting the other. To address this issue, we present a framework for power controlled backlight dimming defining some key concepts. Two methods to obtain backlights...... with a predefined power level for images are presented: one method has low complexity and the other achieves high performance in terms of quality/power trade-off. Those methods are evaluated on a modeled Light-Emitting Diode edge-lit backlight display. The high-performance method performs significantly better than...

  20. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  1. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  2. Power Consumption Optimization for Multiple Parallel Centrifugal Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Large amounts of energy is being used in a wide range of applications to transport liquid. This paper proposes a generic solution for minimizing power consumption of a generic pumping station equipped with identical variable speed pumps. The proposed solution consists of two sequential steps; fir...

  3. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad MARSIC; Alessandro GIULIANO; Meiling ZHU

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimiza...

  4. Self-consumption of electric power from photovoltaic origin. Ademe's advices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-02-01

    As electric power self-consumption progressively becomes economically attractive for individuals as well as for tertiary, industrial and agricultural sectors, this publication supports the development of self-consumption which displays actual benefits for consumers and for the collectivity as it notably contributes to the development of renewable energies and of roof-based photovoltaic energy production. This publication first outlines stakes and challenges (in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy dependence, impacts on air quality and on the environment), and then proposes an overview of possible options for a photovoltaic power production (to sell the whole production, or to partly or totally consume it). It indicates some data illustrating photovoltaic production, gives an overview of the situation regulatory knowledge regarding self-consumption, and of benefits of self-consumption in France

  5. Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M.; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. Methods and Results We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the NHS 2, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were non-linearly associated with mortality. Compared to non-drinkers, coffee consumption one to five cups/d was associated with lower risk of mortality, while coffee consumption more than five cups/d was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers, compared to non-drinkers, the HRs of mortality were 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for ≤ 1 cup/d, 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97) for 1.1-3 cups/d, 0.85 (0.79 to 0.92) for 3.1-5 cups/d, and 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) for > 5 cups/d (p for non-linearity = 0.32; p for trend coffee (p for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Conclusions Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. PMID:26572796

  6. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in 3 Large Prospective Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-15

    The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were nonlinearly associated with mortality. Compared with nondrinkers, coffee consumption of 1 to 5 cups per day was associated with lower risk of mortality, whereas coffee consumption of more than 5 cups per day was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers compared with nondrinkers, the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of mortality were 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for 1.0 or less cup per day, 0.92 (0.87-0.97) for 1.1 to 3.0 cups per day, 0.85 (0.79-0.92) for 3.1 to 5.0 cup per day, and 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for more than 5.0 cup per day (P value for nonlinearity = 0.32; P value for trend coffee (P value for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease, neurologic diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Power Consumption Evaluation of Distributed Computing Network Considering Traffic Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Go; Murata, Masayuki

    When computing resources are consolidated in a few huge data centers, a massive amount of data is transferred to each data center over a wide area network (WAN). This results in increased power consumption in the WAN. A distributed computing network (DCN), such as a content delivery network, can reduce the traffic from/to the data center, thereby decreasing the power consumed in the WAN. In this paper, we focus on the energy-saving aspect of the DCN and evaluate its effectiveness, especially considering traffic locality, i.e., the amount of traffic related to the geographical vicinity. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the DCN power consumption and describe the DCN in detail. Then, numerical evaluations show that, when there is strong traffic locality and the router has ideal energy proportionality, the system's power consumption is reduced to about 50% of the power consumed in the case where a DCN is not used; moreover, this advantage becomes even larger (up to about 30%) when the data center is located farthest from the center of the network topology.

  8. Power consumption of programmable controllers; Energieverbrauch von Prozesssteuerungen (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalcher, M.; Battaglia, U.; Busch, E.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy addresses the field of programmable logic controllers and thus investigates a topic that has been neglected up to now - the energy consumption of such controllers. The results of measurements made on programmable logic controllers in use both in operational industrial plants and in the Automation Laboratory at the University of Applied Science in Chur, Switzerland are presented, where a detailed analysis was made on a demonstration plant. Also, technical documentation (catalogues) were evaluated and discussed with experts who had practical experience at their disposal. The results of the study are discussed: these show that the power consumption of any particular programmable logic controller is low in comparison to the energy consumption of the processes that are being controlled. Additionally, it was found that the optimisation of newer devices has to a great extent already been realised and that standard solutions for energy optimisation are not easy to put into practice. It is suggested that savings can possibly be made in the controllers by improving the efficiency of their power supply units and by choosing power ratings to better suit the actual power needed.

  9. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  10. Electric power economy: comparative study of electric power consumption in many methods of outfloor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Hideo; Tsitiya, Milton Tomoyuki

    1989-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of the electric power consumption of a water elevatory station in order to verify which method is the most suitable in energy economy through the outflow variation in function of the demand

  11. Low power consumption and high temperature durability for radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Ueno, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Low power consumption and high temperature operation are important in an environmental monitoring system. The power consumption of 3 mW is achieved for the radiation sensor using low voltage operational amplifier and comparator in the signal processing circuit. The leakage reverse current of photodiode causes the charge amplifier saturation over 50degC. High temperature durability was improved by optimizing the circuit configuration and the values of feedback resistance and capacitance in the charge amplifier. The pulse response of the radiation sensor was measured up to 55degC. The custom detection circuit was designed by 0.6 μm CMOS process at 5-V supply voltage. The operation temperature was improved up to 65degC. (author)

  12. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  13. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquerizo-Hdez, Daniel; Muñoz, Pablo; R-Moreno, María D; F Barrero, David

    2017-09-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN). Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer) and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+) in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  14. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vaquerizo-Hdez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN. Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+ in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  15. A fast electrostatic chopper of low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, P.G.; Fazzini, T.; Taccetti, N.

    1979-01-01

    An electrostatic chopper for the continuous beams of a 7.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator is described. The electrostatic deflector uses complemetary transistors, driven by optoelectronic couplers, as voltage switches. The power consumption of the high voltage system at 30 kHz repetition frequency is approximately 3 W. Rise and fall times are symmetric and of the order of 0.4 μs. Experimental time spectra of prompt and delayed γ-rays are presented. (Auth.)

  16. System-Level Power Consumption Analysis of the Wearable Asthmatic Wheeze Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Oletic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term quantification of asthmatic wheezing envisions an m-Health sensor system consisting of a smartphone and a body-worn wireless acoustic sensor. As both devices are power constrained, the main criterion guiding the system design comes down to minimization of power consumption, while retaining sufficient respiratory sound classification accuracy (i.e., wheeze detection. Crucial for assessment of the system-level power consumption is the understanding of trade-off between power cost of computationally intensive local processing and communication. Therefore, we analyze power requirements of signal acquisition, processing, and communication in three typical operating scenarios: (1 streaming of uncompressed respiratory signal to a smartphone for classification, (2 signal streaming utilizing compressive sensing (CS for reduction of data rate, and (3 respiratory sound classification onboard the wearable sensor. Study shows that the third scenario featuring the lowest communication cost enables the lowest total sensor system power consumption ranging from 328 to 428 μW. In such scenario, 32-bit ARM Cortex M3/M4 cores typically embedded within Bluetooth 4 SoC modules feature the optimal trade-off between onboard classification performance and consumption. On the other hand, study confirms that CS enables the most power-efficient design of the wearable sensor (216 to 357 μW in the compressed signal streaming, the second scenario. In such case, a single low-power ARM Cortex-A53 core is sufficient for simultaneous real-time CS reconstruction and classification on the smartphone, while keeping the total system power within budget for uncompressed streaming.

  17. Power-Consumption Measurements for LTE User Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads

    wireless communications test set and the Agilent N6705B DC power analyzer to establish a power consumption model for LTE user equipment (UE). The model is useful when you need to examine the UE battery life in system-level simulations. We will explain how the Agilent equipment can be used in manual tests......, but we do not discuss how to make automated tests (for example, using VEE software). In this application note, we analyze smartphones adhering to the 3GPP LTE standard [1]....

  18. The Increase of Power Efficiency of Underground Coal Mining by the Forecasting of Electric Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, Vladimir; Belyaevsky, Roman; Skrebneva, Evgeniya

    2017-11-01

    In article the analysis of electric power consumption and problems of power saving on coal mines are considered. Nowadays the share of conditionally constant costs of electric power for providing safe working conditions underground on coal mines is big. Therefore, the power efficiency of underground coal mining depends on electric power expense of the main technological processes and size of conditionally constant costs. The important direction of increase of power efficiency of coal mining is forecasting of a power consumption and monitoring of electric power expense. One of the main approaches to reducing of electric power costs is increase in accuracy of the enterprise demand in the wholesale electric power market. It is offered to use artificial neural networks to forecasting of day-ahead power consumption with hourly breakdown. At the same time use of neural and indistinct (hybrid) systems on the principles of fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms is more preferable. This model allows to do exact short-term forecasts at a small array of input data. A set of the input parameters characterizing mining-and-geological and technological features of the enterprise is offered.

  19. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  20. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-28

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  1. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  2. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna, E-mail: anirban.bhattacharyya@physics.uu.se; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-21

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  3. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad MARSIC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimization ensure the system’s energy autonomous capability demonstrated in this paper by presenting the promising testing results achieved following its integration with structural health monitoring and body area network applications.

  4. Synapse:neural network for predict power consumption: users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, C; Mangeas, M; Perrot, N

    1994-08-01

    SYNAPSE is forecasting tool designed to predict power consumption in metropolitan France on the half hour time scale. Some characteristics distinguish this forecasting model from those which already exist. In particular, it is composed of numerous neural networks. The idea for using many neural networks arises from past tests. These tests showed us that a single neural network is not able to solve the problem correctly. From this result, we decided to perform unsupervised classification of the 24 consumption curves. From this classification, six classes appeared, linked with the weekdays: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, holidays and bridge days. For each class and for each half hour, two multilayer perceptrons are built. The two of them forecast the power for one particular half hour, and for a day including one of the determined class. The input of these two network are different: the first one (short time forecasting) includes the powers for the most recent half hour and relative power of the previous day; the second (medium time forecasting) includes only the relative power of the previous day. A process connects the results of every networks and allows one to forecast more than one half-hour in advance. In this process, short time forecasting networks and medium time forecasting networks are used differently. The first kind of neural networks gives good results on the scale of one day. The second one gives good forecasts for the next predicted powers. In this note, the organization of the SYNAPSE program is detailed, and the user`s menu is described. This first version of synapse works and should allow the APC group to evaluate its utility. (authors). 6 refs., 2 appends.

  5. Experiment with flexible electric power consumption; Demonstrationsforsoeg med fleksibelt elforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Emil (Dong Energy A/S, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    The emergence of interactive meters with communication module has made it possible that electricity consumption at different customer segments can be activated in a new way of benefit for the customer, the electricity company and the system operator. In this demonstration project customer segment is larger commercial properties and public institutions. In conclusion, it is technically possible to manage and activate the potential for demand response within the segment of large office blocks and public buildings. Practical experiments have shown that it is more expensive to achieve flexibility in power consumption for older properties than for a newly built property. The economics of demand response within office buildings are currently (prices as of 2008) not so attractive for either the customer or the utility company in relation to the investments needed to be made at both the customer and the utility company to build an infrastructure. It should also be noted that there may be relatively much work involved in handling a lot of small systems compared to systems of large effects, for example 500 kW and more. It is therefore the more attractive systems within the industrial customer segments with plants as UPS systems, cooling systems in cold storage rooms and the like which has the potential of a size that should be ground-breaking by building an infrastructure to manage power demand response, so that it eventually becomes marginally cheaper also handle minor power effects like those in office buildings. (ln)

  6. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  7. Can We Speculate Running Application With Server Power Consumption Trace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanlong; Hu, Han; Wen, Yonggang; Zhang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to detect the running applications in a server by classifying the observed power consumption series for the purpose of data center energy consumption monitoring and analysis. Time series classification problem has been extensively studied with various distance measurements developed; also recently the deep learning-based sequence models have been proved to be promising. In this paper, we propose a novel distance measurement and build a time series classification algorithm hybridizing nearest neighbor and long short term memory (LSTM) neural network. More specifically, first we propose a new distance measurement termed as local time warping (LTW), which utilizes a user-specified index set for local warping, and is designed to be noncommutative and nondynamic programming. Second, we hybridize the 1-nearest neighbor (1NN)-LTW and LSTM together. In particular, we combine the prediction probability vector of 1NN-LTW and LSTM to determine the label of the test cases. Finally, using the power consumption data from a real data center, we show that the proposed LTW can improve the classification accuracy of dynamic time warping (DTW) from about 84% to 90%. Our experimental results prove that the proposed LTW is competitive on our data set compared with existed DTW variants and its noncommutative feature is indeed beneficial. We also test a linear version of LTW and find out that it can perform similar to state-of-the-art DTW-based method while it runs as fast as the linear runtime lower bound methods like LB_Keogh for our problem. With the hybrid algorithm, for the power series classification task we achieve an accuracy up to about 93%. Our research can inspire more studies on time series distance measurement and the hybrid of the deep learning models with other traditional models.

  8. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jinguang; Li Sen

    2014-01-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. A noise reconfigurable current-reuse resistive feedback amplifier with signal-dependent power consumption for fetal ECG monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shuang; Rooijakkers, M.J.; Harpe, P.; Rabotti, C.; Mischi, M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a noise-reconfigurable resistive feedback amplifier with current-reuse technique for fetal ECG monitoring. The proposed amplifier allows for both tuning of the noise level and changing the power consumption according to the signal properties, minimizing the total power

  10. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diewertje Sluik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE, free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years, 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  11. EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT OF POWER CONSUMPTION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Koksharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article distinguishes the methodological and systematic fundamentals for the formation of energy policy of the industrial enterprise. The article performes the analysis of Russian state policy in the field of energy efficiency and conservation , which allows to identify the organizational-economic and regulatory drawbacks proving the existing contradiction between the economic interests of the state and private business in the field of energy efficiency and power supply. Author proposes and formulates the management concept of power consumption of industrial enterprise. The concept includes a number of propositions, the dynamic normal of energy efficiency and energy saving playing the key role. It is regarded as a business model of energy efficiency and energy saving that provides the implementation of both economic and energetic strategies of enterprise.

  12. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  13. Microcontroller Power Consumption Measurement Based on PSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Janković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers are often used as central processing elements in embedded systems. Because of different sleep and performance modes that microcontrollers support, their power consumption may have a high dynamic range, over 100 dB. In this paper, a data acquisition (DAQ system for measuring and analyzing the power consumption of microcontrollers is presented. DAQ system consists of a current measurement circuit using potentiostat technique, a DAQ device based on system on chip PSoC 5LP and Python PC program for the analysis, storage and visualization of measured data. Both Successive Approximation Register (SAR and Delta-Sigma (DS ADCs contained in the PSoC 5LP are used for measuring voltage drop across the shunt resistor. SAR ADC samples data at a 10 times higher rate than DS ADC, so the input range of DS ADC can be adjusted based on data measured by SAR ADC, thus enabling the extension of current measuring range by 28%. Implemented DAQ device is connected with a computer through a USB port and tested with developed Python PC program.

  14. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...... of the radio link power consumption. Based on these description and analysis, we propose power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on the smartphone Nokia N900, which follows a 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSPA data bearers. Further we propose method of parameters selection for 3GPP...... transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on the mobile device....

  15. Investigating the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khozondar, Balkess; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih

    2017-11-01

    The water-energy intertwined relationship has recently gained more importance due to the high water consumption in the energy sector and to the limited availability of the water resources. The energy and electricity demand of Turkey is increasing rapidly in the last two decades. More thermal power plants are expected to be built in the near future to supply the rapidly increasing demand in Turkey which will put pressure on water availability. In this study, the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants is investigated. The main objectives of this study are to identify the amount of water consumed to generate 1 kWh of electricity for each generation technology currently used in Turkey and to investigate ways to reduce the water consumption at power plants expected to be built in the near future to supply the increasing demand. The various electricity generation technology mixture scenarios are analyzed to determine the future total and per generation water consumption, and water savings based on changes of cooling systems used for each technology. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) program is used to determine the minimum water consuming electricity generation technology mixtures using optimization approaches between 2017 and 2035.

  16. Integrated Evaluation of Reliability and Power Consumption of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Maciel, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Power consumption is a primary interest in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), and a large number of strategies have been proposed to evaluate it. However, those approaches usually neither consider reliability issues nor the power consumption of applications executing in the network. A central concern is the lack of consolidated solutions that enable us to evaluate the power consumption of applications and the network stack also considering their reliabilities. To solve this problem, we introduce a fully automatic solution to design power consumption aware WSN applications and communication protocols. The solution presented in this paper comprises a methodology to evaluate the power consumption based on the integration of formal models, a set of power consumption and reliability models, a sensitivity analysis strategy to select WSN configurations and a toolbox named EDEN to fully support the proposed methodology. This solution allows accurately estimating the power consumption of WSN applications and the network stack in an automated way. PMID:29113078

  17. Integrated Evaluation of Reliability and Power Consumption of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Dâmaso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is a primary interest in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, and a large number of strategies have been proposed to evaluate it. However, those approaches usually neither consider reliability issues nor the power consumption of applications executing in the network. A central concern is the lack of consolidated solutions that enable us to evaluate the power consumption of applications and the network stack also considering their reliabilities. To solve this problem, we introduce a fully automatic solution to design power consumption aware WSN applications and communication protocols. The solution presented in this paper comprises a methodology to evaluate the power consumption based on the integration of formal models, a set of power consumption and reliability models, a sensitivity analysis strategy to select WSN configurations and a toolbox named EDEN to fully support the proposed methodology. This solution allows accurately estimating the power consumption of WSN applications and the network stack in an automated way.

  18. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  19. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate video transmission over 3G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny; Wang, Le

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the power consumption of video data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. The work includes the description of the radio resource control transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by a detailed power consumption analysis...... and measurements of the radio link power consumption. Based on this description and analysis, we propose our power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on a smartphone Nokia N900, which follows 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSUPA data bearers. We also propose a method for parameter selection...... for the 3GPP transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on a mobile device taking signaling traffic, buffer size and latency restrictions into account. Furthermore, we discuss the gain in power consumption vs. PSNR for transmitted video and show the possibility of performing power...

  20. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  1. Household Consumption of Food-Away-From-Home: Total Expenditure and by Type of Food Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki A. McCracken; Jon A. Brandt

    1987-01-01

    Consistent with prior expectations based on household production theory, household income, time value, size and composition, and the environment in which production and consumption occurred were all important determinants of total household expenditures on food-away-from-home. However, the importance of these factors varied by type of food facility: conventional restaurants, fast-food facilities, and other commercial establishments. Decomposition of the tobit elasticities indicated the differ...

  2. Consumption of electric power for space heating of residential buildings and other premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Westerlund, R.

    1986-10-01

    The analysis comprises power consumption to 1989 and to 1997 using different energy prices. The effects of oil prices on consumption has been calculated. The level of the consumption of electric power of the year 1989 is estimated to be 2-3 TWh higher than the level of 1997. This is because of not yet accomplished economizing measures and relatively new installations

  3. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  4. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  5. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of liaoning province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.S.; Wang, Y.J. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Zhu Xin Zhuang, Bei Nong Lu No. 2, Changping District, Beijing (China); Zhang, S.L. [Finance Department, Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Xingguang Street No. 43, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region (China); Li, F.R. [University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010. (author)

  6. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  7. Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M. S.; Abd Malek, M. F.; Sabri, Naseer; Omar, M. Iqbal bin; Mohamed, Latifah; Juni, K. M.

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

  8. Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M S; Iqbal bin Omar, M; Malek, M F Abd; Mohamed, Latifah; Sabri, Naseer; Juni, K M

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

  9. Energy efficient refrigeration and flexible power consumption in a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.; Larsen, Lars F.S. (Danfoss Refrigeration and A/C Controls, Nordborg (Denmark)); Halvgaard, R.; Bagterp Joergensen, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). DTU Informatics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Refrigeration and heating systems consume substantial amounts of energy worldwide. However, due to the thermal capacity there is a potential for storing 'coldness' or heat in the system. This feature allows for implementation of different load shifting and shedding strategies in order to optimize the operation energywise, but without compromising the original cooling and indoor climate quality. In this work we investigate the potential of such a strategy and its ability to significantly lower the cost related to operating systems such as supermarket refrigeration and heat pumps for residential houses. With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation of several units will contribute significantly to the shedding of total electricity demand. Using small case studies we demonstrate the potential for utilizing daily variations to deliver a power efficient cooling or heating and for the implementation of Virtual Power Plants in Smart Grid scenarios. (Author)

  10. A Longitudinal Supra-Inguinal Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block Reduces Morphine Consumption After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Matthias; Vermeylen, Kris; Van Herreweghe, Imré; Carlier, Laurence; Soetens, Filiep; Lambrecht, Stijn; Croes, Kathleen; Pottel, Hans; Van de Velde, Marc

    The role of a fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for postoperative analgesia after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains questionable. High-dose local anesthetics and a proximal injection site may be essential for successful analgesia. High-dose local anesthetics may pose a risk for local anesthetic systemic toxicity. We hypothesized that a high-dose longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB is safe and decreases postoperative morphine consumption after anterior approach THA. We conducted a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled trial. Patients scheduled for THA were randomized to group FICB (longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB with 40-mL ropivacaine 0.5%) or group C (control, no block). Standard hypothesis tests (t test or Mann-Whitney U test, χ test) were performed to analyze baseline characteristics and outcome parameters. The primary end point of the study was total morphine (mg) consumption at 24 hours postoperatively. Serial total and free ropivacaine serum levels were determined in 10 patients. After obtaining ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 88 patients were included. Mean (SD) morphine consumption at 24 hours postoperatively was reduced in group FICB compared to group C: 10.25 (1.64) mg versus 19.0 (2.4) mg (P = 0.004). Using a mean dose of 2.6-mg/kg ropivacaine (range, 2-3.4 mg/kg), none of the patients had total or free ropivacaine levels above the maximum tolerated serum concentration. We conclude that a high-dose longitudinal supra-inguinal FICB reduces postoperative morphine requirements after anterior approach THA.Clinical Trials Registry: EU Clinical Trials Register. www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu #2014-002122-12.

  11. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  12. Research on DTX Technology and Power Consumption Performance of Mobile Communication Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shui Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the power consumption of GSM and TD-SCDMA mobile communication system terminal, the paper starts with DTX (Discontinuous Transmission technology of GSM and TD-SCDMA systems, offers a detailed analysis of the DTX’s function in optimizing power consumption of GSM and TDSCDMA mobile communication system terminal and reducing system interference, and verifies DTX’s positive role in reducing the power consumption of the mobile terminal by experiment.

  13. Implementing low power consumption in standby mode in the case of power supplies with power factor correction

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Kevin; F., Pablo; G., Diego; Sebastián, Javier; Álvarez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    This work analyzes different options to implement low power consumption in Switching Mode Power Supplies (SMPSs) with Power Factor Correction (PFC) when they are in standby mode. The standard SMPSs for power levels higher than 100 W are made up of two stages: a classical PFC stage based on a Boost Converter operating in the Continuous Conduction Mode and a second stage based on any type of isolated DC-DC converter. The value of the resistive sensors needed by the PFC control stage determines ...

  14. Total dietary sugar consumption does not influence sleep or behaviour in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Banks, Siobhan; Kohler, Mark

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to compare sugar intake in Australian children with current guidelines and determine if total sugar consumption as a percentage of energy (sugar %E) exacerbates the relationship between sleep and behaviour. A sample of 287 children aged 8-12 years (boys 48.8%, age: 10.7 ± 1.3 years), and their parents/guardians completed a battery of questionnaires. Children completed a food frequency questionnaire, and parents completed demographic, sleep, and behaviour questionnaires. Average sugar intake was 134.9 ± 71.7 g per day (sugar %E 26.0 ± 7.0%), and only 55 (19%) participants did not exceed the recommended sugar intake limit. Correlations and logistical regressions indicated that sugar %E was not associated with sleep or behavioural domains (r range = -0.07-0.08; p range = .173-.979) nor contributed to the prediction of sleep behaviour problems (p range = .16-.80). Whilst a high proportion of children consumed above the recommended amount of daily total sugar, total sugar consumption was not related to behavioural or sleep problems, nor affected the relationship between these variables.

  15. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Freedman, Neal D; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy

    2017-08-15

    Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse. To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death. The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996. Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. 185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment. Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. 58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. National Cancer Institute.

  16. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  17. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  18. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  19. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  20. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  1. Design of intelligent power consumption optimization and visualization management platform for large buildings based on internet of things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Shulan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings provide a significant contribution to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. It has been estimated that the development of an intelligent power consumption monitor and control system will result in about 30% savings in energy consumption. This design innovatively integrates the advanced technologies such as the internet of things, the internet, intelligent buildings and intelligent electricity which can offer open, efficient, convenient energy consumption detection platform in demand side and visual management demonstration application platform in power enterprises side. The system was created to maximize the effective and efficient the use of energy resource. It was development around sensor networks and intelligent gateway and the monitoring center software. This will realize the highly integration and comprehensive application in energy and information to meet the needs with intelligent buildings

  2. Minimizing the Power Consumption of Location-Based Services on Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Location-based services have to pay careful attention to their power consumption in order not to drain the batteries of mobile phones. It is not a simple task to build low power location-based services that can run for hours because such services make heavy use of many power consuming features...... of mobile phones. In this article we discuss the power consumption of location-based services and mobile phone features, survey methods for how to minimize power consumption and summarize a number of design considerations for location-based service developers....

  3. Determination of aggregated load power consumption, under non-sinusoidal supply using an improved load model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, R.; Moghani, J.S.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Mirtalaei, S.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The harmonic content of supply voltage results in additional power losses and hence increases the load power consumption. The role of the power quality equipments on the power consumption without using an accurate model cannot be determined, too. In this paper, an improved model for aggregated loads proposed, which estimates the effects of voltage harmonics on the power consumption. The distinguished aspect of the proposed model is its parameters identification method which is based on the practical techniques, such as employing a capacitor bank or varying dummy loads in steps. The proposed model has been verified by the comparison of measured and simulated results.

  4. Power supply for nuclear power plant home consumption using inverter sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepar, V.; Tvrdik, J.

    1988-01-01

    A description is presented of the system configuration of a nuclear power plant with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units and of a system of guaranteed power supply for the plant home consumption network for a WWER-440 power plant. The power supply network consists of 6 inverter supplies for safety systems, 4 supplies for nonsystem facilities and of a minimum of three power supplies for facilities outside the units. A diagram is shown and the principle described of the currently used ABP 1500 power supply system of Soviet origin. Using the experience from its operation, a Czechoslovak inverter supply system was designed featuring parallel operation of the inverter units. The principles are given for the design of a power supply system of an output of 75 kVA, the diagram is shown and the principle described. The design allows implementing and using the system without redundancy or in redundant operation of the 2 from 3 type at an installed capacity of 66%, or of the 1 from 2 type at an installed capacity of 50% of the output. The system is undergoing tests that should verify its reliability. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Electric Power Consumption Coefficients for U.S. Industries: Regional Estimation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    Economic activity relies on electric power provided by electrical generation, transmission, and distribution systems. This paper presents a method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to estimate electric power consumption by different industries in the United States. Results are validated through comparisons with existing literature and benchmarking data sources. We also discuss the limitations and applications of the presented method, such as estimating indirect electric power consumption and assessing the economic impact of power outages based on input-output economic models.

  6. Price elastic power consumption as reserve power - a demonstration in the horticultural sector. Final report; Priselastisk elforbrug som reservekraft - et demonstrationsprojekt i gartneribranchen. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Danish greenhouses have a relatively high level of electricity consumption for plant growth lighting. Part of the electricity consumption is flexible, and the main purpose of the project was to find out if the plant growth lighting of the greenhouses is fit for the market for reserve power. The greenhouses' total potential for delivery of upgrading services was up to 80 MW for a short period in spring 2007. Four greenhouses participated in practise on the regulating power market with a flexible consumption. The upscaling of the demonstration was not carried through because e.g. the price development on the regulating power market reduced the gain considerably, and the investments for installation of on-line metering at the greenhouses did not measure up with the earnings. (Author)

  7. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  8. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  9. Estimating Energy Consumption of Mobile Fluid Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zigler, Bradley T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This report estimates the market size and energy consumption of mobile off-road applications utilizing hydraulic fluid power, and summarizes technology gaps and implementation barriers. Mobile fluid power is the use of hydraulic fluids under pressure to transmit power in mobile equipment applications. The mobile off-road fluid power sector includes various uses of hydraulic fluid power equipment with fundamentally diverse end-use application and operational requirements, such as a skid steer loader, a wheel loader or an agriculture tractor. The agriculture and construction segments dominate the mobile off-road fluid power market in component unit sales volume. An estimated range of energy consumed by the mobile off-road fluid power sector is 0.36 - 1.8 quads per year, which was 1.3 percent - 6.5 percent of the total energy consumed in 2016 by the transportation sector. Opportunities for efficiency improvements within the fluid power system result from needs to level and reduce the peak system load requirements and develop new technologies to reduce fluid power system level losses, both of which may be facilitated by characterizing duty cycles to define standardized performance test methods. There are currently no commonly accepted standardized test methods for evaluating equipment level efficiency over a duty cycle. The off-road transportation sector currently meets criteria emissions requirements, and there are no efficiency regulations requiring original equipment manufacturers (OEM) to invest in new architecture development to improve the fuel economy of mobile off-road fluid power systems. In addition, the end-user efficiency interests are outweighed by low equipment purchase or lease price concerns, required payback periods, and reliability and durability requirements of new architecture. Current economics, low market volumes with high product diversity, and regulation compliance challenge OEM investment in commercialization of new architecture development.

  10. Total life cycle cost model for electric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardullo, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Total Life Cycle Cost (TLCC) model for electric power stations was developed to provide a technology screening model. The TLCC analysis involves normalizing cost estimates with respect to performance standards and financial assumptions and preparing a profile of all costs over the service life of the power station. These costs when levelized present a value in terms of a utility electricity rate. Comparison of cost and the pricing of the electricity for a utility shows if a valid project exists. Cost components include both internal and external costs. Internal costs are direct costs associated with the purchase, and operation of the power station and include initial capital costs, operating and maintenance costs. External costs result from societal and/or environmental impacts that are external to the marketplace and can include air quality impacts due to emissions, infrastructure costs, and other impacts. The cost stream is summed (current dollars) or discounted (constant dollars) to some base year to yield a overall TLCC of each power station technology on a common basis. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it may not always be a preferred method for some utilities who may prefer minimizing capital costs. Such consideration does not always result in technology penetration in a marketplace such as the utility sector. Under various regulatory climates, the utility is likely to heavily weigh initial capital costs while giving limited consideration to other costs such as societal costs. Policy makers considering external costs, such as those resulting from environmental impacts, may reach significantly different conclusions about which technologies are most advantageous to society. The TLCC analysis model for power stations was developed to facilitate consideration of all perspectives

  11. Value of an option to purchase electric power. The case of uncertain consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Karan

    2002-01-01

    Large manufacturers and corporations often purchase options on power to protect themselves against unanticipated price increases. This paper analyzes the impact of uncertainty in power consumption by a corporation on the value of an option to purchase electric power. Because there is no economically viable method to store power, these options are exercised to satisfy immediate consumption needs only. The amount exercised may differ from the maximum amount contracted, which in turn alters the payoffs that accrue to the option contract. We apply a Monte Carlo methodology to show that 'consumption uncertainty' may substantively lower the price of an option contract under different conditions

  12. Measuring the power consumption of social media applications on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunia, A. I. M.; Suherman; Rambe, A. H.; Fauzi, R.

    2018-03-01

    As fully connected social media applications become popular and require all time connection, the power consumption on mobile device battery increases significantly. As power supplied by a battery is limited, social media application should be designed to be less power consuming. This paper reports the power consumption measurement of social media running on a mobile device. Experimental circuit was developed by using a microcontroller measuring an android smartphone on a 802.11 controlled network. The experiment results show that whatsapp consumes the power less than others in stand by and chat. While other states are dominated by line. The blackberry consumes the power the worst.

  13. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  14. Total Magnetic Field Signatures over Submarine HVDC Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using submarine cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their location and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to locate pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as submarine pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.

  15. Minimal average consumption downlink base station power control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Holtkamp H.; Auer G.; Haas H.

    2011-01-01

    We consider single cell multi-user OFDMA downlink resource allocation on a flat-fading channel such that average supply power is minimized while fulfilling a set of target rates. Available degrees of freedom are transmission power and duration. This paper extends our previous work on power optimal resource allocation in the mobile downlink by detailing the optimal power control strategy investigation and extracting fundamental characteristics of power optimal operation in cellular downlink. W...

  16. Joint Antenna Selection and Precoding Optimization for Small-Cell Network with Minimum Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the power consumption problem for a downlink multiuser small-cell network (SCN considering both the quality of service (QoS and power constraints. First based on a practical power consumption model taking into account both the dynamic transmit power and static circuit power, we formulate and then transform the power consumption optimization problem into a convex problem by using semidefinite relaxation (SDR technique and obtain the optimal solution by the CVX tool. We further note that the SDR-based solution becomes infeasible for realistic implementation due to its heavy backhaul burden and computational complexity. To this end, we propose an alternative suboptimal algorithm which has low implementation overhead and complexity, based on minimum mean square error (MMSE precoding. Furthermore, we propose a distributed correlation-based antenna selection (DCAS algorithm combining with our optimization algorithms to reduce the static circuit power consumption for the SCN. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that our proposed suboptimal algorithm is very effective on power consumption minimization, with significantly reduced backhaul burden and computational complexity. Moreover, we show that our optimization algorithms with DCAS have less power consumption than the other benchmark algorithms.

  17. Multilevel Control System of Regional Power Consumption: Analysis of Infrastructure Elements Interconnections, Efficiency Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna Myznikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental strategic programs in the spheres of power and economics adopted at various levels of management, are not always capable to solve the problem of power efficiency. The changes of systemic connections of economy and power elements are one of the basic problems of management at the regional level. The development of market relations has caused the growth of uncertainty factors at all levels of power consumption management. An insufficient estimation of system infrastructural interrelations and an individualization of organizational-economic relations of economic subjects and their localization, have generated the intersystem conflictness in distribution of power resources and have aggravated the problem of estimating power consumption efficiency at a systemic level. The restriction of application of the traditional management methods based on the principles of technological efficiency of the processes of energy manufacture and consumption, is connected with the information ruptures caused by the growth of factors of uncertainty and inconsistency of efficiency criteria. Application of modern methods of power consumption forecasting has a number of essential restrictions. At the present stage the management of power consumption in multilevel systems is aimed at realisation of system integrity and economic coordination of manufacture elements, transfer and consumption at regional level and demands working out of the new effective management methods based on the analysis of system interrelations. Allocation of system interrelations depends on features of development of electropower sector, active and passive elements of the structure of consumption, power balance. The analysis and estimation of interrelations of power and economic sphere allow to improve methodology of management of power consumption at the regional level in the conditions of uncertainty.

  18. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  19. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  20. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited. Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol. Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period. Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There were no

  1. Sustainable Development of Regional Power Systems and the Consumption of Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.

  2. Method for reducing power consumption in a state retaining circuit, state reaining circuit and electronic device.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    A method for reducing the power consumption in a state retaining circuit during a standby mode is disclosed comprising, in an active state, providing a regular power supply (VDD) and a standby power supply (VDD STANDBY) to the state retaining circuit; for a transition from an active state to a

  3. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    wine, malt whisky or unmatured 'new make'spirit. Each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Bloodsamples were obtained from the anticubital vein at intervals up to 4h after consumption of the beverages when a urinesample was also obtained....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red...

  4. Measurement of power and energy consumption of a competition-mobile-robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Tsing-Tshih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy consumption are the two most important factors for successful operation; they also play important roles in performance identification. The measurement of power and energy consumption is a common test in the development process of a competition mobile robot. If the power of a competition mobile robot is not sufficient, the running time in the competition will be too long and winning the competition will not be possible. Thus, the power and energy consumption are basic and important measurement parameters for a competition mobile robot. In this paper, five types of hand-made competition mobile robots are successfully developed and their performances are measured. From the measurements, their powers and energy consumptions are evaluated and analyzed, respectively. The test results show large differences in the powers and energy consumptions of the five models, even though the same motors were used. The design and construction of the competition mobile robot are the key parameters that cause these huge differences. It is possible to develop the measurement techniques for power and energy consumption, quickly and precisely, to determine how to modify a competition mobile robot rapidly and efficiently to a condition optimal for a mobile robot competition.

  5. Model Predictive Control for Flexible Power Consumption of Large-Scale Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) scheme is introduced to directly control the electrical power consumption of large-scale refrigeration systems. Deviation from the baseline of the consumption is corresponded to the storing and delivering of thermal energy. By virtue of such correspondence...

  6. An energy harvesting converter to power sensorized total human knee prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, V; Sardini, E; Serpelloni, M; Baronio, G

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the internal loads acting in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) is fundamental aspect to improve their design. One of the main benefits of this improvement is the longer duration of the tibial inserts. In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvesting system, which is implantable in a TKP, is presented. This is conceived for powering a future implantable system that is able to monitor the loads (and, possibly, other parameters) that could influence the working conditions of a TKP in real-time. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, positioned into each condyle, and a coil that is placed in a pin of the tibial insert and connected to an implantable power management circuit. The magnetic flux variation and the induced voltage are generated by the knee's motion. A TKP prototype has been realized in order to reproduce the knee mechanics and to test the EHS performance. In the present work, the experimental results are obtained by adopting a resistive load of 2.2 kΩ, in order to simulate a real implanted autonomous system with a current consumption of 850 µA and voltage of 2 V. The tests showed that, after 7 to 30 s of walking with a gait cycle frequency of about 1.0 Hz, the EHS can generate an energy of about 70 μJ, guaranteeing a voltage between 2 and 1.4 V every 7.6 s. With this prototype we can verify that it is possible to power for 16 ms a circuit having a power consumption of 1.7 mW every 7.6 s. The proposed generator is a viable solution to power an implanted electronic system that is conceived for measuring and transmitting the TKP load parameters. (paper)

  7. Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Bahadure

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies br...

  8. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...

  9. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche.This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight.There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  10. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  11. GPU Performance and Power Consumption Analysis: A DCT based denoising application

    OpenAIRE

    Pi Puig, Martín; De Giusti, Laura Cristina; Naiouf, Marcelo; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    It is known that energy and power consumption are becoming serious metrics in the design of high performance workstations because of heat dissipation problems. In the last years, GPU accelerators have been integrating many of these expensive systems despite they are embedding more and more transistors on their chips producing a quick increase of power consumption requirements. This paper analyzes an image processing application, in particular a Discrete Cosine Transform denoising algorithm, i...

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  13. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  14. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  15. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanzhang SUN; Xiyuan MA; Jian XU; Yi BAO; Siyang LIAO

    2017-01-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines.This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission,which has gained popularity,and local energy consumption,in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries.First,the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented.Then,the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security,reliability,cost,and capability to utilize wind energy.Finally,the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system,or supermicrogrid,in China.The coal-fired generators together with the shortterm interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power.In the long term,the transfer of highenergy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  16. Analysis of Characteristics of Power Consumption for Context-Aware Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeyeon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large portion of smartphone applications (Apps has targeted context-aware services. They aim to perceive users’ real-time context like his/her location, actions, or even emotion, and to provide various customized services based on the inferred context. However, context-awareness in mobile environments has some challenging issues due to limitations of devices themselves. Limited power is regarded as the most critical problem in context-awareness on smartphones. Many studies have tried to develop low-power methods, but most of them have focused on the power consumption of H/W modules of smartphones such as CPU and LCD. Only a few research papers have recently started to present some S/W-based approaches to improve the power consumption. That is, previous works did not consider energy consumed by context-awareness of Apps. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the power consumption of context-aware Apps. We analyze the characteristics of context-aware Apps in a perspective of the power consumption, and then define two main factors which significantly influence the power consumption: a sort of context that context-aware Apps require for their services and a type of ways that a user uses them. The experimental result shows the reasonability and the possibility to develop low-power methods based on our analysis. That is, our analysis presented in this paper will be a foundation for energy-efficient context-aware services in mobile environments.

  17. Flexible and Cost Efficient Power Consumption using Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    the formulation of a new cost function for our proposed power management. Hereby the refrigeration system is enabled to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. Since significant amounts of regulating power is needed for a higher penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources...... such as wind turbines this feature is in high demand in a future intelligent power grid (Smart Grid). Our perspective is seen from the refrigeration system but as it is demonstrated the involvement in the balancing market can be economically beneficial for the system itself while delivering crucial services...... that reduces operation costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. In the study we specifically address advantages coming from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices but other aims such as peak load reduction are also considered. An important contribution of this paper is also...

  18. Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Hülsermann, Ralf; Kosiankowski, Dirk; Geilhardt, Frank; Gladisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher bit rates in access networks requires fiber deployment closer to the subscriber resulting in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. Besides higher access bit rates optical access network infrastructure and related technologies enable the network operator to establish larger service areas resulting in a simplified network structure with a lower number of network nodes. By changing the network structure network operators want to benefit from a changed network cost structure by decreasing in short and mid term the upfront investments for network equipment due to concentration effects as well as by reducing the energy costs due to a higher energy efficiency of large network sites housing a high amount of network equipment. In long term also savings in operational expenditures (OpEx) due to the closing of central office (CO) sites are expected. In this paper different architectures for optical access networks basing on state-of-the-art technology are analyzed with respect to network installation costs and power consumption in the context of access node consolidation. Network planning and dimensioning results are calculated for a realistic network scenario of Germany. All node consolidation scenarios are compared against a gigabit capable passive optical network (GPON) based FTTH access network operated from the conventional CO sites. The results show that a moderate reduction of the number of access nodes may be beneficial since in that case the capital expenditures (CapEx) do not rise extraordinarily and savings in OpEx related to the access nodes are expected. The total power consumption does not change significantly with decreasing number of access nodes but clustering effects enable a more energyefficient network operation and optimized power purchase order quantities leading to benefits in energy costs.

  19. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  20. The power consumption of mural central heating boilers; La consommation electrique des chaudieres murales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-10-01

    Two huge campaigns of measurements in the residential sector have revealed the unsuspected level of power consumption of heating and ventilation auxiliaries. It is important to know these levels in order to reduce them as they can significantly increase the energy bill of the lodging. This paper analyzes the case of mural central heating boilers with their auxiliaries: circulating pump of the heating loop and of the sanitary hot water production, ventilation systems, impact of the type of control system used (programmable clock, thermostat or none), annual and seasonal power consumption and the different solutions to reduce these over-consumptions. (J.S.)

  1. The Determination of Load Profiles and Power Consumptions of Home Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Issi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increment of distributed electricity generation based on renewable energy sources and improvement of communication technologies have caused the development of next-generation power grids known as smart grids. The structures of smart grids have bidirectional communication capability and enable the connection of energy generated from distributed sources to any point on the grid. They also support consumers in energy efficiency by creating opportunities for management of power consumption. The information on power consumption and load profiles of home appliances is essential to perform load management in the dwelling accurately. In this study, the power consumption data for all the basic home appliances, utilized in a two-person family in Çankırı, Turkey, was obtained with high resolution in one-second intervals. The detailed power consumption analysis and load profile were executed for each home appliance. The obtained data is not only the average power consumption of each appliance but also characterizes different operating modes or their cycles. In addition, the impact of these devices on home energy management studies and their standby power consumptions were also discussed. The acquired data is an important source to determine the load profile of individual home appliances precisely in home energy management studies. Although the results of this study do not completely reflect the energy consumption behavior of the people who live in this region, they can reveal the trends in load demands based on a real sample and customer consumption behavior of a typical two-person family.

  2. Power consumption of lifts and potential for energy savings; Elektrizitaetsverbrauch und Einspar-Potenziale bei Aufzuegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the results of a study made on the electricity consumption of lifts, which estimates that around 0.5% of Swiss power consumption is caused by lift installations. The results of measurements made on 33 various lift installations and their power consumption are presented. The SIA 380/4 model used to determine energy consumption on the basis of the number of movements is described. Stand-by and lighting consumption is examined, which, according to the authors' conclusions, offer considerable room for improvement, especially for lifts in residential buildings. A further significant potential for improvement is also noted which can be achieved when renewing older systems. The avoidance of inefficient concepts by the use of guidelines for architects, planners and customers is recommended.

  3. Energy Efficient Refrigeration and Flexible Power Consumption in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Halvgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Lars F.S.

    2011-01-01

    . With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices...... are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus...... is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation...

  4. ACCOUNTING OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION LEVEL AT PAYMENT CALCULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL CONSUMPTION (LOSSES OF ELECTRIC POWER FOR ITS TRANSMISSION IN POWER NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Zabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed to make a correction in payment for consumption of reactive energy and power which is attributed to deviation of actual activation energy losses for reactive power compensation from their standard value. It is recommended to calculate standard loss values for every voltage level and actual loss values are to be determined with the help of application of remote electronic accounting means in the current mode of power consumption.

  5. Study of industrial consumption behavior in the conditions of low power consumption and decrease of pollution using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragalie, S.; Gaftea, V.

    1996-01-01

    This study, regarding the industrial consumption behaviour at low power consumption and under low pollution constraints, making use of the input-output analysis, is based on models for prices, energy demand, and pollution. Numerical applications were developed by use of MATILDA program and the methods of setting the model parameters and data acquisition are presented. The analysis provided prognoses for pollution coefficients for given price and consumption input data and very important data for industrial consumption behavior. (author) 7 refs

  6. Evaluating the power consumption of wireless sensor network applications using models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Freitas, Davi; Rosa, Nelson; Silva, Bruno; Maciel, Paulo

    2013-03-13

    Power consumption is the main concern in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. Consequently, several strategies have been proposed for investigating the power consumption of this kind of application. These strategies can help to predict the WSN lifetime, provide recommendations to application developers and may optimize the energy consumed by the WSN applications. While measurement is a known and precise strategy for power consumption evaluation, it is very costly, tedious and may be unfeasible considering the (usual) large number of WSN nodes. Furthermore, due to the inherent dynamism of WSNs, the instrumentation required by measurement techniques makes difficult their use in several different scenarios. In this context, this paper presents an approach for evaluating the power consumption of WSN applications by using simulation models along with a set of tools to automate the proposed approach. Starting from a programming language code, we automatically generate consumption models used to predict the power consumption of WSN applications. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, we compare the results obtained by using the generated models against ones obtained by measurement.

  7. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  8. Energy consumption and energy-saving potential analysis of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000MW coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Fu, Joshua S

    2018-05-10

    The pollutant abatement systems are widely applied in the coal-fired power sector and the energy consumption was considered an important part of the auxiliary power. An energy consumption analysis and assessment model of pollutant abatement systems in a power unit was developed based on the dynamic parameters and technology. The energy consumption of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000 MW coal-fired power unit which meet the ultra-low emission limits and the factors of operating parameters including unit load and inlet concentration of pollutants on the operating power were analyzed. The results show that the total power consumption of the pollutant abatement systems accounted for 1.27% of the gross power generation during the monitoring period. The WFGD system consumed 67% of the rate while the SCR and ESP systems consumed 8.9% and 24.1%. The power consumption rate of pollutant abatement systems decreased with the increase of unit load and increased with the increase of the inlet concentration of pollutants. The operation adjustment was also an effective method to increase the energy efficiency. For example, the operation adjustment of slurry circulation pumps could promote the energy-saving operation of WFGD system. Implication Statement The application of pollutant abatement technologies increases the internal energy consumption of the power plant, which will lead to an increase of power generation costs. The real-time energy consumption of the different pollutant abatement systems in a typical power unit is analyzed based on the dynamic operating data. Further, the influence of different operating parameters on the operating power of the system and the possible energy-saving potential are analyzed.

  9. Power Consumption and Calculation Requirement Analysis of AES for WSN IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Ting

    2018-05-23

    Because of the ubiquity of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the power consumption and security of IoT systems have become very important issues. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a block cipher algorithm is commonly used in IoT devices. In this paper, the power consumption and cryptographic calculation requirement for different payload lengths and AES encryption types are analyzed. These types include software-based AES-CB, hardware-based AES-ECB (Electronic Codebook Mode), and hardware-based AES-CCM (Counter with CBC-MAC Mode). The calculation requirement and power consumption for these AES encryption types are measured on the Texas Instruments LAUNCHXL-CC1310 platform. The experimental results show that the hardware-based AES performs better than the software-based AES in terms of power consumption and calculation cycle requirements. In addition, in terms of AES mode selection, the AES-CCM-MIC64 mode may be a better choice if the IoT device is considering security, encryption calculation requirement, and low power consumption at the same time. However, if the IoT device is pursuing lower power and the payload length is generally less than 16 bytes, then AES-ECB could be considered.

  10. Carbon emission coefficient of power consumption in India: baseline determination from the demand side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Barnali; Parikh, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Substantial investments are expected in the Indian power sector under the flexibility mechanisms (CDM/JI) laid down in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. In this context it is important to evolve a detailed framework for baseline construction in the power sector so as to incorporate the major factors that would affect the baseline values directly or indirectly. It is also important to establish carbon coefficients from electricity generation to help consider accurate project boundaries for numerous electricity conservation and DSM schemes. The objective of this paper is to provide (i) time series estimates of indirect carbon emissions per unit of power consumption (which can also be thought of as emission coefficient of power consumption) and (ii) baseline emissions for the power sector till 2015. Annual time series data on Indian electricity generating industry, for 1974-1998, has been used to develop emission projections till 2015. The impacts of generation mix, fuel efficiency, transmission and distribution losses and auxiliary consumption are studied in a Divisia decomposition framework and their possible future impacts on baseline emissions are studied through three scenarios of growth in power consumption. The study also estimates and projects the carbon emission coefficient per unit of final consumption of electricity that can be used for conducting cost benefit of emission reduction potential for several electricity conserving technologies and benchmarking policy models

  11. A low power consumption and multi-function mini-printer for the portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuheng; Zhang Jiahong

    1994-01-01

    The authors presents a method of fitting a commercial printing calculator to the low power consumption and multi-function mini-printer. It can be employed as a compact data recorder and simple data processing device attached to the portable nuclear instruments, which are powered by dry batteries

  12. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) w...

  13. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  14. Research on trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase considering consumption of clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, He; Lin, Guo; Zhicheng, Yu; Xiaojun, Zhu; Lei, Wang; Zhiqiang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In order to reduce the stochastic volatility of supply and demand, and maintain the electric power system's stability after large scale stochastic renewable energy sources connected to grid, the development and consumption should be promoted by marketing means. Bilateral contract transaction model of large users' direct power purchase conforms to the actual situation of our country. Trading pattern of large users' direct power purchase is analyzed in this paper, characteristics of each power generation are summed up, and centralized matching mode is mainly introduced. Through the establishment of power generation enterprises' priority evaluation index system and the analysis of power generation enterprises' priority based on fuzzy clustering, the sorting method of power generation enterprises' priority in trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase is put forward. Suggestions for trading mechanism of large users' direct power purchase are offered by this method, which is good for expand the promotion of large users' direct power purchase further.

  15. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  16. Sphagnum mosses limit total carbon consumption during fire in Alaskan black spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Shetler; .R. Turetsky; E. Kane; E. Kasischke

    2008-01-01

    The high water retention of hummock-forming Sphagnum species minimizes soil moisture fluctuations and might protect forest floor organic matter from burning during wildfire. We hypothesized that Sphagnum cover reduces overall forest floor organic matter consumption during wildfire compared with other ground-layer vegetation. We...

  17. On protection and operation of home consumption of large thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operating reliability of the system of home consumption is affected not only by the operating reliability of the equipment but also by the system of home consumption protection. The existing system of protection in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere and new concepts in the GDR and in Poland are described. In order to improve protection redundancy in the home consumption system, distance protection can be used. The reliability of the home consumption power supply system can be improved by the use of low-ohm grounding of the home consumption transformer or by an additional transformer and a protection system with time-graded overcurrent protection devices to the zero component of the current. (M.D.). 2 figs., 8 refs

  18. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  19. Experiment with flexible electric power consumption. Appendix; Demonstrationsforsoeg med fleksibelt elforbrug. Bilag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Emil (Dong Energy A/S, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    The emergence of interactive meters with communication module has made it possible that electricity consumption at different customer segments can be activated in a new way of benefit for the customer, the electricity company and the system operator. In this demonstration project the customer segment is larger commercial properties and public institutions. The appendix contains information about the pilot software, guide to install equipment to handle flexible power consumption, model for economic calculations, and the experiments at 3 different buildings are described. (ln)

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF PARAMETERS OF CONTROL OF HEATING POWER GENERATING UNITS ON FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchinnikov P.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is presented analysis of the influence of parameters of state of the process of control on the increase of the fuel consumption of heat power generating units. There are presented results of calculations of the increase of the fuel consumption at the deviation of the working steam temperature and pressure from rated values. Result of calculus is compared with the experiment.

  1. Markers for total consumption estimate of penned holstein x zebu heifers Indicadores para estimativa de consumo total por novilhas holandês x zebu mantidas em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal markers: indigestible fibers (FDAi and FDNi, lignin Klason and the external markers: chromic oxide and modified enriched hidroxiphenilpropan LIPE® on the total intake estimates of penned crossbreed heifers (Holstein x Zebu. They´re assigned to four diets: elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. silage; elephant grass silage and commercial concentrate; chopped sugar cane and urea; chopped sugar cane, urea and commercial concentrate. The chromic oxide underestimated the heifers consumption of all diets and its estimates differed from either hod consumption or those obtained with markers. LIPE® may replace chromic oxide because its consumption estimates did not differ from hod consumption of all diets. The lignin Klason showed to be more appropriate to estimate the heifers consumption that were fed with diets based on grass silage than those heifers fed with sugarcane. This marker underestimated the consumption of heifers that received sugarcane and urea (3,57kg/day of MS when it was compared to the consumption registered in hod (4,05kg/day of MS, however, for those heifers that received sugarcane, urea and supply, lignin Klason underestimated the consumption (3,90kg/day of MS, so that, it differed form consumption in hod (4,90kg/day of MS. The indigestible fibers (FDAi and FDNi were suitable to estimate the heifers consumption in all diets. Those results showed that markers present differentiated effect according to the roughage used.Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia dos indicadores internos: fibras indigestíveis (FDAi e FDNi e lignina Klason e os indicadores externos: óxido crômico e hidroxifenilpropano enriquecido e modificado LIPE® nas estimativas de consumo total de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, mantidas em confinamento e submetidas a quatro dietas: silagem de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.; silagem de capim elefante e concentrado comercial; cana

  2. Low power consumption 4-channel variable optical attenuator array based on planar lightwave circuit technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Mei-Zhen; Zhang Jia-Shun; An Jun-Ming; Wang Yue; Wang Liang-Liang; Li Jian-Guang; Wu Yuan-Da; Yin XiaoJie; Hu Xiong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The power consumption of a variable optical attenuator (VOA) array based on a silica planar lightwave circuit was investigated. The thermal field profile of the device was optimized using the finite-element analysis. The simulation results showed that the power consumption reduces as the depth of the heat-insulating grooves is deeper, the up-cladding is thinner, the down-cladding is thicker, and the width of the cladding ridge is narrower. The materials component and thickness of the electrodes were also optimized to guarantee the driving voltage under 5 V. The power consumption was successfully reduced to as low as 155 mW at an attenuation of 30 dB in the experiment. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of the power consumption of a high-speed parallel robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2018-06-01

    An inverse dynamic model of a high-speed parallel robot is established based on the virtual work principle. With this dynamic model, a new evaluation method is proposed to measure the power consumption of the robot during pick-and-place tasks. The power vector is extended in this method and used to represent the collinear velocity and acceleration of the moving platform. Afterward, several dynamic performance indices, which are homogenous and possess obvious physical meanings, are proposed. These indices can evaluate the power input and output transmissibility of the robot in a workspace. The distributions of the power input and output transmissibility of the high-speed parallel robot are derived with these indices and clearly illustrated in atlases. Furtherly, a low-power-consumption workspace is selected for the robot.

  4. Forecasting total natural-gas consumption in Spain by using the stochastic Gompertz innovation diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Nafidi, A.; Gutierrez Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of the present study is to examine the possibilities of using a Gompertz-type innovation diffusion process as a stochastic growth model of natural-gas consumption in Spain, and to compare our results with those obtained, on the one hand, by stochastic logistic innovation modelling and, on the other, by using a stochastic lognormal growth model based on a non-innovation diffusion process. Such a comparison is carried out taking into account the macroeconomic characteristics and natural-gas consumption patterns in Spain, both of which reflect the current expansive situation characterizing the Spanish economy. From the technical standpoint a contribution is also made to the theory of the stochastic Gompertz Innovation diffusion process (SGIDP), as applied to the case in question. (author)

  5. Development of an Empirical Model for Optimization of Machining Parameters to Minimize Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Garg, Girish; Garg, Suman; Sangwan, K. S.

    2018-04-01

    The manufacturing sector consumes huge energy demand and the machine tools used in this sector have very less energy efficiency. Selection of the optimum machining parameters for machine tools is significant for energy saving and for reduction of environmental emission. In this work an empirical model is developed to minimize the power consumption using response surface methodology. The experiments are performed on a lathe machine tool during the turning of AISI 6061 Aluminum with coated tungsten inserts. The relationship between the power consumption and machining parameters is adequately modeled. This model is used for formulation of minimum power consumption criterion as a function of optimal machining parameters using desirability function approach. The influence of machining parameters on the energy consumption has been found using the analysis of variance. The validation of the developed empirical model is proved using the confirmation experiments. The results indicate that the developed model is effective and has potential to be adopted by the industry for minimum power consumption of machine tools.

  6. Signal Processing for a Lunar Array: Minimizing Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry; Simmons, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for the study is: (1) Lunar Radio Array for low frequency, high redshift Dark Ages/Epoch of Reionization observations (z =6-50, f=30-200 MHz) (2) High precision cosmological measurements of 21 cm H I line fluctuations (3) Probe universe before first star formation and provide information about the Intergalactic Medium and evolution of large scale structures (5) Does the current cosmological model accurately describe the Universe before reionization? Lunar Radio Array is for (1) Radio interferometer based on the far side of the moon (1a) Necessary for precision measurements, (1b) Shielding from earth-based and solar RFI (12) No permanent ionosphere, (2) Minimum collecting area of approximately 1 square km and brightness sensitivity 10 mK (3)Several technologies must be developed before deployment The power needed to process signals from a large array of nonsteerable elements is not prohibitive, even for the Moon, and even in current technology. Two different concepts have been proposed: (1) Dark Ages Radio Interferometer (DALI) (2)( Lunar Array for Radio Cosmology (LARC)

  7. Optimizing cutting conditions on sustainable machining of aluminum alloy to minimize power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Rusdi; Suyuti, Muhammad Arsyad; Susanto, Tri Agus

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum is widely utilized in the industrial sector. There are several advantages of aluminum, i.e. good flexibility and formability, high corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity, and high heat. Despite of these characteristics, however, pure aluminum is rarely used because of its lacks of strength. Thus, most of the aluminum used in the industrial sectors was in the form of alloy form. Sustainable machining can be considered to link with the transformation of input materials and energy/power demand into finished goods. Machining processes are responsible for environmental effects accepting to their power consumption. The cutting conditions have been optimized to minimize the cutting power, which is the power consumed for cutting. This paper presents an experimental study of sustainable machining of Al-11%Si base alloy that was operated without any cooling system to assess the capacity in reducing power consumption. The cutting force was measured and the cutting power was calculated. Both of cutting force and cutting power were analyzed and modeled by using the central composite design (CCD). The result of this study indicated that the cutting speed has an effect on machining performance and that optimum cutting conditions have to be determined, while sustainable machining can be followed in terms of minimizing power consumption and cutting force. The model developed from this study can be used for evaluation process and optimization to determine optimal cutting conditions for the performance of the whole process.

  8. [The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Tugba; Ozsoy, Asker Zeki; Karaman, Serkan; Dogru, Serkan; Tapar, Hakan; Sahin, Aynur; Dogru, Hatice; Suren, Mustafa

    A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group) or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group). Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24hours. The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD) 0.130 (0.25) vs. 0.094 (0.02) mcg.kg -1 .min -1 ; pplane group soon after surgery; median (range) 6 (2-10) vs. 3 (0-5); pplane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175-197) vs. 176.5 (141-187); pplane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  10. Cost Savings of Nuclear Power with Total Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of fast reactor (FR) generated electricity with pyro-processing is estimated in this article. It compares favorably with other forms of energy and is shown to be less than that produced by light water reactors (LWR's). FR's use all the energy in natural uranium whereas LWR's utilize only 0.7% of it. Because of high radioactivity, pyro-processing is not open to weapon material diversion. This technology is ready now. Nuclear power has the same advantage as coal power in that it is not dependent upon a scarce foreign fuel and has the significant additional advantage of not contributing to global warming or air pollution. A jump start on new nuclear plants could rapidly allow electric furnaces to replace home heating oil furnaces and utilize high capacity batteries for hybrid automobiles: both would reduce US reliance on oil. If these were fast reactors fueled by reprocessed fuel, the spent fuel storage problem could also be solved. Costs are derived from assumptions on the LWR's and FR's five cost components: 1) Capital costs: LWR plants cost $106/MWe. FR's cost 25% more. Forty year amortization is used. 2) The annual O and M costs for both plants are 9% of the Capital Costs. 3) LWR fuel costs about 0.0035 $/kWh. Producing FR fuel from spent fuel by pyro-processing must be done in highly shielded hot cells which is costly. However, the five foot thick concrete walls have the advantage of prohibiting diversion. LWR spent fuel must be used as feedstock for the FR initial core load and first two reloads so this FR fuel costs more than LWR fuel. FR fuel costs much less for subsequent core reloads ( 6 /MWe. The annual cost for a 40 year licensed plant would be 2.5 % of this or less if interest is taken into account. All plants will eventually have to replace those components which become radiation damaged. FR's should be designed to replace parts rather than decommission. The LWR costs are estimated to be 2.65 cents/kWh. FR costs are 2.99 cents/kWh for the first

  11. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  12. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  13. Evaluation of the effect of the Power of One campaign on natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffney, Seán; Lyons, Seán; Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study an advertising campaign launched by the Irish government to induce more energy-efficient behaviour and we assess its effect on residential natural gas consumption. We first analyse changes in the daily consumption of natural gas and find that advertising leaflets had a significant, but short-lived, effect on natural gas consumption. We find no persistent effect of the campaign. We then study three surveys administered to 1000 consumers prior to and during the campaign. This repeated cross-section allows us to determine that the efficiency campaign has increased awareness of behaviours that curb natural gas consumption. However we do not find any significant effect of the campaign on self-reported natural gas-saving behaviour. -- Highlights: •We assess the effect of the Irish Power of One campaign on natural gas consumption. •We analyse consumption (and awareness of behaviours) before and after the campaign launch. •There is an effect on consumers' awareness of how to reduce consumption. •We find a short-run effect of the first year of the campaign, but no long run effect

  14. Behavioral System Level Power Consumption Modeling of Mobile Video Streaming applications

    OpenAIRE

    Benmoussa , Yahia; Boukhobza , Jalil; Hadjadj-Aoul , Yassine; Lagadec , Loïc; Benazzouz , Djamel

    2012-01-01

    National audience; Nowadays, the use of mobile applications and terminals faces fundamental challenges related to energy constraint. This is due to the limited battery lifetime as compared to the increasing hardware evolution. Video streaming is one of the most energy consuming applications in a mobile system because of its intensive use of bandwidth, memory and processing power. In this work, we aim to propose a methodology for building and validating a high level global power consumption mo...

  15. Improving Quality of Service and Reducing Power Consumption with WAN accelerator in Cloud Computing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-ichi Kuribayashi

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of cloud computing services is expected to deteriorate a Quality of Service and toincrease the power consumption of ICT devices, since the distance to a server becomes longer than before. Migration of virtual machines over a wide area can solve many problems such as load balancing and power saving in cloud computing environments. This paper proposes to dynamically apply WAN accelerator within the network when a virtual machine is moved to a distant center, in order to preve...

  16. Optimization of Reliability and Power Consumption in Systems on a Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Simunic, Tajana; Mihic, Kresimir; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive transistor scaling, decreased voltage margins and increased processor power and temperature, have made reliability assessment a much more significant issue in design. Although reliability of devices and interconnect has been broadly studied, here we characterize reliability at the system level. Thus we consider component-based System on Chip designs. Reliability is strongly affected by system temperature, which is in turn driven by power consumption. Thus, component reliability and...

  17. Switzerland - power consumption should not increase by more than 5 percent by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosatzin-Strobel, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    In this short interview, Swiss energy experts Roland Brueniger and Peter Cunz discuss the main areas of research covered by the Swiss National Research Programme on Electricity. In particular, the difficulties involved in influencing consumers as far as their consumption of electricity is concerned is discussed. Also, the status of the programme as part of the national 'Swiss Energy'-programme is discussed. The main points addressed by the programme and the role played by electricity utilities are examined. Various methods and projects concerning the reduction of electricity consumption are discussed, such as the use of energy-efficient motors and the reduction of the power consumption of data-processing equipment. Finally, Swiss efforts in these areas are compared with those of the European Union. The interviewees' own personal contributions to saving electrical power are also presented

  18. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE Evaluation on Thermal Power Industry with DEA, Malmquist and Multiple Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Peng Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a new round of power market reform, realizing the goals of energy saving and emission reduction, reducing the coal consumption and ensuring the sustainable development are the key issues for thermal power industry. With the biggest economy and energy consumption scales in the world, China should promote the energy efficiency of thermal power industry to solve these problems. Therefore, from multiple perspectives, the factors influential to the energy efficiency of thermal power industry were identified. Based on the economic, social and environmental factors, a combination model with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Malmquist index was constructed to evaluate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in thermal power industry. With the empirical studies from national and provincial levels, the TFEE index can be factorized into the technical efficiency index (TECH, the technical progress index (TPCH, the pure efficiency index (PECH and the scale efficiency index (SECH. The analysis showed that the TFEE was mainly determined by TECH and PECH. Meanwhile, by panel data regression model, unit coal consumption, talents and government supervision were selected as important indexes to have positive effects on TFEE in thermal power industry. In addition, the negative indexes, such as energy price and installed capacity, were also analyzed to control their undesired effects. Finally, considering the analysis results, measures for improving energy efficiency of thermal power industry were discussed widely, such as strengthening technology research and design (R&D, enforcing pollutant and emission reduction, distributing capital and labor rationally and improving the government supervision. Relative study results and suggestions can provide references for Chinese government and enterprises to enhance the energy efficiency level.

  19. A Simple Model for Power Consumption in Gassed and Boiling Stirred Vessels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paglianti, A.; Zedníková, Mária; Montante, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2008), s. 646-656 ISSN 0001-1541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ventilated cavity * gas -liquid systems * power consumption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2008

  20. Does energy consumption by the US electric power sector exhibit long memory behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Loomis, David; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes energy consumption by the US electric power by various energy sources through fractional integration. In doing so, we are able to determine the level of persistence of the shocks affecting each energy source. The results indicate long memory behavior as each energy source is highly persistent, displaying long memory along with autoregressive behavior and strong seasonal patterns.

  1. Cognitive radio adaptation for power consumption minimization using biogeography-based optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Pei-Han; Zheng Shi-Lian; Yang Xiao-Niu; Zhao Zhi-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the key capabilities of cognitive radio, which focuses on how to adjust the radio parameters to optimize the system performance based on the knowledge of the radio environment and its capability and characteristics. In this paper, we consider the cognitive radio adaptation problem for power consumption minimization. The problem is formulated as a constrained power consumption minimization problem, and the biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is introduced to solve this optimization problem. A novel habitat suitability index (HSI) evaluation mechanism is proposed, in which both the power consumption minimization objective and the quality of services (QoS) constraints are taken into account. The results show that under different QoS requirement settings corresponding to different types of services, the algorithm can minimize power consumption while still maintaining the QoS requirements. Comparison with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cat swarm optimization (CSO) reveals that BBO works better, especially at the early stage of the search, which means that the BBO is a better choice for real-time applications. (paper)

  2. A Distributed Multi-agent Control System for Power Consumption in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed controller for adjusting the electrical consumption of a residential building in response to an external power setpoint in Watts. The controller is based on a multi-agent system and has been implemented in JCSP. It is modularly built, capable of self-configuratio...

  3. Design of a Solid-State Fast Voltage Compensator for klystron modulators requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for klystron modulators integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This kind of solution is mandatory for the CLIC project under study, which requires several hundreds of synchronously operated klystron modulators for a total pulsed power of 39 GW. The topology is optimized for the challenging CLIC specifications, which require a very precise output voltage flat-top as well as fast rise and fall times (3µs). The Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to manage the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage. Consequently, its dimensioning power and cost is minimized.

  4. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Mebarki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery.

  5. Economic evaluation of methods to substitute consumption of fossil fuel for nuclear one in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veretennikov, G.A.; Boldyrev, V.M.; Sigal, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Technical-and-economic indices of separate and combind processes of thermal and electric power production are compared for different energy sources (heat-only nuclear stations power and heat nuclear stations condensation nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel condensation power plants, fossil-fuel power and heat nuclear stations and fossil-fuel boiler houses). The data on capital outlays, fuel expenses and total reduced costs are presented. The analysis has shown that all versions of nuclear energy development with the use of heat-only nuclear stations in different combinations prove to be less preferable than the version of cogeneration of heat and electric power at power and heat nuclear stations

  6. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  7. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  8. Controlling total spot power from holographic laser by superimposing a binary phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Gan, Yu; Wu, Liying

    2011-04-25

    By superimposing a tunable binary phase grating with a conventional computer-generated hologram, the total power of multiple holographic 3D spots can be easily controlled by changing the phase depth of grating with high accuracy to a random power value for real-time optical manipulation without extra power loss. Simulation and experiment results indicate that a resolution of 0.002 can be achieved at a lower time cost for normalized total spot power.

  9. Real time power consumption monitoring for energy efficiency analysis in micro EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristo, Gianluca; Bissacco, Giuliano; Lebar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    for manufacturing sustainability. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is considered an attractive solution for the manufacturing of microcomponents. In this paper, a low cost and modular data acquisition system, based on open-hardware and open-source software, for online energy consumption monitoring, is presented......Sustainability has become a major concern in many countries and is leading to strict regulations regarding the impact of products and services during their manufacturing, use, and disposal. Power consumption monitoring in manufacturing companies can lead to a reduction of machine tools energy...

  10. The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Karaman

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Methods: Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group. Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24 hours. Results: The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD 0.130 (0.25 vs. 0.094 (0.02 mcg.kg-1.min-1; p < 0.01 and 0.295 (0.05 vs. 0.243 (0.06 mL.min-1; p < 0.01. In the postoperative period, pain scores were significantly reduced in transversus abdominis plane group soon after surgery; median (range 6 (2-10 vs. 3 (0-5; p < 0.001, at 2 h (5 [3-9] vs. 2.5 [0-6]; p < 0.001, at 6 h (4 [2-7] vs. 3[0-6], p < 0.001, at 12 h (3.5 [1-6] vs. 2 [1-5]; p = 0.003. The patients in the transversus abdominis plane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175-197 vs. 176.5 (141-187; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Combining transversus abdominis plane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

  11. Analysis of Electrical Power Consumption in Container Crane of Container Terminal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Masroeri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Container crane electrification is a re-powering process of container cranes from diesel to electricity. In electrification process, it is required an analysis of electrical power consumption that is needed in the operational of container crane. It aims to determine whether the amount of electrical power that is supplied by PLN can be optimally used in the operational of container crane to do loading and unloading activities. To perform the analysis of electrical power consumption, it is required various data and calculations. The required data are container crane specifications and other electrical equipment specifications, the amount of electrical power that is supplied by PLN, also the single line diagram from the electrical system at the port. While, the calculations that is needed to be performed are the calculation of electrical power load in motors and other electrical equipments, the calculation of nominal current and start current, the selection of cable and busbar, and the calculation of wiring diagram junction power. From the calculations that has been done, then the next step is to do the load flow analysis simulation by using software simulation, so an accurate and effective load flow analysis can be obtained to optimize loading and unloading activities at the port. The result of this research, it can be seen that container crane electrification will give advantages in both technical and economical for the company and for the ship, such as accelerate the loading and unloading time of containers and reduce idle time, especially in the operational of diesel generator.

  12. Removal of pollutants with determination of power consumption from landfill leachate wastewater using an electrocoagulation process: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Perumal; Beyene, Dejene; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Alemayehu, Esayas

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate wastewater by electrocoagulation process using an aluminium electrode was investigated in a batch electrochemical cell reactor. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the operating parameters for the removal of % color and % total organic carbon (TOC) together with power consumption from landfill leachate. Effects of three important independent parameters such as current density ( X 1), inter-electrode distance ( X 2) and solution pH ( X 3) of the landfill leachate sample on the % color and % TOC removal with power consumption were investigated. A quadratic model was used to predict the % color and % TOC removal with power consumption in different experimental conditions. The significance of each independent variable was calculated by analysis of variance. In order to achieve the maximum % color and % TOC removal with minimum of power consumption, the optimum conditions were about current density ( X 1)—5.25 A/dm2, inter-electrode distance ( X 2)—1 cm and initial solution of effluent pH ( X 3)—7.83, with the yield of color removal of 74.57%, and TOC removal of 51.75% with the power consumption of 14.80 kWh/m3. Electrocoagulation process could be applied to remove pollutants from industrial effluents and wastewater.

  13. Power Consumption Estimation Using Artificial Neural Networks: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Hilal Metin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of the world energy consumption is by developing countries. As a developing country, Turkey is one of the leading countries in terms of the increase in energy demand. According to the data from the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Turkey is the country with the greatest increase in demand after China in electricity and natural gas consumption since 2000. In 1970, the ratio of total energy production to consumption in Turkey was 76%. In year 2000, this ratio dropped down to 35%, in year 2010 to 26% and predicted to come down to 23% by year 2020. This situation indicates an increase in Turkey’s energy dependency every passing year and the need to implement solutions to reduce this dependency. Today, electric energy has become a very critical and indispensable part of the development of technology. Production and consumption of electrical energy, which facilitates human life and increases labour productivity, are increasing every year. Electricity is a versatile and easily controlled form of energy. Electricity is practically non-existent and non-polluting at the point of use. Electricity can be cleanly produced by completely renewable methods such as wind, water and sunlight at the production point. Electricity market has a unique feature compared to other commodities. This feature requires the consumption of electricity when it is produced. Forecasting the future consumption of electricity in Turkey is crucial in making strategic plans for the future and taking the necessary measures. In Turkey, the consumption of electricity in the estimation studies were generally observed that the use of long-term electricity consumption prediction method of neural networks. In some studies, the results obtained by artificial neural network method are compared with Box-Jenkins models and regression technique. As a result of comparison, artificial neural networks seem to be a good predictor of electricity consumption. In this

  14. Encoder power consumption comparison of Distributed Video Codec and H.264/AVC in low-complexity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    (ME) and CABAC entropy coder consume much power so we eliminate ME from the codec and use CAVLC instead of CABAC. Some investigations show that low-complexity DVC outperforms other algorithms in terms of encoder side energy consumption . However, estimations of power consumption for H.264/AVC and DVC...

  15. Resonator-Based Silicon Electro-Optic Modulator with Low Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Maoqing; Danner, Aaron J.; Eng Png, Ching; Thor Lim, Soon

    2009-04-01

    This paper demonstrates, via simulation, an electro-optic modulator based on a subwavelength Fabry-Perot resonator cavity with low power consumption of 86 µW/µm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest power reported for silicon photonic bandgap modulators. The device is modulated at a doped p-i-n junction overlapping the cavity in a silicon waveguide perforated with etched holes, with the doping area optimized for minimum power consumption. The surface area of the entire device is only 2.1 µm2, which compares favorably to other silicon-based modulators. A modulation speed of at least 300 MHz is detected from the electrical simulator after sidewall doping is introduced which is suitable for sensing or fiber to the home (FTTH) technologies, where speed can be traded for low cost and power consumption. The device does not rely on ultra-high Q, and could serve as a sensor, modulator, or passive filter with built-in calibration.

  16. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Factors that influence fuel consumption include environmental conditions, maintenance, poor driving techniques, and driving speed. Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the SmartDriver training programs were designed to help fleet managers, drivers, and instructors to learn methods of improving fuel economy. This fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles provides drivers with a method of calculating fuel consumption rates when driving. It includes a log-book in which to record odometer readings and a slide-rule in which to determine the litres of fuel used during a trip. The scale showed the number of kg of GHGs produced by burning a particular amount of fuel for both biodiesel and diesel fuels. 1 fig.

  17. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  18. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  19. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  20. Analysis of opioid consumption in clinical trials: a simulation based analysis of power of four approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Nyberg, Joakim; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Inconsistent trial design and analysis is a key reason that few advances in postoperative pain management have been made from clinical trials analyzing opioid consumption data. This study aimed to compare four different approaches to analyze opioid consumption data. A repeated time-to-event (RTTE...... to determine sample size required to demonstrate efficacy with 80% power using t test, Mann-Whitney rank sum test, time-to-event (TTE) modeling and RTTE modeling. Precision of efficacy estimates for RTTE models were evaluated in 500 simulations. A sample size of 50 patients was required to detect 37% morphine...... sparing effect with at least 80% power in a 24 h trial with RTTE modeling whereas the required sample size was 200 for Mann-Whitney, 180 for t-test and 76 for TTE models. Extending the trial duration from 24 to 96 h reduced the required sample size by 3.1 fold with RTTE modeling. Precise estimate...

  1. [The design of a cardiac monitoring and analysing system with low power consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Zhu, Yan-gao; Wang, Hong-yan; Ma, Yan

    2002-07-01

    The paper deals with a portable analyzing monitor system with liquid crystal display (LCD), which is low in power consumption and suitable for China's specific conditions. Apart from the development of the overall scheme of the system, the paper introduces the design of the hardware and the software. The 80196 single chip microcomputer is used as the central microprocessor to process and real-time electrocardiac signal data. The system have the following functions: five types of arrhythmia analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic paperfeeding. The portable system can be operated by alternate-current (AC) or direct-current (DC). Its hardware circuit is simplified and its software structure is optimized. Multiple low power consumption and LCD unit are adopted in its modular designs.

  2. Design and Implementation of PIR-Array to Reduce Power Consumption for Iraq's Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Yousif Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design and implement a model using PIR-sensors for motion detection to reduce the electrical power for designing smart home requirements for Iraq households. Reducing energy consumption of home appliances plays an important role in modern designs of smart homes. The PIR (passive infrared sensor has been designed to detect human motion and has many applications especially in security fields. The main concept of the proposed work in this paper has focused on controlling the electrical devices (appliances, based on the location of a person movement inside the home. The design of the circuit control has also been designed to run specific devices located closed to person position in a room by designing PIR sensor array mounted in different angles. The proposed work has been compared with normal state by finding consumption in power (kWh and tariffs belong to MoE-Iraq.

  3. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF THE SPEED RATE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR REDUCING THE POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Soroka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to design a system for automatic selection of the optimal traffic modes and automatic monitoring of the electric energy consumption by electric transport. This automatic system should provide for the minimum energy expenses. Methodology. Current methodologies: 1 mathematical modeling of traffic modes of ground electric vehicles; 2 comparison of modelling results with the statistical monitoring; 3 system development for automatic choice of traffic modes of electric transport with minimal electrical energy consumptions taking into account the given route schedules and the limitations imposed by the general traffic rules. Findings. The authors obtained a mathematical dependency of the energy consumption by electric transport enterprises on the monthly averaged environment temperature was obtained. A system which allows for an automatic selection of the speed limit and provides automatic monitoring of the electrical energy consumption by electric vehicles was proposed in the form of local network, which works together with existing GPS system. Originality. A mathematical model for calculating the motion curves and energy consumption of electric vehicles has been developed. This model takes into account the characteristic values of the motor engine and the steering system, the change of the mass when loading or unloading passengers, the slopes and radii of the roads, the limitations given by the general traffic rules, and other factors. The dependency of the energy consumption on the averaged monthly environment temperature for public electric transport companies has been calculated. Practical value. The developed mathematical model simplifies the calculations of the traffic dynamics and energy consumption. It can be used for calculating the routing maps, for design and upgrade of the power networks, for development of the electricity saving measures. The system simplifies the work of the vehicle driver and allows reducing

  4. Resistive vs. total power depositions by Alfven modes in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.

    2004-01-01

    The power deposition of fast waves launched by a LFS located antenna in a pre-heated, strongly non-uniform low aspect ratio tokamak (START) is investigated. The rigorous computational results indicate a total power deposition by far larger than that predicted for Alfven continuum eigenmodes in cylindrical plasmas. For toroidal wave numbers |N| > 1, the resistive and total power depositions are almost equal. (author)

  5. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  6. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  7. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  8. How do electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing, react on changes in the spot price?; Hvordan reagerer stroemforbruket i alminnelig forsyning paa endringer i spotpris?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Magne; Pettersen, Finn Erik L.

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to analyse how electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing will react on changes in the spot price on the basis of monthly data of the period 1996-2010 and an econometric error correction model. General consumption accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total net consumption of electricity in Norway. Households, services and other manufacturing than the power intensive account for the majority of this consumption. In order to estimate the net effect of the spot price on general electricity consumption, it is important to control for other variables that also affect the consumption. Since much of the electricity in general consumption is used for heating, one obvious and important explanatory variable is temperature. In addition to electricity price and temperature we assume that general consumption also depends on economic activity, price on light heating oil, the share of working days in the current month and a summer holiday dummy. In the consumption equation price can not be considered as an exogenous explanatory variable, since consumption affects price and vice versa. Hence, we have added a price equation that can be considered as an inverted supply equation. Both the consumption and the supply equation are specified dynamically in order to allow for slow adjustment of supply and consumption. The two equations of the model are estimated by two stage least square (2SLS). Full information maximum likelihood (FIML) is the most efficient estimation method in large samples, but a crucial assumption for consistent FIML-estimation is that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. A Jarque-Bera test of the error terms does not support this assumption in our data. R2 in the consumption equation is high. 96 per cent of the variation in the relative change in consumption is explained. In the price equation R2 is considerably lower. We find that if the spot price for Norway increases by 1 percent from one month

  9. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  10. Fuel consumption reduction in urban buses by using power split transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, Alarico; Rossetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption is highly influenced by transmission layout and control. • Continuous Variable Transmission allows control of the working point of the engine. • Hydromechanical CVT was numerically tested and compared with usual mechanical solutions. • CVT solution proved to reduce fuel consumption, improving the I.C.E. mean efficiency. • Results obtained from standard emission test cycles: New York and Manhattan Buses. - Abstract: The reduction of fuel consumption of urban vehicles is one of the challenges of the society today. Many promising technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells are the focus of a lot of research and investments, but high costs prevent their development on a large scale, especially in heavy duty vehicles. Simpler solutions, such as continuously variable transmissions, are then interesting alternatives: they preserve some of the advantages of hybrid solutions significantly reducing the overall cost of the system. Since these technologies allow the decoupling of the engine’s velocity from that of the wheels, optimised management of the engine becomes feasible, leading to lower fuel consumption than that of traditional solutions. This work compares the hydromechanical transmission with a traditional power shift in an application where efficiency and comfort are required: a city bus. The performance of a vehicle with a dual stage hydromechanical transmission has been investigated by means of a model implemented in the AMESim environment. A second model of a vehicle with a power shift transmission has been taken as reference solution. During the simulation of two standard test cycles, the first vehicle showed the lower fuel consumption, due to its better engine management, and to the operation of the torque converter during starts, which lowers the efficiency of the reference vehicle

  11. Towards a Cyber Defense Framework for SCADA Systems Based on Power Consumption Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M [ORNL; Chen, Qian [Savannah State University; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Calhoun, Chelsea [Savannah State University; Sykes, Summer [Savannah State University

    2017-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is an industrial automation system that remotely monitor, and control critical infrastructures. SCADA systems are major targets for espionage and sabotage attackers. According to the 2015 Dell security annual threat report, the number of cyber-attacks against SCADA systems has doubled in the past year. Cyber-attacks (i.e., buffer overflow, rootkits and code injection) could cause serious financial losses and physical infrastructure damages. Moreover, some specific cyber-attacks against SCADA systems could become a threat to human life. Current commercial off-the-shelf security solutions are insufficient in protecting SCADA systems against sophisticated cyber-attacks. In 2014 a report by Mandiant stated that only 69% of organizations learned about their breaches from third entities, meaning that these companies lack of their own detection system. Furthermore, these breaches are not detected in real-time or fast enough to prevent further damages. The average time between compromise and detection (for those intrusions that were detected) was 205 days. To address this challenge, we propose an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that detects SCADA-specific cyber-attacks by analyzing the power consumption of a SCADA device. Specifically, to validate the proposed approach, we chose to monitor in real-time the power usage of a a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). To this end, we configured the hardware of the tetsbed by installing the required sensors to monitor and collect its power consumption. After that two SCADA-specific cyber-attacks were simulated and TracerDAQ Pro was used to collect the power consumption of the PLC under normal and anomalous scenarios. Results showed that is possible to distinguish between the regular power usage of the PLC and when the PLC was under specific cyber-attacks.

  12. Research on intelligent power consumption strategy based on time-of-use pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Gong, Li; Chen, Heli; He, Yu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, through the analysis of shortcomings of the current domestic and foreign household power consumption strategy: Passive way of power consumption, ignoring the different priority of electric equipment, neglecting the actual load pressure of the grid, ignoring the interaction with the user, to decrease the peak-valley difference and improve load curve in residential area by demand response (DR technology), an intelligent power consumption scheme based on time-of-use(TOU) pricing for household appliances is proposed. The main contribution of this paper is: (1) Three types of household appliance loads are abstracted from different operating laws of various household appliances, and the control models and DR strategies corresponding to these types are established. (2) The fuzzified processing for the information of TOU price, which is based on the time intervals, is performed to get the price priority, in accordance with such DR events as the maximum restricted load of DR, the time of DR and the duration of interruptible load and so on, the DR control rule and pre-scheduling mechanism are led in. (3) The dispatching sequence of household appliances in the control and scheduling queue are switched and controlled to implement the equilibrium of peak and valley loads. The equilibrium effects and economic benefits of power system by pre-scheduling and DR dispatching are compared and analyzed by simulation example, and the results show that using the proposed household appliance control (HAC) scheme the overall cost of consumers can be reduced and the power system load can be alleviated, so the proposed household appliance control (HAC) scheme is feasible and reasonable.

  13. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  14. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  15. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  16. Analysis of cumulative energy consumption in an oxy-fuel combustion power plant integrated with a CO2 processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxy-fuel combustion is promising CCS technology. • Sum of direct and indirect energy consumption ought to be consider. • This sum is expressed by cumulative energy consumption. • Input–output analysis is adequate method of CCS modeling. - Abstract: A balance of direct energy consumption is not a sufficient tool for an energy analysis of an oxy-fuel combustion power plant because of the indirect consumption of energy in preceding processes in the energy-technological set of interconnections. The sum of direct and indirect consumption expresses cumulative energy consumption. Based on the “input–output” model of direct energy consumption the mathematical model of cumulative energy consumption concerning an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant has been developed. Three groups of energy carriers or materials are to be distinguished, viz. main products, by-products and external supplies not supplementing the main production. The mathematical model of the balance of cumulative energy consumption based on the assumption that the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (mainly fuels and raw materials) are known a’priori. It results from weak connections between domestic economy and an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant. The paper presents both examples of the balances of direct and cumulative energy consumption. The results of calculations of indices of cumulative energy consumption concerning main products are presented. A comparison of direct and cumulative energy effects between three variants has been worked out. Calculations of the indices of cumulative energy consumption were also subjected to sensitive analysis. The influence of the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (input data), as well as the assumption concerning the utilization of solid by-products of the combustion process have been investigated

  17. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1 (GM (1, 1, back propagation (BP and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.

  18. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [de

  19. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  20. Modelling altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and electricity tariff charge using data analytics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ramli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Energy Commission (EC) had introduced Incentive Based Regulation (IBR) to ensure sustainable Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI), promotes transparent and fair returns, encourage maximum efficiency and maintains policy driven end user tariff. To cater such revolutionary transformation, a sophisticated system to generate policy driven electricity tariff structure is in great need. Hence, this study presents a data analytics framework that generates altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. For the purpose of this study, the power consumption distribution is being proxy using proportion of household consumption and electricity consumed in KwH and the tariff charge function is being proxy using three-tiered increasing block tariff (IBT). The altered revenue function is useful to give an indication on whether any changes in the power consumption distribution and tariff charges will give positive or negative impact to the economy. The methodology used for this framework begins by defining the revenue to be a function of power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. Then, the proportion of household consumption and tariff charge function is derived within certain interval of electricity power. Any changes in those proportion are conjectured to contribute towards changes in revenue function. Thus, these changes can potentially give an indication on whether the changes in power consumption distribution and tariff charge function are giving positive or negative impact on TNB revenue. Based on the finding of this study, major changes on tariff charge function seems to affect altered revenue function more than power consumption distribution. However, the paper concludes that power consumption distribution and tariff charge function can influence TNB revenue to some great extent.

  1. A method for distributed power consumption based on the combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-wei; Han, Shen-zhao; Yu, Bo; Lu, Xin; Qi, Wen

    2018-02-01

    With the development of the society and human progress, now resource problems has become one of the major problems faced by people all over the world, the development of new energy and clean energy is the priority now, is now the main power system. Winter heating is one of the main sources of pollution now, so it is very important to study the electric heating system.

  2. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  3. Price sensitive electric power consumption in households. Final report; Prisfoelsomt elforbrug i husholdninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Hay, C. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    To gain experience with electric power consumption in households based on demand response a demonstration project was carried out for households with electric heating. More than 500 households with high power consumption (over 15,000 kWh / yr) participated. Participating households were divided into four groups: 1) a group with automation equipment ('Devi') installed, which automatically controls the electric heating in relation to electricity price signals based on pre-defined standards, 2) a group with electronics equipment ('Electronic House Keeper') installed which can show price signals so that the participant himself can control the electric heating in relation thereto, 3) a group who daily received an e-mail or a text message indicating the fluctuations in electricity prices, so that the participant can control the electric heating in relation to the received information, 4) a control group who did not have knowledge of or participated in the experiment. The main results of the project are that consumption must be controlled through automation. A real impact of the experiment can only be seen for the Devi group, which had automation equipment installed, and not for the email / text message group who had to manually respond to price signals. There must be opportunities for higher degree of differentiation. The automatics should be coupled to multiple thermostats, and the control should be detailed, for example, with control based on the individual thermostat in each room. The thermal comfort is essential. The participants want to manage and move their electricity consumption directly via 'Electronic House Keeper'. They would welcome the opportunity to have all household appliances connected to the solution, making it possible to turn on / off these depending on prices. Good information and communication are crucial to participants' motivation. (ln)

  4. Storage of intermittent energies. From self-consumption to huge photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Marion; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Power grids are evolving rapidly due to an increased use of decentralized power units, mostly based on intermittent renewable energy resources and due also to new ways of consuming energy (e.g. electrical vehicles). In the same time, the performance increase of new technologies such as telecommunications and storage systems could provide solutions for optimizing the electrical system. In this context, we are more and more talking about the 'smart-grids concept' because in parallel to the power interconnection, we also create communication networks which allow knowing in real time the status of the power grid, and so that the power flows can be controlled in an optimal way. In this article, we investigate challenges and opportunities for managing intermittent energy sources by using energy storage systems, from the consumer level to the grid operator. First we describe how the feed-in tariff could evolve in order to improve grid integration of large solar plants. We showed that behind the constraints due to the coupling of the power plants with a storage system, we could imagine lots of opportunities to diversify the business model. Then we evaluate the medium size PV with storage installation at the community level. For this purpose, we describe the local problems induced by the PV integration before proposing new ways to manage these systems. Finally, the self-consumption business model is investigated in terms of performance for the consumer and for the grid operator. (authors)

  5. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, C; Kandlikar, M

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  6. The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Karaman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Methods: Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group. Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24 hours. Results: The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD 0.130 (0.25 vs. 0.094 (0.02 mcg.kg−1.min−1; p < 0.01 and 0.295 (0.05 vs. 0.243 (0.06 mL.min−1; p < 0.01. In the postoperative period, pain scores were significantly reduced in transversus abdominis plane group soon after surgery; median (range 6 (2–10 vs. 3 (0–5; p < 0.001, at 2 h (5 [3–9] vs. 2.5 [0–6]; p < 0.001, at 6 h (4 [2–7] vs. 3[0–6], p < 0.001, at 12 h (3.5 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–5]; p = 0.003. The patients in the transversus abdominis plane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175–197 vs. 176.5 (141–187; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Combining transversus abdominis plane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total

  7. When the test of mediation is more powerful than the test of the total effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P

    2015-06-01

    Although previous research has studied power in mediation models, the extent to which the inclusion of a mediator will increase power has not been investigated. To address this deficit, in a first study we compared the analytical power values of the mediated effect and the total effect in a single-mediator model, to identify the situations in which the inclusion of one mediator increased statistical power. The results from this first study indicated that including a mediator increased statistical power in small samples with large coefficients and in large samples with small coefficients, and when coefficients were nonzero and equal across models. Next, we identified conditions under which power was greater for the test of the total mediated effect than for the test of the total effect in the parallel two-mediator model. These results indicated that including two mediators increased power in small samples with large coefficients and in large samples with small coefficients, the same pattern of results that had been found in the first study. Finally, we assessed the analytical power for a sequential (three-path) two-mediator model and compared the power to detect the three-path mediated effect to the power to detect both the test of the total effect and the test of the mediated effect for the single-mediator model. The results indicated that the three-path mediated effect had more power than the mediated effect from the single-mediator model and the test of the total effect. Practical implications of these results for researchers are then discussed.

  8. Influential parameters for designing and power consumption calculating of cumin mower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, E.; Jafari, A. [Tehran Univ., Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which the consuming power and design of cumin mowers was calculated. The parameters required for calculating power consumption and designing of cumin mowers were measured along with some engineering properties of cumin stems. These included shearing and bending tests on cumin stem and specifying the coefficient of friction between mower knives and cumin stem. The relationships between static and dynamic friction forces being exerted on mower runners by soil with normal load were determined along with the factor affecting soil moisture. Some of the other parameters that are important for calculating the power consumption and design of an optimized mower include harvest moisture content; maximum and average of cumin stem diameter; maximum bio-yield point of force and maximum ultimate point of force in the cutting; average energy required to cut a stem; maximum elasticity module; maximum bending rupture force; average energy required for bending a stem; friction coefficient between the stem and knife edge; relation between bio-yield force, failure force, elasticity and diameter in the cutting; relation between rupture forces and diameter in the bending; and mower weight.

  9. Power Consumption Reduction for Wireless Sensor Networks Using A Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is leading towards the deployment of complex networked systems and the optimal design of WSNs can be a very difficult task because several constraints and requirements must be considered, among all the power consumption. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy logic based mechanism that according to the battery level and to the ratio of Throughput to Workload determines the sleeping time of sensor devices in a Wireless Sensor Network for environmental monitoring based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. The main aim here is to find an effective solution that achieves the target while avoiding complex and computationally expensive solutions, which would not be appropriate for the problem at hand and would impair the practical applicability of the approach in real scenarios. The results of several real test-bed scenarios show that the proposed system outperforms other solutions, significantly reducing the whole power consumption while maintaining good performance in terms of the ratio of throughput to workload. An implementation on off-the-shelf devices proves that the proposed controller does not require powerful hardware and can be easily implemented on a low-cost device, thus paving the way for extensive usage in practice.

  10. Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Hida; Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi

    2016-01-01

    In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions...

  11. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, L

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  12. Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and  1,5 33 0,5   diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings

  13. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  14. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Power Consumption in Machining FCD 450 Cast Iron using Coated and Uncoated Irregular Milling Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan; Arsyad, Fitriyanti

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the effects of different cutting parameters on surface roughness and power consumption when machining FCD450 cast iron were studied using coated and uncoated irregular milling tool geometry of variable helix and pitch. Their responses on roughness and power consumption were evaluated based on the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, machining length and machining time. Results showed that except spindle speed and machining length, other parameters such as feed rate, axial and radial depth of cut and also machining time proportionate with surface roughness. The power consumption proportionately increase for all cutting parameters except feedrate. It is showed that the average decrement 27.92 percent for surface roughness and average decrement 9.32 percent for power consumption by using coated compared to uncoated tool. Optimum cutting parameters for both minimum surface roughness and power consumption can be determined. The coated tools performed better than uncoated milling tools for responses of surface roughness and power consumption to increase machining productivity and profit. (paper)

  15. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  16. Very Low-Power Consumption Analog Pulse Processing ASIC for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessendorf, K.O.; Lund, J.C.; Brunett, B.A.; Laguna, G.R.; Clements, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a very-low power consumption circuit for processing the pulses from a semiconductor radiation detector. The circuit was designed for use with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector for unattended monitoring of stored nuclear materials. The device is intended to be battery powered and operate at low duty-cycles over a long period of time. This system will provide adequate performance for medium resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectroscopy applications. The circuit incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive preamplifier, shaping amplifier, and peak sample and hold circuit. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) version of the design has been designed, built and tested. With the exception of the input field effect transistor (FET), the circuit is constructed using bipolar components. In this paper the design philosophy and measured performance characteristics of the circuit are described

  17. Hydrogen consumption and power density in a co-flow planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Moussa, Hocine; Zitouni, Bariza [Laboratoire d' etude des systemes energetiques industriels (LESEI), Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratoire de chimie et de chimie de l' environnement, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf [CDER, BP. 62 Route de l' Observatoire. Bouzareah. Alger (Algeria); Mandin, Philippe [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), LECA, UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP Paris 6 (France)

    2009-06-15

    In the present work, power density and hydrogen consumption in a co-flow planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are studied according to the inlet functional parameters; such as the operational temperature, the operational pressure, the flow rates and the mass fractions of the species. Furthermore, the effect of the cell size is investigated. The results of a zero and a one-dimensional numerical electro-dynamic model predict the remaining quantity of the fed hydrogen at the output of the anode flow channel. The remaining hydrogen quantities and the SOFC's power density obtained are discussed as a function of the inlet functional parameters, the geometrical configuration of the cell and several operating cell voltages values. (author)

  18. A computerized total-radiation management system for Shikoku Electric Power's Ikata nuclear-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshiyuki; Sakakihara, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shozo; Kano, Mamoru; Hoshi, Jun-ichi.

    1985-01-01

    This system allows on-line, real-time radiation management at nuclear-power plants. It increases management precision, decreases management workloads, and saves labor in operations that previously required specialized technicians to expend great amounts of time and effort on radiation management at facilities and their environments, environmental radiation evaluation, and control of radioactive waste. The article outlines the already installed system. (author)

  19. Efficiency Assessment of the Power Supply System of an Industrial Enterprise Through the Assessment of the Modes of Electric Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miatishkin, Gennadii V.; Filinova, Anastasiia S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the terms of the rational consumption and distribution of the energy resources at an enterprise. The authors analyze the significance and the effect of the change of the profile of the energy consumption per hour by the enterprise. The text explores the factors influencing the discipline of the planned electricity and power consumption. The authors present a calculation of the weighted average deviations for consumers and the terms of their assessment. The authors make conclusions concerning the rationality of the means of defining the energy efficiency system through the assessment of the modes of electric energy consumption of an industrial enterprise.

  20. Trends of world energy consumption and possibilities of environment protective power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischengruber, K.

    1991-01-01

    The population of the world will duplicate within the next three to four decades. The primary energy consumption will increase accordingly. Considering the limited reach of our fossil energy resources and their negative impact on the global climate, alternative strategies for the power generation have to be developed. The contribution of the renewable energy sources will be important, but not sufficient, due to their high generation costs. The nuclear power, which already today participates essentially in the energy supply, will remain one of the most important options for environment protecting energy generation. Especially for the developing countries, which -in general- have currently a not covered energy demand, the build up of reasonable energy generation structures means enormous volumes of investments, which can only be financed with the assistance of the industrialized countries. Those, on the other hand, have to economize their energy consumption and have to undertake any effort in continuing with the development of clean, safe and competitive renewable resources. To provide increasing world population with sufficient energy and at the same time to reduce CO 2 emissions is one of the biggest challenges that mankind has ever faced. (Author)

  1. Reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances. Elbesparelser ved husholdningsapparater; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, A.

    1989-07-15

    Possibilities were investigated for the reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances, and for cooperation with manufacturers in this respect. It is suggested that in the cases of washing-up machines, and washing and drying machines, hot water from the tap could be utilized. This would mean that the energy consumption would then shift to domestic heating equipment, dual-purpose power plants and district heating plants. Ovens, drying machines, washing machines and washing-up machines could use natural gas, especially in areas where this fuel could be conveyed to each household via pipes. Cooperation with manufacturers seems feasible, especially with regard to electric ovens, saucepans for use in combination with the latter, and water beds. Considering future developments, it is reasonable to expect that ultra sound will be utilized in connection with washing-up and washing machines, moreover it is likely that the use of enzymes in washing powders will mean that washing machines will be able to run on cold water. (AB) 21 refs.

  2. A high speed, low power consumption LVDS interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhan, E-mail: sz1134@163.com [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tang, Zhenan, E-mail: tangza@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tian, Yong [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Pham, Hung; Valin, Isabelle; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo [IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPSs) offers a promising approach to the design of vertex detectors in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. As the CPS equipping the upgraded Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) pixel detector, ULTIMATE perfectly illustrates the potential of CPSs for HEP applications. However, further development of CPSs with respect to readout speed is required to fulfill the readout time requirement of the next generation HEP detectors, such as the upgrade of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Inner Tracking System (ITS), the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) vertex detectors. One actual limitation of CPSs is related to the speed of the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) circuitry implementing the interface between the sensor and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. To improve the transmission rate while keeping the power consumption at a low level, a source termination technique and a special current comparator were adopted for the LVDS driver and receiver, respectively. Moreover, hardening techniques are used. The circuitry was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18-µm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process at the end of 2011. The test results indicated that the LVDS driver and receiver can operate properly at the data rate of 1.2 Gb/s with power consumption of 19.6 mW.

  3. Hydrodynamic thrust generation and power consumption investigations for piezoelectric fins with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, S.; Tan, D.; Erturk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bio-inspired hydrodynamic thrust generation using piezoelectric transduction has recently been explored using Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators. The MFC technology strikes a balance between the actuation force and structural deformation levels for effective swimming performance, and additionally offers geometric scalability, silent operation, and ease of fabrication. Recently we have shown that mean thrust levels comparable to biological fish of similar size can be achieved using MFC fins. The present work investigates the effect of length-to-width (L/b) aspect ratio on the hydrodynamic thrust generation performance of MFC cantilever fins by accounting for the power consumption level. It is known that the hydrodynamic inertia and drag coefficients are controlled by the aspect ratio especially for L/bdrag coefficients from the vibration response to harmonic actuation for the first bending mode. Experiments are then conducted for various actuation voltage levels to quantify the mean thrust resultant and power consumption levels for different aspect ratios. Variation of the thrust coefficient of the MFC bimorph fins with changing aspect ratio is also semi-empirically modeled and presented.

  4. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  5. Comparative analysis of fixed and sun tracking low power PV systems considering energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Longo, Michela; Roscia, Mariacristina; Pagano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system prototype with sun tracking. • Energy analysis of fixed and sun tracking built prototypes. • Experimental tests in different environmental conditions. • Theoretical and experimental validation of the prototype. - Abstract: Photovoltaic technology allows to directly convert solar energy into electrical energy with clear advantages: no environmental impact during operation, reliability and durability of the systems, reduced operating costs and maintenance, ability to both supply remote customers and simply connect to the electrical network. This paper evaluates the performance of two photovoltaic systems: one fixed and one equipped with a sun tracker. The objective of this research is to analyze the increase of daily produced energy by using the sun tracking system. The analysis accounts also the energy consumption of the sun tracker. An analytical approach is proposed. To validate the results through experimental tests, two alternative low power PV systems were built. Each system consists of a PV source, a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) power converter and a 12 V–40 A h electrochemical battery, which is used as electric load. The sun tracker system evidenced an important growth of power production during morning and evening

  6. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  7. Estimation of Power Consumption in the Circular Sawing of Stone Based on Tangential Force Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoqin; Zhang, Meiqin; Huang, Hui; Guo, Hua; Xu, Xipeng

    2018-04-01

    Circular sawing is an important method for the processing of natural stone. The ability to predict sawing power is important in the optimisation, monitoring and control of the sawing process. In this paper, a predictive model (PFD) of sawing power, which is based on the tangential force distribution at the sawing contact zone, was proposed, experimentally validated and modified. With regard to the influence of sawing speed on tangential force distribution, the modified PFD (MPFD) performed with high predictive accuracy across a wide range of sawing parameters, including sawing speed. The mean maximum absolute error rate was within 6.78%, and the maximum absolute error rate was within 11.7%. The practicability of predicting sawing power by the MPFD with few initial experimental samples was proved in case studies. On the premise of high sample measurement accuracy, only two samples are required for a fixed sawing speed. The feasibility of applying the MPFD to optimise sawing parameters while lowering the energy consumption of the sawing system was validated. The case study shows that energy use was reduced 28% by optimising the sawing parameters. The MPFD model can be used to predict sawing power, optimise sawing parameters and control energy.

  8. Investigation of the Promotion of Wind Power Consumption Using the Thermal-Electric Decoupling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the provinces of north China, combined heat and electric power generations (CHP are widely utilized to provide both heating source and electricity. While, due to the constraint of thermal-electric coupling within CHP, a mass of wind turbines have to offline operate during heating season to maintain the power grid stability. This paper proposes a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach to release the energy waste. Within the thermal-electric decoupling system, heat storage and electric boiler/heat pump are introduced to provide an auxiliary thermal source during hard peak shaving period, thus relying on the participation of an outside heat source, the artificial electric power output change interval could be widened to adopt more wind power and reduce wind power curtailment. Both mathematic models and methods are proposed to calculate the evaluation indexes to weight the effect of TED, by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Numerical simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the results show that the proposed approach could relieve up to approximately 90% of wind power curtailment and the ability of power system to accommodate wind power could be promoted about 32%; moreover, the heating source is extended, about 300 GJ heat could be supplied by TED during the whole heating season, which accounts for about 18% of the total heat need.

  9. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF POWER CONSUMPTION OF LED DEVICES AND ACCOUNTING THEM IN CALCULATION OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of power consumption of lighting devices based on LEDs are studied depending on the supplied voltage. For the lamp and floodlight with LEDs active and reactive power, current and power factor as a function of voltage (which value changed in the range 200–245 V were experimentally determined. The analysis of experimental data demonstrated that due to the drivers in the specified voltage range the active power consumed by light devices remains practically unchanged. The reactive power of LED devices depends on the supplied voltage and is capacitive in its nature. In contrast with gas-discharge light sources the LED devices under study do not consume reactive power, but generate it. With the change of the supplied voltage from 200 to 245 V the value of the generated reactive power increases to 60 % for the floodlight and 50 % for the lamp. The LED floodlight has a low coefficient of active power. The current consumed by the floodlight has increased by 22 %, and by the lamp – by 13 %. The formulas for determining the maximum value of the length of the calculated section of single-phase group lines were developed, taking into account specific source data. LED light sources tend to feed by electric power by single-phase group lines. The number of lamps connected to single-phase lines is regulated by normative documents. Bearing this in mind as well as the small power of LED sources single-phase group lines are usually performed with conductors of the smallest possible cross section. The limit values of the length of the calculated section that correspond to a predetermined loss of voltage in line with ambient temperature from 15 to 60 °С were determined for them. The calculations demonstrated that for group lines that feed the LEDs, the choice of conductor cross-sections in accordance with permissible voltage loss is not critical. The determinant factor for the choice of the cross-section of the conductors of group electrical

  10. Natural gas reserves/total energy consumption: a useful new ratio for addressing global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy analysts have used the reserves/production ratios for oil and natural gas for decades as indicators of the ability of countries to maintain or increase their production of those fuels. The global community is now faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a variety of sources, with the energy sector being the largest contributor to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Natural gas has emerged as a highly desirable fuel, since it produces lower emissions of carbon dioxide than coal or oil for equivalent amounts of energy supplied. The ratio of a country's proven natural gas reserves to its total energy consumption is a good indicator of its ability to improve its air quality situation or address greenhouse gas reduction targets from domestic natural gas sources. This paper provides the ratio for several countries at different stages of development, and discusses some of the implications. In countries where exploration for natural gas has been limited, the estimated resources in place may sometimes be a more useful indicator than proven reserves, and could be used instead. (author)

  11. CALCULATING WATER CONSUMPTION AND WITHDRAWAL FROM POWER PLANTS GLOBALLYUsing machine learning, remote sensing and power plant data from the Power Watch platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressig, A.

    2017-12-01

    BACKGROUND The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP), Scope 2 Guidance standardizes how companies measure greenhouse gas emissions from purchased or independently generated electricity (called "scope 2 emissions"). Additionally, the interlinkages between industrial or commercial (nonresidential) energy requirements and water demands have been studied extensively, mostly at the national or provincial scale, focused on industries involved in power generation. However there is little guidance available for companies to systematically and effectively quantify water withdrawals and consumption (herein referred to as "water demand") associated with purchased or acquired electricity(what we call "Scope 2 Water"). This lack of guidance on measuring a company's water demand from electricity use is due to a lack of data on average consumption and withdrawal rates of water associated with purchased electricity. OBJECTIVE There is growing demand from companies in the food, beverage, manufacturing, information communication and technology, and other sectors for a methodology to quantify Scope 2 water demands. By understanding Scope 2 water demands, companies could evaluate their exposure to water-related risks associated with purchased or acquired electricity, and quantify the water benefits of changing to less water-intensive sources of electricity and energy generation such as wind and solar. However, there has never been a way of quantifying Scope 2 Water consumption and withdrawals for a company across its international supply chain. Even with interest in understanding exposure to water related risk and measuring water use reductions, there has been no quantitative way of measuring this information. But WRI's Power Watch provides the necessary data to allow for the Scope 2 Water accounting, because it will provide water withdrawal and consumption rates associated with purchased electricity at the power plant level. By calculating the average consumption and withdrawal rates per

  12. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  13. The consumption of electric power on the tertiary sector - an instrument for economical and social analysis and market studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The main subjective of this thesis is to analyse the effects of the growth of the tertiary sector on the electric power demand. In order to accomplish this goal an economical and social, analysis of the tertiary sector is made to identify its dynamic, its relations with the other sectors of the economy and to describe the methodologies for measuring the overall tertiary production. Afterwards it is made an analysis of the electric power consumption evolution in the tertiary sector, in order to identify the consumption per region of the country, per consumers and tertiary subsectors. It is also analysed the product power intensify and, finally its described the present tariff system. (author)

  14. The effect of cojugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Bykov, A.I.; Egorushkin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of control of conjugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering, including NPPs with thermal and fast reactors has been calculated. Economical-mathematical models of the system of nuclear power engineering including the subsystems of fuel utilization, fuel supply and conjugate industries, have been used. It has been shown, that with allowance for conjugate energy consumptions, the economic characteristics of nuclear power engineering sharply degradate when it develops only on the basis of thermal reactors. Putting the fast reactors into the system of nuclear power engineering has an important effect on reduction of conjugate energy consumptions and favors the increase of the efficiency of the system functioning during the considered time interval (60 years). Positive effects from putting breeders into operation become appreciable only on the latest estimated time intervals

  15. Research on prediction of agricultural machinery total power based on grey model optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Zhou, Jin; Zheng, Chang-zheng

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflex and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. It is the power source of agricultural production, and is the main factors to enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity expand production scale and increase the income of the farmers. Its demand is affected by natural, economic, technological and social and other "grey" factors. Therefore, grey system theory can be used to analyze the development of agricultural machinery total power. A method based on genetic algorithm optimizing grey modeling process is introduced in this paper. This method makes full use of the advantages of the grey prediction model and characteristics of genetic algorithm to find global optimization. So the prediction model is more accurate. According to data from a province, the GM (1, 1) model for predicting agricultural machinery total power was given based on the grey system theories and genetic algorithm. The result indicates that the model can be used as agricultural machinery total power an effective tool for prediction.

  16. Classifying Sensors Depending on their IDs to Reduce Power Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammd Brisha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks produce a large amount of data that needs to be processed, delivered, and assessed according to the application objectives. Cluster-based is an effective architecture for data-gathering in wireless sensor networks. Clustering provides an effective way for prolonging the lifetime of a wireless sensor network. Current clustering algorithms usually utilize two techniques, selecting cluster heads with more residual energy and rotating cluster heads periodically, in order to distribute the energy consumption among nodes in each cluster and extend the network lifetime. Clustering sensors are divided into groups, so that sensors will communicate information only to cluster heads and then the cluster heads will communicate the aggregated information to the processing center, and this may save energy. In this paper we show Two Relay Sensor Algorithm (TRSA, which divide wireless Sensor Network (WSN into unequaled clusters, showing that it can effectively save power for maximizing the life time of the network. Simulation results show that the proposed unequal clustering mechanism (TRSA balances the energy consumption among all sensor nodes and achieves an obvious improvement on the network lifetime.

  17. Designing an Inverter-based Operational Transconductance Amplifier-capacitor Filter with Low Power Consumption for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefinezhad, Sajad; Kermani, Saeed; Hosseinnia, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The operational transconductance amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter is one of the best structures for implementing continuous-time filters. It is particularly important to design a universal OTA-C filter capable of generating the desired filter response via a single structure, thus reducing the filter circuit power consumption as well as noise and the occupied space on the electronic chip. In this study, an inverter-based universal OTA-C filter with very low power consumption and acceptable noise was designed with applications in bioelectric and biomedical equipment for recording biomedical signals. The very low power consumption of the proposed filter was achieved through introducing bias in subthreshold MOSFET transistors. The proposed filter is also capable of simultaneously receiving favorable low-, band-, and high-pass filter responses. The performance of the proposed filter was simulated and analyzed via HSPICE software (level 49) and 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The rate of power consumption and noise obtained from simulations are 7.1 nW and 10.18 nA, respectively, so this filter has reduced noise as well as power consumption. The proposed universal OTA-C filter was designed based on the minimum number of transconductance blocks and an inverter circuit by three transconductance blocks (OTA).

  18. System and method for controlling power consumption in a computer system based on user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Dick, Robert P; Chen, Xi; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Shy, Alex; Ozisikyilmaz, Berkin; Mallik, Arindam; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-04-22

    Systems and methods for controlling power consumption in a computer system. For each of a plurality of interactive applications, the method changes a frequency at which a processor of the computer system runs, receives an indication of user satisfaction, determines a relationship between the changed frequency and the user satisfaction of the interactive application, and stores the determined relationship information. The determined relationship can distinguish between different users and different interactive applications. A frequency may be selected from the discrete frequencies at which the processor of the computer system runs based on the determined relationship information for a particular user and a particular interactive application running on the processor of the computer system. The processor may be adapted to run at the selected frequency.

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  20. Cause analysis and suggestion of urea consumption in denitrification system of coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Ruifeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Fangfang; Yang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    In the daily operation of many power plants, the urea consumption of denitration system is much more than normal. Therefore, the process of site testing and laboratory analysis are carried out. Several suggestions are given out. (1) The position of sampling hole on the exit flue of denitrification system should be redesigned. (2) The denitrification optimization and adjustment should be carried out based on the technical specifications for the operation system. (3) The flue gas CEMS system for single point sampling should be transformed into two or three point sampling mode. (4) When the coal - fired unit is shutting down, examine the ammonia injection and nozzle branch, in order to improve the operation reliability of denitration system.

  1. A durable, non power consumptive, simple seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Y; Sekine, K; Asakawa, M; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Okamoto, E

    2001-01-01

    One of the key technologic requirements for rotary blood pumps is the sealing of the motor shaft. A mechanical seal, a journal bearing, magnetic coupling, and magnetic suspension have been developed, but they have drawbacks such as wear, thrombus formation, and power consumption. A magnetic fluid seal was developed for an axial flow pump. A magnetic fluid seal is durable, simple, and non power consumptive. Long-term experiments and finite element modeling (FEM) analyses confirmed these advantages. The seal body was composed of a Ned-Fe magnet and two pole pieces; the seal was formed by injecting ferrofluid into the gap (50 microm) between the pole pieces and the motor shaft. To contain the ferrofluid in the seal and to minimize the possibility of ferrofluid making contact with blood, a shield with a small cavity was attached to the pole piece. While submerged in blood, the sealing pressure of the seal was measured and found to be 188 mm Hg with ferrofluid LS-40 (saturated magnetization, 24.3 kA/m) at a motor speed of 10,000 rpm and 225 mm Hg under static conditions. The magnetic fluid seals performed perfectly at a pressure of 100 mm Hg for 594 + days in a static condition, and 51, 39+, and 34+ days at a motor speed of 8,000 rpm. FEM analyses indicated a theoretical sealing pressure of 260 mm Hg. The state of the magnetic fluid in the seal in water was observed with a microscope. Neither splashing of magnetic fluid nor mixing of the magnetic fluid and water was observed. The specially designed magnetic fluid seal for keeping liquids out is useful for axial flow blood pumps. The magnetic fluid seal was incorporated into an intracardiac axial flow pump.

  2. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  3. A Novel Low-Power-Consumption All-Fiber-Optic Anemometer with Simple System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Duan, Zhihui; Liu, Zexu; Liu, Zigeng; Wu, Zhenlin; Gu, Yiying; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-14

    A compact and low-power consuming fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is presented. TFBG as a near infrared in-fiber sensing element is able to excite a number of cladding modes and radiation modes in the fiber and effectively couple light in the core to interact with the fiber surrounding mediums. It is an ideal in-fiber device used in a fiber hot-wire anemometer (HWA) as both coupling and sensing elements to simplify the sensing head structure. The fabricated TFBG was immobilized with an SWCNT film on the fiber surface. SWCNTs, a kind of innovative nanomaterial, were utilized as light-heat conversion medium instead of traditional metallic materials, due to its excellent infrared light absorption ability and competitive thermal conductivity. When the SWCNT film strongly absorbs the light in the fiber, the sensor head can be heated and form a "hot wire". As the sensor is put into wind field, the wind will take away the heat on the sensor resulting in a temperature variation that is then accurately measured by the TFBG. Benefited from the high coupling and absorption efficiency, the heating and sensing light source was shared with only one broadband light source (BBS) without any extra pumping laser complicating the system. This not only significantly reduces power consumption, but also simplifies the whole sensing system with lower cost. In experiments, the key parameters of the sensor, such as the film thickness and the inherent angle of the TFBG, were fully investigated. It was demonstrated that, under a very low BBS input power of 9.87 mW, a 0.100 nm wavelength response can still be detected as the wind speed changed from 0 to 2 m/s. In addition, the sensitivity was found to be -0.0346 nm/(m/s) under the wind speed of 1 m/s. The proposed simple and low-power-consumption wind speed sensing system exhibits promising potential for future long-term remote monitoring and on-chip sensing in

  4. Total Quality Education: Profiles of Schools That Demonstrate the Power of Deming's Management Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Michael J.; Wilson, Richard B.

    This book presents profiles of schools that have demonstrated the power of Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) principles. It describes schools that have successfully applied those strategies for change. The book explores what public education needs most--a compelling but flexible action plan for improvement. Chapter 1 offers a rationale for…

  5. A study on the food consumption rates for off-site radiological dose assessment around Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun

    2008-01-01

    The internal dose by food consumption mostly accounts for radiological dose of public around Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). But, food consumption rates applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which are the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in 1988, are not able to reflect the latest dietary characteristics of Korean. The food consumption rates to be used for radiological dose assessment in Korea are based on the maximum individual of US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Regulatory Guide 1.109. However, the representative individual of the critical group is considered in the recent ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendation and European nations' practice. Therefore, the study on the re-establishment of the food consumption rates for individual around nuclear power plant sites in Korea was carried out to reflect on the recent change of the Korean dietary characteristics and to apply the representative individual of critical group to domestic regulations. The ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. The statistical data such as mean, standard deviation, various percentile values about food consumption rates to be used for the representative individual of the critical group were analyzed by using the raw data of the national food consumption survey in 2001∼2002. Also, the food consumption rates for maximum individual are re-estimated

  6. Energy-water nexus of wind power in China: The balancing act between CO2 emissions and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Feng Kuishuang; Siu, Yim Ling; Hubacek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2010, China's contribution to global CO 2 emissions reached 25.1%. Estimates show that power generation accounts for 37.2% of the Chinese CO 2 emissions. Even though there is an increasing number of studies using life cycle analysis (LCA) to examine energy consumption and CO 2 emissions required by different types of power generation technologies, there are very few studies focusing on China. Furthermore, the nexus between water consumption and energy production has largely been ignored. In this paper, we adopt input–output based hybrid life cycle analysis to evaluate water consumption and CO 2 emissions of wind power in China. Our results show that China's wind energy consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 emission. Given that the Chinese government aims to increase the wind power generation capacity to 200 GW by 2020, wind power could contribute a 23% reduction in carbon intensity and could save 800 million m 3 of water which could be sufficient enough for use by 11.2 million households. Thus, given the often postulated water crisis, China's energy policy would reap double benefits through progressive energy policies when increasing the share of wind power as part of overall efforts to diversify its electricity generation technologies. - Highlights: ► The nexus of water consumption and CO 2 emission of China's wind power is examined. ► Wind power consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 . ► Wind power could save 800 million m 3 of water for use by 11.2 million households. ► Wind power could contribute 23% of China's carbon intensity target by 2020. ► Wind power deemed to be a viable means of achieving carbon and water savings.

  7. Power consumption analysis of pump station control systems based on fuzzy controllers with discrete terms in iThink software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyova, E. A.; Bondarev, A. V.; Sharipov, M. I.; Galiaskarova, G. R.; Kubryak, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, power consumption of pumping station control systems is discussed. To study the issue, two simulation models of oil level control in the iThink software have been developed, using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. A simulation of the oil-level control was carried out in a graphic form, and plots of pumps power consumption were obtained. Based on the initial and obtained data, the efficiency of the considered control systems has been compared, and also the power consumption of the systems was shown graphically using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. The models analysis has shown that it is more economical and safe to use a control circuit with a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller.

  8. Development of structural diagram of automated dispatch control system for power consumption at non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuev, R. V.; Bosikov, I. I.; Madaeva, M. Z.; A-V Turluev, R.

    2018-03-01

    The structural scheme of the automated control system of power consumption at the industrial enterprise is developed in the article. At the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise, an energy inspection and a rank analysis of the electrical energy consumption of the main processing equipment were carried out. It is established that the enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy are a complex process system consisting of a set of thousands of jointly functioning technological facilities. For the most effective estimation of power consumption of enterprises, it is reasonable to use the automated system of dispatching control of power consumption (ASDCPC). The paper presents the results of the development of the ASDCPC structural diagram that allows one to perform on-line control and management of the energy and process parameters of the main production units and the enterprise as a whole. As a result of the introduction of ASDCPC at the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise, the consumed active power was reduced during the peak hours of the load by 20%, the specific electricity consumption - by 14%, the cost of the energy component in the cost of production of hard alloys - by 3%.

  9. Ultra sensitive sea water radioactivity monitoring system. Autonomous low power consumption equipped with wireless data communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Debauche, A.; Lellis, C. de; Adam, V.; Lacroix, J.P.; Put, P. van

    2003-01-01

    Following the recognition of their usefulness by the States and the scientific community, the automatic water monitoring networks were developed again to be able to measure sea water. For that purpose they had to be fully autonomous, have low power consumption (solar panels power supply), use wireless communicating (satellite, GSM, Radio) and be very sensitive (few Bq/m 3 ). It is important to note that radioactivity detection in sea has many constraints: The detection system sensitivity must be very high because of the dilution factor of the ocean. The analysis method has to be adapted: the detection of very low levels of artificial contamination is made difficult due to the natural radioactivity in seawater (i.e., more than 10 kBq of 40 K/m 3 ). The system has to be completely autonomous, 'wireless'. Additional conventional measuring probes must be connected to the system to increase its interest (pH, t deg, salinity, position, meteorology). The system maintenance must be very limited (1/year). Wind and corrosion resistance must be high. The probe must be installed on a buoy. Moreover, some improvements are needed to allow: Amplification Gain drifts due to NaI sensitivity to t deg to be compensated. Net peak area computation in a specific energy range. Interference correction to prevent false alarms due to natural radiation. Very long counting time. (author)

  10. Analytical and Algorithmic Approaches to Determine the Number of Sensor Nodes for Minimum Power Consumption in LWSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soner Kilinc

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Linear Wireless Sensor Network (LWSN is a kind of wireless sensor network where the nodes are deployed in a line. Since the sensor nodes are energy restricted, energy efficiency becomes one of the most significant design issues for LWSNs as well as wireless sensor networks. With the proper deployment, the power consumption could be minimized by adjusting the distance between the sensor nodes which is known as hop length. In this paper, analytical and algorithmic approaches are presented to determine the number of hops and sensor nodes for minimum power consumption in a linear wireless sensor network including equidistantly placed sensor nodes.

  11. On power consumption issues in FIR filters with application to communication receivers: complexity, word length, and switching activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havashki, Asghar

    2009-10-15

    Power consumption in CMOS VLSI circuits has in recent years become a major design constraint. This is in particular important for wireless networks, due to the limited life time of the batteries that wireless nodes are operating on. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one example of a technique which in recent years has become widely applied in wireless communication systems. However, the performance of OFDM and other spectrally efficient schemes depends, to a large extend, on advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and on the use of efficient and possibly adaptive resource allocation and transmission techniques. These in turn require that accurate estimates of the channel are available in the receiver and transmitter. However, accurate channel estimation of a time and frequency dispersive wireless fading channel calls for complex estimators, which might lead to significant power dissipation in such devices. Therefore, characterizing and analyzing power consumed by such devices under different channel conditions, and optimizing for power is important to reduce the overall power consumption of the system. In this thesis a certain chosen class of estimators, i.e., a linear FIR estimator, is considered, which is based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The work in this thesis considers the power related challenges in such estimators. The power consumed by such estimators depends, in part, on the complexity of the estimator, i.e., the length of the FIR filter. The filter length is one of the factors affecting the estimation accuracy. An analysis of the relation between the performance of such estimators and the required complexity for these devices under different channel conditions, i.e., in the presence of noise, is performed in this thesis. In this study we show that a small increase in this noise can lead to a considerable increase in the required estimator complexity if a given Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) performance for the

  12. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.O.; Gonçalves, G.A.; Baptista, P.C.; Farias, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R 2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  13. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  14. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  15. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  16. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P K; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  17. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  18. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique

  19. Comparison of isokinetic peak force and power in adults with partial and total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Michael; Ray, Christopher; Nocera, Joe; Croce, Ron

    2006-08-01

    For many populations the ability to move efficiently is compromised by an impaired muscular functioning. Strength development is necessary to overcome the effects of gravity to maintain posture and generate movement responses for mobility. The strength and power capabilities of individuals with total blindness (n = 12) were compared to those with partial vision (n = 12) to evaluate effects of vision on performance. Results indicate that (1) no significant differences were apparent between total blindness and partial vision, (2) significant sex differences were evident in each group, and (3) better performance was apparent at lower velocities. It was concluded that physical performance in individuals with blindness and partial vision are equally deficient.

  20. Presentations of the 2. national colloquium dedicated to photovoltaic self-consumption - Producing solar power to consume it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Virginie; Bour, Daniel; Emsellem, David-Eric; Charton, Franck; Devoisin-Lagarde, Sophie; Gossement, Arnaud; Moulet, Antoine; Gautier, Charles Antoine; Lextrait, Herve; Joffre, Andre; Marcie, Stephane; Richard, Pascal; Semenjuk, Gerald; Mayaud, Nicolas; Rocchia, Gilles; De GUIO, Sandrine; Dornstetter, Caroline; Perrin, Marion; Ricaud, Claude; Jimenez, Julien; Bourgueil, Christophe; Marchal, David; Brottier, Laetitia

    2017-09-01

    Producing, consuming and sharing electricity is today an emerging trend of the energy mix transition. Self-consumption is the main topic of 2017, even if still limited today, it aims to extend in the coming years especially if the appropriate conditions are in place. This second edition of the national colloquium on self-consumption stresses on two aspects will extend in a near future: collective self-consumption and stationary and mobile power storage. The colloquium is organised in 4 sessions dealing with: 1 - The market of individual self-consumption, economical and contractual models; 2 - Regulatory and economic framework of collective self-consumption: impact on positive-energy buildings and on the fight against fuel poverty; 3 - Digitalized self-consumption as a solution to reach operational efficiency: issues for the grid from the building to the district scale; 4 - Photovoltaic self-consumption, stationary storage and electro-mobility: impact of batteries competition on energy decentralisation. This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the colloquium

  1. The association between nut consumption and the risk of total and ischemic stroke in a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, R; Fjeld, M K; Dierkes, J; Theoflylaktopoulou, D; Arregui, M; Boeing, H; Weikert, C

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, their effect on stroke is less established, and no studies on the topic are available in Northern and Central European populations. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the association between nut consumption and the risk of stroke in a German population. We used data from a prospective cohort of 26,285 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into the Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam Study. During a median follow-up time of 8.3 years (interquartile range: 7.5-9.2), 288 incident cases of stroke occurred. Nut consumption (standard portion size of 50 g) was assessed at baseline with a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The median nut intake was 0.82 g per day, interquartile range: 0.41-4.11. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of stroke was observed among participants who never consumed nuts (hazard ratio (HR): 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.08), compared with those consuming 1 portion/week. Similar nonsignificant associations were observed in stratified analysis for gender, or for fatal and nonfatal stroke. We could not observe an association between nut consumption and the risk of developing stroke (fatal/nonfatal) in a population with low habitual nut consumption.

  2. Analysis of Power Network for Line Reactance Variation to Improve Total Transmission Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing growth in power demand and the penetration of renewable distributed generations in competitive electricity market demands large and flexible capacity from the transmission grid to reduce transmission bottlenecks. The bottlenecks cause transmission congestion, reliability problems, restrict competition, and limit the maximum dispatch of low cost generations in the network. The electricity system requires efficient utilization of the current transmission capability to improve the Available Transfer Capability (ATC. To improve the ATC, power flow among the lines can be managed by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices as power flow controllers, which alter the parameters of power lines. It is important to place FACTS devices on suitable lines to vary the reactance for improving Total Transmission Capacity (TTC of the network and provide flexibility in the power flow. In this paper a transmission network is analyzed based on line parameters variation to improve TTC of the interconnected system. Lines are selected for placing FACTS devices based on real power flow Performance Index (PI sensitivity factors. TTC is computed using the Repeated Power Flow (RPF method using the constraints of lines thermal limits, bus voltage limits and generator limits. The reactance of suitable lines, selected on the basis of PI sensitivity factors are changed to divert the power flow to other lines with enough transfer capacity available. The improvement of TTC using line reactance variation is demonstrated with three IEEE test systems with multi-area networks. The results show the variation of the selected lines’ reactance in improving TTC for all the test networks with defined contingency cases.

  3. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  4. Full-sky formulae for weak lensing power spectra from total angular momentum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Taruya, Atsushi; Namikawa, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    We systematically derive full-sky formulae for the weak lensing power spectra generated by scalar, vector and tensor perturbations from the total angular momentum (TAM) method. Based on both the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations, we first give the gauge-invariant expressions for the deflection angle and Jacobi map as observables of the CMB lensing and cosmic shear experiments. We then apply the TAM method, originally developed in the theoretical studies of CMB, to a systematic derivation of the angular power spectra. The TAM representation, which characterizes the total angular dependence of the spatial modes projected along a line-of-sight, can carry all the information of the lensing modes generated by scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. This greatly simplifies the calculation, and we present a complete set of the full-sky formulae for angular power spectra in both the E-/B-mode cosmic shear and gradient-/curl-mode lensing potential of deflection angle. Based on the formulae, we give illustrative examples of non-vanishing B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode of deflection angle in the presence of the vector and tensor perturbations, and explicitly compute the power spectra

  5. Compact Low-Power-Consumption 28-Gbaud QPSK/16-QAM Integrated Silicon Photonic/Electronic Coherent Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Verbist, J.; Moeneclaey, B.; van Weerdenburg, J.; van Uden, R.G.H.; Chen, H.; van Campenhout, J.; Okonkwo, C; Yin, X; Bauwelinck, J.; Roelkens, G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the codesign and cointegration of an ultracompact silicon photonic receiver and a low-power-consumption (155 mW/channel) two-channel linear transimpedance amplifier array. Operation below the forward error coding (FEC) threshold both for quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and

  6. Design and Modeling of Polysilicon Electrothermal Actuators for a MEMS Mirror with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lara-Castro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic optical-coherence tomography (OCT systems require low cost mirrors with small footprint size, out-of-plane deflections and low bias voltage. These requirements can be achieved with electrothermal actuators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. We present the design and modeling of polysilicon electrothermal actuators for a MEMS mirror (100 μm × 100 μm × 2.25 μm. These actuators are composed by two beam types (2.25 μm thickness with different cross-section area, which are separated by 2 μm gap. The mirror and actuators are designed through the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology V (SUMMiT V® process, obtaining a small footprint size (1028 μm × 1028 µm for actuators of 550 µm length. The actuators have out-of-plane displacements caused by low dc voltages and without use material layers with distinct thermal expansion coefficients. The temperature behavior along the actuators is calculated through analytical models that include terms of heat energy generation, heat conduction and heat energy loss. The force method is used to predict the maximum out-of-plane displacements in the actuator tip as function of supplied voltage. Both analytical models, under steady-state conditions, employ the polysilicon resistivity as function of the temperature. The electrothermal-and structural behavior of the actuators is studied considering different beams dimensions (length and width and dc bias voltages from 0.5 to 2.5 V. For 2.5 V, the actuator of 550 µm length reaches a maximum temperature, displacement and electrical power of 115 °C, 10.3 µm and 6.3 mW, respectively. The designed actuation mechanism can be useful for MEMS mirrors of different sizes with potential application in endoscopic OCT systems that require low power consumption.

  7. Electrothermal modeling, fabrication and analysis of low-power consumption thermal actuator with buckling arm

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2013-10-31

    © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. This paper reports on a novel thermal actuator with sub-micron metallic structures and a buckling arm to operate with low voltages and to generate very large deflections, respectively. A lumped electrothermal model and analysis were also developed to validate the mechanical design and easily predict the temperature distribution along arms of the sub-micron actuator. The actuator was fabricated via the combination of electron beam lithography to form actuator arms with a minimum feature size of 200 nm and lift-off process to deposit a high aspect ratio nickel structure. Reproducible displacements of up to 1.9 μm at the tip were observed up to 250 mV under confocal microscope. The experimentally measured deflection values and theoretically calculated temperature distribution by the developed model were compared with finite element analysis results and they were in good agreement. This study shows a promising approach to develop more sophisticated nano actuators required larger deflections for manipulation of sub-micron scale objects with low-power consumption.

  8. Consumption of locally grown foods by the populations residing near nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The studies carried out by the Geographical Institute of Aix-en-Provence and the B.E.G.E.A. are in three forms: the first studies the local rural production (farming, animal rearing and fishing); the second is concerned with the food intake of the population within a radius of 5 to 10 km around the site; the third consists in working out a soil utilization map covering an area of about 2500 hectares around the site in order to determine the agricultural and urban areas as well as the open spaces, and the exact sort of cultivation carried out, plot by plot. The map also represents all the phenomena concerning hydrography, irrigation, watering and the supply of potable water. All these studies concern only a few parishes and enable an accurate knowledge of the environment to be acquired. The food studies seek an order of magnitude of the amount of local produce consumed by the populations of the nuclear power station sites with a view to determining radioactive contamination levels. The results show the specific food consumption features of a population bearing the deep stamp of its environment and its rural origin [fr

  9. Sustainable Modular Adaptive Redundancy Technique Emphasizing Partial Reconfiguration for Reduced Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As reconfigurable devices' capacities and the complexity of applications that use them increase, the need for self-reliance of deployed systems becomes increasingly prominent. Organic computing paradigms have been proposed for fault-tolerant systems because they promote behaviors that allow complex digital systems to adapt and survive in demanding environments. In this paper, we develop a sustainable modular adaptive redundancy technique (SMART composed of a two-layered organic system. The hardware layer is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to provide self-repair using a novel approach called reconfigurable adaptive redundancy system (RARS. The software layer supervises the organic activities on the FPGA and extends the self-healing capabilities through application-independent, intrinsic, and evolutionary repair techniques that leverage the benefits of dynamic partial reconfiguration (PR. SMART was evaluated using a Sobel edge-detection application and was shown to tolerate stressful sequences of injected transient and permanent faults while reducing dynamic power consumption by 30% compared to conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR techniques, with nominal impact on the fault-tolerance capabilities. Moreover, PR is employed to keep the system on line while under repair and also to reduce repair time. Experiments have shown a 27.48% decrease in repair time when PR is employed compared to the full bitstream configuration case.

  10. Criterion 6, indicator 33 : recovery or recycling of forest products as a percentage of total forest products consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog; James Howard; Rebecca. Westby

    2011-01-01

    This indicator shows the trend in recovering wood and paper for reuse in products in the United States. This reuse can hold down the need to harvest wood to meet U.S. consumption needs. The paper recycling rate (utilization rate in producing new paper) increased from 22% to 38% between 1970 and 1996, but then stabilized at 37% to 38% between 1996 and 2006. This rate...

  11. Increase of the Integration Degree of Wind Power Plants into the Energy System Using Wind Forecasting and Power Consumption Predictor Models by Transmission System Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plants’ (WPPs high penetration into the power system leads to various inconveniences in the work of system operators. This fact is associated with the unpredictable nature of wind speed and generated power, respectively. Due to these factors, such source of electricity must be connected to the power system to avoid detrimental effects on the stability and quality of electricity. The power generated by the WPPs is not regulated by the system operator. Accurate forecasting of wind speed and power, as well as power load can solve this problem, thereby making a significant contribution to improving the power supply systems reliability. The article presents a mathematical model for the wind speed prediction, which is based on autoregression and fuzzy logic derivation of Takagi-Sugeno. The new model of wavelet transform has been developed, which makes it possible to include unnecessary noise from the model, as well as to reveal the cycling of the processes and their trend. It has been proved, that the proposed combination of methods can be used simultaneously to predict the power consumption and the wind power plant potential power at any time interval, depending on the planning horizon. The proposed models support a new scientific concept for the predictive control system of wind power stations and increase their degree integration into the electric power system.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Change in Ambient Air Temperature on Power Consumption of Domestic Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olorunmaiye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the manifestations of climate change is increase.in ambient air temperature usually referred to as global warming. For sustainable development in a country, there is need to identify impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptation and mitigation strategies to adopt. To simulate the effect of global warming on the power consumption of refrigerators, a (model No. 150 THERMOCOOL refrigerator filled with twenty-five 750cl packaged water bottleswas run in an air-conditioned room, in a room with the air-conditioner switched off and near an oven in a bakery. The electric power consumption of the refrigerator was measured using "Watts up?.net" Watt meter and the ambient temperature was measured using FLUKE temperature/humidity meter. The average hourly energy consumption of the refrigerator operating at mean ambient temperatures of 25.4°C, 30.7oC, 38.8°C were 93.844 Wh, 100.32 Wh and 105.08 Wh respectively. Some possible ways to reduce the increase in power consumption of refrigerators due to global warming include using compressors of higher efficiency and condensers of greater effectiveness.

  13. Tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chi; Qin, Ying-Yi; Wei, Xin; Yu, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Yu-Hao; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Studies that investigated the association between tea consumption and the risk of major cardiovascular events have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies in order to summarize the evidence regarding the association between tea consumption and major cardiovascular outcomes or total mortality. In July 2014, we performed electronic searches in PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library, followed by manual searches of reference lists from the resulting articles to identify other relevant studies. Prospective observational studies that reported effect estimates, with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cardiac death, stroke death, or total mortality for more than two dosages of tea consumption were included. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes associated with an increase in tea consumption by 3 cups per day. Of the 736 citations identified from database searches, we included 22 prospective studies from 24 articles reporting data on 856,206 individuals, and including 8,459 cases of CHD, 10,572 of stroke, 5,798 cardiac deaths, 2,350 stroke deaths, and 13,722 total deaths. Overall, an increase in tea consumption by 3 cups per day was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (relative risk [RR], 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.53–0.99; P = 0.045), cardiac death (RR, 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.63–0.86; P < 0.001), stroke (RR, 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.73–0.92; P = 0.001), total mortality (RR, 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.63–0.91; P = 0.003), cerebral infarction (RR, 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.72–0.98; P = 0.023), and intracerebral hemorrhage (RR, 0.79; 95 % CI: 0.72–0.87; P < 0.001), but had little or no effect on stroke mortality (RR, 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.83–1.05; P = 0.260). The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that increased tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CHD, cardiac death, stroke, cerebral infarction, and

  14. Total quality control: the deming management philosophy applied to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Wetherell, D.L.; Melhem, S.A.; Sato, M.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, a call has come for the development of inherently safe nuclear reactor systems that cannot have large-scale accidents. In the search for the perfect inherently safe reactor system, some are calling for the institution of computerized automated control of reactors eliminating most human operators from the control room. A different approach to the problem of the control of inherently safe reactors is that both future and present nuclear power plants need to institute total quality control (TQC) to plant operations and management. The Deming management philosophy of TQC has been implemented in a wide range of industries - particularly in Japan and the US. Specific attention is given, however, to TQC implementation in the electric power industry as applied to nuclear plants. The Kansai Electric Power Company and Florida Power and Light Company have recently implemented TQC. Statistical quality control methods have been applied to monitor and control reactor variables (for example, to the steam generator water level important to start-up operations of pressurized water reactors)

  15. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-05-20

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server's fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  17. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  18. Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghvaei, A.H.; Shokrollahi, H.; Janghorban, K.; Abiri, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (k b = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (k b = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f 2 ) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f 2 ).

  19. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  20. Analgesic consumption trajectories in 8975 patients 1 year after fast-track total hip or knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Petersen, M; Kehlet, H

    2018-01-01

    , opioids, anticonvulsants and antidepressants 1 month preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Patients were stratified according to preoperative opioid use. Postoperative analgesic consumption trajectories were stratified as increased, decreased or no use compared to the preoperative period. RESULTS.......6 (TKA) and 10.2% (THA) compared to 9.9 and 6.3% in opioid-naive TKA and THA patients, respectively. Increased NSAID and paracetamol use was seen in 11.5 and 12.4% of all patients. Preoperative analgesic use (any), TKA, psychiatric disorder, tobacco abuse, cardiac disease and use of walking aids were...

  1. Total diffusing power of perturbed lattices and dissymmetry of reflections. Case of groups of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournarie, Max

    1959-01-01

    The total diffusing power for a crystallite of any form containing a centrosymmetric defect has been established. The antisymmetrical part of the deformation potential only contributes very slightly to the primary dissymmetry. We then go on to study the case of a group of defects of the same type. The calculation converges sufficiently to describe the thermal agitation of an infinite crystal. Reprint of a paper published in 'Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences', t. 248, p. 2103-2105, sitting of April 6, 1959 [fr

  2. Design trade-off between spatial resolution and power consumption in CMOS biosensor circuit based on millimeter-wave LC oscillator array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Maya; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a trade-off between spatial resolution and power consumption in an LC oscillator-based CMOS biosensor, which can detect biomolecules by observing the resonance frequency shift due to changes in the complex permittivity of the biomolecules. The optimal operating frequency and improvement in the image resolution of the sensor output require a reduction in the size of the inductor. However, it is necessary to increase the transconductance of the cross-coupling transistor to achieve the oscillation condition, although the power consumption increases. We confirmed the trade-off between the spatial resolution and the power consumption of this sensor using SPICE simulation. A test chip was fabricated using a 65 nm CMOS process, and the transition in the peak frequency and the power consumption were measured. When the outer diameter of the inductor was 46 µm, the power consumption was 31.2 mW, which matched well with the simulation results.

  3. Power-based electric vehicle energy consumption model: Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, Chiara; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The study developed an instantaneous energy consumption model (VT-CPEM) for EVs. • The model captures instantaneous braking energy regeneration. • The model can be used for transportation modeling and vehicle applications (e.g. eco-routing). • The proposed model can be easily calibrated using publically available EV data. • Usages of air conditioning and heating systems reduce EV energy consumption by up to 10% and 24%, respectively. - Abstract: The limited drive range (The maximum distance that an EV can travel.) of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is one of the major challenges that EV manufacturers are attempting to overcome. To this end, a simple, accurate, and efficient energy consumption model is needed to develop real-time eco-driving and eco-routing systems that can enhance the energy efficiency of EVs and thus extend their travel range. Although numerous publications have focused on the modeling of EV energy consumption levels, these studies are limited to measuring energy consumption of an EV’s control algorithm, macro-project evaluations, or simplified well-to-wheels analyses. Consequently, this paper addresses this need by developing a simple EV energy model that computes an EV’s instantaneous energy consumption using second-by-second vehicle speed, acceleration and roadway grade data as input variables. In doing so, the model estimates the instantaneous braking energy regeneration. The proposed model can be easily implemented in the following applications: in-vehicle, Smartphone eco-driving, eco-routing and transportation simulation software to quantify the network-wide energy consumption levels for a fleet of EVs. One of the main advantages of EVs is their ability to recover energy while braking using a regenerative braking system. State-of-the-art vehicle energy consumption models consider an average constant regenerative braking energy efficiency or regenerative braking factors that are mainly dependent on the vehicle’s average

  4. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but...

  5. Analysis of the reactive power consumption and the harmonics in the network by the non-linear electrical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The non linear electrical loads can give rise to a number of disturbances in electrical power networks. Among them, the high consumption of relative power is to be noted and so is the several harmonic components which may be injected in the industry system and very often in the utility system. So, by using appropriate technical considerations, as well as measurements in typical special electrical loads, such negative effects are analyzed and ways of minimizing them are suggested. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Studies on total polyphenols and reducing power of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cioroi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Certain phytochemicals in species are attracting increased attention because of a wide range of biological activities especially the possible cancer preventive properties. Polyphenols, the naturalantioxidants are present in plant extracts and they play a key role in antioxidative defence mechanisms in biological systems and they act as free radicals scavenging agents. Polyphenols might thereforeinhibit development of coronary heart disease and cancers. Basil, oregano and sage are highly fragrant plants whose leaves are used as a seasoning herb for many different types of foods. Aqueous extractswere prepared from basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.. To check the phenols presence, the UV-VIS spectrum was made. The amount of polyphenolic compounds from selected Lamiaceae species was determined by spectrophotometry method using the Folin - Ciocalteau reagent and gallic acid as standard. The range of polyphenols total was between 516,352 mg/100g dried species and 859,617 mg/100g dried species.Reducing power has been established by measuring the redox potential of aqueous extracts. Antioxidant activity was directly correlated with the total amount of polyphenols in the species extracts.The free reducing sugars in aqueous extracts from species were analyzed and correlated to the total content of polyphenols.

  7. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  8. Prediction of power consumption and performance in ultrafiltration of simulated latex effluent using non-uniform pore sized membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrasoul, Amira; Doan, Huu; Lohi, Ali; Cheng, Chil-Hung [Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Tha aim of the present study was to develop a series of numerical models for an accurate prediction of the power consumption in ultrafiltration of simulated latex effluent. The developed power consumption model incorporated fouling attachment, as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling, in order to ensure accurate prediction and scale-up. This model was applied to heterogeneous membranes with non-uniform pore sizes at a given operating conditions and membrane surface charges. Polysulfone flat membrane, with a membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 60,000 dalton, at different surface charges was used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode. In addition, the developed models were examined using various membranes at a variety of surface charges so as to test the overall reliability and accuracy of these models. The power consumption predicted by the models corresponded to the calculated values from the experimental data for various hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes with an error margin of 6.0% up to 19.1%.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  11. Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolińska, Katarzyna; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-08-30

    The colon and rectum are common sites of food-related cancer in developed countries. Recent studies strongly suggest that red meat intake is associated with colon cancer, whereas for rectal cancer such an association still needs to be proved. The aim of the study was to assess the role of total amount and frequency of red meat intake in colorectal carcinogenesis based on published data using meta-analysis methods. The literature published until 2009 was selected from: MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, CancerLit, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases. The used search terms were: colorectal cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, meat intake, red meat intake, red meat consumption, meat consumption, colorectal cancer risk, colon cancer risk, rectal cancer risk and lifestyle. Articles investigating red meat intake of more often than once a day or 50 g per day were reviewed and selected for further analysis. Twenty-two studies fulfilled the established criteria. A meta-analysis confirmed the carcinogenic effect of the consumption of over 50 g of red meat per day for the colon (relative risk 1.21, 1.07-1.37) but not for the rectum (relative risk 1.30, 0.90-1.89). Red meat intake more frequently than once a day can induce both colonic (relative risk 1.37, 1.09-1.71) and rectal cancer (relative risk 1.43, 1.24-1.64). Red meat intake is associated with elevated risk of developing colorectal cancer. The frequency of red meat consumption rather than total amount of consumed meat is associated with a higher risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  12. The total release of xenon-133 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohl, Andreas; Seibert, Petra; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) on 11 March 2011 released large amounts of radioactivity into the atmosphere. We determine the total emission of the noble gas xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) using global atmospheric concentration measurements. For estimating the emissions, we used three different methods: (i) using a purely observation-based multi-box model, (ii) comparisons of dispersion model results driven with GFS meteorological data with the observation data, and (iii) such comparisons with the dispersion model driven by ECMWF data. From these three methods, we have obtained total 133 Xe releases from FD-NPP of (i) 16.7 ± 1.9 EBq, (ii) 14.2 ± 0.8 EBq, and (iii) 19.0 ± 3.4 EBq, respectively. These values are substantially larger than the entire 133 Xe inventory of FD-NPP of about 12.2 EBq derived from calculations of nuclear fuel burn-up. Complete release of the entire 133 Xe inventory of FD-NPP and additional release of 133 Xe due to the decay of iodine-133 ( 133 I), which can add another 2 EBq to the 133 Xe FD-NPP inventory, is required to explain the atmospheric observations. Two of our three methods indicate even higher emissions, but this may not be a robust finding given the differences between our estimates. - Highlights: ► We determine the total release of xenon-133 from the Fukushima nuclear accident. ► We used global measurements and a box model, as well as dispersion model estimates. ► Total 133 Xe release is about 14.2-19 EBq, more than Fukushima 133 Xe inventory. ► Additional release of iodine-133 and decay into 133 Xe needed to explain results.

  13. Estimated radiological effects of the normal discharge of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 3500 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugt, G. van der; Wijker, H.; Kema, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands discussions are going on about the installation of three nuclear power plants, leading with the two existing plants to a total capacity of 3500 MWe. To have an impression of the radiological impact of this program, calculations were carried out concerning the population doses due to the discharge of radioactivity from the plants during normal operation. The discharge via the ventilation stack gives doses due to noble gases, halogens and particulate material. The population dose due to the halogens in the grass-milk-man chain is estimated using the real distribution of grass-land around the reactor sites. It could be concluded that the population dose due to the contamination of crops and fruit is negligeable. A conservative estimation is made for the dose due to the discharge of tritium. The population dose due to the discharge in the cooling water is calculated using the following pathways: drinking water; consumption of fish; consumption of meat from animals fed with fish products. The individual doses caused by the normal discharge of a 1000 MWe plant appeared to be very low, mostly below 1 mrem/year. The population dose is in the order of some tens manrems. The total dose of the 5 nuclear power plants to the dutch population is not more than 70 manrem. Using a linear dose-effect relationship the health effects to the population are estimated and compared with the normal frequency

  14. Effects of nuclear power plant shutdowns on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after the Tohoku Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Tanaka, Katsuya; Wu, Junjie; Robert, Roland K.; Kim, Taeyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes how the substitution of fossil fuels for nuclear power due to the shutdown of nuclear power plants after the Tohoku Earthquake affects electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan. Results indicate that Japan generated 4.3 million metric tons (or 0.3%, with a 95% confidence interval) of additional CO_2 emissions in 2011 following the earthquake. The increase in CO_2 emissions stemmed from the combined effects of decreased electricity consumption due to energy conservation efforts and the substitution of fossil fuels for nuclear power following the Tohoku Earthquake. Results also show considerable spatial variation in the impacts of the earthquake on net CO_2 emissions. A majority of the prefectures (40 of 47 prefectures, or 85%) were predicted to experience higher CO_2 emissions after the Tohoku Earthquake while the remaining (7 prefectures) were predicted to experience lower CO_2 emissions. Our findings suggest that Japan and countries under similar risks may want to reformulate energy policy by emphasizing utilization of diverse power and energy sources, including more renewable energy production and electricity conservation. The policy reform should also consider spatial variation in the combined effects of reduced reliance on nuclear power and increased CO_2 conversion factors. - Highlights: • Analyzed effects of Tohoku Earthquake on greenhouse gas emissions in Japan. • Estimated effects on reduced electricity consumption and increased fossil fuel use. • Generated 4.3 million metric tons (or 0.3%) of additional CO_2 emissions in 2011. • Showed spatial variation in the impacts of the earthquake on CO_2 emissions.

  15. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  16. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqr, Khalid M.; Musa, Md. Nor

    2011-01-01

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  17. Low power consumption O-band VCSEL sources for upstream channels in PON systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental validation of a low power optical network unit employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as upstream sources for passive optical networks with an increased power budget, enabling even larger splitting ratios....

  18. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  19. Power Consumption Efficiency Evaluation of Multi-User Full-Duplex Visible Light Communication Systems for Smart Home Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tabish Niaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Visible light communication (VLC has recently gained significant academic and industrial attention. VLC has great potential to supplement the functioning of the upcoming radio-frequency (RF-based 5G networks. It is best suited for home, office, and commercial indoor environments as it provides a high bandwidth and high data rate, and the visible light spectrum is free to use. This paper proposes a multi-user full-duplex VLC system using red-green-blue (RGB, and white emitting diodes (LEDs for smart home technologies. It utilizes red, green, and blue LEDs for downlink transmission and a simple phosphor white LED for uplink transmission. The red and green color bands are used for user data and smart devices, respectively, while the blue color band is used with the white LED for uplink transmission. The simulation was carried out to verify the performance of the proposed multi-user full-duplex VLC system. In addition to the performance evaluation, a cost-power consumption analysis was performed by comparing the power consumption and the resulting cost of the proposed VLC system to the power consumed and resulting cost of traditional Wi-Fi based systems and hybrid systems that utilized both VLC and Wi-Fi. Our findings showed that the proposed system improved the data rate and bit-error rate performance, while minimizing the power consumption and the associated costs. These results have demonstrated that a full-duplex VLC system is a feasible solution suitable for indoor environments as it provides greater cost savings and energy efficiency when compared to traditional Wi-Fi-based systems and hybrid systems that utilize both VLC and Wi-Fi.

  20. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE / EERE / NEED Project

    2011-06-07

    The NEED Project and the U.S. Department of Energy have collaborated to bring you this educational four-page guide to energy, electricity, consumption and efficiency. It includes, on the last page, a home energy survey to help you analyze your home energy use.

  1. Optimal Power Allocation for Downstream xDSL With Per-Modem Total Power Constraints: Broadcast Channel Optimal Spectrum Balancing (BC-OSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nir, Vincent; Moonen, Marc; Verlinden, Jan; Guenach, Mamoun

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the duality between Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Multiple Access Channels (MAC) and MIMO Broadcast Channels (BC) has been established under a total power constraint. The same set of rates for MAC can be achieved in BC exploiting the MAC-BC duality formulas while preserving the total power constraint. In this paper, we describe the BC optimal power allo- cation applying this duality in a downstream x-Digital Subscriber Lines (xDSL) context under a total power constraint for all modems over all tones. Then, a new algorithm called BC-Optimal Spectrum Balancing (BC-OSB) is devised for a more realistic power allocation under per-modem total power constraints. The capacity region of the primal BC problem under per-modem total power constraints is found by the dual optimization problem for the BC under per-modem total power constraints which can be rewritten as a dual optimization problem in the MAC by means of a precoder matrix based on the Lagrange multipliers. We show that the duality gap between the two problems is zero. The multi-user power allocation problem has been solved for interference channels and MAC using the OSB algorithm. In this paper we solve the problem of multi-user power allocation for the BC case using the OSB algorithm as well and we derive a computational efficient algorithm that will be referred to as BC-OSB. Simulation results are provided for two VDSL2 scenarios: the first one with Differential-Mode (DM) transmission only and the second one with both DM and Phantom- Mode (PM) transmissions.

  2. The state of the art in Japan's telecommunications energy systems - Strategy for Total Power Management -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroyama, Seiichi [NTT Power and Building Facilities Inc., Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The ''strategy for total power management (STPM)'' was developed for managing problems in relation to energy for multimedia services in a comprehensive manner from the viewpoints of risk, cost, and environment. To provide integrated services based on STPM, a DC power supply system, a highly reliable UPS, and a co-generation system have been developed. (orig.)

  3. Electric power end-consumption for Minas Gerais State until 2005; Projecao do consumo final de energia eletrica para Minas Gerais ate 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechlufft, Paulo C.T. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    This paper analyzes the methodologies for electric power consumption prediction, including the various sectors of the industry, the service sector, the commercial sector and the public sector. The main objective of this methodology is create a energy policy which includes actualized data from the energy consumption and the expansion trends of the main sectors of the statement economy. 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-12

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  5. Optimal Power Consumption in a Central Heating System with Geothermal Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , lowering the temperature of forward water alleviates energy consumption. The hypothesis is that the minimum water temperature is achieved when at least one of the hydronic heaters in the building works at full capacity. The setpoint of the forward water temperature is found by solving a model based...... controllers. Simulation results for a case study with simplified subsystems' models show considerable energy savings compared to the traditional control scheme for the heat pump....

  6. Influence of driving style on fuel consumption and Emissions in diesel-powered passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca González, Natalia Elizabeth; Casanova Kindelán, Jesús; Espinosa Zapata, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a study on the influence of driving style on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of diesel passenger car in urban traffic. Driving styles (eco, normal or aggressive) patterns were based on the “eco-driving” criteria. The methodology is based on on-board emission measurements in real urban traffic in the city of Madrid. Five diesel passenger cars, have been tested. Through a statistical analysis, a Dynamic Performance Index was defined for die...

  7. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  9. Wavelet-based multi-resolution analysis and artificial neural networks for forecasting temperature and thermal power consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Eynard , Julien; Grieu , Stéphane; Polit , Monique

    2011-01-01

    15 pages; International audience; As part of the OptiEnR research project, the present paper deals with outdoor temperature and thermal power consumption forecasting. This project focuses on optimizing the functioning of a multi-energy district boiler (La Rochelle, west coast of France), adding to the plant a thermal storage unit and implementing a model-based predictive controller. The proposed short-term forecast method is based on the concept of time series and uses both a wavelet-based mu...

  10. The method of the correlation and dispersion defining of the total power components in the electric transport devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nikitenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and theoretical ground of the analytical method for the calculation of the active, reactive and total powers in the electric traction devices, taking into consideration the non-stationary character of the stochastic processes change of the voltage and current in the elements of these systems. Methodology. The mathematical methods of the random processes theory and the “discrete electrical engineering” methods are used for solving the main problem of this paper. Findings. The Method of the Correlation and Dispersion is developed for definition of the active power, the reactive power by Fryse and the total power of the devices in the elements of the electric traction system of the main-line railways. The method is based on the well-known concepts of auto- and inter-correlation functions of the random processes which govern the feeder voltages and the currents in the traction power supply subsystem as well as the currents and voltages of the electric rolling stock. The method developed in this paper allows estimating the powers of both stationary and non-stationary processes. This method can be used for the analysis of both the traction mode and the regenerative braking mode of the electric rolling stock. The total power components were calculated for the one of the feeder areas of the Prydniprovsk railway using this method. The results show the significant flow of the reactive power in the traction power supply system. This fact is also confirmed by the high values of the reactive power coefficient. Originality. Scientific novelty of the research is consisted in the following. Firstly, for defining the active and reactive powers in elements of the traction power supply system the new method (the Method of Correlation and Dispersion is created and grounded. This method is different from other existing methods because it takes into consideration the varying non-stationary character of the chance processes of the feeder and

  11. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources

  12. Study of the food consumption of nuclear power station site populations (methodology and results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douguedroit, A.

    1980-01-01

    These studies were made in 1976 and 1977 by the Aix Geographical Institute (Aix-Marseille II University), then in 1978 by the B.E.G.E.A. under the scientific control of the Institute. Their subject concerns the food consumption of local populations for the subsequent determination of radioactive contamination levels. They make an inventory of the various local agricultural, animal rearing and fishing productions and determine the part they represent in the diet of the populations living near the sites [fr

  13. The dual-axis solar tracking system efficiency improving via the drive power consumption optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambhowan, Y.; Oree, V.

    2014-01-01

    A major drawback with active dual-axis solar tracking systems is that the power used by the driving mechanism is often drawn from the output power of the solar panel itself. The net energy gain of the photo-voltaic panel is therefore less than its maximum value. This work presents a novel design which uses a three-fold strategy to minimize the power consumed by the tracking mechanism whilst maintaining the power out-put of the photovoltaic panel near its optimal value. The results reveal that the improved tracking system has a significant energy gain of about 43.6% as compared to a fixed photovoltaic panel. Experiments further show that an increase of 1.6% in energy output is achieved over conventional precise dual-axis tracking system. (author)

  14. Viability of LPG use in low-power outboard engines for reduction in consumption and pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, S.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the viability of the use of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) dosage systems in order to solve the fuel supply in four-stroke outboard engines in compliance with regulations concerning emissions of immediate application pollutants. Results obtained show an important decrease in specific fuel consumption (nearly 20%) provoking a small power loss (about 5%), with an extra saving when making use of bottled fuel, which does not suffer spills in the bunkers and maintenance operations. Laboratory tests have been carried out on 8 and 15 HP Yamaha outboard engines, obtaining reductions in pollutants (CO, HC and NO x ) of 60% and of 95% for each power, respectively. These trials have been contrasted with tests carried out in the Vigo estuary and the river Milno waterways, both located in the South of Galicia (Spain). (Author)

  15. Multi-objective optimization of surface roughness, cutting forces, productivity and Power consumption when turning of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.

  16. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  17. The development in energy consumption, price sensitivity and allocation of power; Utviklingen i stroemforbruket, prisfoelsomheten og stroemmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Bente

    2012-11-15

    This report discusses the development in energy consumption in households, service industries, primary industries and other small industries, both in the short run (hour to hour, day by day) and over a longer period, back to the 1960. The report discusses the main driving forces behind this development, as well as the demand price sensitivity and its role in the allocation of power between customers and over time. The analysis shows that for the short-term fluctuations in consumption from hour to hour, the temperature of the main driver, while price changes have less influence. For the long-term trend, however, changes in relative energy prices are a key driver, along with population and income growth. Even if the short term price sensitivity is low for end-users, it may still have a big influence on the short-term clearance of the market (from hour to hour), as it affects the short term price sensitivity in the spot market. The long-term price elasticities in the retail markets is more important for determining consumption over a time period, and is important in allocating energy resources over time in the spot market, e.g. over the winter months. Empirical analyses show that the Norwegian demand responds to price changes, both in the short term in the spot market and in the longer term in the retail market. It takes a few weeks before the price signals from spot market affects the consumer prise for most end-users, but by then, most of the price signal has been transmitted. It also follows from the analysis that it is important to let prices vary between regions of the market in the event of scarcity, so customers in regions where shortages occur, have the incentive to change their demand. The faster these price signals affect consumer prices, the more efficient the market will be able to handle a tight power situation.(Author)

  18. Effects of combustion temperature on air emissions and support fuel consumption in full scale fluidized bed sludge incineration: with particular focus on nitrogen oxides and total organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschau, Margit

    2018-04-01

    This article describes a pilot test at a sewage sludge incineration plant and shows its results considering the impacts of reducing the minimum combustion temperature from 850°C to 800°C. The lowering leads to an actual reduction of the average combustion temperature by 25 K and a significant reduction in the fuel oil consumption for support firing. The test shall be used for providing evidence that the changed combustion conditions do not result in higher air pollutant emissions. The analysis focusses on the effects of the combustion temperature on nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and total organic carbon emissions. The evaluation of all continuously monitored emissions shows reduced emission levels compared to the previous years, especially for NO x .

  19. Competitive energy consumption under transmission constraints in a multi-supplier power grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Ivan; Krylatov, Alexander; Zakharov, Victor; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    Power grid architectures need to be revised in order to manage the increasing number of producers and, more generally, the decentralisation of energy production and distribution. In this work, we describe a multi-supplier multi-consumer congestion model of a power grid, where the costs of consumers depend on the congestion in nodes and arcs of the power supply network. The consumer goal is both to meet their energy demand and to minimise the costs. We show that the methods of non-atomic routing can be applied in this model in order to describe current distribution in the network. We formulate a consumer cost minimisation game for this setting, and discuss the challenges arising in equilibrium search for this game.

  20. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  1. Link Quality-Based Transmission Power Adaptation for Reduction of Energy Consumption and Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2010-01-01

    Today, many wireless devices are mobile and battery powered. Based on the fact that battery capacity is still limited, energy saving is an important issue in wireless communication.Meanwhile, the number of wireless devices continues to increase and this creates interference problems between wireless

  2. 30.2 Digital PWM-driven AMOLED display on flex reducing static power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genoe, J.; Obata, K.; Ameys, M.; Myny, K.; Ke, T.H.; Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Schols, S.; Maas, J.; Tripathi, A.; Van Der Steen, J.-L.; Ellis, T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of small-molecule OLED devices increased substantially in recent years, creating opportunities for power-efficient displays, as only light is generated proportional to the subpixel intensity. However, current active matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays on foil do not validate this

  3. Multidimensional Big Spatial Data Modeling Through A Case Study: Lte Rf Subsystem Power Consumption Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Musiige, Deogratius; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    continuation) was conducted for finding an approach with the highest accuracy for obtaining reliable information about a cell phone consumed power and emitted radiation from streams of measurements of different physical quantities and the uncertainty ranges of these measure ments. The homotopy continuation...

  4. Fukushima- the aftermath. The japanese power consumption has significantly decreased to adapt to a fading nuclear activity. Enerdata- Energy Efficiency and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the power supply evolution in Japan since Fukushima, which has decreased by 11% of reactors in operation since December 2011. Measures implemented in summer 2011 to adapt demand to a lower supply and their significant impact on the power consumption are also analyzed. (authors)

  5. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...... harmonic is found to be unaffected by stepless power supply tracking due the high supply rejection ratio of the used amplifiers under test.......The main advantage of Class-D audio amplifiers is high efficiency which is often stated to be more than 90 % but at idle or low power levels the efficiency is much lower. The waste energy is an environmental concern, a concern in mobile applications where long battery operation is required...

  6. Test households' experiences with a feedback system for power consumption of appliances designed on the basis of user driven innovation. A qualitative study; Testhusholdningers erfaringer med et feedbacksystem for elforbrug paa apparatniveau designet paa basis af brugerdrevet innovation - en kvalitativ undersoegelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenhoej, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2010-03-15

    In the project a system was developed and tested to provide electricity consumers detailed feedback on their electricity consumption at equipment level. In twenty test households equipment was installed for collecting consumption data at equipment level, and a 7 inch screen was installed, which showed the household's consumption in (kWh). Electricity consumption could be read continuously and compared with earlier periods, both in total and at appliance level. The evaluation of the families' use of the system was performed both by interviewing the twenty families personally in their homes and by calculating the change in power consumption during the period of the feedback device, based on consumption data supplied by the electric utility. For most households the newly developed system caused many technical problems in the beginning. Yet, consumption data showed that the 19 families, who had no business activities at home, saved an average of approx. 8% on their electricity consumption compared to the previous year. A comparable control group achieved a saving of 0.8% over the same period. Overall, the project shows that if power companies are better to visualize the power consumption to their customers by remote meters and user feedback, this will very likely result in more informed and educated consumers and thus result in electricity savings. The project shows, however, that there are still major technical and design challenges inherent in making such a system effectively. (ln)

  7. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micron wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micron and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micron range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  8. Optimization of PHEV Power Split Gear Ratio to Minimize Fuel Consumption and Operation Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhe

    A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is a vehicle powered by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor with a battery pack. The battery pack can be charged by plugging the vehicle to the electric grid and from using excess engine power. The research activity performed in this thesis focused on the development of an innovative optimization approach of PHEV Power Split Device (PSD) gear ratio with the aim to minimize the vehicle operation costs. Three research activity lines have been followed: • Activity 1: The PHEV control strategy optimization by using the Dynamic Programming (DP) and the development of PHEV rule-based control strategy based on the DP results. • Activity 2: The PHEV rule-based control strategy parameter optimization by using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Activity 3: The comprehensive analysis of the single mode PHEV architecture to offer the innovative approach to optimize the PHEV PSD gear ratio.

  9. Power consumption in positive ion beam converter with electrostatic electron suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Tohru

    1985-01-01

    The power recovery characteristics of an in-line direct beam converter provided with electrostatic electron suppressor were studied numerically by tracing the orbits of fast primary ions and secondary charged particles generated along their beam path by collision with background gas molecules. It is shown that, in reference to the electrostatic field potential at the point of impact, the energy distribution of secondary ions impinging on the suppressor has two peaks-one corresponding to a zone of high positive potential surrounding the collector and the other to one of slightly negative potential around the electron suppressor. Secondary electron emission from the suppressor is ascribed mainly to the latter peak, associated with impingement of slower secondary ions. Far much power consumed in secondary particle acceleration is spent for emitting electrons from the suppressor than for secondary ions generated by beam-gas collision. The upper limit of background pressure is discussed on the basis of criteria prescribed for restricting the power consumed in this secondary particle acceleration, as for practical convenience of electrode cooling. Numerical examples are given of calculations based on particle trajectory analysis of both primary ions and secondary particles, for the case of a 100 keV-proton sheet beam 10 cm thick of 35 mA/cm 2 current density. (author)

  10. New developments in the area of intelligent housing and related power consumption; Neuste Entwicklungen im Bereich Intelligentes Wohnen und des damit verbundenen Stromverbrauchs - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Senn, R. [Raum Consulting, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Gehrig, M. [MG Power Engineering AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    For many years the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (SFOE) has followed with interest the development of building services control systems in private households and their influence on the power consumption. The findings from the previous studies were summarized in a leaflet and made available to the involved industry. This report analyses two new buildings and reports on laboratory measurements of three further systems. The bus systems and concepts available on the market are described and evaluated with respect to power consumption and savings potential. The buildings investigated since 2005 all exhibited a high upgrade standard with reference to the network. This induces an additional consumption of 35% to 55% of the typical domestic power consumption. At least one server is in continuous operation in each building, running throughout the year and inducing in some cases a consumption of well over 700 kWh, hence becoming the largest single consumer in the household. On the other hand, systems with a simple upgrade standard can be realised with a comparatively low consumption of about 100 kWh, corresponding to an additional power consumption of less than 3%. By selecting systems and components, both planners and building owners strongly influence the power consumption of the future network. In particular, the interaction of control servers and operator stations demands careful planning. Hitherto, energy-saving control functions display only a slight influence. Formulated in the report are recommendations to the involved industry and the Federal Office for Energy for actions to increase energy efficiency in the domain of intelligent housing. (author)

  11. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety and reliability in nuclear power plants operation using total range simulators for operators training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, E.; Espinosa, G.; Rodriguez, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology developed for the management of the configuration simulator, unit 1 of Laguna Verde's nucleoelectric power station. This methodology has the purchase to conclude the simulator modernization and to have interaction with the power station's administration. The validation and the application of this methodology is also presented as well as the up-to-date results. (B.C.A.). 12 refs, 01 fig

  13. Power plant allocation in East Kalimantan considering total cost and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin; Utomo, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    The fulfillment of electricity need in East Kalimantan is the responsibility of State Electricity Company/Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). But PLN faces constraints in the lack of generating capacity it has. So the allocation of power loads in East Kalimantan has its own challenges. Additional power supplies from other parties are required. In this study, there are four scenarios tested to meet the electricity needs in East Kalimantan with the goal of minimizing costs and emissions. The first scenario is only by using PLN power plant. The second scenario is by combining PLN + Independent Power Producer (IPP) power plants. The third scenario is by using PLN + Rented power plants. The fourth scenario is by using PLN + Excess capacity generation. Numerical experiment using nonlinear programming is conducted with the help of the solver. The result shows that in the peak load condition, the best combination is scenario 2 (PLN + IPP). While at the lowest load condition, the cheapest scenario is PLN + IPP while the lowest emission is PLN + Rent.

  14. Total-system expertise in economically efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH can look back on well over 40 years of experience in developing and constructing nuclear power plants. 23 Power plant units of Siemens design are in operation in five countries, and in autumn this year, another one will start commercial operation, while yet another one is under construction. In comparative international power plant surveys, the Siemens-design systems usually rank in top positions when it comes to comparing systems availability and electric power generation, and Siemens have build a reputation in manufacturing power plants up to the highest safety standards worldwide. Our experience as a manufacturer of turnkey PWR and BWR type reactors, as well as our profound knowledge of international nuclear standardisation, engineering codes and safety guides, has been used and processed to the benefit of the services offered by Siemens, resulting in well-devised service packages, and enhancements and optimisation of our machinery and equipment. Siemens has of course obtained the relevant licenses and certification for all its services and products according to DIN ISO 9001, KTA and ASME standards [de

  15. Thermoeconomic and environmental analyses of a low water consumption combined steam power plant and refrigeration chillers – Part 1: Energy and economic modelling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifaei, Pouya; Rashidi, Jouan; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing two energy systems by combining refrigeration chillers and power plants. • Model-based comparison of the systems through energy and economic standpoints. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 4.7% by process integration. • Decreasing the water loss in wet cooling towers by up to 18% in the proposed system. • Suggesting a water-fuel economic management strategy based on parametric analysis. - Abstract: Two novel configurations are proposed to replace the conventional Rankine cycle based steam power plants (SPP) with natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT) as cooling units. Closed feedwater heater unit of the base SPP-NDWCT system is eliminated in order to combine a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) and an absorption heat pump (ABHP) with the base SPP-NDWCT system. Both VCR-SPP-NDWCT and ABHP-SPP-NDWCT systems are integrated to decrease the NDWCT load which could result in water losses decrease. In part one of the presented two-part paper, model-based energy and economic analyses are performed to compare systems performance and applicability. The temperature difference at pinch point and temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the heat exchangers which were used for systems integration in VCR-SPP-NDWCT, and the absorber pressure and temperature in ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system are studied using parametric analysis procedure. A water-fuel management strategy is also introduced for the ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system according to the influence of the absorber pressure changes on system water and fuel consumption. In part 2, environmental and thermoeconomic analyses are performed to complete a comprehensive study on designing steam power plants. The results of part 1 showed that water losses and total annual costs decreased by 1–18% and 0–4.7% for the ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system but increased by 11% and 60% for the VCR-SPP-NDWCT system, respectively.

  16. Consumption, price asymmetries, transmission congestion and market power in the Norwegian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood

    2011-07-01

    The results from this dissertation add to the ongoing debate in Norway if NordPool spot should shift from zonal price scheme to the nodal price scheme. Academically, the individual papers provide a number of theoretical frameworks that are helpful in analyzing electricity markets around the world. The PhD dissertation investigates price determination process in the Norwegian electricity market and evaluates if the market works at perfectly competitive level or producers exercise market power to drive prices away from their marginal cost of production. Using aggregate hourly electricity supply and demand data, the empirical analysis carried out in this dissertation leads to the following conclusions. 1. Market power at the generation level is not a major problem for the Norwegian electricity market. On average, when we consider the events of binding transmission capacity as exogenous, the average markup in economic terms is small and has not exceeded one percent. 2. Producers can use the information on available transmission capacity between different price areas in Norway and restrict their output to induce transmission congestion in their price area to exercise market power. Average markup during such instances has remained high at 20 percent. 3. Transmission capacity in Norway is not being optimally utilized as import capacity remains at its lowest level during the hours when southern Norway is generally a net importer of electricity, when compared to the rest of the hours of the day. 4. A segment of electricity retailers in the Norwegian electricity market exercises its market power by controlling the pass-through of price changes in the wholesale market to the retail market for variable price contract consumers. The pass-through is asymmetric, whereby cost increase is transmitted completely and quickly when compared to the case of cost decrease. 5.The Daylight saving time (Summer time) policy is helpful in ensuring energy efficiency. It results in electricity

  17. Angry Apps: The Impact of Network Timer Selection on Power Consumption, Signalling Load, and Web QoE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of smartphones and mobile applications has experienced a considerable growth during the recent years, and this growth is expected to continue in the future. Since smartphones have only very limited energy resources, battery efficiency is one of the determining factors for a good user experience. Therefore, some smartphones tear down connectionsto the mobile network soon after a completed data transmission to reduce the power consumption of their transmission unit. However, frequent connection reestablishments caused by apps which send or receive small amounts of data often lead to a heavy signalling load within the mobile network. One of the major contributions of this paper is the investigation of the resulting tradeoff between energy consumption at the smartphone and the generated signalling traffic in the mobile network. We explain that this tradeoff can be controlled by the connection release timeout and study the impact of this parameter for a number of popular apps that cover a wide range of traffic characteristics in terms of bandwidth requirements and resulting signalling traffic. Finally, we study the impact of the timer settings on Quality of Experience (QoE for web traffic. This is an important aspect since connection establishments not only lead to signalling traffic but also increase the load time of web pages.

  18. Monitoring of a micro-smart grid: Power consumption data of some machineries of an agro-industrial test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Enrico; Biglia, Alessandro; Branciforti, Valeria; Filippi, Marco; Barbero, Silvia; Tecco, Giuseppe; Mollo, Paolo; Molino, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    For the management of a (micro)-smart grid it is important to know the patters of the load profiles and of the generators. In this article the power consumption data obtained through a monitoring activity developed on a micro-smart grid in an agro-industrial test-site are presented. In particular, this reports the synthesis of the monitoring results of 5 loads (5 industrial machineries for crop micronization, corncob crashing and other similar processes). How these data were used within a monitoring and managing scheme of a micro-smart grid can be found in (E. Fabrizio, V. Branciforti, A. Costantino, M. Filippi, S. Barbero, G. Tecco, P. Mollo, A. Molino, 2017) [1]. The data can be useful for other researchers in order to create benchmarks of energy use input appropriate energy demand values in optimization tools for the industrial sector.

  19. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegseis, J.; Grundmann, S.; Tropea, C.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  20. Low Power Consumption Laser for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 mu m wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 mu m and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 mu m range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft

  1. Model predictive control technologies for efficient and flexible power consumption in refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Edlund, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper we describe a novel economic-optimizing Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme that reduces operating costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. A nonlinear optimization tool to handle a non-convex cost function is utilized for simulations with validated scenarios. In this way we...... explicitly address advantages from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices. Secondly, we formulate a new cost function that enables the refrigeration system to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. This involvement can be economically beneficial...... of the system models allows us to describe and handle model as well as prediction uncertainties in this framework. This means we can demonstrate means for robustifying the performance of the controller....

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from power generation and consumption in a nordic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotzauer, Erik

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an intensive debate on-going in Sweden about how power generation and use affect global warming. More precisely, the discussion has considered how electricity shall be assessed from an environmental and climate perspective in different situations. This article gives a critical analysis on the main viewpoints. A number of environmental-impact assessment principles are outlined and critically examined. Concepts like average electricity and marginal electricity are discussed, and Electricity Disclosure as a basis for evaluation is addressed. The impact from Emission Trading and Tradable Green Certificates is also considered. Recommendations to concerned stakeholders are given. The clash points in the Swedish debate are highlighted and thus made available to a broader audience outside Scandinavia.

  3. Cutting the electric power consumption of biogas plants. The impact of new technologies; Eigenstromverbrauch an Biogasanlagen senken. Der Einfluss neuer Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Julian; Gruessing, Fabian; Naegele, Hans-Joachim; Oechsner, Hans [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie Baden-Wuerttemberg

    2013-03-01

    Due to permanently rising energy costs, the assessment of electric energy consumption for particular aggregates of a biogas plant proves to be a significant factor for the economic and technical efficiency calculation of biogas plants. At the University of Hohenheim, students of the Biobased Products and Bioenergy course have analyzed the energy consumption of biogas plants (BGP) in a project work at the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie). Detailed measurements at two operational plants show the effects of different facilities on the energy consumption. Furthermore, saving potentials and a possible efficient energy use via an exhaust gas power generator (ORC unit) are identified. (orig.)

  4. Comparative cost analyses: total flow vs other power conversion systems for the Salton Sea Geothermal Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, G.W.

    1978-09-18

    Cost studies were done for Total Flow, double flash, and multistage flash binary systems for electric Energy production from the Salton Sea Geothermal Resource. The purpose was to provide the Department of energy's Division of Geothermal Energy with information by which to judge whether to continue development of the Total Flow system. Results indicate that the Total Flow and double flash systems have capital costs of $1,135 and $1,026 /kW with energy costs of 40.9 and 39.7 mills/kW h respectively. The Total Flow and double flash systems are not distinguishable on a cost basis alone; the multistage flash binary system, with capital cost of $1,343 /kW and energy cost of 46.9 mills/kW h, is significantly more expensive. If oil savings are considered in the total analysis, the Total Flow system could save 30% more oil than the double flash system, $3.5 billion at 1978 oil prices.

  5. A new algorithm to determine the total radiated power at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeggler, Stephan; Bernert, Matthias; Eich, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Radiation is an essential part of the power balance in a fusion plasma. In future fusion devices about 90% of the power will have to be dissipated, mainly by radiation. For the development of an appropriate operational scenario, information about the absolute level of plasma radiation (P{sub rad,tot}) is crucial. Bolometers are used to measure the radiated power, however, an algorithm is required to derive the absolute power out of many line-integrated measurements. The currently used algorithm (BPD) was developed for the main chamber radiation. It underestimates the divertor radiation as its basic assumptions are not satisfied in this region. Therefore, a new P{sub rad,tot} algorithm is presented. It applies an Abel inversion on the main chamber and uses empirically based assumptions for poloidal asymmetries and the divertor radiation. To benchmark the new algorithm, synthetic emissivity profiles are used. On average, the new Abel inversion based algorithm deviates by only 10% from the nominal synthetic value while BPD is about 25% too low. With both codes time traces of ASDEX Upgrade discharges are calculated. The analysis of these time traces shows that the underestimation of the divertor radiation can have significant consequences on the accuracy of BPD while the new algorithm is shown to be stable.

  6. Stable single-mode distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers at λ ∼ 4.25 μm with low power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Jinchuan; Liu, Fengqi; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shenqiang; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-10-01

    Short-wavelength (4.25 μm) distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave (cw) mode at room temperature with low power consumption was presented. Stable single-mode operation with a side-mode-suppression-ratio above 25 dB was maintained for the whole measured current and temperature range by enlarging gain difference and strong grating coupling. Because of the strong coupling, very low threshold current and power consumption were achieved. For a device of 9-μm-wide and 2-mm-long, the cw threshold current and power consumption at 293 K were as low as 126 mA and 1.45 W, respectively. All results above were from the device without using buried heterostructure geometry.

  7. A fully integral, differential, high-speed, low-power consumption CMOS recovery clock circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pacheco Bautista

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The clock recovery circuit (CRC plays a fundamental role in electronic information recovery systems (hard disks, DVD and CD read/writeable units and baseband digital communication systems in recovering the clock signal contained in the received data. This signal is necessary for synchronising subsequent information processing. Nowadays, this task is difficult to achieve because of the data’s random nature and its high transfer rate. This paper presents the design of a high-performance integral CMOS technology clock recovery circuit (CRC wor-king at 1.2 Gbps and only consuming 17.4 mW using a 3.3V power supply. The circuit was fully differentially designed to obtain high performance. Circuit architecture was based on a conventional phase lock loop (PLL, current mode logic (MCML and a novel two stage ring-based voltage controlled oscillator (VCO. The design used 0.35 μm CMOS AMS process parameters. Hspice simulation results proved the circuit’s high performance, achieving tracking in less than 300 ns.

  8. Specification for a total quality assurance programme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This British Standard specifies principles for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes during all phases of design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants. These principles apply to activities affecting the quality of items, such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, testing, commissioning, operating, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, refuelling, modifying and, eventually decommissioning. (author)

  9. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods

  10. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana, E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore-570025, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods.

  11. VSD a compressor that automatically reduces the power consumption; VSD un compresor que reduce automaticamente el consumo energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda L, Pedro [Atlas Copco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    With the purpose of verifying the behavior in the demand of air in the different plants Copco Atlas made a sampling of 135 measurements, from which it was concluded, that the air consumption of the plants behaves under three main profiles. In the following graphs the behavior of the demand of air with one color for every day of the week and 24 hours per day. In this sample Profile No. 1 is typical of the industries that work 24 hours a day and have low demand of air at night. This type of profile represents a percentage of 64% of the total of the measurements made. The second profile represents industries that work 5 days per week with two shifts and represents a percentage of 28%. The third profile is typical for applications of fixed consumption during the 5 days of the week, this represents an 8% of the measurements. With the purpose of improving the efficiency in the compressors energy consumption, Atlas Copco has been pioneering in the development of compressors with Variable Speed Drive (VSD), that offers the possibility of adapting with extreme precision the capacity of the compressor to the variable demand of compressed air of the plant. [Spanish] Con la finalidad de verificar el comportamiento en la demanda de aire en las diferentes plantas Atlas Copco realizo un muestreo de 135 mediciones, del cual se concluyo, que el consumo de aire de las plantas se comporta bajo tres perfiles principales. En las siguientes graficas se muestra el comportamiento de la demanda de aire con un color por cada dia de la semana y 24 horas al dia . En esta muestra el Perfil No. 1 es tipico de las Industrias que trabajan las 24 horas del dia y tiene baja demanda de aire en las noches. Este tipo de perfil representa un porcentaje de 64% del total de las mediciones realizadas. El segundo perfil representa industrias que traban 5 dias a la semana con dos turnos y representa un porcentaje de 28%. El tercer perfil estetico para aplicaciones de consumo fijo durante 5 dias a la semana

  12. Patient outcomes using Wii-enhanced rehabilitation after total knee replacement - the TKR-POWER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negus, J J; Cawthorne, D P; Chen, J S; Scholes, C J; Parker, D A; March, L M

    2015-01-01

    Home-based rehabilitation following total knee replacement surgery can be as effective as clinic-based or in-patient rehabilitation. The use of the Nintendo Wii has been postulated as a novel rehabilitation tool that adds an additional focus on balance and proprioception into the recovery protocol. The aim of the proposed clinical trial is to investigate the effectiveness of this novel rehabilitation tool, used at home for three months after total knee replacement surgery and to assess any lasting improvements in functional outcome at one year. This will be a randomised controlled trial of 128 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement. The participants will be recruited preoperatively from three surgeons at a single centre. There will be no change to the usual care provided until 6 weeks after the operation. Then participants will be randomised to either the Wii-Fit group or usual rehabilitative care group. Outcomes will be assessed preoperatively, a 6-week post surgery baseline and then at 18 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The primary outcome is the change in self-reported WOMAC total score from week 6 to 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes include objective measures of strength, function and satisfaction scores. The results of this clinical trial will be directly relevant for implementation into clinical practice. If beneficial, this affordable technology could be used by many patients to rehabilitate at home. Not only could it optimize the outcomes from their total knee replacement surgery but decrease the need for clinic-based or outpatient therapy for the majority. (ACTRN12611000291987). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The optimization model for multi-type customers assisting wind power consumptive considering uncertainty and demand response based on robust stochastic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhongfu; Ju, Liwei; Reed, Brent; Rao, Rao; Peng, Daoxin; Li, Huanhuan; Pan, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on demand response behaviors of multi-type customers. • A wind power simulation method is proposed based on the Brownian motion theory. • Demand response revenue functions are proposed for multi-type customers. • A robust stochastic optimization model is proposed for wind power consumptive. • Models are built to measure the impacts of demand response on wind power consumptive. - Abstract: In order to relieve the influence of wind power uncertainty on power system operation, demand response and robust stochastic theory are introduced to build a stochastic scheduling optimization model. Firstly, this paper presents a simulation method for wind power considering external environment based on Brownian motion theory. Secondly, price-based demand response and incentive-based demand response are introduced to build demand response model. Thirdly, the paper constructs the demand response revenue functions for electric vehicle customers, business customers, industry customers and residential customers. Furthermore, robust stochastic optimization theory is introduced to build a wind power consumption stochastic optimization model. Finally, simulation analysis is taken in the IEEE 36 nodes 10 units system connected with 650 MW wind farms. The results show the robust stochastic optimization theory is better to overcome wind power uncertainty. Demand response can improve system wind power consumption capability. Besides, price-based demand response could transform customers’ load demand distribution, but its load curtailment capacity is not as obvious as incentive-based demand response. Since price-based demand response cannot transfer customer’s load demand as the same as incentive-based demand response, the comprehensive optimization effect will reach best when incentive-based demand response and price-based demand response are both introduced.

  14. Design and fabrication of micro-hotplates made on a polyimide foil: electrothermal simulation and characterization to achieve power consumption in the low mW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbat, J; Canonica, M; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F; Teyssieux, D

    2011-01-01

    The design of ultra-low power micro-hotplates on a polyimide (PI) substrate supported by thermal simulations and characterization is presented. By establishing a method for the thermal simulation of very small scale heating elements, the goal of this study was to decrease the power consumption of PI micro-hotplates to a few milliwatts to make them suitable for very low power applications. To this end, the mean heat transfer coefficients in air of the devices were extracted by finite element analysis combined with very precise thermographic measurements. A simulation model was implemented for these hotplates to investigate both the influence of their downscaling and the bulk micromachining of the polyimide substrate to lower their power consumptions. Simulations were in very good agreement with the experimental results. The main parameters influencing significantly the power consumption at such dimensions were identified and guidelines were defined allowing the design of very small (15 × 15 µm) and ultra-low power heating elements (6 mW at 300 °C). These very low power heating structures enable the realization of flexible sensors, such as gas, flow or wind sensors, for applications in autonomous wireless sensors networks or RFID applications and make them compatible with large-scale production on foil such as roll-to-roll or printing processes.

  15. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  16. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Calculations of total fusion power and spatial distribution of emissivity for a D-T thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.; Pillon, M.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary project of a diagnostic tool to measure the neutron emissivity profile for NET (Next European Torus) with an array of collimators is presented. With the help of a neutron transport code the maximum possible number of collimators, compatible with the crosstalk noise and the space available in the NET 2.2.B is determined within these constraints. An array of 17 collimators can be used, and some experimental results are simulated using a Monte Carlo code. These results are analyzed and an inversion procedure is used to obtain the emissivity profile and evaluate the total fusion power. The results show that the total fusion power can be measured within 10% for different emission profiles

  18. Binge drinking and total alcohol consumption from 16 to 43 years of age are associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose in women: results from the northern Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Karina; Hammarström, Anne; Rolandsson, Olov

    2017-06-08

    Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43. Data were retrieved from a 27-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. In 1981, all 9th grade students (n = 1083) within a municipality in Sweden were invited to participate. There were re-assessments at ages 18, 21, 30 and 43. This particular study sample consisted of 897 participants (82.8%). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) was measured at a health examination at age 43. Total alcohol consumption (in grams) and binge drinking were calculated from alcohol consumption data obtained from questionnaires. Descriptive analyses showed that men had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose as compared to women. Men also reported higher levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking behavior. Linear regressions showed that total alcohol consumption in combination with binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose at age 43 in women (beta = 0.14, p = 0.003) but not in men after adjustment for BMI, hypertension and smoking at age 43. Our findings indicate that reducing binge drinking and alcohol consumption among young and middle-aged women with the highest consumption might be metabolically favorable for their future glucose metabolism.

  19. Normalized knee-extension strength or leg-press power after fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (s): To investigate which of the two muscle-impairment measures for the operated leg, normalized knee extension strength or leg press power, is more closely associated to performance-based and self-reported measures of function shortly following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN...... and dynamic leg presses to determine their body-mass normalized knee extension strength and leg press power, respectively. The 10-m fast speed walking and 30-s chair stand tests were used to determine performance-based function, while the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC......) and Oxford Knee scores were used to determine self-reported function. RESULTS: Normalized leg press power was more closely associated to both performance-based (r=.82, P...

  20. The power of cross-functional teams in driving total quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, Tim M.; Mcmaster, Tom J.

    1992-01-01

    Garrett Canada, a Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Canada, has been a member of the Canadian aerospace industry for 40 years. Although Garrett Canada has always been a profitable division with a solid market share, the changing and turbulent business environment and globalization of the aerospace industry has created new demands and challenges. The marketplace is demanding faster introduction of new products, as well as shorter leadtimes for repairs and spares. It was recognized that reducing cycle times for new products and for ongoing production would not only satisfy our customers, it would also enhance our business performance through reduced inventories, lower past due, and more responsiveness to change. It was evident that drastic function changes were required if we were to maintain our position as a premier aerospace supplier. The challenge was to convert a stable, somewhat slow-paced work environment with strong functional boundaries into a boundaryless world class team functioning in a total quality environment and focused on customer satisfaction. Complete and uncompromised customer satisfaction has become our driving force, with Total Quality being our engine to continuously improve our processes and increase our speed. The way in which this transition has been brought about is the subject of this presentation.

  1. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  2. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Walke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC. It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed.

  3. A pixel segmented silicon strip detector for ultra fast shaping at low noise and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiakos, K.; Kavadias, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiation imaging device is proposed based on strips segmented into small pixels. Every pixel contains a submicron transistor that is normally biased in weak inversion. The ionization charge, upon collection by the pixel, changes the bias of the transistor to strong inversion and supplies a current up to several tens of a microA. This is a consequence of the small pixel capacitance (12 fF). The drains and sources of the transistors on the same row and column are shorted to bus lines that effectively become the Y and X coordinates. These bus lines are connected to the off chip ICON amplifiers to provide a 10 ns peaking time at a noise of about 150 electrons and 1 nW power consumption, for a 10x10 cm 2 detector and a MIP excitation. The noise performance is dominated by the ICON transistors. The cross talk between adjacent strips can be kept at a few percentage points provided a low transistor bias current is used

  4. Scandium doped Ge2Sb2Te5 for high-speed and low-power-consumption phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zheng, Yonghui; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Tao; Guo, Tianqi; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Song, Sannian; Ren, Kun; Song, Zhitang

    2018-03-01

    To bridge the gap of access time between memories and storage systems, the concept of storage class memory has been put forward based on emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. For all the nonvolatile memory candidates, the unpleasant tradeoff between operation speed and retention seems to be inevitable. To promote both the write speed and the retention of phase change memory (PCM), Sc doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (SGST) has been proposed as the storage medium. Octahedral Sc-Te motifs, acting as crystallization precursors to shorten the nucleation incubation period, are the possible reason for the high write speed of 6 ns in PCM cells, five-times faster than that of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) cells. Meanwhile, an enhanced 10-year data retention of 119 °C has been achieved. Benefiting from both the increased crystalline resistance and the inhibited formation of the hexagonal phase, the SGST cell has a 77% reduction in power consumption compared to the GST cell. Adhesion of the SGST/SiO2 interface has been strengthened, attributed to the reduced stress by forming smaller grains during crystallization, guaranteeing the reliability of the device. These improvements have made the SGST material a promising candidate for PCM application.

  5. Emissions reduction and economic implications of renewable energy market penetration of power generation for residential consumption in the MENA region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fadel, M.; Rachid, G.; El-Samra, R.; Bou Boutros, G.; Hashisho, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of renewable energy (RE) deployment in power generation for residential consumption in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region under various RE penetration targets. A comparative assessment revealed a great heterogeneity among countries with Turkey dominating as the highest emitter. At the sub-regional level, the Middle East sub-region contributes more than double the GHG emissions estimated for the Gulf and North Africa sub-regions with all sub-regions achieving reductions in the range of 6–38% depending on the RE target penetration and promising up to 54% savings on investment excluding positive externalities associated with the offset of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings. - Highlights: ► Heterogeneity in GHG emissions in MENA region with Turkey contributing the most. ► Average regional GHG tCO 2 e/capita of 0.42 decreases to 0.17 with RE penetration. ► GHG emissions regional reduction reaches 8–36% depending on RE target penetration. ► Return on investment in RE promises up to 54% savings excluding positive externalities. ► Carbon credits offer economic incentives rendering RE investment more attractive.

  6. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  7. Design considerations of a total energy power system for a rural health centre in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chendo, M A.C. [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Physics; Salawu, R I [Lagos Univ. (NG). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual total energy (hybrid) system design considerations are presented for a Rural Health Centre in a remote village in Nigeria. The design uses a spectrally selective beam splitting technique. The system provides both electrical and thermal energy with electrical needs of the centre being provided by the photoquantum convertor while the hot water and sterilization requirements are met by the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid in the thermally decoupled loop. A critical analysis of the electrical and thermal energy requirements of the health centre including its laboratories, water supply, refrigeration, lighting, etc. and its technoeconomic aspects is also discussed. With appropriate sizing of panels, storage, choice of the spectrally selective heat transfer liquid and other accessories, the PV/PT system using moderately concentrated sunlight is attractive for such application in areas with no national grid lines and normally considered uneconomical for electrification by the extension of the national grid or by the provision of generators which require constant supply of fuel and servicing. (author).

  8. TOKMINA, Toroidal Magnetic Field Minimization for Tokamak Fusion Reactor. TOKMINA-2, Total Power for Tokamak Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TOKMINA finds the minimum magnetic field, Bm, required at the toroidal coil of a Tokamak type fusion reactor when the input is beta(ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure), q(Kruskal-Shafranov plasma stability factor), and y(ratio of plasma radius to vacuum wall radius: rp/rw) and arrays of PT (total thermal power from both d-t and tritium breeding reactions), Pw (wall loading or power flux) and TB (thickness of blanket), following the method of Golovin, et al. TOKMINA2 finds the total power, PT, of such a fusion reactor, given a specified magnetic field, Bm, at the toroidal coil. 2 - Method of solution: TOKMINA: the aspect ratio(a) is minimized, giving a minimum value for Bm. TOKMINA2: a search is made for PT; the value of PT which minimizes Bm to the required value within 50 Gauss is chosen. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Input arrays presently are dimensioned at 20. This restriction can be overcome by changing a dimension card

  9. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Study on reduction of consumption and peak demand of electric power used in residential houses with solar heating and PV systems; Solar house no fuka heijunka to energy sakugen koka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M.; Endo, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    A model house was simulated to reduce the consumption and peak demand for the photovoltaic power generation system, and solar heat air heating and hot water supply system in the solar house. As a type of construction, both wooden construction and reinforced concrete (RC) construction were selected with a total floor area of 125m{sup 2}. All the rooms were equipped with an air conditioner by heat pump from the air thermal source. A solar heat floor heater was simultaneously installed on the first floor. The hot water supply load was 4.8MWh per year. A commercial grid-connected on-site system was applied to the photovoltaic power generation with a 20m{sup 2} wide monocrystalline Si solar cell panel. As for the fluctuation in power load, the peak at the time of rising is more reduced in the RC house than in the wooden house, because the former is smaller in temperature fluctuation than the latter during the intermittence of air conditioning (as per the specified operational schedule). Therefore, the power is more leveled off in the former than in the latter. Between both, difference was hardly made in energy consumption per year. The ratio of dependency was 47% upon the photovoltaic power generation system, while it was 50% and 77%, under the air heating power load and hot water supply power load, respectively, upon the solar heat air heating and hot water supply system, so that both systems were considerably effective in saving the energy. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Liu, Han; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Wang, Shunli; Cui, Can; Li, Chaorong; Tang, Weihua

    2017-01-18

    A solar-blind photodetector based on β-Ga 2 O 3 /NSTO (NSTO = Nb:SrTiO 3 ) heterojunctions were fabricated for the first time, and its photoelectric properties were investigated. The device presents a typical positive rectification in the dark, while under 254 nm UV light illumination, it shows a negative rectification, which might be caused by the generation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs in the β-Ga 2 O 3 film layer. With zero bias, that is, zero power consumption, the photodetector shows a fast photoresponse time (decay time τ d = 0.07 s) and the ratio I photo /I dark ≈ 20 under 254 nm light illumination with a light intensity of 45 μW/cm 2 . Such behaviors are attributed to the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs driven by the built-in electric field in the depletion region of β-Ga 2 O 3 and the NSTO interface, and the subsequent transport toward corresponding electrodes. The photocurrent increases linearly with increasing the light intensity and applied bias, while the response time decreases with the increase of the light intensity. Under -10 V bias and 45 μW/cm 2 of 254 nm light illumination, the photodetector exhibits a responsivity R λ of 43.31 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 2.1 × 10 4 %. The photo-to-electric conversion mechanism in the β-Ga 2 O 3 /NSTO heterojunction photodetector is explained in detail by energy band diagrams. The results strongly suggest that a photodetector based on β-Ga 2 O 3 thin-film heterojunction structure can be practically used to detect weak solar-blind signals because of its high photoconductive gain.

  12. Study on the share of energy consumption by components of the technological process with aim of reducing total energy consumption. Principijelno razmatranje energetskog ucesca pojedinih komponenti tehnoloskog procesa u smislu iznalazenja rjesenja sa najmanjim energetskim ucescem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kljucanin, T. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes individual phases of coal excavation in surface mines from the viewpoint of energy consumption. Equipment operation with unnecessary lifting of loosened overburden or coal on mine benches during bulk loading into dump trucks, onto belt conveyors or during transportation is pointed out. Energy consumption calculations showed that unnecessary bulk lifting by equipment configurations results in annual energy losses, both fuel or electricity. A mathematical formula for calculating energy losses is provided. A calculation example with surface mining operations is given, demonstrating that 55 MWh per excavator may be saved over a 25 year period if lifting height of overburden were reduced by 22 m. Overburden removal equipment employed consists of the PH-1900 shovel excavator, 60 to 155 t capacity dump trucks and inclined belt conveyor system. 1 ref.

  13. Consumption of less than 10% of total energy from added sugars is associated with increasing HDL in females during adolescence: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra K; Binongo, José Nilo G; Chowdhury, Ritam; Stein, Aryeh D; Gazmararian, Julie A; Vos, Miriam B; Welsh, Jean A

    2014-02-26

    Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long-term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity. We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10-year cohort study of non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987-1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3-day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10-year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI -1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45). Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence.

  14. Calculus of the Power Spectral Density of Ultra Wide Band Pulse Position Modulation Signals Coded with Totally Flipped Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURNEA, T. N.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available UWB-PPM systems were noted to have a power spectral density (p.s.d. consisting of a continuous portion and a line spectrum, which is composed of energy components placed at discrete frequencies. These components are the major source of interference to narrowband systems operating in the same frequency interval and deny harmless coexistence of UWB-PPM and narrowband systems. A new code denoted as Totally Flipped Code (TFC is applied to them in order to eliminate these discrete spectral components. The coded signal transports the information inside pulse position and will have the amplitude coded to generate a continuous p.s.d. We have designed the code and calculated the power spectral density of the coded signals. The power spectrum has no discrete components and its envelope is largely flat inside the bandwidth with a maximum at its center and a null at D.C. These characteristics make this code suited for implementation in the UWB systems based on PPM-type modulation as it assures a continuous spectrum and keeps PPM modulation performances.

  15. Innovation and Exploration of Local Power Supply and Consumption Legislation System%地方供用电立法的制度创新与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白如银

    2014-01-01

    当前,国家层面关于供用电的立法修订滞后,一些规定与社会发展不适应,与上位法不协调,在此背景下地方立法先行先试,补充完善了供用电法律制度。文章从电力普遍服务、节能减排、强制缔约、电力需求侧管理、用电计量装置、供用电合同、预购电、中止供电、用电检查、窃电规制、电力应急预案、供电故障抢修、供用电事故、禁止非供电企业拉闸停电等14个方面介绍了地方立法中关于供用电法律制度的创新与突破以及供用电立法的新趋势。%At present, the legislation revise about power supply and consumption is lagging in the national level, some rules don′t fit in with the social development, don′t coordinate with the higher-level law. Under this background, the local legislation is tried and carried out to supply and perfect the legal system of power supply and consumption. In the paper, the innovation and breakthrough on the legal system of power supply and consumption and its new trend in the local legislation are introduced, from fourteen aspects such as electric power universal service, energy conservation and emission reduction, forced con-tracting, power demand side management, electricity metering device, power supply contract, purchasing electricity in advance, shutting off power supply, electricity inspection, stealing electricity regulation, power supply emergency plan, power supply breakdown repair, power supply accident, forbidding power cut except for power supply enterprise.

  16. Comparison of Turkey's electrical energy consumption and production with some European countries and optimization of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunc, Murat; Camdali, Uenal; Parmaksizoglu, Cem

    2006-01-01

    Energy issues are directly related to the development of a country and the living standards of its people. Turkey is currently in a rapid industrialization process with a young and dynamic population of over 65 million. Due to relatively high growth rate of the population, increasing consumer oriented attitudes and as a result of rising levels of affluence, the primary energy demand is rising rapidly at an annual rate of 6.7 percent. In this study Turkey's energy resources, installed electric power capacity, electric energy production and consumption rates are investigated and compared with that of France, Germany and Switzerland. Turkey's electric energy consumption rates are predicted with regression analysis for the years of 2010 and 2020 and finally linear mathematical optimization model is developed to predict the distribution of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

  17. New renewable energy sources and efficient power consumption at NOK: Promoting - testing - informing. Neue erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Stromanwendung bei den NOK: Foerdern - Pruefen - Informieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueffer, K; Baumberger, H [Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK), Baden (Switzerland)

    1991-09-18

    In accordance with the operating principles, the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) has decided on a comprehensive programme dedicated to opening up new sources of renewable energy and also to reducing demand by means of efficient power consumption. Intensive promotion, testing and information should ensure that, on the one hand, a premature condemnation of both possibilities and, on the other hand, exaggerated hopes can be avoided. (orig.).

  18. High-gain subnanowatt power consumption hybrid complementary logic inverter with WSe2 nanosheet and ZnO nanowire transistors on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Pezeshki, Atiye; Ali Raza, Syed Raza; Lee, Hee Sung; Min, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Shin, Jae Min; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-07

    A 1D-2D hybrid complementary logic inverter comprising of ZnO nanowire and WSe2 nanosheet field-effect transistors (FETs) is fabricated on glass, which shows excellent static and dynamic electrical performances with a voltage gain of ≈60, sub-nanowatt power consumption, and at least 1 kHz inverting speed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  20. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  1. Possibilities and consequences of the Total Cumulative Exergy Loss method in improving the sustainability of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stougie, Lydia; Kooi, Hedzer J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The TCExL method can be applied to all kinds of technological systems. • All exergy losses during the lifetime of a technological system are considered. • The results of the TCExL method are independent of time and weighting factors. • Applying the TCExL method can improve the sustainability of power generation. • The system with the lowest TCExL score is not always economically favourable. - Abstract: It is difficult to decide which power generation system is the most sustainable when environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects are taken into account. Problems with conventional environmental sustainability assessment methods are that no consensus exists about the applied models and weighting factors and that exergy losses are not considered. Economic sustainability assessment methods do not lead to results that are independent of time because they are influenced by market developments, while social sustainability assessment methods suffer from the availability and qualitative or semi-quantitative nature of data. Existing exergy analysis methods do not take into account all exergy losses and/or are extended with factors or equations that are not commonly accepted. The new Total Cumulative Exergy Loss (TCExL) method is based on fundamental thermodynamic equations and takes into account all exergy losses caused by a technological system during its life cycle, i.e. internal exergy losses, exergy losses caused by emission abatement and exergy losses related to land use. The development of the TCExL method is presented as well as the application of this method and environmental, economic and social sustainability assessment methods to two case studies: power generation in combination with LNG evaporation and Fossil versus renewable energy sources for power generation. According to the results of the assessments, large differences exist between the environmental sustainability assessment and TCExL methods in the sense that different

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology. R and D of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology in relation to machine tools; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kosaku kiki ni kanrensuru taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to machine tools, a method was studied for reducing consumption power at the time of standing-by, keeping the present processing accuracy, processing efficiency and operability, and the results of the study were as follows. As to the chip conveyer, the stand-by consumption power was reduced by approximately 75% by reducing the motor capacity by reviewing the effective operation method and the structure. Concerning the mist collector, a reduction of approximately 85% was confirmed by adopting the efficient operation method and high-efficient motor. Relating to the oil controller, an experiment was made on the frame thermal circulation system and the self-forced air cooling system. In terms of the rise in temperature, the controller is lower than the existing one, but it was found out that the consumption power could be reduced by about 14% and about 98%, respectively. About the coolant pump, the optimum inclination angle/necessary minimum flow rate of oil pan were confirmed, and a reduction of 47% was confirmed. As to the hydraulic pump, study was made of a method to substitute other power source for oil pressure and the intermittent operation of hydraulic unit, and effects of each were confirmed. Further studies were made of the control disc, reduction in air consumption, etc. (NEDO)

  3. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  4. Synthesis and presentations of the 1. national colloquium of photovoltaic self-consumption. Producing solar power to consume it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Daniel; Brottier, Laetitia; Kubista, Marek; Charton, Franck; Lafforgue, Alain; Bubel, Genevieve; Bechu, Olivier; Lextrait, Herve; Gelle, Alexis; Glachant, Jean-Michel; Moretti, Florent; Contreau, Regis; Damian, Jean; Gravier, Emmanuel; Mas, Pierre; Puaud, Teddy; Lebreton, Francois; Coutant, Francoise; Perrin, Gautier; Cereuil, Edouard; Dehaese, Olivier; Mingant, Sylvie; Roesner, Sven; Communal, Serge; Djahel, Thierry; Hu, Zukui; Perez, Yannick; Marchal, David; Laffaille, Didier; Claustre, Raphael; Joffre, Andre

    2016-05-01

    This publication reports on the contributions (slides) presented during several round tables which respectively proposed comments and discussions on the results of a survey on the relationship between French people and self-consumption; on the relationships and stakes of the electricity grid regulatory framework with positive or zero energy building; on an overview of emerging market offers by professionals; on a return on experience and on the role of local communities (region, TEPOS or positive energy territories, energy syndicates, authorities for distribution organisation); on the situation and perspectives of stationary storage and solar electro-mobility; and on prospective visions (2018/2023) for photovoltaic self-consumption in France. A synthesis summarizes the content of this first colloquium on photovoltaic self-consumption

  5. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation when the external power supply is connected to the main electricity supply and the output is (or “all outputs are” for a multiple-voltage external power supply) connected to a load (or “loads” for a... any mechanical, optical, or electronic switches that automatically disconnect mains power from the...

  6. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  7. Structure of the power consumption in hospitals: case of the IMSS development in Aguascalientes; Estructura del consumo energetico en hospitales: caso del conjunto del IMSS en Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Garcia, Antonio [HGZ No. 1 del IMSS en Aguascalientes (Mexico); Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The hospitals, since they operate 24 hours a day during 365 days per year, are great consumers of energy. They consume up to 75% of fuels for their transformation in thermal energy. Consequently it is important to study and determine the structure of the power consumption in hospitals. In the present work with the study case of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) development in Aguascalientes, Mexico a pattern of power consumption and the distribution of annual consumption of electricity and diesel oil from 1993 to 2001 is obtained. It is observed in the study case, that with the work of the engineering equipment of conservation they managed themselves to reduce to the annual consumption of diesel oil and electricity with economic savings greater than 1'200,000 of 1999 pesos. [Spanish] Los hospitales, como trabajan 24 al dia los 365 dias del ano, son grandes consumidores de energia. Ellos consumen hasta el 75% de combustibles para su transformacion en energia termica. En consecuencia es importante estudiar y determinar la estructura del consumo energetico en hospitales. En el presente trabajo con el estudio de caso del conjunto del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en Aguascalientes, Mexico se obtiene el patron de consumo energetico y la distribucion de consumo anual de electricidad y diesel de l993 a 2001. Se observa en el caso de estudio, que con el trabajo del equipo de ingenieros de conservacion se lograron reducir los consumos anuales de diesel y electricidad con ahorros economicos mayores a 1,200,000 pesos de 1999.

  8. Life-cycle comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption for coal and shale gas fired power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Huang, Runze; Ries, Robert J.; Masanet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    China has the world's largest shale gas reserves, which might enable it to pursue a new pathway for electricity generation. This study employed hybrid LCI (life cycle inventory) models to quantify the ETW (extraction-to-wire) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and water consumption per kWh of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity in China. Results suggest that a coal-to-shale gas shift and upgrading coal-fired power generation technologies could provide pathways to less GHG and water intensive power in China. Compared to different coal-fired generation technologies, the ETW GHG emissions intensity of gas-fired CC (combined cycle) technology is 530 g CO 2 e/kWh, which is 38–45% less than China's present coal-fired electricity. Gas-fired CT (combustion turbine) technology has the lowest ETW water consumption intensity at 960 g/kWh, which is 34–60% lower than China's present coal-fired electricity. The GHG-water tradeoff of the two gas-fired power generation technologies suggests that gas-fired power generation technologies should be selected based on regional-specific water resource availabilities and electricity demand fluctuations in China. However, the low price of coal-fired electricity, high cost of shale gas production, insufficient pipeline infrastructures, and multiple consumers of shale gas resources may serve as barriers to a coal-to-shale gas shift in China's power sector in the near term. - Highlights: • The GHG and water footprints of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity are estimated. • A coal-to-shale gas shift can enable less GHG and water intensive power in China. • The GHG emissions of shale gas-fired combined cycle technology is 530 g CO 2 e/kWh. • The water consumption of shale gas-fired combustion turbine technology is 960 g/kWh. • Shale gas-fired power generation technologies selection should be regional-specific

  9. Application of total quality tools in the operational process modernization and optimization of large hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao de ferramentas da qualidade total na modernizacao e otimizacao de processos operacionais de grandes usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Luiz Frederico; Kassem, Faisal Ali; Medlo, Gerson Ricardo; Santos, Valdemir Chalito dos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Capitao Leonidas Marques, PR (Brazil). Superintendencia de Gerencia da Manutencao. Area de Operacao e Manutencao Salto Caxias]. E-mail: potenza@mail.copel.br

    1998-07-01

    This work highlights a practical example of Total Quality tools application, and as the institutional changes advances, the necessity of being better and more competitive becomes evident. By using Total Quality Control tools in the modernization and optimization of operational processes for large hydroelectric power plants of the COPEL-Brazil this work contributes for the continuous increasing of the customers satisfaction and the profitability of the company.

  10. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of the maximal possible grid relief from PV-peak-power impacts by using storage systems for increased self-consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshövel, Janina; Kairies, Kai-Philipp; Magnor, Dirk; Leuthold, Matthias; Bost, Mark; Gährs, Swantje; Szczechowicz, Eva; Cramer, Moritz; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of a MATLAB battery storage model. • Development of a controlled persistence forecast management strategy. • Perfect forecast in comparison to an easy feasible persistence forecast. • More grid relief with forecast than with strategies to maximize self-consumption. - Abstract: For future energy supply systems the effects and benefits of battery storage systems in households with photovoltaic (PV) generators and the effects on distribution and transmission grids need to be identified and analyzed. The development of grid relieving management strategies for the storage system in due consideration of self-consumption is a necessary step forward in order to analyze the potential of private home battery storage systems to reduce stress on the power supply system. A MATLAB-based model of a lithium-ion storage system has been developed. The model is applicable for a wide range of PV generator sizes, different battery storage systems and diverse management strategies. In order to identify the potential of grid relieving forecast strategies, without discharging the storage into the grid, a management strategy based on persistence forecasts of solar radiation and household load demand has been implemented and analyzed. To minimize forecast uncertainties a proportional plus integral controller has been developed. The persistence forecast management strategy is applicable in real-life PV-battery-systems and due to the simple forecast it is easy to equip existing systems with such a management system with only low effort. As a result it will be shown that a storage system management based on forecasts has a significantly higher potential to relieve the grid than a system that only maximizes self-consumption as it is usually used nowadays. Besides, such a management strategy is able to unload the grid more than a static power reduction to 70% of the nominal power rating according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). At the

  12. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter); Determinacao de atividades alfa e beta total em agua para consumo humano por LSC (Contador de Cintilacao Liquida))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  13. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  14. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Sauvage Nolting, P.R. de; Dam, M.S. van; Belsey, E.M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Pritchard, P.H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total

  15. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Jacqueline; de Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R. W.; van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Haydn Pritchard, P.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total

  16. Consumption of a flavonoid-rich açai meal is associated with acute improvements in vascular function and a reduction in total oxidative status in healthy overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurashi, Randah M; Galante, Laura A; Rowland, Ian R; Spencer, Jeremy Pe; Commane, Daniel M

    2016-11-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea) is a polyphenol-rich fruit marketed as beneficial for health. Experimental data showing improvements in health markers arising from açai consumption in humans is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of açai consumption on acute changes in vascular function and on other disease risk markers, including postprandial plasma insulin, glucose, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy male volunteers, aged 30-65 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 25-30, completed a randomized, controlled, high-fat challenge, double-blind, crossover, acute dietary intervention trial. The volunteers consumed either an açai-based smoothie (AS) or a macronutrient-matched control smoothie (PS) together with a high-fat breakfast meal challenge. The primary endpoint was the assessment of endothelial function in the brachial artery by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). The acute consumption of an AS containing 694 mg total phenolics improved vascular function, with postprandial increases in FMD from baseline of 1.4% at 2 h compared with 0.4% after consumption of the PS (P = 0.001) and increases at 6 h of 0.8% for the AS compared with -0.3% for the PS (P < 0.001). There was also a significantly lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for total peroxide oxidative status after açai consumption relative to the control. No significant changes were observed in blood pressure, heart rate, or postprandial glucose response. However, the first postprandial insulin peak (after breakfast) and the iAUC for insulin were elevated for the AS relative to the PS. In this acute study in overweight men, açai consumption was associated with improvements in vascular function, which may lower the risk of a cardiovascular event. Future intervention studies, perhaps with a chronic design, in wider populations and with other biomarkers of disease risk are needed to fully elucidate the benefits of açai to health. This trial was registered at

  17. Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smolińska, Katarzyna; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The colon and rectum are common sites of food-related cancer in developed countries. Recent studies strongly suggest that red meat intake is associated with colon cancer, whereas for rectal cancer such an association still needs to be proved. The aim of the study was to assess the role of total amount and frequency of red meat intake in colorectal carcinogenesis based on published data using meta-analysis methods. Material and methods The literature published until 2009 was selec...

  18. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  19. Using Multi-Sited Ethnography: An Exploration of Consumer Resistance, Community and Power at New Consumption Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The research methods described in this case were used as part of my PhD project, which took place between 2003 and 2007. My aim was to gain an in-depth understanding of new consumption communities, that is, consumers who develop a sense of kind, shared rituals and traditions, and a feeling of responsibility towards each other based on their critical attitudes towards marketing and consumer culture. In the early 2000s, industry and marketing academics were becoming increasingly interested in t...

  20. Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value.

  1. Total antioxidant property and pH change of dental plaque and saliva in 6-11-year-old children after consumption of flavored milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Khodadadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antioxidant properties of chocolate and other flavored additives besides the sugar added to milk raises the question about the acidogenecity of flavored milk. This study was conducted to measure the pH changes of dental plaque and saliva after the consumption of flavored milk and evaluate the antioxidant property of them. Methods: This study was performed on 42 samples of dental plaque and 42 samples of saliva in 6-11 year old school going children. Milk with flavors of strawberry, chocolate, banana, honey and slim milk were evaluated, all from the same manufacturer with a similar production date. At the beginning of the study on the first day, children were given thorough oral propHylaxis and they were instructed to avoid any method of oral hygiene for 48 hours to permit enough plaque deposition. On the third day the children were divided into 7 groups, 6 children in each group. The supra-gingival plaque was collected through the help of an excavator #3 which was pulled twice with the same force on the tooth surface. The saliva was collected using spitting technique. Each child swished 10 cc of milk for 1 minute in his/her mouth. Fresh plaque samples after 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes and saliva samples immediately, after 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes were collected. The pH of the samples were recorded by a pH testing apparatus (Basic 20+, Crisom. To evaluate the antioxidant property of studied milk, Frap test was performed. The collected readings were reported as mean±SD and analyzed by ANOVA repeated measures, Post hoc Tukey and Paired T-test. In this study, p≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: After 30 minutes, honey milk caused the least drop 0.74±0.30 and banana milk caused the highest drop 1.38± 0.25 in plaque pH (p≤0.05. After 30 minutes, the pH of saliva showed no significant difference compared to the initial pH. Chocolate milk contained the highest (1000 micromol/liter and banana milk the lowest (706

  2. The balancing mechanism. How to ensure the power production-consumption balance in a market opened to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmnd, Y.; Nebas-Hamoudia, C.; Larripa, B.; Neupont, B.

    2005-01-01

    As electricity is a non-storable product in large quantities, generation and consumption have to be balanced at all times. In France, this balancing was historically solely supplied by EDF. Recent legislative changes have opened balancing supplies, thus creating competition. RTE, the electricity transmission system operator, has developed, in consultation with the main market players, the balancing mechanism. This enables available capacities to be merged in order to guarantee this balance. It operates like a permanent bidding system open to producers, industrial consumers and foreign players. Bids submitted by players are selected by RTE depending on the system requirements, taking into account merit order criterion and technical constraints. Prices issued from the balancing mechanism are used to provide a legitimate reference price for the settlement of imbalances between supplies and consumptions of the different electricity market players. Transparency, a crucial element of this mechanism, is ensured by a comprehensive system of open data publication. Since its launch, the balancing mechanism has proven its operational strength. (author)

  3. Power consumption in detail of private households in the Federal Republic of Germany 1997 - 2000. Study; Detaillierung des Stromverbrauchs privater Haushalte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1997 - 2010. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boede, U.; Bradke, H.; Cremer, C.

    2000-12-01

    The study includes all electric appliances except for those used to heat rooms. 53 of these power-consuming appliances were also examined in detail as to their idle-power consumption (consumption during stand-by and apparent non-activity). The investigations covered specific performance, the typical sort of use and the development of the stocks. 1997 was used as the basic year. The development is estimated for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. To identify the stand-by losses, the operational states were defined accurately. This makes it possible to determine which loss is caused by which operational mode. [German] Die Studie beruecksichtigt alle Elektrogeraete ausser solche fuer Raumwaerme. 53 dieser stromverbrauchenden Geraete wurden darueber hinaus bezueglich ihres Leerlaufverbrauchs (Verbrauch im Bereitschaftsbetrieb und im Schein-Aus-Zustand) detailliert betrachtet. Untersucht wurden die spezifische Leistungsaufnahme, die typische Anwendung und die Bestandsentwicklung. Als Basisjahr wurde 1997 herangezogen. Die Entwicklung wird abgeschaetzt fuer die Jahre 2000, 2005 und 2010. Zur Identifizierung der Leerlaufverluste wurde eine genaue Definition der Betriebszustaende vorgenommen. Dadurch ist es moeglich zuzuordnen, welcher Verlust auf welchen Betriebsmodus entfaellt. (orig.)

  4. Low Power Consumption Complementary Inverters with n-MoS2 and p-WSe2 Dichalcogenide Nanosheets on Glass for Logic and Light-Emitting Diode Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Pyo Jin; Kim, Jin Sung; Lim, June Yeong; Cho, Youngsuk; Pezeshki, Atiye; Lee, Hee Sung; Yu, Sanghyuck; Min, Sung-Wook; Im, Seongil

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials with discrete bandgap become important because of their interesting physical properties and potentials toward future nanoscale electronics. Many 2D-based field effect transistors (FETs) have thus been reported. Several attempts to fabricate 2D complementary (CMOS) logic inverters have been made too. However, those CMOS devices seldom showed the most important advantage of typical CMOS: low power consumption. Here, we adopted p-WSe2 and n-MoS2 nanosheets separately for the channels of bottom-gate-patterned FETs, to fabricate 2D dichalcogenide-based hetero-CMOS inverters on the same glass substrate. Our hetero-CMOS inverters with electrically isolated FETs demonstrate novel and superior device performances of a maximum voltage gain as ∼27, sub-nanowatt power consumption, almost ideal noise margin approaching 0.5VDD (supply voltage, VDD=5 V) with a transition voltage of 2.3 V, and ∼800 μs for switching delay. Moreover, our glass-substrate CMOS device nicely performed digital logic (NOT, OR, and AND) and push-pull circuits for organic light-emitting diode switching, directly displaying the prospective of practical applications.

  5. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche

  6. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  7. FY 2000 Development of technologies for reducing power consumption during the stand-by period. Report on the research and development results of rationally reducing power consumption by home electric appliances; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden seihin no taikiji shohi denryoku no goriteki sakugen ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the system which automatically switches off the power source for a standing-by appliance by analyzing life pattern in each home, in order to reduce consumed power during the stand-by period. The actual service conditions of appliances in each home are surveyed through the questionnaires and recording in the diary. The analysis results indicate that as high as 70% of those who are inquired take interest in energy saving, especially high among full-time housewives. The home electric appliances considered by many to wastefully consume power are functional-keeping types, e.g., (jar pots) and (toilet seats equipped with a washing function with warm water), and heating appliances, e.g., (hot carpets). The power consumption trends at each time in each home are measured and grasped by the aid of a tool with built-in personal computer, and the algorithm for predicting use of the appliances in each home is developed for each home, based on the analysis results. The prototype energy-saving adapter and centralized controller are developed, and subjected to various tests to develop the learning/controlling algorithms. The demonstration tests of the energy-saving adapter developed confirm that power consumption during the stand-by period can be reduced at least by 10%. (NEDO)

  8. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  9. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Major Constituent and Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Siamak; Soibel, Alexander; Frez, Clifford; Qiu, Yueming; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Tsvid, G.; Belenky, G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. The minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental frequency of the target gases which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micrometers wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micrometers and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micrometers range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  10. Possibilities of using thermal mass in buildings to save energy, cut power consumption peaks and increase the thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project was to generate knowledge to enable us to take advantage of heat storage in heavy building structures with regard to as energy savings, better thermal indoor climate, and reduced peak powers. This could include buildings that can function without energy input during cold periods, buildings that give a robust indoor climate without installed cooling, and buildings with good thermal comfort also in case of higher outdoor temperatures resulting from global warming. To rea...

  11. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  12. Design of a high-efficiency train headlamp with low power consumption using dual half-parabolic aluminized reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Lun; Su, Guo-Dung J

    2018-02-20

    We propose a train headlamp system using dual half-circular parabolic aluminized reflectors. Each half-circular reflector contains five high-efficiency and small-package light-emitting diode (LED) chips, and the halves are 180° rotationally symmetric. For traffic safety, the headlamp satisfies the Code of Federal Regulations. To predict the pattern of illumination, an analytical derivation is developed for the optical path of a ray that is perpendicular to and emitted from the center of an LED chip. This ray represents the main ray emitted from the LED chip and is located at the maximum illuminance of the spot projected by the LED source onto a screen. We then analyze the design systematically to determine the locations of the LED chips in the reflector that minimize electricity consumption while satisfying reliability constraints associated with traffic safety. Compared to a typical train headlamp system with an incandescent or halogen lamp needing several hundred watts, the proposed system only uses 20.18 W to achieve the luminous intensity requirements.

  13. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  14. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  15. Effects of fast breeders' characteristics on consumptions and expenditures related to electric power generation. An assessment for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zanantoni, C.

    1976-12-01

    The effects of the physical characteristics of the FBR (breeding ratio, inventory) and of the associated fuel cycle (out-of-pile time) on the results of strategy calculations performed for an electric power system are discussed. Attention is focused on the penetration of FBR, on the demand of uranium and separative work and on the economical performance of the breeders. It is pointed out that uncertainties about the out-of-pile time are as important as those concerning FBR breeding ratio and inventory

  16. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  17. Effect of mixing on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce: a quantitative analysis of conversion and power consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiman Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When scaling up lignocellulose-based ethanol production, the desire to increase the final ethanol titer after fermentation can introduce problems. A high concentration of water-insoluble solids (WIS is needed in the enzymatic hydrolysis step, resulting in increased viscosity, which can cause mass and heat transfer problems because of poor mixing of the material. In the present study, the effects of mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce were investigated using a stirred tank reactor operated with different impeller speeds and enzyme loadings. In addition, the results were related to the power input needed to operate the impeller at different speeds, taking into account the changes in rheology throughout the process. Results A marked difference in hydrolysis rate at different impeller speeds was found. For example, the conversion was twice as high after 48 hours at 500 rpm compared with 25 rpm. This difference remained throughout the 96 hours of hydrolysis. Substantial amounts of energy were required to achieve only minor increases in conversion during the later stages of the process. Conclusions Impeller speed strongly affected both the hydrolysis rate of the pretreated spruce and needed power input. Similar conversions could be obtained at different energy input by altering the mixing (that is, energy input, enzyme load and residence time, an important issue to consider when designing large-scale plants.

  18. Power and prestige in argar culture societies. The commensal consumption of bovids and ovicaprids during funerary rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The regular appearance of meat offerings in Argaric pmbs enables us to point out that the slaughter and consumption of cattle and sheep or goat took place as a part of rituals of commensality. A portion of meat of theses animals, always belonging to a leg, was introduced as grave goods involving the symbolic performance of the death in the ritual itself. The type of meat consumed in these rituals was linked to the social status of Argaric people. Cattle would be slaughtered during the commensal practices associated with the highest social groups in contrast to the performance developed in the lowest social levels that include goat or sheep but never cattle. The ritual of commensality in Argaric societies would contribute to maintaining the social solidarity at the same time that it legitimated and naturalised a clear situation of social asymmetry. Cohesion and social distance play an important role in the commensal practices of Argaric funerary rituals.

    La fuerte normalización de los ajuares cárnicos en las sepulturas argáricas permite plantear que, como parte de ritual funerario, se procedió al sacrificio de bóvidos y ovicápridos que serían consumidos en rituales de comensalidad. Un trozo de carne de estas especies animales, siempre correspondiente a una de las extremidades, formaría parte del ajuar funerario, lo que supondría la participación simbólica del muerto en el propio ritual. La adscripción social de los individuos determinaría el tipo de carne consumida. Los bóvidos serían sacrificados sólo como parte de la ceremonia de comensalidad de los sectores sociales más elevados, frente a aquellos individuos de un nivel social inferior y con menor capacidad de amortización cuyo ritual incluirían el sacrificio y consumo de ovicápridos. En las sociedades argáricas el ritual de comensalidad contribuiría a la creación de un sentido de comunidad al tiempo que legitima y naturaliza una situación de clara asimetr

  19. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - November 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in November 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  20. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in July 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  1. Monthly bulletin of electric power market - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in September 1988, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  2. Determination of total tritium in urine from residents living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Qinshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bao-Ming; Ji, Yan-Qin; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xiang-Zhang; Yin, Liang-Liang; Su, Xu

    2015-01-16

    To estimate the tritium doses of the residents living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant, urine samples of 34 adults were collected from residents living near the Qinshan nuclear power plant. The tritium-in-urine (HTO plus OBT) was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The doses of tritium-in-urine from participants living at 2, 10 and 22 km were in a range of 1.26-6.73 Bq/L, 1.31-3.09 Bq/L and 2.21-3.81 Bq/L, respectively, while the average activity concentrations of participants from the three groups were 3.53 ± 1.62, 2.09 ± 0.62 and 2.97 ± 0.78 Bq/L, respectively. The personal committed effective doses for males were 2.5 ± 1.7 nSv and for females they were 2.9 ± 1.3 nSv. These results indicate that tritium concentrations in urine samples from residents living at 2 km from a nuclear power plant are significantly higher than those at 10 km. It may be the downwind direction that caused a higher dose in participants living at 22 km. All the measured doses of tritium-in-urine are in a background level range.

  3. A numerical simulation of the piston cooling in view of consumption capabilities and enhanced power density; Numerische Simulation der Kolbenkuehlung im Hinblick auf Verbrauchspotentiale und erhoehte Leistungsdichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Johannes [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    To meet stringent emission regulations and high power requirements, peak cylinder pressures and specific power of petrol engines have increased dramatically in recent years. Nevertheless, regarding customer expectations and in the interest of driving dynamics, modern engines should still adhere to the established wide speed range, resulting in higher thermal loading of in-cylinder components such as piston. To ensure durability and reliability, it is vital for piston cooling concepts to keep maximum temperatures securely below an acceptable limit. In addition, reducing piston cooling at part load can help to gain efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. These exacting demands on the cooling concept require an exact analysis of thermal boundary conditions and their influence on the piston temperature. While good verified models for the combustion simulation already exist, the thermal cooling boundaries involve a greater level of uncertainty. The reason for this lies in the inadequately investigated heat transfer conditions on the piston undercrown and the running surface at present, due to complex fluid dynamics of the oil jet cooling and strong ring movements during a load cycle. This study refines the thermal boundary conditions and leads to precise knowledge of the transient and averaged heat flow through the piston and the cylinder liner. Based on these results, optimized cooling strategies to gain efficiency can be developed with the help of well validated one dimensional thermal engine models. (orig.)

  4. On the Dual-Decomposition-Based Resource and Power Allocation with Sleeping Strategy for Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of radio and power resource management in long term evolution heterogeneous networks (LTE HetNets) is investigated. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the user quality

  5. Closing the sky. The total dismantling of the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant demonstrates maturity in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to put the situation of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the world into perspective as an already consolidated activity and with an important future of industrial activity. The decommissioning project that Enresa is currently performing in the old Jose Cabrera plant is being explained in detail, by providing data of the newest and most relevant technical aspects as well as the lessons learned to be reusable in other decommissioning projects. The previous background, the project planning, the activities performed and those still to be done as well as their timing are being explained in detail. (Author)

  6. A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of wind–Diesel power system for non-interconnected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model thermodynamic ideal cycle of a new hybrid pneumaticcombustion engine. ► We optimize commands of all modes and calculate maps of fuel and air consumption. ► We evaluate fuel economy for Wind–Diesel system function of tank volume and wind penetration. ► We find up to 10% of fuel economy i.e. 80 t/year with 100% wind penetration. ► Fuel economy increases with wind penetration and with volume but has asymptotic value. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid Wind–Diesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this study’s strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

  7. Photovoltaic energy in France. Individual domestic self-consumption: until 20 pc of savings on electric power bills and a return on investment greater than 100 pc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorgeril, Charlotte de; Ribeyrolles, Charlyne; Robert-Baby, Xavier; Landesman, Olga; Lausseure, Martine

    2017-11-01

    This analysis presents the context within which domestic energy self-consumption is integrated into the French market, perspectives of development of the sector, and profitability potential assessments for households. It describes the context and mechanisms of self-consumption, outlines dynamics which favour self-consumption in France, identifies conditions for a profitable business model, and discusses levers of support of the self-consumption sector in France

  8. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1980 in Sunshine Project. Development of a total flow electric power plant(Two-phase rotation inflator); 1980 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Out of the development of a total flow power plant in the Sunshine Project, this paper describes a two-phase rotatry inflator. It reports the achievements in fiscal 1980. It is intended to utilize effectively the energy of gas-liquid two-phase fluid (containing a great amount of hot water) often seen in geothermal resources in Japan. Therefore, development is considered on a two-phase rotary inflator as a total flow power generation technology to inflate the gas-liquid fluid as it is without performing separation thereof, and convert it to an external work to draw out output. The inflator is a volume type rotary engine, which has the highest efficiency theoretically, but has not been put into practical use worldwide. Based on the result obtained in the previous fiscal year, development is made on a most suitable seal to be applied to circumferential seal of an external rotor, apex seal, and intake port seal. A rotary inflation performance testing machine is fabricated to study inflation of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid. Setting the engine efficiency of 60% or higher as the target, detailed design, fabrication and assembly shall be completed on two-phase rotation inflators of volume type and self-rotation type of 300 kW class. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1998 research report (New Sunshine Project). Research on the total system for development of superconductor power application technology; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho (new sunshine keikaku). Chodendo denryoku oyo gijutsu kaihatsu total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research promoted as a part of New Sunshine Project 'R and D project on development of superconductor power application technology.' This project is composed of R and D of superconductor power application technology (Rank 1), study on the total system (Rank 2), and study on review of introduction effects (Rank 3). The project is promoting R and D of the prototype superconducting generator model and elementary technologies based on the basic plan mainly by the research association. The combination test of the developed armature and the multi- cylindrical rotor model or slow response excitation rotor model was finished, and the test of the quick response excitation rotor model is in promotion. Together with R and D of hardware, this project is also promoting R and D of software through review of the introduction effects of superconducting power equipment. In fiscal 1998, the pre- final review was carried out by the project review sub- committee. 2 times of the committee, 12 times of the sub- committee, and several times of the working group were held until March, 1999. (NEDO)

  10. New formulas for interferometric crosstalk penalty as a function of total crosstalk power, number of crosstalk contributions and signal extinction ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk, also called incoherent crosstalk, occurs when reception of a desired signal is disturbed by undesired crosstalk contributions having the same wavelength as the desired signal but independent amplitudes and phases. This crosstalk type is known to be among the most destructive phenomena in optical networks owing to its accumulative nature and strong impact on the transmission quality. New formulas state the crosstalk penalty as a function of the total crosstalk power,...

  11. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  12. Updated of the events tree of total loss of power at the site, SBO, taking into account the results of stress tests and methodological updates, convolution, and hydraulic power recovery from model RCPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lorenzo, M. A.; Perez Martin, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, is described a tree of events to an accident loss total power at the site (SBO) considering, first the results of stress tests arising from the Fukushima accident and moreover, various methodological updates related to this initiating event.

  13. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  14. Impact of water hardness on energy consumption of geyser heating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the Eskom Research, Testing, and Development Business Unit embarked on a study to examine total water hardness as a chemical parameter that may impact the power consumption of electrical geyser heating elements. An accelerated scaling method was developed to lime-scale the geyser heating elements ...

  15. Diesel Consumption of Agriculture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen Gui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As agricultural mechanization accelerates the development of agriculture in China, to control the growth of the resulting energy consumption of mechanized agriculture without negatively affecting economic development has become a major challenge. A systematic analysis of the factors (total power, unit diesel consumption, etc. influencing diesel consumption using the SECA model, combined with simulations on agricultural diesel flows in China between 1996 and 2010 is performed in this work. Seven agricultural subsectors, fifteen categories of agricultural machinery and five farm operations are considered. The results show that farming and transportation are the two largest diesel consumers, accounting for 86.23% of the total diesel consumption in agriculture in 2010. Technological progress has led to a decrease in the unit diesel consumption and an increase in the unit productivity of all machinery, and there is still much potential for future progress. Additionally, the annual average working hours have decreased rapidly for most agricultural machinery, thereby influencing the development of mechanized agriculture.

  16. Simulation models for household consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    In many countries in the EU and in the United States, coil and nuclear plants provide the majority of energy production [2, 3], while peak absorption is matched by regulation plants and power exchange between grids. Throughout the last two decades, factors, such as increased global energy demand,...... are thermal and electrical storages, whose internal temperature or state of charge (SOC) is to be kept within specific comfort bounds. Alternatively, also PV plants can offer flexibility as soon as the controlling inverters are capable of controlling the power output......., speculation of fossil fuels, and global warming have generated a high interest in renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, energy sources, such as wind and solar power, have an intrinsic variability that can seriously affect the power grid stability if they account for a high percentage of the total generation...... as the capability of a device or cluster of devices to change the power consumption or production in time and magnitude. This behavior can be granted by local controllers or supervisory controllers who are able to operate under the direct or indirect control paradigm [5]. Typical devices that offer flexibility...

  17. Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, M.A.; Breier, C.F.; Henderson, P.B.; Pike, S.M.; Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry; Rypina, I.I.; Jayne, S.R. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Physical Oceanography

    2013-07-01

    Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs) concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ∝ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2-3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope ({sup 223}Ra, t{sub 1/2} = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (T{sub r}) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. T{sub r} = 27 days). From these independent T{sub r} values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore {sup 134}Cs flux of 3.9-4.6 x 10{sup 13} Bq d{sup -1}. Radium-228 (t{sub 1/2} = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (K{sub z}) of 0.7 m{sup 2} d{sup -1} (0.1 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}); from this K{sub z} and {sup 134}Cs inventory, we estimated a {sup 134}Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 x 10{sup 4} Bq d{sup -1} for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ∝ 10{sup 9} greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of {sup 134}Cs from the FNPP of 11-16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011

  18. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  19. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  20. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  1. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Electricity consumption and energy savings potential of video game consoles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hittinger, E.; Mullins, K.A.; Azevedo, I.L. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Total energy consumption of video game consoles has grown rapidly in the past few decades due to rapid increases in market penetration, power consumption of the devices, and increasing usage driven by new capabilities. Unfortunately, studies investigating the energy impacts of these devices have been limited and potential responses, such as ENERGY STAR requirements, have been difficult to define and implement. We estimate that the total electricity consumption of video game consoles in the US was around 11 TWh in 2007 and 16 TWh in 2010 (approximately 1 % of US residential electricity consumption), an increase of almost 50 % in 3 years. However, any estimate of total game console energy consumption is highly uncertain, and we have determined that the key uncertainty is the unknown consumer behavior with regards to powering down the system after use. Even under this uncertainty, we demonstrate that the most effective energy-saving modification is incorporation of a default auto power down feature, which could reduce electricity consumption of game consoles by 75 % (10 TWh reduction of electricity in 2010), saving consumers over USD 1 billion annually in electricity bills. We conclude that using an auto power down feature for game consoles is at least as effective for reducing energy consumption as implementing a strict set of energy efficiency improvements for the devices, is much easier to implement given the nature of the video game console industry, and could be applied retroactively to currently deployed consoles through firmware updates.

  3. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  4. New formulas for interferometric crosstalk penalty as a function of total crosstalk power, number of crosstalk contributions and signal extinction ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk, also called incoherent crosstalk, occurs when reception of a desired signal is disturbed by undesired crosstalk contributions having the same wavelength as the desired signal but independent amplitudes and phases. This crosstalk type is known to be among the most...... destructive phenomena in optical networks owing to its accumulative nature and strong impact on the transmission quality. New formulas state the crosstalk penalty as a function of the total crosstalk power, the number of contributions carrying this power and the signal extinction ratio. We consider both PIN...... and optically preamplified receivers. The authors know of no other published formulas which include the number of crosstalk contributions. The crosstalk penalty formulas are empirical, and they are based on a numerical model. This model is described briefly along with its experimental verification before...

  5. Accelerating an Ordered-Subset Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction with a Power Factor and Total Variation Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in low-dose X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in many fields, including dentistry, guided radiotherapy and small animal imaging. Despite reducing the radiation dose, low-dose CBCT has not gained widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice. In addition to performing more evaluation studies, developing a fast and high-quality reconstruction algorithm is required. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method that accelerates ordered-subsets (OS) reconstruction using a power factor. Furthermore, we combine it with the total-variation (TV) minimization method. Both simulation and phantom studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can accelerate conventional OS methods, greatly increase the convergence speed in early iterations. Moreover, applying the TV minimization to the power acceleration scheme can further improve the image quality while preserving the fast convergence rate.

  6. Identification of Combined Power Quality Disturbances Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Total Least Squares-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishuo Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify various kinds of combined power quality disturbances, the singular value decomposition (SVD and the improved total least squares-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (TLS-ESPRIT are combined as the basis of disturbance identification in this paper. SVD is applied to identify the catastrophe points of disturbance intervals, based on which the disturbance intervals are segmented. Then the improved TLS-ESPRIT optimized by singular value norm method is used to analyze each data segment, and extract the amplitude, frequency, attenuation coefficient and initial phase of various kinds of disturbances. Multi-group combined disturbance test signals are constructed by MATLAB and the proposed method is also tested by the measured data of IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES Database. The test results show that the new method proposed has a relatively higher accuracy than conventional TLS-ESPRIT, which could be used in the identification of measured data.

  7. 1992 statistical data on electricity consumption and generation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.

    1993-01-01

    The report provides data on monthly power consumption based on peak-day load profiles, power balance of electric system in peak hours of absolute maximal load and analysis of usability of different kinds of power plants in the country. The total energy production for all power plants for 1992 is 35555 ml kWh - 48.6 % TPP, 32.5% NPP, 5.8% HPP, 8.5% in-house TPP, 4.6 district heating PP. 14 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  8. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  9. Potential power density and power generation of wind parks. Share of regional wind power generation in consumption for a ''2% scenario''; Potenzielle Leistungsdichte und Stromerzeugung von Windparks. Anteil der regionalen Windstromerzeugung am Verbrauch fuer ein ''2 %-Szenario''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konetschny, Claudia; Schmid, Tobias; Jetter, Fabian [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Targets for wind energy use are given in different units. In addition to the number of plants, the power and the annual electricity generation, an information of a surface to be used for the use of wind power has become increasingly established. However, the relationships between area consumption, installed power and generated current are not approximately linear. On the basis of a small-scale modeling of the addition of wind energy installations using the wind resource tools WiSTl developed by the Research Center for Energy Economics (FfE), the article provides recommendations for the conversion of the area identified. In addition, the share of electricity generation based on a 2% scenario of power generation from wind power plants of the electricity consumption will be determined for each Federal State. [German] Ziele zur Windenergienutzung werden in verschiedenen Einheiten angegeben. Neben der Anzahl an Anlagen, der Leistung und der jaehrlichen Stromerzeugung hat sich zunehmend die Angabe einer fuer die Windkraftnutzung auszuweisenden Flaeche etabliert. Die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Flaechenverbrauch, installierter Leistung und erzeugter Strommenge sind jedoch nicht annaehernd linear. Anhand einer kleinteiligen Modeliierung des Zubaus von Windenergieanlagen mithilfe des von der Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) entwickelten Windszenario-Tools WiSTl gibt der Artikel Empfehlungen zur Umrechnung der ausgewiesenen Flaeche. Zusaetzlich wird basierend auf einem 2 %-Szenario der Anteil der Stromerzeugung aus Windenergieanlagen am Stromverbrauch je Bundesland bestimmt.

  10. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Development of technology for reducing power consumption during standby (Research and development of technologies for application of standby power reduction to domestic and office-automation appliances); 1999 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden oyobi OA kiki no taiki denryoku sakugen jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop power-efficient modules to be built into electrical products for reduction in power consumption in the standby state for domestic and office-automation appliances. In this study, television sets, audio sets, and air conditioners were selected out of domestic appliances and, out of office-automation appliances, notebook-size and desktop personal computers were selected. The standby power consumption is to be reduced to 3mW for domestic appliances, to 0.2W for notebook-size personal computers, and to 1/10-1/200 of the level being currently consumed in the case of desktop personal computers. For domestic appliances, a power efficient module not insulated from the AC power line was developed, to be built into a CPU-aided appliance to be turned on and off by remote control for the reduction of its standby power to 3mW. For notebook-size personal computers, a power-efficient power source insulated from the AC power line was developed, which consumes but 0.2W of standby power. It was built into a marketed notebook-size personal computer and tested for performance. For desktop personal computers, a 25mW power source insulated from the AC power line was fabricated, and tested for performance. (NEDO)

  11. Effect of Antihypertensive Therapy on SCORE-Estimated Total Cardiovascular Risk: Results from an Open-Label, Multinational Investigation—The POWER Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy De Backer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High blood pressure is a substantial risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Design & Methods. The Physicians' Observational Work on patient Education according to their vascular Risk (POWER survey was an open-label investigation of eprosartan-based therapy (EBT for control of high blood pressure in primary care centers in 16 countries. A prespecified element of this research was appraisal of the impact of EBT on estimated 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event as determined by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE model. Results. SCORE estimates of CVD risk were obtained at baseline from 12,718 patients in 15 countries (6504 men and from 9577 patients at 6 months. During EBT mean (±SD systolic/diastolic blood pressures declined from 160.2 ± 13.7/94.1 ± 9.1 mmHg to 134.5 ± 11.2/81.4 ± 7.4 mmHg. This was accompanied by a 38% reduction in mean SCORE-estimated CVD risk and an improvement in SCORE risk classification of one category or more in 3506 patients (36.6%. Conclusion. Experience in POWER affirms that (a effective pharmacological control of blood pressure is feasible in the primary care setting and is accompanied by a reduction in total CVD risk and (b the SCORE instrument is effective in this setting for the monitoring of total CVD risk.

  12. Effect of Antihypertensive Therapy on SCORE-Estimated Total Cardiovascular Risk: Results from an Open-Label, Multinational Investigation—The POWER Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Guy; Petrella, Robert J.; Goudev, Assen R.; Radaideh, Ghazi Ahmad; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Pathak, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure is a substantial risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Design & Methods. The Physicians' Observational Work on patient Education according to their vascular Risk (POWER) survey was an open-label investigation of eprosartan-based therapy (EBT) for control of high blood pressure in primary care centers in 16 countries. A prespecified element of this research was appraisal of the impact of EBT on estimated 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event as determined by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) model. Results. SCORE estimates of CVD risk were obtained at baseline from 12,718 patients in 15 countries (6504 men) and from 9577 patients at 6 months. During EBT mean (±SD) systolic/diastolic blood pressures declined from 160.2 ± 13.7/94.1 ± 9.1 mmHg to 134.5 ± 11.2/81.4 ± 7.4 mmHg. This was accompanied by a 38% reduction in mean SCORE-estimated CVD risk and an improvement in SCORE risk classification of one category or more in 3506 patients (36.6%). Conclusion. Experience in POWER affirms that (a) effective pharmacological control of blood pressure is feasible in the primary care setting and is accompanied by a reduction in total CVD risk and (b) the SCORE instrument is effective in this setting for the monitoring of total CVD risk. PMID:23997946

  13. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  14. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  15. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  16. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  17. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  18. Distributed Control of the Power Supply-Demand Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Gunn K. H.; van Foreest, Nicky D.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    This paper aims to achieve a balance of power in a group of prosumers, based on a price mechanism, i.e., to steer the difference between the total production and consumption of power to zero. We first set the information network topology such that the prosumers exchange price (power) information

  19. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  20. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  1. The industrial energy consumption in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The statistics present the industry's energy consumption and composition, and the development from 1973 to 2003. In this period the composition of the energy consumption has changed considerably: a decrease in the consumption of liquid fuels and an increase in the consumption of natural gas and electric power. The energy consumption in the Danish industry decreased with almost 9 % from 2001 to 2003. This relatively large decrease was mainly due to the closing down of a steel factory. In the wood industry the energy consumption decreased with 36 % from 2001 to 2003, while the energy consumption in the electronics industry increased. (ln)

  2. Influence of air temperature on electric consumption in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokoshchenko, Mikhail A.; Nikolayeva, Nataliya A.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time for mid latitudes and with the use of long-term data of Moscow State University Meteorological observatory a dependence of electric power consumption E on the air temperature T has been studied for each separate day for the period from 1990 to 2015 (totally - 9496 values). As a result, it is shown that the relation is in general decreasing in conditions of cold Moscow region: energy consumption as a rule reduces with a rise of the temperature. However, in time of severe frosts the energy consumption increasing goes to nothing due to special measures for energy savings whereas during heat wave episodes of extremely hot weather (especially in summer of 2010) an opposite tendency appears to the energy consumption increase with the increase of the air temperature due to additional consumption for the air conditioning. This relation between E and T is statistically significant with extremely high confidence probability (more than 0.999). The optimum temperature for the energy saving is 18 ˚C. The air temperature limit values in Moscow during last decades have been discussed. Daily-averaged T varied from -28.0 ˚C in January of 2006 to +31.4 ˚C in August of 2010 so a range of this parameter is almost 60 ˚C. Catastrophic heat wave in 2010 appeared as a secondary summer maximum of the electric consumption annual course. The relation between E and T for separate years demonstrates strong weekly periodicity at the dynamics of E daily values. As a result statistical distribution of E daily values for separate years is bimodal. One its mode is connected with working-days and another one - with non-work days (Saturday, Sunday and holidays) when consumption is much less. In recent time weekly cycle at the electric consumption became weaker due to total fall of industry in Moscow. In recent years the dependence of energy consumption on the air temperature generally became stronger - probably due to changes of its structure (growth of non-industrial users

  3. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  4. Feasibility of power contrast injections and bolus triggering during CT scans in oncologic patients with totally implantable venous access ports of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltz, Jan Peter; Machann, Wolfram; Noack, Claudia; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Background: Conventional totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are not approved for power contrast injections but often remain the only venous access site in oncologic patients. Therefore, these devices can play an important role if patients with a TIVAP are scheduled for a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) as vascular access may become more difficult during the course of chemotherapy. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of power injections in conventional TIVAPs in the forearm and to analyze the feasibility of bolus triggering during CT scans. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed 177 power injections in 141 patients with TIVAPs in the forearm. Between October 2008 and March 2010 all patients underwent power injections (1.5 mL/s, 150 psi) via the TIVAP for ceCT because conventional vascular access via a peripheral vein had failed. Adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection were evaluated. Peak injection pressure and attenuation levels of aorta, liver and spleen were analyzed and compared with results of 50 patients who were injected via classical peripheral cannulas (3 mL/s, 300 psi). Feasibility of automatic scan initiation was evaluated. In vitro the port was stressed with 5 mL/s (300 psi). Results: One TIVAP showed tip dislocation with catheter rupture. Three (2.1%) devices were explanted owing to assumed infection within 4 weeks after the injection. Mean injection pressure was 121.9 ±24.1 psi. Triggering with automatic scan initiation succeeded in 13/44 (29.6%) scans. Injection via classical cannulas resulted in significantly higher enhancement (p < 0.05). In vitro the port system tolerated flow rates of up to 5 mL/s, injection pressures of up to 338 psi. Conclusion: Power injection is a safe alternative for patients with TIVAPs in the forearm if classic vascular access ultimately fails. Triggering was successful in one-third of the attempts. Image quality in the arterial phase

  5. Research on the power consumption of the biological stages of wastewater treatment plant; Untersuchung ueber den Stromverbrauch biologischer Reinigungsverfahren auf Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, S.; Sigel, O.

    2006-07-01

    The largest electricity consumption in municipal sewage treatment plants occurs during biological treatment. This fact has been the motivation for a closer look at the electricity consumption of three biological treatment processes that will be applied more frequently in the future. The wastewater treatment plants in Lyss (Fixed Bed Biological Reactor), Wohlen (Moving Bed Biological Reactor), and Waedenswil (Membrane Biological Reactor submerged in an activated sludge process) provided the basis for this analysis, which was done both in absolute terms as well as in relation to each plant's loading. The specific energy consumption of the Fixed Bed Reactor, averaging 20 - 25 kWh/p.e. per annum (p.e. = person equivalent), is comparable to the one of a conventional activated sludge process (benchmark/standard value = 23 kWh/p.e. per annum; optimal value 18 kWh/p.e. per annum). The Moving Bed Reactor uses less than 30 kWh/p.e per annum when working at or close to full capacity, and more than 40 kWh/p.e. per annum at low fill. The Membrane Biological Reactor submerged in an activated sludge process shows the highest specific energy consumption values (> 40 kWh/p.e. per annum). In order to be able to run the biological treatment at optimal electricity consumption levels, the plants should be designed in such a way as to automatically run on partial or intermittent mode in times of low waste load. Further implementation of these new biological purification processes will lead to an increase in electricity consumption unless the significant energy savings potential wastewater treatment plants still offer is tapped. In order to be able to exploit this potential, electricity consumption has to be considered as of equal relevance as treated effluent quality. (author)

  6. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  7. Prediction of electric power consumption in the Petrolina city, PE-Brazil; Previsao de consumo de energia eletrica na cidade de Petrolina - PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Alexandre Alex Silva e; Santos, Eucymara Franca Nunes [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This article presents mathematical equations as a way to forecast electricity consumption using the statistical method of multiple linear regression. The equations are presented using the model of least squares method for determining the regression coefficients, and respecting the division of industrial and residential customer classes in the city of Petrolina (PE). This article has the objective of providing companies and individuals who work in the areas of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the region a forecasting tool that ensures a reliable level projections of energy consumption, ensuring the necessary supply of energy, aiming to avoid situations such as occurred in Brazil in mid 2000 and 2001 from energy rationing. Then the paper has a significant relevance because there are not many works in this area of knowledge that address the interests of the region. At the end we present reliable methods derived from multiple linear regression equations, which guarantee a correct forecast of electricity consumption (author)

  8. Reduction in the specific consumption of heat by the thermal circuit, achieved by rationalization of the steam turbine condensation at nuclear power plants of the WWER-440 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacek, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific consumption of heat needed for the production of a net electricity unit is a criterion for assessing the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy in the steam turbine. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses, a way of evaluating the specific heat consumption is demonstrated for the thermal circuit of the steam-engine equipment with one turbogenerator. The dependence of the specific heat consumption on the steam condensation temperature and on the amount of cooling water flowing through the condenser is calculated, as is the dependence of the limiting pressure on the relative loss of vacuum of the condenser and on the cooling water temperature. Such dependences can be used to upgrade the thermal circuit condensation regime. (M.D.). 2 figs., 12 refs

  9. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  10. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  11. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption

  12. Global implications of standby power use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  13. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  14. Electric power consumption and GDP in Brazil: a cointegration analysis; Consumo de energia eletrica e PIB no Brasil: uma analise de cointegracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bruno Goncalves da; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], emails: brunosilva@usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    There are many studies aimed at estimating the long-run relationship between GDP and energy. The main objective of this paper is to analyze this relationship for Brazil, taking as a starting point to other studies already done with cointegration methodology to other countries of the world, in order to determine how the Brazilian domestic product is related to energy consumption country.

  15. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  16. The search of the best mode of the reserve power supply consumption during the nuclear reactor’s emergency shutdown procedures in case of force majeure circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebaev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of the control mode choice for a power supply system in case of force majeure circumstances. It is not known precisely, when a force majeure incident occurs, but the threatened period is given, when the incident is expected. It is supposed, that force majeure circumstances force nuclear reactor shutdown at the moment of threat coming. In this article the power supply system is considered, which consists of a nuclear reactor and a reserve power supply, for example, a hydroelectric pumped storage power station. The reserve power supply has limited capacity and it doesn’t undergo the threatened incident. The problem of the search of the best reserve supply time-distribution in case of force majeure circumstances is stated. The search is performed according to minimization of power loss and damage to the infrastructure. The software has been developed, which performs automatic numerical search of the approximate optimal control modes for the reserve power supply.

  17. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  18. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  19. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 of New Sunshine Project. Development of superconductor power applied technologies. Research on total system; 1999 nendo chodendo denryoku oyo gijutsu kaihatsu gyomu seika hokokusho. Total system nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To deal effectively with problems being actualized in electric power systems, it is necessary to introduce superconductor technologies into power devices, and achieve higher efficiency, density and stability in the power systems. To achieve the goal, development is being made on superconductor power applied technologies, whereas investigative researches are given on the effects of introducing the superconductor power applied devices to proceed the development effectively and smoothly. This project is also given evaluations on its research achievements. In the practical application of superconductor generators, all of the verification tests have been completed, with the model generator system linkage test as the final test. Design and fabrication technologies were established on a 200,000-kW class pilot generator after having gone through analyses made after the tests. Not only having achieved the initial technical value targets, the result presented reliability required for practical use of the superconductor generator, having exceeded the expectation. The research and development of the superconductor generator technologies under this project is concluded successful. The AC superconductor devices were developed by effectively utilizing the results of the leading researches on fundamental technologies for AC superconductor power device technologies as well as other results of the world's highest levels. (NEDO)