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Sample records for total postprandial metabolic

  1. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

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    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both Pobese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health.

  2. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

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    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  3. Postprandial Monocyte Activation in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

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    Khan, Ilvira M.; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Dadu, Razvan T.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Wu, Huaizhu

    2016-01-01

    Context: Postprandial hyperlipidemia has been suggested to contribute to atherogenesis by inducing proinflammatory changes in monocytes. Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS), shown to have higher blood triglyceride concentration and delayed triglyceride clearance, may thus have increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective: Our objective was to examine fasting levels and effects of a high-fat meal on phenotypes of monocyte subsets in individuals with obesity and MS and in healthy controls. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention: Individuals with obesity and MS and gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Blood was collected from participants after an overnight fast (baseline) and at 3 and 5 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. At each time point, monocyte phenotypes were examined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels of activation markers and postprandial inflammatory response in each of the three monocyte subsets were measured. Results: At baseline, individuals with obesity and MS had higher proportions of circulating lipid-laden foamy monocytes than controls, which were positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels. Additionally, the MS group had increased counts of nonclassical monocytes, higher CD11c, CX3CR1, and human leukocyte antigen-DR levels on intermediate monocytes, and higher CCR5 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels on classical monocytes in the circulation. Postprandial triglyceride increases in both groups were paralleled by upregulation of lipid-laden foamy monocytes. MS, but not control, subjects had significant postprandial increases of CD11c and percentages of IL-1β+ and tumor necrosis factor-α+ cells in nonclassical monocytes. Conclusions: Compared to controls, individuals with obesity and MS had increased fasting and postprandial monocyte lipid accumulation and activation. PMID:27575945

  4. Dietary fatty acids linking postprandial metabolic response and chronic diseases.

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    Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are by far one of the main causes of mortality in the world. One of the current global recommendations to counteract disability and premature death resulting from chronic diseases is to decrease the consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets, particularly those rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). The most effective replacement for SFA in terms of risk factor outcomes for chronic disease are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The biochemical basis for healthy benefits of such a dietary pattern has been widely evaluated under fasting conditions. However, the increasing amount of data available from multiple studies suggest that the postprandial state, i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal", plays an important, yet underappreciated, role in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. In this review, the potential of MUFA, PUFA, and SFA to postprandially affect selected metabolic abnormalities related to chronic diseases is discussed.

  5. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

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    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  6. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

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    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  7. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

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    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Effects of a diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates on postprandial metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome.

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    Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Gregersen, Søren; Hald, Stine; Bjørnshave, Ann; Bohl, Mette; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2018-03-01

    Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD). Nineteen subjects completed the randomised, crossover study with HCD and WCD for 4-week. Postprandial metabolism was evaluated by a meal-challenge test and insulin sensitivity was assessed by HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Furthermore, fasting cholesterols, serum-fructosamine, circulating inflammatory markers, ambulatory blood pressure and intrahepatic lipid content were measured. We found no diet effects on postprandial lipaemia. However, there was a significant diet × statin interaction on total cholesterol (P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.002). HCD decreased total cholesterol (-0.72 mmol/l, 95% CI (-1.29; -0.14) P = 0.03) and LDL cholesterol (-0.61 mmol/l, 95% CI (-0.86; -0.36) P = 0.002) compared with WSD in subjects on but not without statin treatment. We detected no other significant diet effects. In subjects with metabolic syndrome on statins a 4-week diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch improved fasting LDL and total cholesterol compared to subjects not being on statins. However, we observed no diet related impact on postprandial lipaemia or features of the metabolic syndrome. The dietary fibre x statin interaction deserves further elucidation.

  9. Consistency of metabolic responses and appetite sensations under postabsorptive and postprandial conditions.

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    Gonzalez, Javier T; Veasey, Rachel C; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J

    2012-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the reliability of metabolic and subjective appetite responses under fasted conditions and following consumption of a cereal-based breakfast. Twelve healthy, physically active males completed two postabsorption (PA) and two postprandial (PP) trials in a randomised order. In PP trials a cereal based breakfast providing 1859 kJ of energy was consumed. Expired gas samples were used to estimate energy expenditure and fat oxidation and 100mm visual analogue scales were used to determine appetite sensations at baseline and every 30 min for 120 min. Reliability was assessed using limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass coefficient of correlation and 95% confidence limits of typical error. The limits of agreement and typical error were 292.0 and 105.5 kJ for total energy expenditure, 9.3 and 3.4 g for total fat oxidation and 22.9 and 8.3mm for time-averaged AUC for hunger sensations, respectively over the 120 min period in the PP trial. The reliability of energy expenditure and appetite in the 2h response to a cereal-based breakfast would suggest that an intervention requires a 211 kJ and 16.6mm difference in total postprandial energy expenditure and time-averaged hunger AUC to be meaningful, fat oxidation would require a 6.7 g difference which may not be sensitive to most meal manipulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypertriglyceridemia influences the degree of postprandial lipemic response in patients with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease: from the CORDIOPREV study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Alcala-Diaz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolic syndrome traits influence the postprandial lipemia response of coronary patients, and whether this influence depends on the number of MetS criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1002 coronary artery disease patients from the CORDIOPREV study were submitted to an oral fat load test meal with 0.7 g fat/kg body weight (12% saturated fatty acids, 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 43% monounsaturated fatty acids, 10% protein and 25% carbohydrates. Serial blood test analyzing lipid fractions were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours during the postprandial state. Total and incremental area under the curves of the different postprandial parameters were calculated following the trapezoid rule to assess the magnitude of change during the postprandial state. RESULTS: Postprandial lipemia response was directly related to the presence of metabolic syndrome. We found a positive association between the number of metabolic syndrome criteria and the response of postprandial plasma triglycerides (p<0.001, area under the curve of triglycerides (p<0.001 and incremental area under the curve of triglycerides (p<0.001. However, the influence of them on postprandial triglycerides remained statistically significant only in those patients without basal hypertriglyceridemia. Interestingly, in stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with the AUC of triglycerides as the dependent variable, only fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose and waist circumference appeared as significant independent (P<0.05 contributors. The multiple lineal regression (R was 0.77, and fasting triglycerides showed the greatest effect on AUC of triglycerides with a standardized coefficient of 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting triglycerides are the major contributors to the postprandial triglycerides levels. MetS influences the postprandial response of lipids in patients with coronary heart disease, particularly in non-hypertriglyceridemic patients.

  11. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    -rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum......Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat...

  12. Olive oil and postprandial hyperlipidemia: implications for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

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    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-12-07

    Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with a significant improvement in health status, as measured by reduced mortality from several chronic diseases. The current pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is intimately associated with an atherogenic dyslipidemic phenotype. The core components of the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome, which most likely initiate atherosclerosis, are the "lipid triad" consisting of high plasma triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoproteins, and a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins at fasting. However, postprandial (non-fasting) TGs (postprandial hyperlipidemia) are also recognized as an important component for atherosclerosis. Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on the effects and mechanisms related to olive oil on postprandial hyperlipidemia and its implications for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

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    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Pcurve (AUC) and incremental AUC (P ≤0.016) for the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Pglucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of acute exercise with and without carbohydrate replacement on postprandial lipid metabolism.

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    Harrison, Michael; O'Gorman, Donal J; McCaffrey, Noel; Hamilton, Marc T; Zderic, Theodore W; Carson, Brian P; Moyna, Niall M

    2009-03-01

    Acute exercise, undertaken on the day before an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT), typically reduces postprandial triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the benefits of acute exercise may be overstated when studies do not account for compensatory changes in dietary intake. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute exercise, with and without carbohydrate (CHO) replacement, on postprandial lipid metabolism. Eight recreationally active young men underwent an OFTT on the morning after three experimental conditions: no exercise [control (Con)], prolonged exercise without CHO replacement (Ex-Def) and prolonged exercise with CHO replacement to restore CHO and energy balance (Ex-Bal). The exercise session in Ex-Def and Ex-Bal consisted of 90 min cycle ergometry at 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)) followed by 10 maximal 1-min sprints. CHO replacement was achieved using glucose solutions consumed at 0, 2, and 4 h postexercise. Muscle glycogen was 40 +/- 4% (P Con values on the morning of the Ex-Def and Ex-Bal OFTT, respectively. Postprandial TG were 40 +/- 14% lower and postprandial HDL-C, free fatty acids, and 3-hydroxybutyrate were higher in Ex-Def compared with Con (P < 0.05). Most importantly, these exercise effects were not evident in Ex-Bal. Postprandial insulin and glucose and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were not significantly different across trials. There was no relation between the changes in postprandial TG and muscle glycogen across trials. In conclusion, the influence of acute exhaustive exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism is largely dependent on the associated CHO and energy deficit.

  15. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

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    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  16. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W. J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with

  17. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

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    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  18. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Ridder, de Rogier J.J.; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms

  19. The effect of statin alone or in combination with ezetimibe on postprandial lipoprotein composition in obese metabolic syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, Gideon R.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; van Vark-van der Zee, Leonie C.; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are essential features of metabolic syndrome. Statins decrease fasting lipid levels but fail to reduce fat load induced hypertriglyceridemia. We established whether ezetimibe combined with simvastatin differently influences post fat load

  20. Perceptual and Brain Response to Odors Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Postprandial Total Ghrelin Reactivity to a Meal.

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    Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that olfactory sensitivity is greater when fasted than when fed. However, human research has generated inconsistent results. One possible explanation for these conflicting findings is metabolic health. Many metabolic peptides, including ghrelin, are moderated by adiposity and influence olfaction and olfactory-guided behaviors. We tested whether the effect of a meal on the perceived intensity of suprathreshold chemosensory stimuli is influenced by body mass index and/or metabolic response to a meal. We found that overweight or obese (n = 13), but not healthy weight (n = 20) subjects perceived odors, but not flavored solutions, as more intense when hungry than when sated. This effect was correlated with reduced postprandial total ghrelin suppression (n = 23) and differential brain response to odors in the cerebellum, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, it was unrelated to circulating leptin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or free fatty acids; or to odor pleasantness or sniffing (n = 24). These findings demonstrate that the effect of a meal on suprathreshold odor intensity perception is associated with metabolic measures such as body weight and total ghrelin reactivity, supporting endocrine influences on olfactory perception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effects of sex, metabolic syndrome and exercise on postprandial lipemia.

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    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sharp, Teresa A; Stotz, Sarah A; Bessesen, Daniel H; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Horton, Tracy J

    2013-02-01

    Exercise has been suggested to have cardioprotective benefits due to a lowering of postprandial triglycerides (PPTG). We hypothesized that a morning exercise bout would significantly lower PPTG measured over a full day, in response to moderate fat meals (35% energy) in men more so than women, and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) relative to normal weight (NW) individuals. Participants completed two randomized study days; one control and one exercise day (60 min of morning exercise, 60% VO(2peak)). Meals were consumed at breakfast, lunch and dinner with the energy expended during exercise replaced on the active day. The areas (AUC) and incremental areas (IAUC) under the curve were calculated for total triglycerides, total cholesterol and other metabolites. Exercise did not significantly change the PPTG AUC & IAUC overall, or within, or between, each sex or group (NW and MetS). Exercise induced a 30% decrease in total cholesterol IAUC (p=0.003) in NW subjects. Overall, women had a lower IAUC for PPTG compared to men (p=0.037), with the greatest difference between MetS women and MetS men, due to a sustained drop in TG after lunch in the women. This suggests that PP, rather than fasting, lipid analyses may be particularly important when evaluating sex differences in metabolic risk. With energy replacement, moderate morning exercise did not result in a significant decrease in PPTG excursions. Exercise did elicit a significant decrease in PP cholesterol levels in NW subjects, suggesting a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers.

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    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger; Faurschou, Annesofie; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect on postprandial glucose metabolism and, thus, potentially constitute a link between smoking and the development of type 2 diabetes. We subjected 11 male heavy smokers to two identical 4-h liquid mixed-meal tests: one with concomitant cigarette smoking (immediately before and after meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before and after the meal significantly reduced postprandial plasma glucose excursions. There were no differences in gut or pancreatic hormone concentrations between the test days in the smoking group, and the responses were similar to those in the control group. Our results suggest that smoking in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in chronic smokers. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Postprandial metabolic profiles following meals and snacks eaten during simulated night and day shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, S; Hampton, S M; Richard, P; Tzung, C; Morgan, L M

    2004-01-01

    Shift workers are known to have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with day workers. An important factor contributing to this increased risk could be the increased incidence of postprandial metabolic risk factors for CVD among shift workers, as a consequence of the maladaptation of endogenous circadian rhythms to abrupt changes in shift times. We have previously shown that both simulated and real shift workers showed relatively impaired glucose and lipid tolerance if a single test meal was consumed between 00:00-02:00 h (night shift) compared with 12:00-14:00 h (day shift). The objective of the present study was to extend these observations to compare the cumulative metabolic effect of consecutive snacks/meals, as might normally be consumed throughout a period of night or day shift work. In a randomized crossover study, eight healthy nonobese men (20-33 yrs, BMI 20-25kg/m2) consumed a combination of two meals and a snack on two occasions following a standardized prestudy meal, simulating night and day shift working (total energy 2500 kcal: 40% fat, 50% carbohydrate, 10% protein). Meals were consumed at 01:00/ 13:00 h and 07:00/19:00h, and the snack at 04:00/16:00 h. Blood was taken after an overnight fast, and for 8 h following the first meal on each occasion, for the measurement of glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). RM-ANOVA (factors time and shift) showed a significant effect of shift for plasma TAG, with higher levels on simulated night compared to day shift (p effect of shift for plasma glucose, with higher plasma glucose at night (p = 0.08), and there was a time-shift interaction for plasma insulin levels (p shift. Inspection of the area under the plasma response curve (AUC) following each meal and snack revealed that the differences in lipid tolerance occurred throughout the study, with greatest differences occurring following the mid-shift snack. In contrast, glucose tolerance was

  4. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  5. Effects of amount and type of dietary fats on postprandial lipemia and thrombogenic markers in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Chee-Yan; Kanthimathi, M S; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2015-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been reported to affect endothelial function by thrombogenic and inflammatory pathways. We set out to investigate the impact of a) specific amount (50 g vs 20 g fat), and b) type of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, MUFA, PUFA) on postprandial lipemia, thrombogenic and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome subjects. 30 subjects (15 men, 15 women) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover design study with both the subjects and investigators blinded to treatments. Blood samples were collected at fasting and 30 min, hourly interval for a total of 6 h. As expected, lower triacylglycerol response was observed for low fat/high carbohydrate meal; whereas no difference was detected between the types of fatty acids. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for low fat/high carbohydrate meal was 70%, 81% and 61% lower than the SFA, MUFA and PUFA meals, respectively. The iAUC 0-6 h for triacylglycerol was 42% lower in women compared with the men (P = 0.024), with the similar trend observed for non-esterified fatty acids. There were significant meal × time interaction (P = 0.000) for plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thromboxane B2 (P = 0.022) from baseline. No differences were observed between meals for plasma D-dimer, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. These data indicate that in metabolic syndrome subjects, only the amount of dietary fatty acids affects postprandial lipemia but both amount and type of dietary fats alter thrombogenic factors. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01571947). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-04-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  7. Effect of Miglitol, an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    KANEKO Yukiyo; KUBOKI Koji; HIROI Naoki; WATANABE Takehiko; NISHIMURA Chiaki; YOSHINO Gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effects of miglitol on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet alone. Subjects and Methods: A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed in 26 diabetic patients before and 2 weeks after 150 mg/day miglitol treatment, with the second MTT performed in patients after they had taken a dose of 50 mg miglitol. Results: Miglitol treatment decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels 30...

  8. The effect of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Igor; Booth, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the energy expended on the physiological processes associated with meal digestion and is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the meal and the body weight (BW) and temperature of the organism. This study assessed the effects of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate (RMR) and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus. RMR and SDA were established at 3 temperatures (14, 20 and 26 degrees C). 5 size classes of mulloway ranging from 60 g to 1.14 kg were used to establish RMR with 3 of the 5 size classes (60, 120 and 240 g) used to establish SDA. The effect of body size on the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) varied significantly depending on the temperature; there was a greater relative increase in the mass-specific RMR for smaller mulloway with increasing temperature. No statistical differences were found between the mass exponent (b) values at each temperature when tested against H(0): b=0.8. The gross RMR of mulloway (mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) can be described as function of temperature (T; 14-26 degrees C) as: (0.0195T-0.0454)BW(g)(0.8) and the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) can be described as: (21.042T-74.867)BW(g)(-0.2). Both SDA duration and time to peak SDA were influenced by temperature and body weight; SDA duration occurred within 41-89 h and peak time occurred within 17-38 h of feeding. The effect of body size on peak metabolic rate varied significantly depending on temperature, generally increasing with temperature and decreasing with increasing body size. Peak gross oxygen consumption (MO(2): mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) scaled allometrically with BW. Temperature, but not body size, significantly affected SDA scope, although the difference was numerically small. There was a trend for MO(2) above RMR over the SDA period to increase with temperature; however, this was not statistically significant. The average proportion of energy expended over the SDA period

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, Maria E; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol A; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen; Malagon, Maria M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to ascertain whether the quality and quantity of fat in the diet may influence the ER stress at the postprandial state in adipose tissue by analyzing the gene expression of chaperones, folding enzymes, and activators of the UPR. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 MetS patients to one of four diets: high-SFA (HSFA; 38% energy (E) from fat, 16% E as SFA), high MUFA (HMUFA; 38% E from fat, 20% E as MUFA), and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC; 28% E from fat) diets supplemented with 1.24 g/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA or placebo for 12 wk each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post intervention. sXBP-1 is induced in the postprandial state irrespective of the diet consumed (p diets HMUFA (p = 0.006), LFHCC (p = 0.028), and LFHCC n-3 (p = 0.028). Postprandial mRNA expression levels of CRL, CNX, PDIA3, and GSTP1 in AT did not differ between the different types of diets. Our results suggest that upregulation of the unfolded protein response at the postprandial state may represent an adaptive mechanism to counteract diet-induced stress. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mixed model of dietary fat effect on postprandial glucose-insulin metabolism from carbohydrates in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia; Kunikane, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Shogo; Furutani, Eiko

    2015-08-01

    In this study we introduce an extension of a previously developed model of glucose-insulin metabolism in type 1 diabetes (T1D) from carbohydrates that includes the effect of dietary fat on postprandial glycemia. We include two compartments that represent plasma triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration, in addition to a mathematical representation of delayed gastric emptying and insulin resistance, which are the most well-known effects of dietary fat metabolism. Simulation results show that postprandial glucose as well as lipid levels in our model approximates clinical data from T1D patients.

  11. Cross-linking of sodium caseinate-structured emulsion with transglutaminase alters postprandial metabolic and appetite responses in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Macierzanka, Adam; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mäkelä, Kari A; Mills, Clare E N; Mackie, Alan R; Malcolm, Paul; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2015-08-14

    The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26.5 (sem 6.9) years and BMI 21.9 (sem 2.0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0.05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.

  12. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients: comparison of apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio with fasting and postprandial conventional lipid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Diaf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The incidence of diabetes co-morbidities could probably be better assessed by studying its associations with major corpulence parameters and glycaemic control indicators. We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from 238 type 2 diabetic patients aged 57.4±11.9 years. The sera were analysed for glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, and apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB. Ratios of lipids and apolipoproteins were calculated and their associations with BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels were analysed. Results: Our investigation showed increases in most fasting and postprandial lipid parameters according to BMI and WC. In men, postprandial HDL-c and TG levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 in overweight and obese patients, respectively, as well as in patients with abdominal obesity. Contrariwise, postprandial TC levels were significantly higher (p<0.01 in overweight and abdominal obese women. However, elevations of apoA-I and apoB levels were according to BMI and WC in both genders. There was a strong influence of BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels on the apoB/apoA-I ratio compared to traditional fasting and postprandial lipid ratios in both men and women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women. Conclusion: The apoB/apoA-I ratio is helpful in assessing metabolic risk caused by overall obesity, abdominal obesity and impaired glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients.

  14. Effects of a diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates on postprandial metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Gregersen, Søren; Hald, Stine

    2017-01-01

    , crossover study with HCD and WCD for 4-week. Postprandial metabolism was evaluated by a meal-challenge test and insulin sensitivity was assessed by HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Furthermore, fasting cholesterols, serum-fructosamine, circulating inflammatory markers, ambulatory blood pressure and intrahepatic...

  15. Acute and chronic effects of sprint interval exercise on postprandial lipemia in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Acitelli, Rachelle M; McConnell, Whitni J; Beck, Catherine D; Hausman, Dorothy B; Murrow, Jonathan R; Cureton, Kirk J; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL). The aims of this investigation were to determine 1) if an acute bout of sprint interval training (SIT) attenuates PPL; and 2) if the attenuation of PPL following 6 wk of SIT is magnified compared with a single session of SIT prior to training in women at-risk for MetS (n = 45; 30-65 yr). Women were randomized to SIT (n = 22) or a nonexercise control (n = 23; CON) for 6 wk. Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal challenge (HFMC) were assessed in the CON group before (B-HFMC) and after (Post-HFMC) without prior exercise and in the SIT group at baseline (B-HFMC) without prior exercise, after an acute bout of SIT (four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min recovery) prior to (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC). Responses to the HFMC were assessed by collecting venous blood samples in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. Compared with baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted TG (P exercise to reduce fasted and postprandial TG concentrations in women at-risk for MetS. Six weeks of SIT does not magnify the attenuation of PPL in response to a single session of SIT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Manafikhi, Husseen; Reggi, Raffaella; Longhitano, Yaroslava; Zanza, Christian; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR), a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S) or with control cookies (HFHCM-C). Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides) and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes' count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  17. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR, a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S or with control cookies (HFHCM-C. Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes’ count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations.

  18. Posthemorrhage glycogen and lactate metabolism in the liver: an experimental study with postprandial rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boija, P.O.; Nylander, G.; Suhaili, A.; Ware, J.

    1988-01-01

    Glycogen and lactate metabolism was studied in livers from three groups of postprandial rats sustaining 70 mm Hg hemorrhagic hypotension for variable periods, 60 min (60H group), 120 min (120H group), and nonbled controls. The donor livers were investigated after completed hemorrhage using an in vitro perfusion system with L-lactate as substrate, together with U- 14 C-lactate. The residual glycogen stores were determined after perfusions. The incorporation of labelled lactate to glucose was increased in the 120H group by 66.7% and 116.8% compared to the 60H group and controls (p less than 0.01), but glycogenolysis was still the main source of glucose released in the 120H group. Glycogen formation from labelled lactate was 46.6% higher in the 120H group compared to controls (p less than 0.05) and lactate oxidation was decreased by 67.5% (p less than 0.05). The data suggest that hepatocytes are capable of rapid change from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis during hemorrhagic hypovolemia. However, energy-sparing glycogen breakdown is given priority over gluconeogenesis as long as glycogen remains available

  19. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  20. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    and glucose responses. DESIGN: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 +/- 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.0 +/- 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high......BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...

  1. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several...

  2. The effects of body temperature and mass on the postprandial metabolic responses of the African egg-eating snakes Dasypeltis scabra and Dasypeltis inornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sara; McConnachie, Suzanne; Secor, Stephen; Perrin, Mike

    2013-06-01

    African egg-eating snakes (Dasypeltis) feed only on freshly laid bird eggs which they perforate within their esophagus before swallowing the liquid contents and regurgitating the empty shell. Compared to a snake's typical intact meal, the liquid diet of Dasypeltis would expectedly generate a more moderate postprandial metabolic response and specific dynamic action (SDA). Free-ranging Dasypeltis feed over a range of ambient temperatures and thereby experience predicted temperature-dependent shifts in the duration and magnitude of their postprandial metabolic response. Such shifts would undoubtedly be shared among different species and age classes of Dasypeltis. To examine these expectations, we measured pre- and postprandial metabolic rates of adult Dasypeltis inornata and adult and neonate Dasypeltis scabra in response to liquid egg meals weighing 20% of snake body mass at 20, 25, 27, 30, and 32 °C. With an increase in body temperature, postprandial metabolic profiles of neonate and adult snakes became narrower and shorter in duration. Specific dynamic action varied among temperature treatments, increasing from 20 to 32 °C. Standard metabolic rate, postprandial peak metabolic rate, and SDA scaled with mass exponents that typically did not differ from 1.0. As expected, Dasypeltis digesting a liquid egg diet experienced a more modest postprandial response and SDA, expending on average only 10.6% of the meal's energy on the breakdown, absorption, and assimilation of the egg meal, whereas other colubrids consuming intact rodent or fish meals expend on average 16.3% of the meal's energy on digestion and assimilation. Actively foraging and feeding throughout the avian egg laying season enable Dasypeltis to survive when eggs are not available. The adaptive suite of traits that enable Dasypeltis to consume eggs of large relative size and ingest only the liquid contents may also be joined by physiological adaptations specific to their liquid diet and extended bouts of

  3. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  4. Impaired postprandial fullness in Type 2 diabetic subjects is rescued by acute exercise independently of total and acylated ghrelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin levels are suppressed in obese subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise-stimulated decreases in plasma ghrelin are a proposed mediator of exercise-induced satiety in healthy subjects. However, exercise-induced satiety and the impact of impaired ghrelin levels...... in obesity-related disease are poorly understood. Therefore our objective was to investigate exercise-induced postprandial satiety and ghrelin responses in overweight subjects with T2DM (N = 8) and healthy controls (N = 7). Visual analog scale satiety questionnaires (assessing hunger, thirst, food that could...... be eaten, nausea, and fullness) and circulating levels of glucose, insulin, and total and acylated ghrelin were measured at baseline and in response to a 75 g oral glucose load, provided immediately after an aerobic exercise bout (1 h at 50% Wmax) or no exercise (rest trial), on two separate occasions...

  5. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  6. Postprandial changes in glucose oxidation and insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome: Influence of fibroblast growth factor 21 and vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Kaveri; Soares, Mario J; Zhao, Yun; James, Anthony P; Sherriff, Jillian L; Newsholme, Philip

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic inflexibility due to insulin resistance has been reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and vitamin D status may improve insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate glucose-induced thermogenesis and oxidation in MetS, and to examine whether changes in FGF21 or prevailing vitamin D status modulated defined metabolic parameters. Forty-eight overweight and obese older adults (14 men, 34 women; ages 51 ± 15 y) were studied. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured before and intermittently for 2 h after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The total area under the curve (TAUC) was calculated. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was determined as 10 4 /(insulin × glucose) for fasting and 2 h venous blood. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Participants were grouped by metabolic syndrome (MetS+ for disease presence; MetS- when no disease was present) and by median 25 hydroxyvitamin D (OHD) concentration as VD_low and VD_high. 25 OHD was also tested as a continuous variable. A parsimonious 2 × 2 analysis of variance included age, FM, FFM and MetS × sex interaction. Adjusted RMR was similar between groups but an interactive effect of MetS and sex was noted. Fasting RQ was significantly different between vitamin groups (VD_low: 0.835 ± 0.008 versus VD_high: 0.810 ± 0.008; P = 0.024) and fasting ISI was significantly greater in MetS- compared with MetS+ (P = 0.037). Postglucose increases in thermogenesis, RQ, and FGF21 were significant, but ISI decreased. Adjusted postprandial TAUC_RQ (VD_low: 1.71 ± 0.01; VD_high: 1.74 ± 0.001; P = 0.041) and ISI_2 h (VD_low: 35.41 ± 0.21; VD_high: 101.90 ± 0.21; P = 0.001) were significantly different. Adjusted FGF21 was similar across all comparisons before and after OGTT. Higher vitamin D status, but not FGF21, was associated with greater postprandial

  7. Effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, and postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-he; Ye, Chao-xia; Ye, Ji-dan; Shen, Bi-duan; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, An-li

    2014-10-01

    The effect of dietary amylose/amylopectin (AM/AP) ratio on growth, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, plasma parameters, and postprandial blood glucose responses was evaluated in juvenile obscure puffer, Takifugu obscurus. Five isonitrogenous (430 g kg(-1) crude protein) and isolipidic (90 g kg(-1) crude lipid) diets containing an equal starch level (250 g kg(-1) starch) with different AM/AP ratio diets of 0/25, 3/22, 6/19, 9/16 and 12/13 were formulated. Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups (25 fish per tank), twice daily during a period of 60 days. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood response test was carried out. Fish fed diet 6/19 showed best growth, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Hepatosomatic index, plasma total cholesterol concentration, liver glycogen and lipid content, and gluconokinase, pyruvate kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities were lower in fish fed highest AM/AP diet (12/13) than in fish fed the low-amylose diets. Activities of liver and intestinal trypsin in fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 were higher than in fish fed diet 9/16 and diet 12/13. Activities of liver and intestinal amylase and intestinal lipase, and starch digestibility were negatively correlated with dietary AM/AP ratio. Fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 showed higher plasma total amino acid concentration than fish fed the other diets, while plasma urea nitrogen concentration and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase showed the opposite trend. Equal values were found for viscerosomatic index and condition factor, whole body and muscle composition, plasma high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and activities of lipase and hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Postprandial plasma glucose and triglyceride peak value of fish fed diet 12/13 were lower than in fish fed the low-amylose diets, and the peak time of plasma glucose was later than in fish fed the

  8. Estimation of the Relative Contribution of Postprandial Glucose Exposure to Average Total Glucose Exposure in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ahrén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the relative contribution of fasting plasma glucose (FPG versus postprandial plasma glucose (PPG to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c could be calculated using an algorithm developed by the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG study group to make HbA1c values more clinically relevant to patients. The algorithm estimates average glucose (eAG exposure, which can be used to calculate apparent PPG (aPPG by subtracting FPG. The hypothesis was tested in a large dataset (comprising 17 studies from the vildagliptin clinical trial programme. We found that 24 weeks of treatment with vildagliptin monotherapy (n=2523 reduced the relative contribution of aPPG to eAG from 8.12% to 2.95% (by 64%, p<0.001. In contrast, when vildagliptin was added to metformin (n=2752, the relative contribution of aPPG to eAG insignificantly increased from 1.59% to 2.56%. In conclusion, glucose peaks, which are often prominent in patients with type 2 diabetes, provide a small contribution to the total glucose exposure assessed by HbA1c, and the ADAG algorithm is not robust enough to assess this small relative contribution in patients receiving combination therapy.

  9. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with [14C]glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

  10. Post-prandial metabolic alkalosis in the seawater-acclimated trout: the alkaline tide comes in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2009-07-01

    The consequences of feeding and digestion on acid-base balance and regulation in a marine teleost (seawater-acclimated steelhead trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated by tracking changes in blood pH and [HCO3-], as well as alterations in net acid or base excretion to the water following feeding. Additionally the role of the intestine in the regulation of acid-base balance during feeding was investigated with an in vitro gut sac technique. Feeding did not affect plasma glucose or urea concentrations, however, total plasma ammonia rose during feeding, peaking between 3 and 24 h following the ingestion of a meal, three-fold above resting control values (approximately 300 micromol ml(-1)). This increase in plasma ammonia was accompanied by an increase in net ammonia flux to the water (approximately twofold higher in fed fish versus unfed fish). The arterial blood also became alkaline with increases in pH and plasma [HCO3-] between 3 and 12 h following feeding, representing the first measurement of an alkaline tide in a marine teleost. There was no evidence of respiratory compensation for the measured metabolic alkalosis, as Pa CO2 remained unchanged throughout the post-feeding period. However, in contrast to an earlier study on freshwater-acclimated trout, fed fish did not exhibit a compensating increase in net base excretion, but rather took in additional base from the external seawater, amounting to approximately 8490 micromol kg(-1) over 48 h. In vitro experiments suggest that at least a portion of the alkaline tide was eliminated through increased HCO3- secretion coupled to Cl- absorption in the intestinal tract. This did not occur in the intestine of freshwater-acclimated trout. The marked effects of the external salinity (seawater versus freshwater) on different post-feeding patterns of acid-base balance are discussed.

  11. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  12. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We...... investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after...... composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher...

  13. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    postprandially. Results: Dairy calcium significantly diminished the postprandial lipid response. The baseline adjusted area under the curve for chylomicron triacylglycerol was approximate to 17% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.02) and approximate to 19% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.007) than after the LC meal...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  14. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often

  15. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions12

    OpenAIRE

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stress...

  16. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  17. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  18. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  19. The consequences of seasonal fasting during the dormancy of tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) on their postprandial metabolic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavira, Rodrigo S B; Sartori, Marina R; Gontero-Fourcade, Manuel N; Gomes, Bruna F; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2018-04-19

    Tegu lizards ( Salvator merianae ) aestivate for up to 5 months during Brazil's winter, when they retreat to burrows and halt most activities. Dormant tegus reduce their gastrointestinal (GI) mass, which allows a substantial energy economy. This strategy, however, implies that the first post-dormancy digestion would be more costly than subsequent feeding episodes as a result of GI atrophy. To address this, we determined the postprandial metabolic response (SDA) of the first (M1), second (M2) and several (RM) feeding episodes after tegus' dormancy. Another group of tegus (PF) was subjected to an extra 50 day fasting period after arousal. Glucose, triglycerides and uric acid levels were checked before and after feeding. M1 digestion lasted twice as long and cost twofold more when compared with M2 or RM, in agreement with the idea that GI atrophy inflates digestion cost at the first post-dormancy meal. The SDA response was similar in M2 and RM, suggesting that the GI tract was fully reorganized after the first feeding. The SDA cost was equal in PF and RM, implying that the change in state per se (dormant to arousal) triggers the regrowth of GI, independently of feeding. Fasting tegus at M1 presented higher triglyceride and lower uric acid levels than fed tegus, indicating that fasting is mainly sustained by fat storage. Our results show that seasonal fasting imposes an extra digestion cost to tegus following their next feeding, which is fully paid during their first digestion. This surplus cost, however, is negligible compared with the overall energetic savings from GI tract atrophy during the dormancy period. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc real ). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc sim ) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC real ) and simulated input function (AUC IFsim ) and percent error between CMRGlc real and CMRGlc sim were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165±69 vs 100±9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%±1.3% vs 3.5%±2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%±2.2% vs 2.9%±1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%±4.6% vs 3.4%±2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  1. Sustained exercise-trained juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus at a moderate water velocity exhibit improved aerobic swimming performance and increased postprandial metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine whether sustained exercise training at four water velocities, i.e. nearly still water (control, 1 body length (BL s−1, 2 BL s−1 and 4 BL s−1, has effects on swimming performance and digestive metabolism in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to sustained training at 2 and 4 BL s−1 showed significantly higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit and maximum metabolic rate (MMR over the control group. Fish subjected to sustained training at 1 and 2 BL s−1 showed a significantly (30 and 54% prolonged duration, 14 and 17% higher postprandial ṀO2 increment (i.e. ṀO2peak, and 62 and 92% more energy expended on specific dynamic action (SDA, respectively, after consuming a similar meal over fish kept in nearly still water. These results suggest that (1 sustained exercise training at a higher speed (2 or 4 BL s−1 had a positive influence on the aerobic swimming performance of juvenile M. piceus, which may be associated with improved aerobic metabolism; and (2 sustained exercise training at a lower speed (1 or 2 BL s−1 resulted in elevated postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile M. piceus.

  2. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: the Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Dekker, J M; Diamant, M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J

    2008-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the associations of postprandial glucose (ppGL) and postprandial triglycerides (ppTG) with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in women with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Post-menopausal women (76 with NGM, 78 with DM2), received two consecutive fat-rich and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h following breakfast; lunch was given at t=4. Ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery was performed to measure cIMT. In women with NGM, an increase of 1.0 mmol/l glucose following the fat-rich meals was associated with a 50 microm cIMT increase (p=0.04), and following the carbohydrate meals, an increase of 1.8 mmol/l glucose was associated with a 50 microm larger cIMT (p=0.08). These associations were not explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors. However, no association between ppGL and cIMT was found in women with DM2 and ppTG were not associated with cIMT. The association between ppGL and cIMT in normoglycaemic women suggests that ppGL in the normal range is a marker or a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Postprandial glucose levels might be a better indicator of risk than post-OGTT glucose levels or triglyceride levels.

  3. s-ICAM-1 and s-VCAM-1 in healthy men are strongly associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, becoming evident in the postprandial response to a lipid-rich meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the postprandial state for the early stages of atherogenesis is increasingly acknowledged. We conducted assessment of association between postprandial triglycerides, insulin and glucose after ingestion of a standardized lipid-rich test meal, and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAM in young healthy subjects. Methods Metabolic parameters and sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured before and hourly until 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid-rich meal in 30 healthy young men with fasting triglycerides 260 mg/dl. Levels of CAM were compared in HR and NR, and correlation with postprandial triglyceride, insulin and glucose response was assessed. Results Fasting sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in HR as compared to NR (p = 0.046, p = 0.03. For sE-selectin there was such a trend (p = 0.05. There was a strong positive and independent correlation between sICAM-1 and postprandial insulin maxima (r = 0.70, p Conclusion This independent association of postprandial triglycerides with sICAM-1 may indicate a particular impact of postprandial lipid metabolism on endothelial reaction.

  4. Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu; Wang, Qi-Rong; Fang, Zi-Long; Wang, Ting; Yu, Ai-Qi; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zheng, Yi; Yi, Mu-Qing

    2017-04-12

    Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O 2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO), hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO), and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO). They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% ( w / v ). In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% V̇O 2max , one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA) was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a "time to exhaustion test" (TTE). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort) were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than baseline

  5. Hepatic insulin resistance both in prediabetic and diabetic patients determines postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: From the CORDIOPREV study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Acuña, A.; Alcala-Diaz, J.F.; Delgado-Lista, J.; Torres-Peña, J.D.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Camargo, A.; Garcia-Rios, A.; Marin, C.; Gomez-Delgado, F.; Caballero, J.; Ommen, B. van; Malagon, M.M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Lopez-Miranda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims: Previous evidences have shown the presence of a prolonged and exaggerated postprandial response in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relation with an increase of cardiovascular risk. However, the response in prediabetes population has not been established. The objective was to

  6. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  7. The effect of aerobic exercise training on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Yu, Li-Juan; Wang, Chuan; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8weeks at a water velocity of control (3cms(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl)s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4bls(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (PFI after long-term training; (3) and aerobic exercise training boosted the activity of digestive enzymes and maximum digestive metabolism, which could favor fast digestion and growth in juvenile S. sinensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Floc'h

    Full Text Available As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  9. Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO, hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO, and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO. They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% (w/v. In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% V̇O2max, one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a “time to exhaustion test” (TTE. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than

  10. Postprandial changes in the phospholipid composition of circulating microparticles are not associated with coagulation activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushuizen, Maarten E.; Diamant, Michaela; Peypers, Erik G.; Hoek, Frans J.; Heine, Robert J.; Sturk, Augueste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence is present that the phospholipid composition of circulating cell-derived microparticles (MP) affects coagulation in vivo, and that postprandial metabolic alterations may be associated with hypercoagulable state. Our objective was to investigate whether postprandial metabolic

  11. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was ∼64% higher (P < 0.001) after isomaltulose ingestion, which results in an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P < 0.001) compared with sucrose. The cumulative amount of systemic glucose appearance was ∼35% lower after isomaltulose than after sucrose (P = 0.003) because of the reduction in orally derived and endogenously produced glucose and a higher first-pass splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU). Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  12. Intermittent v. continuous energy restriction: differential effects on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss in overweight/obese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2018-03-01

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (>70 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. Studies to date comparing IER to continuous energy restriction (CER) have predominantly measured fasting indices of cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to compare the effects of IER and CER on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss. In all, twenty-seven (thirteen male) overweight/obese participants (46 (sem 3) years, 30·1 (sem 1·0) kg/m2) who were randomised to either an IER intervention (2638 kJ for 2 d/week with an overall ER of 22 (sem 0·3) %, n 15) or a CER intervention (2510 kJ below requirements with overall ER of 23 (sem 0·8) %) completed the study. Postprandial responses to a test meal (over 360 min) and changes in anthropometry (fat mass, fat-free mass, circumferences) were assessed at baseline and upon attainment of 5 % weight loss, following a 7-d period of weight stabilisation. The study found no statistically significant difference in the time to attain a 5 % weight loss between groups (median 59 d (interquartile range (IQR) 41-80) and 73 d (IQR 48-128), respectively, P=0·246), or in body composition (P≥0·437). For postprandial measures, neither diet significantly altered glycaemia (P=0·266), whereas insulinaemia was reduced comparatively (P=0·903). The reduction in C-peptide tended (P=0·057) to be greater following IER (309 128 (sem23 268) to 247781 (sem20 709) pmol×360 min/l) v. CER (297 204 (sem25 112) to 301 655 (sem32 714) pmol×360 min/l). The relative reduction in TAG responses was greater (P=0·045) following IER (106 (sem30) to 68 (sem 15) mmol×360 min/l) compared with CER (117 (sem 43) to 130 (sem 31) mmol×360 min/l). In conclusion, these preliminary findings highlight underlying differences between IER and CER, including a superiority of IER in reducing postprandial lipaemia, which now warrant targeted mechanistic evaluation

  13. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of CPAP treatment. Methods to prevent OSA as well as treatment in its early stage may be recommended. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  14. Improvements in glucose metabolism early after gastric bypass surgery are not explained by increases in total bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) have been suggested as key mediators of the improvements in glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objective: To describe fasting and postprandial state total bile acid (TBA) and FGF19 concentrations before and after...... (T2D) patients and 12 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects participated in the study. Intervention: A 4-hour liquid meal test was performed before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting and postprandial TBA and FGF19 concentrations. Results: Fasting...... TBA concentrations decreased in NGT subjects (P TBA was decreased in NGT subjects 1 week after RYGB (before surgery, 567...

  15. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  16. Postprandial Metabolism and Appetite Do Not Differ between Lean Adults that Eat Breakfast or Morning Fast for 6 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2018-01-01

    It remains unknown whether sustained daily feeding-fasting patterns modify the acute response to specific feedings on a given day. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to establish if daily breakfast consumption or fasting until noon modifies the acute metabolic and appetitive responses to a fixed breakfast and ad libitum lunch. With the use of a parallel group design, we randomly assigned 31 healthy, lean men and women (22-56 y) to 6 wk of either consuming ≥700 kcal of self-selected items before 1100 or fasting (0 kcal) until 1200 daily. Following 48 h of diet and physical activity standardization, we examined metabolic and appetite responses to a standardized breakfast and ad libitum lunch before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using 3- and 2-way ANCOVA. Systemic concentrations of energy balance regulatory hormones total and acylated ghrelin, leptin, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine) responded similarly to breakfast and lunch before and after 6 wk of either morning fasting or regular breakfast, with the exception of a tendency for increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the Breakfast Group compared with a decrease over that period in the Fasting Group [P = 0.06, partial eta squared value (ƞ2) = 0.16]. Subjective appetite sensations also did not differ over the course of the day, and ad libitum energy intake at lunch was not systematically affected by either intervention, decreasing by 27 kcal (95% CI: -203, 149 kcal) with fasting and by 77 kcal (95% CI: -210, 56 kcal) with breakfast. Similarly, glycemic, insulinemic, lipemic, and thermogenic responses to breakfast and lunch were very stable at baseline and follow-up and, thus, did not differ between treatment groups. Our results indicate that a sustained period of either extended morning fasting or eating a daily breakfast has minimal effect upon acute metabolic and appetite responses in lean adults. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN

  17. Postprandial triglycerides and blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A

    2001-01-01

    Most of our lifetime we spend in the postprandial state. Postprandial triglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in particular due to elevation of the plasma levels of activated factor VII (VIIa) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). Therefore, disturbances of the hemostatic system might, at least partly, account for by the link between hypertriglyceridemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). Factor VIIa is the first enzyme of the blood coagulation system and serves a priming function for triggering of the clotting cascade. The coagulant activity of factor VII (VIIc, total activity of factor VII in plasma) was identified as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction in initially healthy middle-aged men, and particularly of fatal coronary events, and both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations correlated positively with the VIIc level. Addition of fat to diet has been consistently shown to cause a rapid conversion of the factor VII zymogen into its active form (VIIa) whereas the concentration of total protein is unaffected. Postprandial activation of factor VII is dependent on lipolytic activity and it is mainly supported by large triglyceride-rich lipoprotein of the VLDL class. Studies in vivo with specific coagulation factor-deficient patients indicate that factor IX is essential for the postprandial activation of factor VII. The basal generation of thrombin seems to be unaffected by increased plasma levels of VIIa. However, since VIIa-tissue factor complex is responsible for the initiation of the coagulation cascade, increased generation of VIIa in the postprandial state would increase the potential for thrombin production in the event of plaque rupture. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor of the plasminogen activators in the circulation and thereby the principal inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. Postprandial

  18. An acute intake of theobromine does not change postprandial lipid metabolism, whereas a high-fat meal lowers chylomicron particle number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal. Theobromine was added to the LF meal. Nine healthy men completed the study. After meal intake, blood was sampled frequently for 4hours. Postprandial apoA-I concentrations were comparable after intake of the 3 meals. Apolipoprotein B48 curves, however, were significantly lower and those of triacylglycerol were significantly higher after HF as compared with LF consumption. Postprandial free fatty acid concentrations decreased less, and glucose and insulin concentrations increased less after HF meal consumption. Except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, theobromine did not modify responses of the LF meal. These data show that acute HF and theobromine consumption does not change postprandial apoA-I concentrations. Furthermore, acute HF consumption had divergent effects on postprandial apolipoprotein B48 and triacylglycerol responses, suggesting the formation of less, but larger chylomicrons after HF intake. Finally, except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, acute theobromine consumption did not modify the postprandial responses of the LF meal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Buffering High Acid Load Meal with Sodium Bicarbonate on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Humans-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Pinar; Blythe, Jackson C; Greenfield, Jerry R; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2017-08-11

    Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants ( n = 32) were randomized to receive either 1680 mg NaHCO₃ or placebo, followed by a high acid load meal in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (1-4 weeks apart) study. Thirty (20 men) participants completed the study. Venous blood pH, serum bicarbonate, blood glucose, serum insulin, C -peptide, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and at 15-30 min intervals for 3 h post meal. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. Venous blood pH declined in the first 15 min post meal with the placebo ( p = 0.001), but not with NaHCO₃ ( p = 0.86) and remained decreased with the placebo for 3 h ( p interaction = 0.04). On average over the 3 h blood pH iAUC was greater with NaHCO₃ compared with placebo ( p = 0.02). However, postprandial glucose, insulin, C -peptide, NEFA and GLP-1 were not different between treatments ( p interaction ≥ 0.07). Conclusions: An alkalizing medication administered pre-meal has no acute effect on glycaemia and insulin response in healthy individuals. Long-term interventions in at-risk populations are necessary to investigate the effect of sustained alkalization on glucose metabolism.

  20. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Antoine, J.M.; Benton, D.; Bjorck, I.; Bozzetto, L.; Brouns, F.; Diamant, M.; Dye, L.; Hulshof, T.; Holst, J.J.; Lamport, D.J.; Laville, M.; Lawton, C.L.; Meheust, A.; Nilson, A.; Normand, S.; Rivellese, A.A.; Theis, S.; Torekov, S.S.; Vinoy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose in

  1. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose...

  2. Postprandial Hyperlipidemia and Remnant Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2017-02-01

    Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation. The cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins significantly correlate with small, dense LDL; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and CHD prevalence. We have developed an assay of apolipoprotein (apo)B-48 levels to evaluate the accumulation of CM remnants. Fasting apoB-48 levels correlate with the morbidity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, and IGT. Fasting apoB-48 levels also correlate with carotid intima-media thickening and CHD prevalence, and a high apoB-48 level is a significant predictor of CHD risk, independent of the fasting TG level. Diet interventions, such as dietary fibers, polyphenols, medium-chain fatty acids, diacylglycerol, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ameliorate postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, moreover, drugs for dyslipidemia (n-3 PUFA, statins, fibrates or ezetimibe) and diabetes concerning incretins (dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor or glucagon like peptide-1 analogue) may improve postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Since the accumulation of CM remnants correlates to impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, further studies are required to investigate the characteristics, physiological activities, and functions of CM remnants for the development of new interventions to reduce atherogenicity.

  3. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn O Walsh

    Full Text Available The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss.We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein, low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%-40%-20%, and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%-60%-30% diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA during weight loss maintenance.Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10-15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level × relative energy content of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min and late (180 to 300 min postprandial periods.EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99. However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001 and VLC (p<0.0001 test meals. Metabolic rate also differed in the late postprandial period (p = 0.0074, with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064 and LGI (p = 0.0066 diets.These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain during weight loss maintenance.

  4. Postprandial dysmetabolism: Too early or too late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christos; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsirona, Sofia; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Kassi, Georgia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-07-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism is a postprandial state characterized by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids and, more specifically, of elevated levels of glucose and triglyceride (TG) containing lipoproteins. Since there is evidence that postprandial dysmetabolism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, due to macro- and microvascular complications, as well as with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is recommended that clinicians be alert for early detection and management of this condition. Management consists of a holistic approach including dietary modification, exercise and use of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medication aiming to decrease the postprandial values of circulating glucose and triglycerides. This review aims to explain glucose and lipid homeostasis and the impact of postprandial dysmetabolism on the cardiovascular system as well as to offer suggestions with regard to the therapeutic approach for this entity. However, more trials are required to prevent or reverse early and not too late the actual tissue damage due to postprandial dysmetabolism.

  5. Introduction to the DISRUPT postprandial database: subjects, studies and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Clarke, Dave T; Murray, Peter; Lovegrove, Julie A; O'Malley, Brendan; Minihane, Anne M; Williams, Christine M

    2010-03-01

    Dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in the postprandial state are recognised as important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to create a comprehensive, standardised database of postprandial studies to provide insights into the physiological factors that influence postprandial lipid and glucose responses. Data were collated from subjects (n = 467) taking part in single and sequential meal postprandial studies conducted by researchers at the University of Reading, to form the DISRUPT (DIetary Studies: Reading Unilever Postprandial Trials) database. Subject attributes including age, gender, genotype, menopausal status, body mass index, blood pressure and a fasting biochemical profile, together with postprandial measurements of triacylglycerol (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin and TAG-rich lipoprotein composition are recorded. A particular strength of the studies is the frequency of blood sampling, with on average 10-13 blood samples taken during each postprandial assessment, and the fact that identical test meal protocols were used in a number of studies, allowing pooling of data to increase statistical power. The DISRUPT database is the most comprehensive postprandial metabolism database that exists worldwide and preliminary analysis of the pooled sequential meal postprandial dataset has revealed both confirmatory and novel observations with respect to the impact of gender and age on the postprandial TAG response. Further analysis of the dataset using conventional statistical techniques along with integrated mathematical models and clustering analysis will provide a unique opportunity to greatly expand current knowledge of the aetiology of inter-individual variability in postprandial lipid and glucose responses.

  6. Alterations in protein and amino acid metabolism in rats fed a branched-chain amino acid- or leucine-enriched diet during postprandial and postabsorptive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Milan; Siman, Pavel; Vodenicarovova, Melita; Kandar, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe in favourable effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine), especially leucine, on muscle protein balance and consume BCAAs for many years. We determined the effects of the chronic intake of a BCAA- or leucine-enriched diet on protein and amino acid metabolism in fed and postabsorptive states. Rats were fed a standard diet, a diet with a high content of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (HVLID), or a high content of leucine (HLD) for 2 months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state on the last day, and the other half were sacrificed after overnight fast. Protein synthesis was assessed using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-(3)H]phenylalanine), proteolysis on the basis of chymotrypsin-like activity (CHTLA) of proteasome and cathepsin B and L activities. Chronic intake of HVLID or HLD enhanced plasma levels of urea, alanine and glutamine. HVLID also increased levels of all three BCAA and branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), HLD increased leucine, ketoisocaproate and alanine aminotransferase and decreased valine, ketovaline, isoleucine, ketoisoleucine, and LDL cholesterol. Tissue weight and protein content were lower in extensor digitorum longus muscles in the HLD group and higher in kidneys in the HVLID and HLD groups. Muscle protein synthesis in postprandial state was higher in the HVLID group, and CHTLA was lower in muscles of the HVLID and HLD groups compared to controls. Overnight starvation enhanced alanine aminotransferase activity in muscles, and decreased protein synthesis in gastrocnemius (in HVLID group) and extensor digitorum longus (in HLD group) muscles more than in controls. Effect of HVLID and HLD on CHTLA in muscles in postabsorptive state was insignificant. The results failed to demonstrate positive effects of the chronic consumption of a BCAA-enriched diet on protein balance in skeletal muscle and indicate rather negative effects from a leucine-enriched diet. The primary

  7. One day of moderate energy deficit reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women: the role of calorie restriction and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Skenderi, Katerina P; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2010-08-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia are important cardiovascular risk factors in women. We sought to examine the effects of acute (1 day), moderate ( approximately 2 MJ) energy deficit induced by calorie restriction, exercise, or combination of both on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in women. Six healthy premenopausal women performed four oral fat tolerance tests in the morning after a day of a) rest (control), b) calorie restriction ( approximately 2 MJ), c) exercise (net deficit of approximately 2 MJ) and d) calorie restriction-plus-exercise (total energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ). All energy deficit trials significantly reduced fasting and postprandial total plasma TAG concentrations by 15-23% and 12-23%, respectively, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein TAG concentrations by 37-43% and 25-39%, respectively, compared with the control condition (Pwomen. Exercise elicits a somewhat greater effect than calorie restriction in the postprandial state. The acute effect of diet and exercise should be taken into account when studying the long-term effects of weight loss and exercise training on TAG metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Embryonic hypoxia programmes postprandial cardiovascular function in adult common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Conner, Justin; Nelson, Derek; Crossley, Janna; Crossley, Dane A

    2017-07-15

    Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina ). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos [10% O 2 (H10)] exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared with control turtles [21% O 2 (N21)]. In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport. Five years after hatching, turtles were instrumented to quantify systemic ([Formula: see text]) and pulmonary ([Formula: see text]) blood flows and heart rate ( f H ) before and after a ∼5% body mass meal. In adult N21 and H10 turtles, f H was increased significantly by feeding. Although total stroke volume ( V S,tot ) remained at fasted values, this tachycardia contributed to an elevation in total cardiac output ([Formula: see text]). However, there was a postprandial reduction in a net left-right (L-R) shunt in N21 snapping turtles only. Relative to N21 turtles, H10 animals exhibited higher [Formula: see text] due to increased blood flow through the right systemic outflow vessels of the heart. This effect of hypoxic embryonic development, reducing a net L-R cardiac shunt, may support the increased postprandial metabolic rate we previously reported in H10 turtles, and is further demonstration of adult reptile cardiovascular physiology being programmed by embryonic hypoxia. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Chaychenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypoglycemic syndrome, or reactive hypoglycemia, — vegetative symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, hunger, nausea, palpitations, anxiety, tremor, sweating occurring one to two hours after ingestion. The syndrome is poorly described in literature and most of the information is disparate. Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of postprandial reactive hypoglycemia are quite controversial, but most authors tend to consider that it is a blood glucose level, which is below 3.9 mmol/l for two hours after meal. Hypoglycemia is an unbalance between glucose influx to the circulation (from endogenous glucose production or exogenous glucose delivery and glucose efflux. The balance between glucose intake and consumption is controlled by a complex balance of glycoregulatory hormones. Insulin, glucagon and adrenaline are effective for several minutes, but cortisol and growth hormone — for seve-ral hours. This explains the presence of immediate and delayed various effects: adrenergic, neuroglycopenic ones and gastroin-testinal discomfort. Postprandial syndrome mechanisms are similar to post-gastric bypass patients with morbid obesity. The most likely cause of reactive hypoglycemia is post-prandial hypersecretion of insulin under the influence of glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, which is a component of the enteroendocrine system and acts at the cephalic phase of satiety. Both post-gastric bypass and relatively healthy individuals have symptoms after the meal rich of simple carbohydrates. Symptoms could be effectively reduced by low glycemic index diet rich of dietary fibers. When the effect is insufficient, it is recommended to use acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, which is the main stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Thus, obesity epidemics based on the inadequate nutritional habits in the children makes the postprandial syndrome feasible, and it requires further studies. At the same time, healthy diet can significantly improve

  11. Effect of Dietary Lipids on Endotoxemia Influences Postprandial Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Javier; García-Carpintero, Sonia; Jimenez-Lucena, Rosa; Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Roche, Helen M; López-Miranda, José; Camargo, Antonio

    2017-09-06

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) results in postprandial metabolic alterations that predisposes one to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We aimed to assess the effect of the consumption of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on fasting and postprandial plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A subgroup of 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome was randomized to receive 1 of 4 diets: HSFA, rich in saturated fat; HMUFA, rich in monounsaturated fat; LFHCC n-3, low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; LFHCC low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo, for 12 weeks each. We administered a fat challenge reflecting the fatty acid composition of the diets at postintervention. We determined the plasma lipoproteins and glucose and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and adipose tissue. LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) plasma levels were determined by ELISA, at fasting and postprandial (4 h after a fat challenge) states. We observed a postprandial increase in LPS levels after the intake of the HSFA meal, whereas we did not find any postprandial changes after the intake of the other three diets. Moreover, we found a positive relationship between the LPS plasma levels and the gene expression of IkBa and MIF1 in PBMC. No statistically significant differences in the LBP plasma levels at fasting or postprandial states were observed. Our results suggest that the consumption of HSFA diet increases the intestinal absorption of LPS which, in turn, increases postprandial endotoxemia levels and the postprandial inflammatory response.

  12. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  13. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  14. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    and FGF-19 concentrations. RESULTS: Postprandial total bile acid concentrations increased with increasing meal fat content (P vs controls (oral glucose tolerance test, low and medium fat meals, P fat meal, P = .30). Differences......, Hellerup, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen patients with T2D and 15 healthy matched controls with normal glucose tolerance. INTERVENTIONS: A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and three isocaloric and isovolemic liquid meals with low, medium, and high fat content, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bile acid......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...

  15. Total mixed ration in exercising horse: digestibility and nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility of a total mixed ration (TMR versus a traditional mixed hay/cereals diet. Four adult trained Standardbred geldings – BW = 478±37 kg - were used. The two diets consisted of 20 kg of a commercial TMR - corn silage, alfalfa hay, wet brewers’ grain, oat, apple pomace, molasses cane, soybean oil and mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 1 or 7 kg of meadow hay and 4.5 kg of cereal-mix - corn, oat, barley and protein/mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 2. The trial was conducted according to a Latin Square design (2x2. After an adaptation period of four weeks, total faeces and urine were collected for 6 days. Both feed and faeces samples were analysed for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, ADL and GE. Data were analysed by ANOVA. The apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance of the two diets were compared. DM, OM, CP and GE apparent digestibility were significantly different between the diets, with higher values for unifeed diet than traditional diet. Energy requirement was satisfied by both diets (96.54 vs 95.55 MJ. Nitrogen balance showed negative values in both diets (- 61.67 vs - 9.05, but the hay/cereals supplemented diet showed the best protein utilisation.

  16. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  17. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  18. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  19. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  20. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  1. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20–70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P = 0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.

  2. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  4. AT1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in relation to Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system may be involved in triglyceride (TG metabolism. We explored the effect of the common A1166C and C573T polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R gene on postprandial lipemia. Methods. Eighty-two subjects measured daytime capillary TG, and postprandial lipemia was estimated as incremental area under the TG curve. The C573T and A1166C polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined. Results. Postprandial lipemia was significantly higher in homozygous carriers of the 1166-C allele (9.39±8.36 mM*h/L compared to homozygous carriers of the 1166-A allele (2.02±6.20 mM*h/L (P<0.05. Postprandial lipemia was similar for the different C573T polymorphisms. Conclusion. The 1166-C allele of the AT1R gene seems to be associated with increased postprandial lipemia. These data confirm the earlier described relationships between the renin-angiotensin axis and triglyceride metabolism.

  5. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  6. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  7. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  8. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  9. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    .75 % of their body mass with a diet based on either (1) fish meal (FM), (2) pea protein concentrate (PPC), or (3) pea protein concentrate supplemented with histidine, lysine, methionine and threonine (PPC+) to mimic FM AA profile. The specific dynamic action and nitrogen quotient (NQ) were calculated for 48 h....... The strongest effect was observed for methionine, presenting threefold higher concentrations at peak time for PPC+ compared to FM (297.0 +/- A 77.0 and 131.8 +/- A 39.0 nmol ml(-1), respectively). The differences in AA availability and metabolic profile in the pea diets compared to the FM diet were believed...

  10. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  11. Model-Based Quantification of the Systemic Interplay between Glucose and Fatty Acids in the Postprandial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Fianne L P; Nyman, Elin; Adiels, Martin; Hilbers, Peter A J; Strålfors, Peter; van Riel, Natal A W; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, the systemic regulation of postprandial metabolite concentrations is disturbed. To understand this dysregulation, a quantitative and temporal understanding of systemic postprandial metabolite handling is needed. Of particular interest is the intertwined regulation of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), due to the association between disturbed NEFA metabolism and insulin resistance. However, postprandial glucose metabolism is characterized by a dynamic interplay of simultaneously responding regulatory mechanisms, which have proven difficult to measure directly. Therefore, we propose a mathematical modelling approach to untangle the systemic interplay between glucose and NEFA in the postprandial period. The developed model integrates data of both the perturbation of glucose metabolism by NEFA as measured under clamp conditions, and postprandial time-series of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. The model can describe independent data not used for fitting, and perturbations of NEFA metabolism result in an increased insulin, but not glucose, response, demonstrating that glucose homeostasis is maintained. Finally, the model is used to show that NEFA may mediate up to 30-45% of the postprandial increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake at two hours after a glucose meal. In conclusion, the presented model can quantify the systemic interactions of glucose and NEFA in the postprandial state, and may therefore provide a new method to evaluate the disturbance of this interplay in metabolic disease.

  12. Model-Based Quantification of the Systemic Interplay between Glucose and Fatty Acids in the Postprandial State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fianne L P Sips

    Full Text Available In metabolic diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, the systemic regulation of postprandial metabolite concentrations is disturbed. To understand this dysregulation, a quantitative and temporal understanding of systemic postprandial metabolite handling is needed. Of particular interest is the intertwined regulation of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, due to the association between disturbed NEFA metabolism and insulin resistance. However, postprandial glucose metabolism is characterized by a dynamic interplay of simultaneously responding regulatory mechanisms, which have proven difficult to measure directly. Therefore, we propose a mathematical modelling approach to untangle the systemic interplay between glucose and NEFA in the postprandial period. The developed model integrates data of both the perturbation of glucose metabolism by NEFA as measured under clamp conditions, and postprandial time-series of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. The model can describe independent data not used for fitting, and perturbations of NEFA metabolism result in an increased insulin, but not glucose, response, demonstrating that glucose homeostasis is maintained. Finally, the model is used to show that NEFA may mediate up to 30-45% of the postprandial increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake at two hours after a glucose meal. In conclusion, the presented model can quantify the systemic interactions of glucose and NEFA in the postprandial state, and may therefore provide a new method to evaluate the disturbance of this interplay in metabolic disease.

  13. Effects of whole-grain rye porridge with added inulin and wheat gluten on appetite, gut fermentation and postprandial glucose metabolism: a randomised, cross-over, breakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Isabella; Shi, Lin; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Risérus, Ulf; Landberg, Rikard

    2016-12-01

    Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts. A standardised lunch and an ad libitum dinner were served 4 and 8 h later, respectively. Appetite, breath hydrogen and methane, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses were measured over 8 h. Twenty-one healthy men and women, aged 23-60 years, with BMI of 21-33 kg/m2 participated in this study. Before lunch, the 55-g rye porridges lowered hunger by 20 % and desire to eat by 22 % and increased fullness by 29 % compared with wheat bread (Pinulin and gluten compared with plain rye porridges.

  14. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of [ 14 C] CO 2 production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate

  15. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover desig...

  16. Total thyroidectomy: a clue to understanding the metabolic changes induced by subclinical hyperthyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel Lassen, Pierre; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Ruiz Patino, Maria; Corvilain, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The effects of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (eSCH) on heart and bone have been well documented. There are only limited data available regarding the impact of eSCH on weight regulation and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to evaluate the changes in body weight and metabolic parameters after total thyroidectomy in patients with pre-operative eSCH compared with pre-operative patients with euthyroid (EUT). A retrospective study of 505 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goitre in an academic hospital in Brussels (Belgium) was performed. Two hundred and 25 patients were included (eSCH group: n = 74; EUT group: n = 151). The mean follow-up time was 26·1 ± 0·8 months and was similar in both groups. Absolute BMI gain was significantly greater in the eSCH group than in the EUT group (1·11 ± 0·17 vs 0·33 ± 0·13 kg/m 2 ; P = 0·003). A significant increase in LDL cholesterol was observed in the eSCH group (16·1 ± 3·8 mg/dl; P effect of eSCH on body weight regulation and lipid metabolism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared to a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to minimize cardiovascular disease risk, however not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. It is proposed that the effect of SFA on postprandial inflammation is influenced by the specific composition and...

  18. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared with vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized...

  19. Prognostic implications of total hemispheric glucose metabolism ratio in cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segtnan, Eivind Antonsen; Grupe, Peter; Jarden, Jens Ole

    2017-01-01

    and 9 women aged 35-77 years) with 10 single scans from healthy controls aged 43-75 years. Dedicated 3D-segmentation software was used to obtain total hemispheric glucose metabolic ratios (THGr) by dividing total hemispheric (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in each diaschitic hemisphere, i.......e., the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere (THGr(Ce)) and the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere (THGr(Cb)), to its respective contralateral side. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine optimal cut-offs for combinations of THGr(Ce) and THGr(Cb). Two independent observers obtained...... data for reproducibility analysis, and THGr values were compared with qualitative assessment of diaschisis performed by a PET neuroimaging specialist. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis confirmed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis in all glioblastoma PET studies performed within one year of death. Healthy...

  20. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Bohl; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty...... acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein...... between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. CONCLUSION: We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a beneficial impact on CVD risk. This trial was registered...

  1. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hiel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse. We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing and apolipoprotein C3 (Apoc3, inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  2. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Sophie; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Rodriguez, Julie; Pachikian, Barbara D; Bouzin, Caroline; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-04-25

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion. Inulin supplementation in western diet-fed mice decreases postprandial serum triglycerides concentration, decreases the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 (fatty acid receptor involved in lipid uptake and sensing) and apolipoprotein C3 ( Apoc3 , inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) in the jejunum and increases fecal lipid excretion. In conclusion, inulin improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by targeting intestinal lipid metabolism. This work confirms the interest of using inulin supplementation in the management of dyslipidemia linked to obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

  3. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  4. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt 2 cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 μM) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 μm/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of [ 14 C]-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis

  5. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  6. Inulin Improves Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia by Modulating Gene Expression in the Small Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Hiel; Audrey M. Neyrinck; Julie Rodriguez; Barbara D. Pachikian; Caroline Bouzin; Jean-Paul Thissen; Patrice D. Cani; Laure B. Bindels; Nathalie M. Delzenne

    2018-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We perf...

  7. Energy replacement diminishes the effect of exercise on postprandial lipemia in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alice E; Barrett, Laura A; Tolfrey, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Acute bouts of exercise reduce postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations ([TAG]) in healthy boys and girls; however, it is not known whether this effect is mediated by the energy deficit. This study examined whether the exercise-induced reduction in postprandial [TAG] persists after immediate dietary replacement of the exercise energy expenditure (EE). Eighteen healthy 11- to 13-year-old boys (mean (SD): body mass 41.3 (8.4)kg; peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) 55 (5)mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed three, 2-day conditions in a within-measures, crossover design separated by 14days. On day 1, participants rested (CON), exercised at 60% peak V̇O2 inducing a net EE of 32kJ·kg(-1) body mass (EX-DEF) or completed the same exercise with the net EE replaced immediately (EX-REP). On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken in the fasted state and at pre-determined intervals throughout the 6.5h postprandial period. A standardised breakfast and lunch meal were consumed immediately and 4h, respectively, after the fasting sample. Based on ratios of the geometric means (95% confidence intervals (CI) for ratios), EX-DEF fasting [TAG] was 19% and 15% lower than CON (-32 to -4%, ES=1.15, P=0.02) and EX-REP (-29 to 0%, ES=0.91, P=0.05) respectively; CON and EX-REP were similar (-4%; P=0.59). The EX-DEF total area under the [TAG] versus time curve was 15% and 16% lower than CON (-27 to 0%, ES=0.55, P=0.05) and EX-REP (-29 to -2%, ES=0.62, P=0.03) respectively; CON and EX-REP were not different (2%; -13 to 20%, P=0.80). Immediate replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit negates the reduction in postprandial [TAG] in boys; this highlights the importance of maintaining a negative energy balance immediately post-exercise to maximise the metabolic health benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  9. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Jin, Kairui; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  10. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses—A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. Methods A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18–28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Conclusions Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism. PMID:26247824

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Fukai

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study.A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808. The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385 created by random allocation.Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population. The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time.Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases.

  12. Using omeprazole to link the components of the post-prandial alkaline tide in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Schultz, Aaron G; Munger, R Stephen; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    After a meal, dogfish exhibit a metabolic alkalosis in the bloodstream and a marked excretion of basic equivalents across the gills to the external seawater. We used the H(+), K(+)-ATPase pump inhibitor omeprazole to determine whether these post-prandial alkaline tide events were linked to secretion of H(+) (accompanied by Cl(-)) in the stomach. Sharks were fitted with indwelling stomach tubes for pretreatment with omeprazole (five doses of 5 mg omeprazole per kilogram over 48 h) or comparable volumes of vehicle (saline containing 2% DMSO) and for sampling of gastric chyme. Fish were then fed an involuntary meal by means of the stomach tube consisting of minced flatfish muscle (2% of body mass) suspended in saline (4% of body mass total volume). Omeprazole pre-treatment delayed the post-prandial acidification of the gastric chyme, slowed the rise in Cl(-) concentration of the chyme and altered the patterns of other ions, indicating inhibition of H(+) and accompanying Cl(-) secretion. Omeprazole also greatly attenuated the rise in arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations and reduced the net excretion of basic equivalents to the water by 56% over 48 h. Arterial blood CO(2) pressure (Pa(CO(2))) and plasma ions were not substantially altered. These results indicate that elevated gastric H(+) secretion (as HCl) in the digestive process is the major cause of the systemic metabolic alkalosis and the accompanying rise in base excretion across the gills that constitute the alkaline tide in the dogfish.

  13. Influence of clinical and lipid variables on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia in subjects with and without hipertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Eugenia Pérez G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The postprandial lipemia is characterized by some prolonged increase in circulation of triglycerides rich lipoproteins that can produce atherosclerosis, which is an important cause of death in our population. Objective. To evaluate the effect of lipidic and clinical variables on the values of postprandial lipemia in subjects with and without hipertriglyceridemia. Materials and methods. Forty-eight subjects of both sexes were studied, half of them, with basal triglycerides above 200mg/dl, who ingested a standardized lipidic load (breakfast with 30g of fat and then they were followed during seven hours gathering total blood every hour to determine the level of postprandial triglycerides and the postprandial lipemia values. The later data was correlated with clinical variables as age, body mass index, waist circumference, among other; and with lipidic variable as total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and basal triglycerides. Results. There was alteration in the clearence of postprandial triglycerides in those subjects with a basal concentration of triglycerides above 186 mg/dl. The clinical variables most related tothe magnitude of postprandial lipemia were age (p=0.009 and waist perimeter, while the lipidic variables that were strongly related with the postprandial lipemia were the basal triglycerides concentration (p=<0.001, the VLDL cholesterol (p=<0.001 and the HDL cholesterol(p=0.041. Conclusion. The variables that could predict the behavior of postprandial triglycerides in the individuals of this study are age, waist perimeter, VLDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and the basal triglycerides concentration.

  14. Extra virgin olive oil improves post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Petruccioli, Andreina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Monticolo, Roberto; Cava, Edda; Violi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycaemia in healthy subjects but it has never been investigated if this can be detected in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated if EVOO affects post-prandial glucose and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Thirty IFG patients were randomly allocated to a meal containing or not 10 g of EVOO in a cross-over design. Before, 60 min and 120 min after lunch a blood sample was taken to measure glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo B-48. The meal containing EVOO was associated with a reduction of glucose (p = 0.009) and DPP4 activity (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of insulin (p < 0.001) and GLP-1 (p < 0.001) compared with the meal without EVOO. Furthermore, the meal containing EVOO showed a significant decrease of triglycerides (p = 0.002) and Apo B-48 (p = 0.002) compared with the meal without EVOO. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not significantly change between the two groups. This is the first study to show that in IFG patients EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and lipid profile with a mechanism probably related to incretin up-regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Bread making technology influences postprandial glucose response: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Yanni, Amalia E; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-04-01

    Lowering postprandial glucose and insulin responses may have significant beneficial implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide in a daily basis, and the use of different baking technologies may modify the glucose and insulin response. The aim of this review was to critically record the human studies examining the application of different bread making processes on postprandial glucose and insulin response to bread. Literature is rich of results which show that the use of sourdough fermentation instead of leavening with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to modulate glucose response to bread, whereas evidence regarding its efficacy on lowering postprandial insulin response is less clear. The presence of organic acids is possibly involved, but the exact mechanism of action is still to be confirmed. The reviewed data also revealed that the alteration of other processing conditions (method of cooking, proofing period, partial baking freezing technology) can effectively decrease postprandial glucose response to bread, by influencing physical structure and retrogradation of starch. The development of healthier bread products that benefit postprandial metabolic responses is crucial and suggested baking conditions can be used by the bread industry for the promotion of public health.

  16. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  17. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonne, David P.; van Nierop, F. Samuel; Kulik, Willem; Soeters, Maarten R.; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implicated in

  18. Fasting and postprandial levels of a novel anorexigenic peptide nesfatin in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Küme, Tuncay; Bober, Ece

    2014-07-01

    Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorexigenic peptide, is expressed in several tissues, including pancreatic islet cells and central nervous system. However, its pathophysiological role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate the possible involvement of nesfatin-1 in the pathogenesis of childhood obesity, we examined the relationship between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 concentrations and metabolic/antropometric parameters in obese children. The study included obese children with a body mass index >95th percentile. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, fasting and postprandial (120th min) nesfatin-1 levels were measured to evaluate the metabolic parameters. Different cutoff values for prepubertal and pubertal stages were used to determine the status of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (prepubertal >2.5, pubertal >4). The percentage of body fat was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Seventy-one obese children were included in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting and postprandial nesfatin-1 levels in obese subjects (0.70 ± 0.15 and 0.69 ± 0.14 ng/mL, p>0.05, respectively). Insulin resistance was observed in 58% (41/71) of the cases. There was no significant difference in either fasting or postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels between the insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups (p>0.05). There was no correlation between fasting and postprandial serum nesfatin-1 levels and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in insulin-resistant and non-resistant groups. In this study, there was no significant increase in the postprandial level of nesfatin-1. This observation suggested that oral glucose load in obese children may not be sufficient for nesfatin-1 response and that nesfatin-1 may not have an effect as a short-term regulator of food intake.

  19. Is testing for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Michèle; Meier, Claudia; Herren, Sylvia; Aubry, Emilie; Steffen, Rudolf; Stanga, Zeno

    2017-11-23

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (pHH) is an increasingly reported complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). As pHH can cause life-threatening emergencies if occurring without warning symptoms, challenge testing may detect patients at risk. The study objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of pHH with or without symptoms of hypoglycemia after RYGB. We undertook an observational cohort study of consecutive, unselected patients approximately one year after uncomplicated RYGB. To simulate normal habits, all patients received a standardized carbohydrate-rich solid mixed meal. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min thereafter. Symptoms were classified as autonomous or neuroglycopenic. Patients with hypoglycemia (plasma glucose meal. 113 patients were included. Total weight loss at the first follow-up check (14 ± 0.4 months) was 33.97 ± 9.3%. After the carbohydrate-rich meal, glucose dropped to meal. The pHH occurred in 11.5% (n = 13) of patients. Asymptomatic patients (5.3%, n = 6) carried an increased risk (p = 0.008) for pHH. One patient needed emergency treatment after sudden loss of consciousness after the carbohydrate-rich meal. The occurrence of pHH was quite high in our study population with 11.5% thereof 5.3% asymptomatic. We therefore suggest that detection of these patients warrants a screening of patients after RYGB. At-risk patients should than be adequately advised to avoid carbohydrate-rich meals in order to optimize risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of walking performed immediately before meals with moderate fat content on postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombani Paolo C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Single bouts of moderate exercise may lower this risk, but the minimum duration of moderate intensity exercise that still lowers postprandial lipemia is not known. We, therefore, performed a dose-response study with a normal, daily life setting, to identify the minimum duration of moderate intensity walking that lowers postprandial lipemia in sedentary, healthy young men. Methods Sixteen men performed three activity trials (30, 60, or 90 min of treadmill walking at 50% of their individual VO2max and a control trial with no physical activity in a repeated measures crossover design. The subjects walked immediately before ingestion of the first of two mixed meals, which were served 3 h apart. The meals had a moderate fat content (0.5 g per kg body mass and 33% of total energy per meal and a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations. Each meal provided one third of the subject's estimated daily energy requirement. Venous blood samples were taken in the fasted state, and then hourly for 6 h after the first meal to assess the postprandial phase. Postprandial lipemia (the incremental area under the curve (dAUC of triacylglycerol was compared with a mixed model analysis and Tukey's adjustment. Results Postprandial lipemia (dAUC of triacylglycerol was, compared to the control trial, +2% (P = 1.00, -14% (P = 0.24, and -15% (P = 0.23 in the 30, 60, and 90 min walking trials, respectively. Conclusion Moderate intensity walking of 60 and 90 min duration slightly, but insignificantly, reduced postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with moderate fat content in sedentary, healthy young men, compared to inactivity. Therefore, it should be reconsidered if the acute exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia usually observed in studies using high fat meals is of importance in a real, daily life setting.

  1. Postmeal exercise blunts postprandial glucose excursions in people on metformin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melissa L; Little, Jonathan P; Gay, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-08-01

    Metformin is used clinically to reduce fasting glucose with minimal effects on postprandial glucose. Postmeal exercise reduces postprandial glucose and may offer additional glucose-lowering benefit beyond that of metformin alone, yet controversy exists surrounding exercise and metformin interactions. It is currently unknown how postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy in combination will affect postprandial glucose. Thus, we examined the independent and combined effects of postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy on postprandial glucose. A randomized crossover design was used to assess the influence of postmeal exercise on postprandial glucose excursions in 10 people treated with metformin monotherapy (57 ± 10 yr, HbA 1C  = 6.3 ± 0.6%). Each participant completed the following four conditions: sedentary and postmeal exercise (5 × 10-min bouts of treadmill walking at 60% V̇o 2max ) with metformin and sedentary and postmeal exercise without metformin. Peak postprandial glucose within a 2-h time window and 2-h total area under the curve was assessed after a standardized breakfast meal, using continuous glucose monitoring. Postmeal exercise significantly blunted 2-h peak ( P = 0.001) and 2-h area under the curve ( P = 0.006), with the lowest peak postprandial glucose excursion observed with postmeal exercise and metformin combined ( P exercise: 9.7 ± 2.3, washout/sedentary: 13.3 ± 3.2, washout/exercise: 11.1 ± 3.4 mmol/l). Postmeal exercise and metformin in combination resulted in the lowest peak postprandial glucose excursion compared with either treatment modality alone. Exercise timed to the postprandial phase may be important for optimizing glucose control during metformin monotherapy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The interactive effects of metformin and exercise on key physiological outcomes remain an area of controversy. Findings from this study show that the combination of metformin monotherapy and moderate-intensity postmeal exercise led to

  2. Quantitative HRMAS proton total correlation spectroscopy applied to cultured melanoma cells treated by chloroethyl nitrosourea: demonstration of phospholipid metabolism alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aicha; Papon, Janine; Madelmont, Jean Claude

    2003-02-01

    Recent NMR spectroscopy developments, such as high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) probes and correlation-enhanced 2D sequences, now allow improved investigations of phospholipid (Plp) metabolism. Using these modalities we previously demonstrated that a mouse-bearing melanoma tumor responded to chloroethyl nitrosourea (CENU) treatment in vivo by altering its Plp metabolism. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether HRMAS proton total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) could be used as a quantitative technique to probe Plp metabolism, and to determine the Plp metabolism response of cultured B16 melanoma cells to CENU treatment in vitro. The exploited TOCSY signals of Plp derivatives arose from scalar coupling among the protons of neighbor methylene groups within base headgroups (choline and ethanolamine). For strongly expressed Plp derivatives, TOCSY signals were compared to saturation recovery signals and demonstrated a linear relationship. HRMAS proton TOCSY was thus used to provide concentrations of Plp derivatives during long-term follow-up of CENU-treated cell cultures. Strong Plp metabolism alteration was observed in treated cultured cells in vitro involving a down-regulation of phosphocholine, and a dramatic and irreversible increase of phosphoethanolamine. These findings are discussed in relation to previous in vivo data, and to Plp metabolism enzymatic involvement. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Zhao, Beiyi R; Bound, Michelle J; Checklin, Helen L; Bellon, Max; Little, Tanya J; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient "preloads" can stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), slow gastric emptying, and reduce postprandial glycemic excursions. After sweet preloads, these effects may be signaled by sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), sweet taste receptors, or both. We determined the effects of 4 sweet preloads on GIP and GLP-1 release, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia. Ten healthy subjects were studied on 4 separate occasions each. A preload drink containing 40 g glucose, 40 g tagatose/isomalt mixture (TIM), 40 g 3-O-methylglucose (3OMG; a nonmetabolized substrate of SGLT1), or 60 mg sucralose was consumed 15 min before a (13)C-octanoic acid-labeled mashed potato meal. Blood glucose, plasma total GLP-1 and GIP, serum insulin, and gastric emptying were determined. Both glucose and 3OMG stimulated GLP-1 and GIP release in advance of the meal (each P < 0.05), whereas TIM and sucralose did not. The overall postprandial GLP-1 response was greater after glucose, 3OMG, and TIM than after sucralose (P < 0.05), albeit later after TIM than the other preloads. The blood glucose and insulin responses in the first 30 min after the meal were greatest after glucose (each P < 0.05). Gastric emptying was slower after both 3OMG and TIM than after sucralose (each P < 0.05). In healthy humans, SGLT1 substrates stimulate GLP-1 and GIP and slow gastric emptying, regardless of whether they are metabolized, whereas the artificial sweetener sucralose does not. Poorly absorbed sweet tastants (TIM), which probably expose a greater length of gut to nutrients, result in delayed GLP-1 secretion but not in delayed GIP release. These observations have the potential to optimize the use of preloads for glycemic control. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12611000775910.

  4. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  6. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  7. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  8. A randomized cross-over trial of the postprandial effects of three different diets in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fernemark

    Full Text Available In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM. However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets.To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM.A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates, and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision.Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC. The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35 ± 2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12 ± 5.2, p = 0.001 while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003.The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might

  9. A Randomized Cross-Over Trial of the Postprandial Effects of Three Different Diets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjaku, Bekim; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Nystrom, Fredrik H.; Guldbrand, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. Objective To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. Methods A low-fat diet (45–56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16–24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32–35 energy−% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025–1080 kCal in men and 905–984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. Results Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (pdiet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35±2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12±5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). Conclusions The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might be advantageous from a metabolic perspective. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  10. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  11. Effects of immediate-release niacin and dietary fatty acids on acute insulin and lipid status in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Guerrero, Juan M; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2018-04-01

    The nature of dietary fats profoundly affects postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and glucose homeostasis. Niacin is a potent lipid-lowering agent. However, limited data exist on postprandial triglycerides and glycemic control following co-administration of high-fat meals with a single dose of niacin in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the study was to explore whether a fat challenge containing predominantly saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated (LCPUFAs) fatty acids together with a single dose of immediate-release niacin have a relevant role in postprandial insulin and lipid status in subjects with MetS. In a randomized crossover within-subject design, 16 men with MetS were given a single dose of immediate-release niacin (2 g) and ∼15 cal kg -1 body weight meals containing either SFAs, MUFAs, MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs or no fat. At baseline and hourly over 6 h, plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFAs), total cholesterol, and both high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were assessed. Co-administered with niacin, high-fat meals significantly increased the postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, FFAs and postprandial indices of β-cell function. However, postprandial indices of insulin sensitivity were significantly decreased. These effects were significantly attenuated with MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 LCPUFAs when compared with SFAs. In the setting of niacin co-administration and compared to dietary SFAs, MUFAs limit the postprandial insulin, triglyceride and FFA excursions, and improve postprandial glucose homeostasis in MetS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Postprandial hyperglycemia corrected by IGF-I (Increlex®) in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrech, Hanane; Simon, Albane; Beltrand, Jacques; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Belmejdoub, Ghizlane; Polak, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Laron syndrome is caused by a mutation in the growth hormone (GH) receptor and manifests as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency, severe short stature, and early hypoglycemia. We report a case with postprandial hyperglycemia, an abnormality not reported previously. Postprandial hyperglycemia was due to chronic IGF-I deficiency, and was reversed by IGF-I replacement therapy. A Moroccan girl referred for short stature at 7 years and 8 months of age had dwarfism [height, 78 cm (-9 SDs); weight, 10 kg (-4 SDs)], hypoglycemia, and truncal obesity. Her serum IGF-I level was very low, and her baseline serum GH level was elevated to 47 mIU/l. Molecular analysis showed a homozygous mutation in the GH receptor gene. Continuous glucose monitoring before treatment showed asymptomatic hypoglycemia with postprandial hyperglycemia (2.5 g/l, 13.75 mmol/l). Treatment with recombinant human IGF-I (mecasermin, Increlex®) was started. The blood glucose profile improved with 0.04 µg/kg/day and returned to normal with 0.12 µg/kg/day. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a metabolic consequence of chronic IGF-I deficiency. The beneficial effect of IGF-I replacement therapy may be ascribable to improved postprandial transfer of glucose. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  14. Lack of effect of a high-calorie dextrose or maltodextrin meal on postprandial oxidative stress in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Carbohydrate powder in the form of maltodextrin is widely used by athletes for postexercise glycogen resynthesis. There is some concern that such a practice may be associated with a postprandial rise in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and subsequent oxidation of macromolecules. This is largely supported by findings of increased oxidative-stress biomarkers and associated endothelial dysfunction after intake of dextrose. To compare the effects of isocaloric dextrose and maltodextrin meals on blood glucose, triglycerides (TAG), and oxidative-stress biomarkers in a sample of young healthy men. 10 men consumed isocaloric dextrose and maltodextrin powder drinks (2.25 g/kg) in a random-order, crossover design. Blood samples were collected premeal (fasting) and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hr postmeal and assayed for glucose, TAG, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate/nitrite, and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity. Significant meal effects were noted for glucose total area under the curve (p=.004), with values higher for the dextrose meal. No other statistically significant meal effects were noted (p>.05). With respect to the 2 (meal)x5 (time) ANOVA, no significant interaction, time, or meal effects were noted for any variable (p>.05), with the exception of glucose, for which a main effect for both meal (pdextrose or maltodextrin, pose little postprandial oxidative insult to young, healthy men. As such, there should be minimal concern over such feedings, even at high dosages, assuming adequate glucose metabolism.

  15. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  16. Vigorous exercise is associated with superior metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome independent of total exercise expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eleni A; Noel, Martha W; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2016-02-01

    To characterize metabolic features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by exercise behavior and determine relative health benefits of different exercise intensities. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic institution. Three hundred and twenty-six women aged 14-52 years-old with PCOS by Rotterdam criteria examined between 2006 and 2013. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) administered to classify patients into three groups based on Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Guidelines of vigorous, moderate, and inactive, along with physical examination and serum testing. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The DHHS guidelines for adequate physical activity were met by 182 (56%) women. Compared with moderate exercisers and inactive women, the vigorous exercisers had lower BMI and lower HOMA-IR; higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and sex hormone-binding globulin; and a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for age, BMI, and total energy expenditure, every hour of vigorous exercise reduced a patient's odds of metabolic syndrome by 22% (odds ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.62, 0.99). Women with PCOS who met DHHS guidelines for exercise demonstrated superior metabolic health parameters. Vigorous but not moderate activity is associated with reduced odds of the metabolic syndrome, independent of age, BMI, and total energy expenditure. PCOS patients should be encouraged to meet activity guidelines via vigorous physical activity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  18. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Parvaresh Rizi

    Full Text Available It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP, high-carbohydrate (HC, or high-fat (HF mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10 and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41 young (age 21-40 years, normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, total peptide-YY (PYY, and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects.

  19. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaresh Rizi, Ehsan; Loh, Tze Ping; Baig, Sonia; Chhay, Vanna; Huang, Shiqi; Caleb Quek, Jonathan; Tai, E. Shyong; Toh, Sue-Anne

    2018-01-01

    It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41) young (age 21–40 years), normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total peptide-YY (PYY), and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects. PMID:29385178

  20. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  1. Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-11-14

    A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M - 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP - 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (Pmeal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.

  2. Effects of rs7903146 variation in the Tcf7l2 gene in the lipid metabolism of three different populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Perez-Martinez

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 rs7903146 is an important genetic factor predicting type 2 diabetes (T2DM which has also been linked to higher cardiovascular risk. To date, there is little information about the additional impact of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP beyond glucose metabolism.We studied whether rs7903146 influenced postprandial lipid metabolism in three different populations (healthy young men, metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and elderly persons. Eighty-eight healthy males were submitted to a single saturated fatty acid-rich test meal. Additionally, 110 middle-aged MetS patients and 20 healthy elderly persons (≥ 65 years were submitted to three different dietary models followed by test meals. Minor allele homozygotes for rs7903146 showed a worse postprandial lipemia profile in young males, as seen by a lower HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 concentration during the postprandial lipemia and a trend towards higher triglycerides (TG, than the other genotypes. In healthy elderly persons, carriers of the minor allele showed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Apo B and TG in the fasting state, and a higher postprandial area under the curve for total cholesterol, Apo B, small-triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL cholesterol and small-(TRL triglycerides. These results were accompanied by differential changes in adipokines. We did not observe any influence of rs7903146 on the postprandium of MetS patients.Healthy young males and elderly persons who are carriers of the mutant allele for rs7903146 have an impaired postprandial lipid metabolism that may be mediated by an alteration in adipokine regulation, and may be related to the higher cardiovascular risk observed in these persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429195.

  3. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food-style meal. Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: -1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food-style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  5. Postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, R.G.; Bell, P.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Hansen, I.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have both preprandial and postprandial hyperglycemia. To determine the mechanism responsible for the postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, insulin action, and the pattern of carbohydrate metabolism after glucose ingestion were assessed in patients with NIDDM and in matched nondiabetic subjects using the dual isotope and forearm catheterization techniques. Prior to meal ingestion, hepatic glucose release was increased (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients measured using [2- 3 H] or [3- 3 H] glucose. After meal ingestion, patients with NIDDM had excessive rates of systemic glucose entry (1,316 +/- 56 vs. 1,018 +/- 65 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01), primarily owing to a failure to suppress adequately endogenous glucose release (680 +/- 50 vs. 470 +/- 32 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.01) from its high preprandial level. Despite impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (P less than 0.001) and decreased postprandial C-peptide response (P less than 0.05) in NIDDM, percent suppression of hepatic glucose release after oral glucose was comparable in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects (45 +/- 3 vs. 39 +/- 2%). Although new glucose formation from meal-derived three-carbon precursors (53 +/- 3 vs. 40 +/- 7 mg/kg X 7 h, P less than 0.05) was greater in the diabetic patients, it accounted for only a minor part of this excessive postprandial hepatic glucose release. Postprandial hyperglycemia was exacerbated by the lack of an appropriate increase in glucose uptake whether measured isotopically or by forearm glucose uptake. Thus excessive hepatic glucose release and impaired glucose uptake are involved in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM

  6. Both basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates, following the ingestion of a leucine-enriched whey protein supplement, are not impaired in sarcopenic older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Irene Fleur; Verdijk, Lex B; Hamer, Henrike M; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette C; Kouw, Imre W K; Senden, Joan M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Gijsen, Annemarie P; Bierau, Jörgen; Poeze, Martijn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-10-01

    Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men. A total of 15 healthy (69 ± 1 y) and 15 sarcopenic (81 ± 1 y) older men ingested a leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement containing 21 g of protein, 9 g of carbohydrate, and 3 g of fat. Stable isotope methodology combined with frequent collection of blood and muscle samples was applied to assess basal and post-prandial muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. Handgrip strength, muscle mass, and gait speed were assessed to identify sarcopenia, according to international criteria. Basal mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) averaged 0.040 ± 0.005 and 0.032 ± 0.003%/h (mean ± SEM) in the sarcopenic and healthy group, respectively (P = 0.14). Following protein ingestion, FSR increased significantly to 0.055 ± 0.004 and 0.053 ± 0.004%/h in the post-prandial period in the sarcopenic (P = 0.003) and healthy groups (P protein synthesis rates during the early (0.058 ± 0.007 vs 0.060 ± 0.008%/h, sarcopenic vs healthy, respectively) and late (0.052 ± 0.004 vs 0.048 ± 0.003%/h) stages of the post-prandial period (P = 0.93 and P = 0.34, respectively). Basal muscle protein synthesis rates are not lower in sarcopenic older men compared to healthy older men. The ingestion of 21 g of a leucine-enriched whey protein effectively increases muscle protein synthesis rates in both sarcopenic and healthy older men. Public trial registry number: NTR3047. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights

  7. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  8. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  9. Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are unaffected by sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Wolfe, Scott; Albu, Jeanine B.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation. Subjects/Methods Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal. Results Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92). Conclusions Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers. PMID:24352294

  10. Metabolic observations during the treatment of obese patients by periods of total starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, H.G. van; Schwarz, F.; Kinderen, P.J. der; Veeman, W.

    Ten very obese female patients were treated by periods of total starvation lasting 10 days each. In the interval between these starvation periods, a diet of 600 calories was given. Twenty-one periods were completed, 6 patients went through 3 periods each. The fasting was generally well tolerated;

  11. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  12. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  13. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.

  14. The Effect of Agave tequilana Weber Inulin on Postprandial Ghrelin Concentration in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Haro, Betsabe; Robles-Cervantes, Jose A; Gonzalez-Ortiz, Manuel; Martinez-Abundis, Esperanza; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P; Morgado-Castillo, Karina C

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Agave tequilana Weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin levels in obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was performed. A total of 14 patients were allocated into two groups: one group received a drink that contained 500 mL lemon water, 24 g of A. tequilana Weber inulin, and 75 g glucose and the other group received a placebo drink with 500 mL lemon drink and 75 g of glucose. After a 7-day washout period, the groups were crossed. The primary outcome measure was postprandial ghrelin levels between minute 240 and minute 270. A. tequilana Weber inulin did not change postprandial ghrelin concentration in obese patients.

  15. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  16. Investigation of the Relationship Between Molluscum Pendulum and Impairment of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: High blood sugar level, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are accepted to be indicators of impaired carbohydrate metabolism. The potential role of these markers as well as the serum levels of insulin growth factor (IGF-1 and insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3 in the pathogenesis of molluscum pendulum were investigated in this study. Materials and methods: Forty-five molluscum pendulum patients and 45 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals as controls were enrolled in the study. Evaluation included dermatological examination, measurement of insulin resistance using HOMA-IR method, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, fasting insulin, postprandial insulin, serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. Results: Postprandial blood glucose, fasting insulin, postprandial insulin and Homeostazis Model Assesment (HOMA-IR levels of molluscum pendulum patients were statistically higher than those of controls (p=0.037, p=0.027, p=0.03, p=0.021 respectively, whereas serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly lower than those of controls (p=0.008, p=0.001. There was no difference in fasting glucose and lipid profile between the two groups. Three patients (6.7% had DM and one patient (13.3% had impaired glucose tolerance. Only one participant from the control group (2,2% had impaired glucose tolerance. The number of molluscum pendulum lesions correlated with fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, postprandial insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusion: Molluscum pendulum patients should have blood glucose and insulin resistance measurements done and be followed up for DM. Patients with multiple lesions need to be evaluated for lipid problems. We suggest that serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels have no role in the pathogenesis of molluscum pendulum. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 188-92

  17. The Effect of Lean-Seafood and Non-Seafood Diets on Fasting and Postprandial Serum Metabolites and Lipid Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Mette; Balderas, Claudia; Aadland, Eli Kristin

    2018-01-01

    The metabolic effects associated with intake of different dietary protein sources are not well characterized. We aimed to elucidate how two diets that varied in main protein sources affected the fasting and postprandial serum metabolites and lipid species. In a randomized controlled trial with cr...

  18. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  19. Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voukali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM. This study was a single-center, two-armed, randomized, controlled 2-week prospective intervention trial in 20 subjects with T2DM. Patients were randomized to receive either liraglutide or exenatide treatment and underwent a standardized meal tolerance test early in the morning after 10 h fast at baseline (visit 1, beginning of treatment and after a two-week treatment period (visit 2. Exenatide and liraglutide both appear to be equally effective in lowering postprandial lipaemia after the first administration and after a two-week treatment. The mechanisms which lead to this phenomenon, which seem to be independent of gastric emptying, are yet to be studied.

  20. Smoking, inflammatory patterns, and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Smoking is associated with increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT). Inflammation and insulin resistance are potential "drivers" for this phenomenon. We tested whether inflammatory patterns and/or insulin resistance explain the effect of smoking on PPT. Methods: Men and women i...

  1. Effects of total vitamin A, vitamin C, and fruit intake on risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ham, Jung-O; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether the consumption of antioxidants prevents and alleviates metabolic syndrome (MetS) by reducing insulin resistance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of vitamin A (including β-carotene), vitamin C, fruits, or vegetables was negatively associated with MetS in Korean adults aged ≥ 20 y. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 27,656 adults ≥ 20 y of age who participated in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vitamin A and vitamin C was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption of fruits and vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated for log2-transformed vitamin A and C intake values and for the interaction of sex with vitamin A and C intake, after covariate adjustment. Interactions were seen between total vitamin A and C intake and sex for MetS. With a twofold increase in total vitamin A and C intake in women, the ORs (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 0.942 (0.901-0.985) and 0.933 (0.883-0.987), indicating decreases of 5.8% and 6.7% in MetS, respectively. There were no equivalent decreases in men. Women in the second and highest tertiles of fruit intake exhibited 17.5% and 21.8% lower incidences of MetS, respectively, compared with women in the lowest tertile. The intake of total vitamin A and C, as well as moderate and high fruit intake, may have alleviated MetS in women, but not in men, in a representative sample of the general South Korean population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsun-Wei Huang, Tom; Peng Gang; Qian Li, George; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao

    2006-01-01

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-α mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-α luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-α antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-α activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

  3. Platelet function in the postprandial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinzinger Helmut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test. However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG, such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The

  4. The Apolipoprotein C-I Content of Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins Is Associated with Fasting Triglycerides, Postprandial Lipemia, and Carotid Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Bjarne Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental studies in animals suggest that apolipoprotein (apo C-I is an important regulator of triglycerides in fasting and postprandial conditions and associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 81 subjects, aged 56–80 years recruited from a population health survey. The participants underwent a fat tolerance test (1 g fat per Kg body weight and carotid atherosclerosis was determined by ultrasound examination. VLDL particles, Sf 20–400, were isolated and their lipid composition and apoC-I content determined. Results. The carotid plaque area increased linearly with the number of apoC-I molecules per VLDL particles (P=0.048 under fasting conditions. Fasting triglycerides increased across tertiles of apoC-I per VLDL particle in analyses adjusted for apoC-II and -C-III, apoE genotype and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.011. The relation between apoC-I in VLDL and serum triglycerides was conveyed by triglyceride enrichment of VLDL particles (P for trend <0.001. The amount of apoC-I molecules per VLDL was correlated with the total (r=0.41, P<0.0001 and incremental (r=0.35, P<0.001 area under the postprandial triglyceride curve. Conclusions. Our findings support the concept that the content of apoC-I per VLDL particle is an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism in the fasting and postprandial state and associated with carotid athrosclerosis.

  5. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  6. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  7. Methods to study postprandial lipemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Teik Chye; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    to the liver. In general, PPL occurs over 4-6 h in normal individuals, depending on the amount and type of fats consumed. The complexity of PPL changes is compounded by ingestion of food before the previous meal is fully processed. PPL testing is done to determine the impact of (a) exogenous factors...... such as the amount and type of food consumed, and (b) endogenous factors such as the metabolic/genetic status of the subjects, on PPL. To study PPL appropriately, different methods are used to suit the study goal. This paper provides an overview of the methodological aspects of PPL testing. It deals with markers...

  8. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. → PPARα activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO 2 production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. → Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO 2 production in small intestinal epithelial cells. → Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. → It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPARα activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPARα activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPARα activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPARα agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO 2 and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover

  9. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  11. A Metabolism-Based Synergy for Total Coumarin Extract of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Ligustrazine on Migraine Treatment in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae dahuricae, containing coumarins, which might affect cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450 activity, has been co-administered with ligustrazine, a substrate of CYP450s, for the clinical treatment of migraine. However, whether a pharmacokinetic-based synergy exists between Radix Angelicae dahuricae and ligustrazine is still unknown. In this study, the total coumarin extract (TCE of Radix Angelicae dahuricae (50 mg/kg, orally reinforced the anti-migraine activity of ligustrazine by declining head scratching, plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide, and serum nitric oxide, as well as increasing plasma endothelin levels in rats (p < 0.05. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic study reflected that TCE potentiated the area under the concentration–time curve of ligustrazine and prolonged its mean retention time in rats (p < 0.05. Besides, the IC50 for TCE, imperatorin and isoimperatorin inhibiting ligustrazine metabolism were 5.0 ± 1.02, 1.35 ± 0.46, 4.81 ± 1.14 µg/mL in human liver microsomes, and 13.69 ± 1.11, 1.19 ± 1.09, 1.69 ± 1.17 µg/mL in rat liver microsomes, respectively. Moreover, imperatorin and isoimperatorin were CYP450s inhibitors with IC50 < 10 µM for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4. Therefore, this study concluded that Radix Angelicae dahuricae could increase ligustrazine plasma concentration and then reinforce its pharmacological effect by inhibiting its metabolism through interference with CYP450s. This could be one mechanism for the synergy between Radix Angelicae dahuricae and ligustrazine on migraine treatment.

  12. The ddY mouse: a model of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in response to dietary fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia (lipemia) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, mouse models of postprandial hyperlipidemia have not been reported. Here, we report that ddY mice display marked postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in response to dietary fat. In ddY mice, the fasting serum total triacylglyceride (TG) concentration was 134 mg/dl, which increased to 571 mg/dl after an intragastric safflower oil load (0.4 ml/mouse). In C57BL/6J mice, these concentrations were 57 and 106 mg/dl, respectively. By lipoprotein analysis, ddY mice showed increases in chylomicron- and VLDL-sized TG fractions (remnants and VLDL) after fat load. In C57BL/6J mice, post-heparin plasma LPL activity after fat load was increased 4.8-fold relative to fasting. However, in ddY mice, the increase of LPL activity after fat load was very small (1.2-fold) and not significant. High fat feeding for 10 weeks led to obesity in ddY mice. A difference in LPL amino acid composition between C57BL/6J and ddY mice was detected but was deemed unlikely to cause hypertriglyceridemia because hypertriglyceridemia was not evident in other strains harboring the ddY-type LPL sequence. These findings indicate that postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in ddY mice is induced by decreased LPL activity after fat load and is associated with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:22735545

  13. Postprandial hyperglykaemi. Postprandiale blodglukosesvingninger og kardiovaskulaer sygdom samt sendiabetiske komplikationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have demo...... have focused on specific treatment of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the importance of postprandial hyperglycaemia for development of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis is unclear.......Epidemiological studies have suggested that postprandial hyperglycaemia may be a unique risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease, although the predictive value has been minor or disappeared after compensation for other cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological studies have...

  14. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Pinto, Rui; Trygg, Johan; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Nording, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  15. Postprandial metabolomics: A pilot mass spectrometry and NMR study of the human plasma metabolome in response to a challenge meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimpour, Masoumeh; Surowiec, Izabella; Wu, Junfang [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Pinto, Rui [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (Sweden); Trygg, Johan [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden); Zivkovic, Angela M. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); Nording, Malin L., E-mail: malin.nording@umu.se [Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-02-18

    The study of postprandial metabolism is relevant for understanding metabolic diseases and characterizing personal responses to diet. We combined three analytical platforms – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – to validate a multi-platform approach for characterizing individual variation in the postprandial state. We analyzed the postprandial plasma metabolome by introducing, at three occasions, meal challenges on a usual diet, and 1.5 years later, on a modified background diet. The postprandial response was stable over time and largely independent of the background diet as revealed by all three analytical platforms. Coverage of the metabolome between NMR and GC-MS included more polar metabolites detectable only by NMR and more hydrophobic compounds detected by GC-MS. The variability across three separate testing occasions among the identified metabolites was in the range of 1.1–86% for GC-MS and 0.9–42% for NMR in the fasting state at baseline. For the LC-MS analysis, the coefficients of variation of the detected compounds in the fasting state at baseline were in the range of 2–97% for the positive and 4–69% for the negative mode. Multivariate analysis (MVA) of metabolites detected with GC-MS revealed that for both background diets, levels of postprandial amino acids and sugars increased whereas those of fatty acids decreased at 0.5 h after the meal was consumed, reflecting the expected response to the challenge meal. MVA of NMR data revealed increasing postprandial levels of amino acids and other organic acids together with decreasing levels of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, also independent of the background diet. Together these data show that the postprandial response to the same challenge meal was stable even though it was tested 1.5 years apart, and that it was largely independent of background diet. This work demonstrates the efficacy of a

  16. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  17. Effect of a high bicarbonate mineral water on fasting and postprandial lipemia in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zair, Yassine; Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Housez, Beatrice; Pichelin, Mathieu; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Raoux, François; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-07-18

    During postprandial state, TG concentration is increasing and HDL cholesterol decreasing, leading to a transitory pro-atherosclerotic profile. Previous studies have reported that bicarbonate water improve postprandial lipemia. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a strongly bicarbonated mineral water on lipoprotein levels during fasting and postprandial state. A controlled, randomised, double-blind cross-over design was conducted in 12 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects after a daily ingestion of 1.25 L of mineral (SY) or low mineral water during eight weeks separated by a one week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected in first visit to the hospital (V1) before water consumption (referent or SY) and in a second visit (V2) after eight week water consumption period. The effect of the consumed water was studied in fasting and in postprandial state during ingestion of a meal and 0.5 L of water. Comparison of data between V1 and V2 after SY consumption showed a significant decrease in triglyceridemia (23%), VLDL TG (31%) and tendency to a decrease of VLDL cholesterol (p = 0.066) at fasting state. Whatever the consumed water during postprandial state, the measurement of total areas under curves did not show a significant difference. No difference was observed between SY and referent water consumption for measured parameters at fasting and postprandial state. When subjects consumed SY we showed a decrease of their basal TG and VLDLTG. The unexpected absence of effect of high mineralized water on postprandial lipemia, probably related to experimental conditions, is discussed in the discussion section.

  18. Prediction of cardiovascular and total mortality in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients by the WHO definition for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T-C; So, W-Y; Chan, N N; Chan, W-B; Tong, P C-Y; Li, J; Yeung, V; Chow, C-C; Ozaki, R; Ma, R C-W; Cockram, C S; Chan, J C-N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MES) in type 2 diabetic patients and the predictive values of the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) definitions and the individual components of the MES on total and cardiovascular mortality. A prospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of 5202 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients recruited between July 1994 and April 2001. The prevalence of the MES was 49.2-58.1% depending on the use of various criteria. There were 189 deaths (men: 100 and women: 89) in these 5205 patients during a median (interquartile range) follow-up period of 2.1 (0.3-3.6 years). Of these, 164 (87%) were classified as cardiovascular deaths. Using the NCEP criterion, patients with MES had a death rate similar to those without (3.51 vs. 3.85%). By contrast, based on the WHO criteria, patients with MES had a higher mortality rate than those without (4.3 vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002). Compared to patients with neither NCEP- nor WHO-defined MES, only the group with MES defined by the WHO, but not NCEP, criterion had significantly higher mortality rate (2.6 vs. 6.8%, p hypertension, low BMI and albuminuria were the key predictors for these adverse events. In Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, the WHO criterion has a better discriminative power over the NCEP criterion for predicting death. Among the various components of the MES defined either by WHO or NCEP, hypertension, albuminuria and low BMI were the main predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality.

  19. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  20. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  1. Postprandial lipemia detects the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease risk compared with the fasting lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Santo, Ariana M; Browne, Richard W; Burton, Harold; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Steven M; Horvath, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Studies examining the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have not taken advantage of the postprandial state as an adjunct to the fasting lipid profile. The American Heart Association has acknowledged the efficacy of soy protein in reducing CVD risk factors to be limited. We hypothesized that the postprandial state would be more sensitive to any favorable changes associated with consuming soy protein compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the presence of isoflavones in soy would enhance this effect. Thirty sedentary males aged 18-30 years were randomly assigned to milk protein (Milk), isoflavone-poor soy (Soy-), or isoflavone-rich soy (Soy+). Usual diets were supplemented with 25 g/day of protein for 28 days. Serum samples were collected before and after supplementation in a fasted state and postprandially at 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after a high-fat, 1,000 kcal shake. Triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, apolipoproteins B-100 and A-I and glucose concentrations were quantified. Fasting concentrations were not different after any protein supplementation. Postprandial TAG and TAG AUC increased after Soy-consumption supporting the postprandial state as a more sensitive indicator of soy ingestion effects on CVD risk factors compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the absence of isoflavones in soy protein may have deleterious consequences on purported cardio-protective effects.

  2. Assessment of postprandial triglycerides in clinical practice: Validation in a general population and coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Kabagambe, Edmon K; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tsai, Michael Y; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Kolovou, Genovefa; Straka, Robert J; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Hopkins, Paul N; Marin, Carmen; Borecki, Ingrid; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Hixson, James E; Camargo, Antonio; Province, Michael A; Lopez-Moreno, Javier; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benefit diagnostically from an oral-fat tolerance test (OFTT) in clinical practice. A population of 1002 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from the CORDIOPREV clinical trial and 1115 white US subjects from the GOLDN study underwent OFTTs. Subjects were classified into 3 groups according to fasting cut points of TGs to predict the usefulness of OFTT: (1) TG  180 mg/dl (>2 mmol/l). Postprandial TG concentration at any point > 220 mg/dl (>2.5 mmol/l) has been pre-established as an undesirable postprandial response. Of the total, 49% patients with CHD and 42% from the general population showed an undesirable response after the OFTT. The prevalence of undesirable postprandial TG in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial was 12.8, 50.3, and 89.7%, in group 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P 2 mmol/l, >180 mg/dl). Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, A. J. H. H. M.; Alipour, A.; Sijmonsma, T. P.; Verseyden, C.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Castro Cabezas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50 +/- 4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of

  4. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, Jan S.; van Rutte, Pim W. J.; Edelbroek, Michela A. L.; Wyndaele, Dirk N. J.; Smulders, Johannes F.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Siersema, Peter D.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial symptoms and

  5. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular diseases: the beneficial role of strength exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been linked with changes to the lipid profile that can be observed during the postprandial period, a phenomenon known as postprandial lipemia (PL. Physical exercise is currently the number one non-pharmacological intervention employed for prevention and reduction of risk factors for the development of CVD. This in turn has created a growing interest in the effects of physical exercise on regulation and equilibrium of lipid metabolism. In this review we compare the results of studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We analyzed articles identified in the PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases published from 1975 to 2013 in international journals. Studies were selected for review if they covered at least two of four keywords. The results of these studies lead to the conclusion that strength training is effective for reduction of postprandial lipemia because it increases baseline energy expenditure. This type of training can be prescribed as an important element in strategies to treat chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

  6. Postprandial dietary fatty acids exert divergent inflammatory responses in retinal-pigmented epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Moreda, Wenceslao; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-03-01

    Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) lead to a complex series of events that are potentially oxidative and inflammatory. The main goal of this study was to characterize the influence of postprandial TRLs with different fatty acid compositions (mainly SFAs, MUFAs or MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs) on oxidative and inflammatory markers in RPE cells, which play a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Compared to TRL-SFAs, TRL-MUFAs and TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs decreased the production of ROS and nitrite, and the gene expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFNγ and VEGF. For the first time we show that postprandial TRLs are metabolic entities able to induce RPE oxidative stress and inflammation in a fatty acid-dependent manner, TRL-SFAs ⋙ TRL-MUFAs = TRL-MUFAs plus omega-3 PUFAs. These exciting findings open new opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the principal dietary source of oleic acid to prevent the development and progression of AMD.

  7. The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups. No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  9. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  10. Bone Metabolism after Total Hip Revision Surgery with Impacted Grafting: Evaluation using H215O and [18F]fluoride PET; A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Olivier; Raijmakers, Pieter; Heyligers, Ide; Comans, Emile; Lubberink, Mark; Teule, Gerrit; Lammertsma, Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bone blood flow and bone formation in patients after total hip revision surgery with impacted bone grafting using H2 15O and [18F]fluoride positron emission tomography (PET). Procedures: To asses bone blood flow and bone metabolism in bone allograft after impaction grafting,

  11. Exercise and postprandial lipemia: effects on vascular health in inactive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Rodríguez, María; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Aya-Aldana, Viviana; Izquierdo, Mikel; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Álvarez, Cristian; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio

    2018-04-03

    There is evidence to suggest that postprandial lipemia are is linked to the impairment of endothelial function, which is characterized by an imbalance between the actions of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week high-intensity training (HIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) protocol on postprandial lipemia, vascular function and arterial stiffness in inactive adults after high-fat meal (HFM) ingestion. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 20 healthy, inactive adults (31.6 ± 7.1 years). Participants followed the two exercise protocols for 12 weeks. To induce a state of postprandial lipemia (PPL), all subjects received a HFM. Endothelial function was measured using flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), normalized brachial artery FMD (nFMD), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx). Plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides and glucose were also measured. The effects of a HFM were evaluated in a fasted state and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postprandially. A significant decrease in serum glucose between 0 min (fasted state) and 120 min postprandially was found in the HIT group (P = 0.035). Likewise, FMD (%) was significantly different between the fasted state and 60 min after a HFM in the HIT group (P = 0.042). The total cholesterol response expressed as area under curve (AUC) (0-240) was lower following HIT than following MCT, but no significant differences were observed (8%, P > 0.05). Similarly, triglycerides AUC (0-240) was also lower after HIT compared with MCT, which trended towards significance (24%, P = 0.076). The AUC (0-240) for the glucose response was significantly lower following HIT than MCT (10%, P = 0.008). FMD and nFMD AUC (0-240) were significantly higher following HIT than following MCT (46.9%, P = 0.021 and 67.3%, P = 0.009, respectively). PWV AUC (0-240) did not differ following

  12. Studies on metabolism of total glucosides of paeony from Paeoniae Radix Alba in rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenli; Wang, Xinguo; Li, Haojie; Shi, Xuliang; Fan, Wencheng; Zhao, Shaohua; Liu, Minyan; Niu, Liying

    2015-11-01

    Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information-dependent acquisition scan for the low-level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data-processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhiyao; Abou-Samra, Abdul B.; Zhang, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Lipasin/Angptl8 is a feeding-induced hepatokine that regulates triglyceride (TAG) metabolism; its therapeutical potential, mechanism of action, and relation to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), however, remain elusive. We generated five monoclonal lipasin antibodies, among which one lowered the serum TAG level when injected into mice, and the epitope was determined to be EIQVEE. Lipasin-deficient mice exhibited elevated postprandial activity of LPL in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in whi...

  14. Effect of cinnamon powder addition to a Portuguese custard tart (Pastel de Nata) on healthy adults' postprandial glycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Moncada, Margarida Maria; Bernardo, Ma; Silva, M.L.; Jorge, A.; Pereira, P.; Brito, J.; Singh, Jaipaul; Mesquita, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cinnamon is a spice used over the years in cooking to impart aromatic, flavor and taste properties to food and beverages. Moreover, cinnamon has been used for its medicinal properties due to its potential phenolic content, which can protect against cardio-metabolic diseases. Previous studies reported an improvement of postprandial glycemia after addition of cinnamon powder to a high-sugar meal. The study aims at investigating the effect of adding cinnamon powder to a...

  15. Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Liza A H; Östman, Elin M; Björck, Inger M E

    2011-11-23

    Rye breads made from commercial rye blends lower the postprandial insulin demand and appear to facilitate glucose regulation. However, differences in metabolic responses may occur between rye varieties. In the present work, five rye varieties (Amilo, Evolo, Kaskelott, Picasso. and Vicello) and a commercial blend of rye grown in Sweden were investigated with regard to their postprandial insulin, glucose, and appetite regulation properties in a randomized crossover study in 20 healthy subjects. The rye flours were baked into whole grain breads, and a white wheat bread (WWB) was used as reference (50 g of available starch). Picasso and Vicello rye bread showed lower glycemic indices (GIs) compared with WWB (80 and 79, respectively) (P bread made from not only Vicello and Picasso but also Amilo and Kaskelott displayed significantly lower insulin indices (IIs) than WWB (74-82). A high GP and GP(2) and a low GI were related to a lower II and insulin incremental peak. A high content of insoluble fibers and a high GP(2) were related to a higher subjective satiety in the early and late postprandial phase (tAUC 0-60 min and tAUC 120-180 min, respectively). The results suggest that there may be differences in the course of glycemia following different rye varieties, affecting postprandial insulin responses and subjective satiety.

  16. Nutrient re-routing and altered gut-islet cell crosstalk may explain early relief of severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, M S; Toft-Nielsen, M B; Kristiansen, V B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with an increased risk of postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, but the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore examined the effect of re-routing of nutrient delivery on gut-islet cell crosstalk in a person...... insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 hypersecretion and eliminated postprandial hypoglycaemia, which emphasizes the importance of altered gut-islet cell crosstalk for glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  18. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  19. Wheat-fibre-induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weickert, Martin O; Spranger, Joachim; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    of plasma peptide YY (PYY), serum ghrelin and satiety as secondary outcome measures of a study investigating effects of cereal fibres on parameters of glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy women were studied on six occasions in a randomized, single-blind, controlled crossover design. After 24 h run......-in periods and 10 h overnight fasts, subjects ingested isoenergetic and macronutrient matched portions of control white bread or fibre-enriched bread (wheat-fibre or oat-fibre) at 08.15 hours. Gut hormones and hunger scores were measured for 300 min. Basal PYY and ghrelin concentrations were not different...... between the test meals (P>0.15). Postprandial responses of PYY and ghrelin were blunted after the intake of wheat-fibre (total area under the curve (AUC) PYY, 177.9 (SEM 8.1) (pmol/l) min; P=0.016; ghrelin 51.0 (SEM 2.5) (pmol/l) min; P=0.003), but not after oat-fibre (PYY 226.7 (SEM 25.7) (pmol/l) min; P...

  20. Postprandial regulation of hepatic microRNAs predicted to target the insulin pathway in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A Mennigen

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout are carnivorous fish and poor metabolizers of carbohydrates, which established this species as a model organism to study the comparative physiology of insulin. Following the recent characterisation of key roles of several miRNAs in the insulin action on hepatic intermediary metabolism in mammalian models, we investigated the hypothesis that hepatic miRNA expression is postprandially regulated in the rainbow trout and temporally coordinated in the context of insulin-mediated regulation of metabolic gene expression in the liver. To address this hypothesis, we used a time-course experiment in which rainbow trout were fed a commercial diet after short-term fasting. We investigated hepatic miRNA expression, activation of the insulin pathway, and insulin regulated metabolic target genes at several time points. Several miRNAs which negatively regulate hepatic insulin signaling in mammalian model organisms were transiently increased 4 h after the meal, consistent with a potential role in acute postprandial negative feed-back regulation of the insulin pathway and attenuation of gluconeogenic gene expression. We equally observed a transient increase in omy- miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b 4 h after feeding, whose homologues have potent lipogenic roles in the liver of mammalian model systems. A concurrent increase in the activity of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway and the expression of lipogenic genes (srebp1c, fas, acly was equally observed, while lipolytic gene expression (cpt1a and cpt1b decreased significantly 4 h after the meal. This suggests lipogenic roles of omy-miRNA-33 and omy-miRNA-122b may be conserved between rainbow trout and mammals and that these miRNAs may furthermore contribute to acute postprandial regulation of de novo hepatic lipid synthesis in rainbow trout. These findings provide a framework for future research of miRNA regulation of hepatic metabolism in trout and will help to further elucidate the metabolic

  1. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  2. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren J; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order, eight obese women completed two, 12-h conditions in which they consumed 1,500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4-h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2-h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dl · 12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared with the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dl · 12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/l · 12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/l(.) 12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables. Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  4. Effects of gastric emptying on the postprandial ghrelin response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Lluch, A.; Vinoy, S.; Stafleu, A.; Berg, van den R.; Holst, J.J.; Kok, F.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Distension and chemosensitization of the stomach are insufficient to induce a ghrelin response, suggesting that postgastric feedback is required. This postgastric feedback may be regulated through insulin. We investigated the relation between gastric emptying rate and the postprandial ghrelin

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  6. Metabolic study of paeoniflorin and total paeony glucosides from Paeoniae Radix Rubra in rats by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with sequential mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Sun, Shanshan; Hu, Yanxi; Liu, Yufeng

    2018-04-01

    A clear understanding of the metabolism of Traditional Chinese Medicines is extremely important in their rational clinical application and effective material foundation research. A novel and reliable strategy was performed to find more metabolites of paeoniflorin, determine the metabolites of total paeony glucosides (TPG) by means of determining those metabolites of paeoniflorin, and compare the metabolism differences between paeoniflorin and TPG by intragastric administration. This strategy was characterized as follows. Firstly, the rats were divided into two groups (the paeoniflorin group and the TPG group) to find differences in metabolism mechanisms between paeoniflorin and TPG. Secondly, UPLC-FT-ICR MS and UPLC-Q-TOF MS 2 were applied to obtain accurate molecular weight and structural information, respectively. Thirdly, the metabolites were tentatively identified by a combination of data-processing methods including mass defect screening, characteristic neutral loss screening and product ion screening. Finally, a comparative study was employed in the metabolism of paeoniflorin and TPG. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of paeoniflorin (including four new compounds) and 11 metabolites of TPG (including two new compounds) were identified. In all of the identified metabolites of paeoniflorin, two metabolites in rat plasma, four metabolites in rat urine and six metabolites in rat feces were found for the first time after paeoniflorin administration. The results indicate that hydrolyzation of the ester bond and glucosidic band and conjugation with glucuronide were the major metabolic pathways of paeoniflorin. The metabolites of paeoniflorin and TPG in rat plasma, urine and feces have been detected for the first time after intragastric administration. The results may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolism mechanism and provide a scientific rationale for researching the material basis of paeoniflorin and TPG in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  7. Comparisons of the Postprandial Inflammatory and Endotoxaemic Responses to Mixed Meals in Young and Older Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Milan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20–25 and 60–75 years (n = 15/group consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1 but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults.

  8. The suprachiasmatic nucleus drives day-night variations in postprandial triglyceride uptake into skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofía; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N; Mendez-Hernandez, Rebeca; Basualdo, Maria Del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the factors influencing day-night variations in postprandial triglycerides? What is the main finding and its importance? Rats show low postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations early in the active period that are attributable to a higher uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. We show that these day-night variations in uptake are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, probably via a Rev-erbα-mediated mechanism and independent of locomotor activity. These findings highlight that the suprachiasmatic nucleus has a major role in day-night variations in plasma triglycerides and that disturbances in our biological clock might be an important risk factor contributing to development of postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Energy metabolism follows a diurnal pattern, mainly driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and disruption of circadian regulation has been linked to metabolic abnormalities. Indeed, epidemiological evidence shows that night work is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and postprandial hyperlipidaemia is an important contributor. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the factors that drive day-night variations in postprandial triglycerides (TGs). Intact and SCN-lesioned male Wistar rats were subjected to an oral fat challenge during the beginning of the rest phase (day) or the beginning of the active phase (night). The plasma TG profile was evaluated and tissue TG uptake assayed. After the fat challenge, intact rats showed lower postprandial plasma TG concentrations early in the night when compared with the day. However, no differences were observed in the rate of intestinal TG secretion between day and night. Instead, there was a higher uptake of TG by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue early in the active phase (night) when compared with the rest phase (day), and these variations were abolished in rats bearing bilateral SCN lesions. Rev-erbα gene expression

  9. Impact of phenylketonuria type meal on appetite, thermic effect of feeding and postprandial fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfheeaid, Hani; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Năstase, Ana-Maria; Elhauge, Mie; Cochrane, Barbara; Malkova, Dalia

    2017-03-08

    Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24.3 ± 5.1 years; BMI: 22.4 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized, crossover design study. Each participant conducted two (PKU and Control) experimental trials which involved consumption of a PKU type meal and protein substitute drink or an isocaloric and weight matched ordinary meal and protein-enriched milk. Appetite, metabolic rate, fat oxidation measurements and blood collections were conducted for the duration of 300 min. On the completion of the measurements ad libitum buffet dinner was served. Responses of appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY (P > 0.05, trial effect, two-way ANOVA) and energy intake during ad libitum buffet dinner (P > 0.05, paired t-test) were not significantly different between the two trials. The TEF (PKU, 10.2 ± 1.5%; Control, 13.2 ± 1.0%) and the total amount of fat oxidized (PKU, 18.90 ± 1.10 g; Control, 22.10 ± 1.10 g) were significantly (P meal period. Consumption of a meal composed of special low protein foods has no detrimental impact on appetite and appetite hormones but produces a lower TEF and postprandial fat oxidation than an ordinary meal. These metabolic alterations may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity reported in patients with PKU on contemporary dietary management. The trial has been registered in ClinicalTrials as NCT02440932. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary studies of urinary metabolic profile in rats after acute total body homogeneous irradiation by 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifang; Yang Biao; Guo Yuefeng; Guo Wanlong; Xing Lihong

    2011-01-01

    To detect the metabolic profile of rats urinary by use of 1 h-NMR, the rats were irradiated by 60 Cy γ-rays with a dose of 7 Gy (0.7 Gy/min). And the data was processed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). The results demonstrated that there were obvious differences in urine metabolites before and after irradiation, and the main metabolites included lactate, acetate, succinate, citrate, creatinine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and taurine. The relative content of lactate, acetate, creatinine and trimethylamine-N-oxide increased significantly on the first day following quickly decreasing on the second and third days, but increasing on the fourth day after irradiation. On the first three days after irradiation, the relative content of succinate and citrate had trending down, but had an ascending tendency on the fourth day. The relative content of taurine was basically stable but higher than pre-radiation. In conclusion, 1 H-NMR combined with PCA and PLS-DA provides a good research method to detect the urinary metabolic profile in rats before and after irradiation. (authors)

  11. Female alcoholics: electrocardiographic changes and associated metabolic and electrolytic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borini Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the electrocardiographic changes and their associations with metabolic and electrolytic changes in female alcoholics. METHODS: The study comprised 44 female alcoholics with no apparent physical disorder. They underwent the following examinations: conventional electrocardiography; serologic tests for syphilis, Chagas' disease, and hepatitis B and C viruses; urinary pregnancy testing; hematimetric analysis; biochemical measurements of albumin, fibrinogen, fasting and postprandial glycemias, lipids, hepatic enzymes, and markers for tissue necrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Some type of electrocardiographic change was identified in 33 (75% patients. In 17 (38.6% patients, more than one of the following changes were present: prolonged QTc interval in 24 (54.5%, change in ventricular repolarization in 11(25%, left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 (13.6%, sinus bradycardia in 4 (9.1%, sinus tachycardia in 3 (6.8%, and conduction disorder in 3 (6.8%. The patients had elevated mean serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferases, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as hypocalcemia and low levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The patients with altered electrocardiograms had a more elevated age, a lower alcohol consumption, hypopotassemia, and significantly elevated levels of triglycerides, postprandial glucose, sodium and gamma glutamyl transferase than those with normal electrocardiograms. The opposite occurred with fasting glycemia, magnesium, and alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSION: The electrocardiographic changes found were prolonged QTc interval, change in ventricular repolarization, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with normal and abnormal electrocardiograms had different metabolic and electrolytic changes.

  12. The effect of palm oil, lard, and puff-pastry margarine on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J; Bysted, A; Dawids, S; Hermansen, K; Hølmer, G

    1999-12-01

    Only a few studies have been published on the postprandial effects of different fatty acids in obese subjects. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of three test meals containing palm oil (PO), lard (LD), or puff-pastry margarine (PPM), all normal dietary ingredients, on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women. The study was performed as a randomized, crossover design. The fats differed in the content of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and trans monounsaturated fatty acids allowing a dietary comparison of different 'solid' fatty acids. The obese women had significantly higher fasting concentrations and postprandial responses of plasma total triacylglycerol (TAG), chylomicron-TAG, and insulin compared with the normal-weight women but there was no significant difference in the postprandial responses between the three test meals. The obese women had fasting concentrations of leptin four times greater than the normal-weight women. There were no postprandial changes in the concentrations of leptin. The fasting concentrations of HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the obese women than in the normal-weight women, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups in the concentrations of total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol. These results provide evidence that obese women have exaggerated lipid and hormone responses compared with normal-weight women but the different contents of saturated and trans monounsaturated fatty acids provided by PO, LD, and PPM have no effect in either group.

  13. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: A randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenquist Anna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs in plasma. Methods A randomized crossover design (n = 19 was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P Results No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. Conclusions The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  14. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  15. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  16. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  17. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-08-27

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following starch challenge. This is the

  18. Effect of acute and chronic moderate red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Costantine F; Slaiby, Rita; Haddad, Najib; Boustany, Karim; Baroody, George M

    2006-06-01

    The effects of acute and chronic (10 wk) red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat model are reported. Fasted rats, in the acute study, were loaded intragastrically with 5 ml of an olive oil emulsion (30% w/v) in the presence or absence of wine (8% v/v ethanol), and either mesenteric lymph or blood was collected 3 h postprandially. Animals in the chronic study received either red or white wine in drinking water for a period of 10 wk (3% v/v ethanol). Blood samples were collected from animals in either the fasted state or after fat-wine loading. Postprandially, wine delayed gastric emptying, reduced lymph triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion concomitantly with increased number and decreased chylomicron (CM) size, and increased plasma TAG and CM concentrations. Phospholipid and cholesterol contents of CM, but not very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), were increased, indicating enhanced liver bile secretion; however, a significant increase in plasma VLDL concentration was observed. In the chronic study, a wine-fat load resulted in increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration and less pronounced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperchylomicronemia. In the fasted state, plasma TAG and total apolipoprotein B concentrations were not modified in these animals, and an increase in HDL and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL cholesterol ratios were observed. No liver function or intestinal lipid absorption impairment was observed. In conclusion, unlike binge drinking, chronic moderate wine consumption appears to have a cardioprotective effect in the fasted state, an effect attenuated by the observed temporary postprandial hyperchylomicronemia and hypertriglyceridemia resulting from a direct effect of alcohol on CM size and number.

  19. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Salleh, Nurhazwani; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Forde, Ciaran G

    2018-01-31

    Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet ("Cheng Teng") or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m²). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments ( p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality ( p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  20. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng” or a savoury (broth preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2. There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012, with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214. Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001. Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  1. Effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin hormone release and satiety in obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikarek, Tomasz; Chudek, Jerzy; Owczarek, Aleksander; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-28

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin responses and satiety and hunger sensation in obese and normal-weight women. A total of eleven obese and nine normal-weight women were recruited for the assessment of plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and insulin and the sensation of satiety and hunger using a visual analogue scale before and during a 6 h period after administration of three different macronutrient test meals. The AUCtotal GLP-1 and AUCtotal GIP values were decreased in obese women after the consumption of a fatty meal and all the test meals, respectively. However, the AUCtotal insulin value after a carbohydrate meal was greater in the obese group. The AUCtotal satiety value was decreased only after the intake of the protein meal in obese women when compared with normal-weight women. After the consumption of the fatty meal, a significant positive correlation between maximum satiety sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the obese group and that between minimum hunger sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the normal-weight group were observed. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that: (1) satiety sensation after consumption of carbohydrate and protein meals in the obese group is related to the postprandial insulin response, while after consumption of a fatty meal, it is related to the postprandial GLP-1 release; (2) the postprandial GIP response does not influence the sensation of satiety and hunger; (3) the reduced GLP-1 release after the intake of a fatty meal in obese individuals may explain impaired satiety sensation; (4) the impaired postprandial GIP response is not related to the consumption of macronutrients and may be the early indicator of incretin axis dysfunction in obese women.

  2. Energy restriction and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reduce postprandial α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, Dionne E; Hanssen, Nordin M; Lips, Mirjam A; Scheijen, Jean L; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Pijl, Hanno; Stehouwer, Coen D; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-09-01

    Dicarbonyl compounds are formed as byproducts of glycolysis and are key mediators of diabetic complications. However, evidence of postprandial α-dicarbonyl formation in humans is lacking, and interventions to reduce α-dicarbonyls have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we investigated postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in obese women without and with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we evaluated whether a diet very low in energy (very low calorie diet [VLCD]) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes. In lean (n = 12) and obese women without (n = 27) or with type 2 diabetes (n = 27), we measured the α-dicarbonyls, methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), and glucose in fasting and postprandial plasma samples obtained during a mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes underwent either a VLCD or RYGB. Three weeks after the intervention, individuals underwent a second mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting and particularly higher postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl levels, compared with those without diabetes. After three weeks of a VLCD, postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in diabetic women were significantly reduced (AUC MGO -14%, GO -16%, 3-DG -25%), mainly through reduction of fasting plasma α-dicarbonyls (MGO -13%, GO -13%, 3-DG -33%). Similar results were found after RYGB. This study shows that type 2 diabetes is characterised by increased fasting and postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl stress, which can be reduced by improving glucose metabolism through a VLCD or RYGB. These data highlight the potential to reduce reactive α-dicarbonyls in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01167959.

  3. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellevik, Alf Inge; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Langhammer, Arnulf; Baste, Valborg; Furnes, Ove; Storheim, Kjersti; Zwart, John Anker; Flugsrud, Gunnar Birkeland; Nordsletten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) due to primary osteoarthritis. In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2) were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50-69.9 and ≥70 years) and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education. Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1%) were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9%) THRs and 1,111 (1.8%) TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk of THR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83). However, when including only participants whose exposure status did not change during follow-up, this protective association was no longer significant. Increased waist circumference was associated with increased risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.10-2.39) and 50-69.9 years (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.80). Hypertension significantly increased the risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.81), and this risk was greater for men. This study found an increased risk of TKR in men <50 years with hypertension and persons <70 years with increased waist circumference. Apart from this, neither metabolic syndrome nor its components were associated with increased risk of THR or TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.

  4. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after...... and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5-40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose...... AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2...

  5. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  6. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik AI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alf Inge Hellevik,1,2 Marianne Bakke Johnsen,3,4 Arnulf Langhammer,1 Valborg Baste,5 Ove Furnes,6,7 Kjersti Storheim,3,4 John Anker Zwart,3,4 Gunnar Birkeland Flugsrud,2 Lars Nordsletten2,4 1The HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, 2Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Research and Communication Unit for Musculoskeletal Health, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, 5Uni Research Health, Bergen, 6The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 7Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Objective: Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR or total knee replacement (TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.Design: In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2 were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50–69.9 and ≥70 years and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education.Results: Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1% were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9% THRs and 1,111 (1.8% TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk

  8. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  9. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of weight loss on the postprandial response to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, J; Gruson, E; Dallinga-Thie, G; Pigeyre, M; Gomila, S; Romon, M

    2007-06-01

    To assess the effect of weight loss on the plasma lipid and remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLPc) response to a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate meal in a population of obese women. Nutritional intervention study. Sixteen obese women (mean body mass index (BMI): 37.6+/-5 kg/m(2)). Subjects were asked to follow an energy-restricted diet (800 kcal/day) for 7 weeks, followed by a 1-week maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, each participant was given (in random order) two iso-energetic meals containing either 80% fat and 20% protein (the high-fat meal) or 80% carbohydrate and 20% protein (the high-carbohydrate meal). Blood samples were collected over the following 10-h period. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess the effect of the meal and postprandial time on biological variables and postprandial responses (notably RLPc levels). Weight loss was associated with a significant decrease in fasting triglyceride (P=0.0102), cholesterol (Pfat meal was less intense after weight reduction than before (interaction Pcarbohydrate meal was biphasic (i.e. with two peaks, 1 and 6 h after carbohydrate intake). After adjustment on baseline values, weight reduction was associated with a trend towards a reduction in the magnitude of the second triglyceride peak (interaction Ploss, again after adjustment on baseline levels. Our data suggest that weight loss preferentially affects postprandial triglyceride metabolism.

  11. Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Liza A H; Östman, Elin M; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Andersson, Annika A M; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Rakszegi, Marianne; Bedö, Zoltan; Björck, Inger M E

    2011-11-23

    Rye products typically induce low insulin responses and appear to facilitate glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in postprandial glucose, insulin, and satiety responses between breads made from five rye varieties. Breads made from whole grain rye (Amilo, Rekrut, Dankowski Zlote, Nikita, and Haute Loire Pop) or a white wheat bread (WWB) were tested in a randomized cross-over design in 14 healthy subjects (50 g available starch). Metabolic responses were also related to the composition of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds in the breads and to the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis. The Amilo and Rekrut rye breads induced significantly lower insulin indices (II) than WWB. Low early postprandial glucose and insulin responses (tAUC 0-60 min) were related to higher amounts of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and vanillic acids in the rye breads, indicating that the phenolic acids in rye may influence glycemic regulation. All rye breads induced significantly higher subjective feelings of fullness compared to WWB. A low II was related to a higher feeling of fullness and a lower desire to eat in the late postprandial phase (180 min). The data indicate that some rye varieties may be more insulin-saving than others, possibly due to differences in dietary fiber, rate of starch hydrolysis, and bioactive components such as phenolic acids.

  12. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  13. Homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele show altered postprandial response in triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, L; Hansen, T H; Mahendran, Y

    2017-01-01

    to CC carriers. Additionally, TT carriers had lower postprandial levels of total triglycerides (TG) (q = 0.03), VLDL-TG (q = 0.05, including medium, small and extra small, q = 0.048, q = 0.0009, q = 0.04, respectively), HDL-TG (triglycerides in high density lipoproteins q = 0.037) and S-HDL-TG (q = 0.......00003). In conclusion, TT carriers show altered postprandial triglyceride response, mainly influencing VLDL and HDL subclasses suggesting a genotype-mediated effect on hepatic lipid regulation....

  14. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Mohr Madsen, K.; Naeser, A.; Thommesen, P. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.).

  15. The effect of casein, hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins on urinary and postprandial plasma metabolites in overweight and moderately obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Mette S; Bendtsen, Line Quist; Gomes, Sisse

    2018-01-01

    , hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins in overweight and moderately obese men and women by investigating select urinary and blood plasma metabolites. RESULTS: A total of 21 urinary and 23 plasma metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy. The postprandial plasma metabolites revealed a significant diet...

  16. Postprandial kinetics of some biotic and abiotic characteristics of the gastric ecosystem of horses fed a pelleted concentrate meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, M; Fonty, G; Roussel, A; Guyonvarch, A; Julliand, V

    2007-10-01

    Our knowledge of the microflora of the stomach of the horse is still limited, although some data indicate its important role in nutrition. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the microbial and biochemical profiles in the stomach of the horse and to quantify the disappearance of dietary starch. Total anaerobic bacteria, lactate-utilizing bacteria, lactobacilli, and streptococci were determined, and biochemical characteristics (pH, and DM, D- and L-lactate, D-glucose, NH3, and VFA concentrations) were measured in chyme collected from 4 horses by naso-gastric intubation aided by endoscopy, at 30 min before and 60, 120, and 210 min after the meal. The total anaerobic population exhibited a linear increase (5.54 to 6.98 log10 cfu/mL; P = 0.018) within the first postprandial hour and reached 8.32 log10 cfu/mL at 210 min after the meal. The concentrations of lactobacilli, streptococci, and lactate-utilizing bacteria in the stomach contents were 5.52, 4.82, and 6.95 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. Lactate concentration increased linearly from 0.25 mmol/L before the meal to 7.98 mmol/L at the last collection point (P = 0.013). This increase was mostly due to L-lactate accumulation. The VFA concentration increased linearly (P = 0.002) during the postprandial period from 1.96 to 8.17 mmol/L. Acetate represented, on average, 78 mol/100 mol of total VFA. The average concentration of NH3 in the stomach content was 2.48 mmol/L. Dietary starch disappearance did not respond during the post-prandial period and was not consistent with previous findings. These in vivo data provide complementary information on the postprandial microbial and biochemical kinetics in the stomachs of horses and confirm its abundant microbial colonization.

  17. Circadian rhythms, metabolism, and chrononutrition in rodents and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrononutrition is an emerging discipline that builds on the intimate relation between endogenous circadian (24-h) rhythms and metabolism. Circadian regulation of metabolic function can be observed from the level of intracellular biochemistry to whole-organism physiology and even postprandial respon...

  18. Premeal Low-Fat Yogurt Consumption Reduces Postprandial Inflammation and Markers of Endotoxin Exposure in Healthy Premenopausal Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ruisong; DiMarco, Diana M; Putt, Kelley K; Martin, Derek A; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Bruno, Richard S; Bolling, Bradley W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic endotoxemia is associated with obesity and contributes to postprandial inflammation. Objective We aimed to determine if low-fat yogurt consumption prevents postprandial inflammation and dysmetabolism in healthy women by inhibiting biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia. Methods Premenopausal women defined as obese and nonobese [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) 30–40 and 18.5–27, respectively, n = 120] were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 wk (n = 30/group). The intervention foods each supplied 330 kcal with 3 g fat, 66 g carbohydrate, and 4–6 g protein. At weeks 0 and 9, participants ingested 226 g of yogurt or 216 g of soy pudding before a meal providing 56–60 g fat, 82 g carbohydrate, and 28–30 g protein. Plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), LPS activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), glucose, triglyceride, and insulin were measured hourly for 4 h to assess differences in postprandial responses between groups by 2-factor ANOVA. Results Premeal yogurt consumption prevented the postprandial decrease in sCD14 net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) by 72% in obese individuals at week 0 (P = 0.0323). YN and YO had ≥40% lower net iAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratio and plasma IL-6 concentration than CN and CO, respectively (P yogurt consumption, ΔAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratios of YO and YN were less than half of those of the control groups (P = 0.0093). Conclusion Yogurt consumption improved postprandial metabolism and biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia in healthy premenopausal women. Premeal yogurt consumption is a feasible strategy to inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism and thus may reduce cardiometabolic risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01686204. PMID:29767743

  19. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    OpenAIRE

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar; Manuel Suárez; Anna Arola-Arnal; M. Angeles Zulet; J. Alfredo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations.Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated.Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention st...

  20. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  1. Urinary and Serum Metabolomics Analyses Uncover That Total Glucosides of Paeony Protect Liver against Acute Injury Potentially via Reprogramming of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total glucosides of paeony (TGP have been confirmed to be hepatoprotective. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profiles of urine and serum in rats with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS. The vehicle or a single dose of TGP was intragastrically administered to Wistar rats once a day for 14 consecutive days. To induce ALI, 50% CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally into these rats 2 hours after the last time administration of saline of TGP at the 14th day. The results indicated that TGP administration could protect rats from CCl4-induced ALI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST elevation, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis showed that TGP treatment significantly attenuated CCl4-triggered deregulation of multiple metabolites in both urine and serum, including glycine, alanine, proline, and glutamine. Metabolite set enrichment and pathway analyses demonstrated that amino acid cycling and glutathione metabolism were two main pathways involved in CCl4-induced experimental liver injury and TGP administration. Taken together, these findings revealed that regulation of metabolites potentially plays a pivotal role in the protective effect of TGP on ALI.

  2. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  3. The influence of glucagon on postprandial hyperglycaemia in children 5 years after onset of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, Siri; Andersen, Marie-Louise M; Pörksen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    comprised 129 children (66 boys) with type 1 diabetes whose mean (SD) age at onset was 10.0 (3.9) years. Liquid mixed-meal tests were performed prospectively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and a subset of 40 patients completed follow-up at 60 months. Postprandial (90 min) plasma levels of glucagon, glucose (PG......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The influence of glucagon on glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes is debated. We investigated the relationship between postprandial glucagon levels and HbA1c during a period up to 60 months after diagnosis of childhood type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The Danish remission phase cohort...... function in the first 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The positive association of glucagon with total GLP-1 and PG suggests that physiological regulation of alpha cell secretion in type 1 diabetes is seriously disturbed....

  4. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  5. Postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Myra; Hussain, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A patient with severe postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (PPHH) for 4 years developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. She had no insulin or insulin receptor antibodies but was positive for islet cell and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. PPHH prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been previously described and may be a prodrome of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Ileoanal pouch function is related to postprandial pouch tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Meijerink, W. J.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Masclee, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch

  7. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  8. Gastric emptying and postprandial symptoms after Billroth II resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Pasma, F. G.; Oei, H. Y.; Wittebol, P.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying was studied in 18 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic patients after Billroth II (BII) resection (without vagotomy) and the possible relationships between emptying and postprandial symptoms in these patients were assessed. The BII patients were compared with 20 nonoperated patients who

  9. The contribution of gastric digestion and ingestion of amino acids on the postprandial rise in oxygen consumption, heart rate and growth of visceral organs in pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Wang, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the contribution of gastric and intestinal processes to the postprandial rise in metabolism in pythons (Python regius), we measured oxygen consumption after ligation of the pyloric sphincter to prevent the chyme from entering the intestine. Pyloric blockade reduced the postprandial rise in metabolism during the first 18h after ingestion of mice amounting to 18% of the snake's body mass by 60%. In another series of the experiments, we showed that infusion of amino acids directly into the stomach or the intestine elicited similar metabolic responses. This indicates a lower gastric contribution to the SDA response than previously reported. To include an assessment of the gastric contribution to the postprandial cardiovascular response, we also measured blood and heart rate. While heart rate increased during digestion in snakes with pyloric blockade, there was no rise in the double-blocked heart rates compared to fasting controls. Thus, the non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic factor that stimulates heart rate during digestion does not stem from the stomach. Finally, there was no growth of the visceral organs in response to digestion when chyme was prevented from reaching the intestine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during controlled hypotension with sodium-nitroprusside and general anaesthesia for total hip replacement a.m. Charnley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenemann, L.; Jensen, K.; Thomsen, L.; Riisager, S.

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ) were studied during hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in 10 patients undergoing total hip replacement a.m. Charnley. Cerebral blood flow was measured using an injection of xenon-133 into an arm vein. The decay curve was detected by five scintillation counters placed over each hemisphere and analysed with the Novo 10a cerebrograph. Blood samples were drawn from the radial artery and the jugular venous bulb to calculate the CMRo 2 . In the gropu as a whole, there were significant decreases in mean arterial pressure and in cerebrovascular resistance. There were no significant changes, in either CBF or CMRo 2 in the gropu as a whole, but there were substantial individual differences. In conclusion, the use of SNP-induced hypotension for extracranial surgery should be used only in patients monitored closely. (author)

  11. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD, a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2′- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1

  12. Resistant starch intake at breakfast affects postprandial responses in type 2 diabetics and enhances the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide--insulin relationship following a second meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Stacey; Rebry, Rachel M; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J; McKeown, Bruce; Graham, Terry E

    2013-12-01

    Resistant starch (RS) consumption can modulate postprandial metabolic responses, but its effects on carbohydrate (CHO) handling in type 2 diabetics (T2D) are unclear. It was hypothesized that a bagel high in RS would improve glucose and insulin homeostasis following the 1st meal, regardless of the amount of available CHO, and that in association with incretins, the effects would carry over to a 2nd meal. Using a randomized crossover design, 12 T2D ingested four different bagel treatments (their 1st meal) determined by available CHO and the weight or amount of bagel consumed: treatment A, without RS (50 g of available CHO); treatment B, with RS (same total CHO as in A); treatment C, with RS (same available CHO as in A); and treatment D, with the same RS as in B and available CHO as in A and C. A standard 2nd meal was ingested 3 h later. Following the first meal, B elicited a lower glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) than C (P portion of the available CHO, while ingesting more RS influenced the GIP-insulin axis following the 2nd meal.

  13. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Postprandial phase time influences the uptake of TAG from postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins by THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Moruno, Rosana; Sinausia, Laura; Botham, Kathleen M; Montero, Emilio; Avella, Michael; Perona, Javier S

    2014-11-14

    Postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) can be taken up by macrophages, leading to the formation of foam cells, probably via receptor-mediated pathways. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the postprandial time point at which TRL are collected modulates this process. A meal containing refined olive oil was given to nine healthy young men and TRL were isolated from their serum at 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially. The lipid class and apoB compositions of TRL were determined by HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The accumulation of lipids in macrophages was determined after the incubation of THP-1 macrophages with TRL. The gene expression of candidate receptors was measured by real-time PCR. The highest concentrations of TAG, apoB48 and apoB100 in TRL were observed at 2 h after the consumption of the test meal. However, excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages was observed in response to incubation with TRL isolated at 4 h, when their particle size (estimated as the TAG:apoB ratio) was intermediate. The abundance of mRNA transcripts in macrophages in response to incubation with TRL was down-regulated for LDL receptor (LDLR), slightly up-regulated for VLDL receptor and remained unaltered for LDLR-related protein, but no effect of the postprandial time point was observed. In contrast, the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors SRB1, SRA2 and CD36 was higher when cells were incubated with TRL isolated at 4 h after the consumption of the test meal. In conclusion, TRL led to excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, which was greater when cells were incubated with intermediate-sized postprandial TRL isolated at 4 h and was associated with a significant increase in the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors.

  15. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  16. A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn A. Parry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such behavior remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single day of high-fat overfeeding on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Fifteen young, healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before and after consuming a high-fat (68% of total energy, high-energy (78% greater than daily requirements diet for one day. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglyceride were measured and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index was calculated. One day of high-fat overfeeding increased postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC by 17.1% (p < 0.0001 and insulin AUC by 16.4% (p = 0.007. Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 28% (p = 0.001. In conclusion, a single day of high-fat, overfeeding impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity in young, healthy adults. This highlights the rapidity with which excessive consumption of calories through high-fat food can impair glucose metabolism, and suggests that acute binge eating may have immediate metabolic health consequences for the individual.

  17. Influence of Fasting Status and Sample Preparation on Metabolic Biomarker Measurements in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Falk, Roni T; Messinger, Diana B; Pollak, Michael; Xue, Xiaonan; Lin, Juan; Sgueglia, Robin; Strickler, Howard D; Gaudet, Mia M; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic data linking metabolic markers-such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-and adipose tissue-derived factors with cancer are inconsistent. Between-study differences in blood collection protocols, in particular participant's fasting status, may influence measurements. We investigated the impact of fasting status and blood sample processing time on components of the insulin/IGF axis and in adipokines in a controlled feeding study of 45 healthy postmenopausal-women aged 50-75 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn (T0), after which subjects ate a standardized breakfast; subsequent blood draws were made at 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3), and 6 hours (T6) after breakfast. Serum samples were assayed for insulin, C-peptide, total- and free-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein [BP]-1 and -3, total and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin, retinol binding protein-4, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and resistin. Insulin and C-peptide levels followed similar postprandial trajectories; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC] for insulin = 0.75, (95%CI:0.64-0.97) and C-peptide (ICC = 0.66, 95%CI:0.54-0.77) were similarly correlated in fasting (Spearman correlation, r = 0.78, 95%CI:0.64-0.88) and postprandial states (T1, r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.62-0.87); T3,r = 0.78 (95%CI: 0.63-0.87); T6,r = 0.77 (95%CI: 0.61-0.87)). Free-IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels were also affected by fasting status, whereas total-IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels remained unchanged. Levels of adipokines were largely insensitive to fasting status and blood sample processing delays. Several components of the insulin/IGF axis were significantly impacted by fasting state and in particular, C-peptide levels were substantially altered postprandially and in a similar manner to insulin.

  18. Fasting and postprandial serum bile acid concentrations in 10 healthy female red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotkova, Z; Dorrestein, G M; Jekl, V; Janouskova, J; Knotek, Z

    2008-10-25

    The fasting and postprandial serum concentrations of bile acids and other blood constituents were measured in a group of 10 clinically healthy, female, six-year-old captive red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The terrapins were housed in a temperate room and maintained in four aquaria in which the water temperature ranged from 24 to 27 degrees C and the temperature above the basking site ranged from 27 to 30 degrees C. The serum concentrations of bile acids were measured four times in a period of five months, and at the second sampling the fasting and two postprandial (after 24 and 48 hours) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and bile acids were determined. Coelioscopy revealed vitellogenic and previtellogenic follicles on the ovaries of all the terrapins, and eggs with calcified shells were detected in two of them. The livers were mostly pink to deep yellow in colour, with sharp edges, a smooth serosal surface, distinct large superficial vessels, and multifocal melanin deposits. Liver biopsies revealed fine, more or less oil red O-positive lipid droplets in all the hepatocytes, but in none of the cases was it considered to be pathological lipidosis. The mean (sd) bile acid concentrations ranged from 7.35 (4.52) to 10.04 (7.40) micromol/l. The fasting and postprandial concentrations were 3.1 (2.3), 4.5 (5.4) (24 hours) and 2.2 (1.5) (48 hours) micromol/l. High concentrations between 27.6 and 66.6 micromol/l were associated with lipaemia. There were no significant differences between the biochemical profiles of the fasting and postprandial serum samples.

  19. Postprandial glycaemic response of foxtail millet dosa in comparison to a rice dosa in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Janani; Sanjeevi, Vimala; Rohini, U.; Trueman, Patricia; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Millets are rich source of dietary fibre and non-starchy polysaccharides with low glycaemic index (GI), hence can be used as a therapeutic diet. This study was conducted to estimate the effects of a millet-based dosa (foxtail dosa) compared to a rice dosa for breakfast on postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The GI of rice dosa and foxtail millet dosa was estimated. A total of 105 T2DM participants were randomly selected for the study. The participants were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) and not on insulin. In this study, each individual served as their own control and experimental group. The postprandial increase in blood glucose was compared after a breakfast of rice dosa and millet dosa. Single and paired t test was used to note the change in blood glucose levels and the level of the significance. Results: The GI of foxtail millet dosa was 59.25 and rice dosa was 77.96. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the postprandial glucose level of patients who consumed a millet-based dosa when compared to those who consumed a rice-based dosa. No significant reduction was observed in the fasting glucose levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggested that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based breakfast item lowers the postprandial blood glucose levels in T2DM patients. Thus, millets may have a protective role in the management of hyperglycaemia. Further studies need to be done in a systematic manner to confirm these findings. PMID:28361824

  20. Optimal insulin pump dosing and postprandial glycemia following a pizza meal using the continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan M; Quarry, Jill L; Caldwell-McMillan, Molly; Mauger, David T; Gabbay, Robert A

    2005-04-01

    We attempted to identify an optimal insulin pump meal bolus by comparing postprandial sensor glucose values following three methods of insulin pump meal bolusing for a consistent pizza meal. Twenty-four patients with type 1 diabetes participated in a study to compare postprandial glucose values following three meal bolus regimens for a consistent evening pizza meal. Each participant utilized the following insulin lispro regimens on consecutive evenings, and glucose values were tracked by the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS, Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA): (a) single-wave bolus (100% of insulin given immediately); (b) 4-h dual-wave bolus (50% of insulin given immediately and 50% given over a 4-h period); and (c) 8-h dual-wave bolus (50% of insulin given immediately and 50% given over a 8-h period). Total insulin bolus amount was kept constant for each pizza meal. Divergence in blood glucose among the regimens was greatest at 8-12 h. The 8-h dual-wave bolus provided the best glycemic control and lowest mean glucose values (singlewave bolus, 133 mg/dL; 4-h dual-wave bolus, 145 mg/dL; 8-h dual-wave bolus, 104 mg/dL), leading to a difference in mean glucose of 29 mg/dL for the single-wave bolus versus the 8-h dual-wave bolus and 42 mg/dL for the 4-h dual-wave bolus versus the 8-h dual-wave bolus. The lower mean glucose in the 8-h dual-wave bolus was not associated with any increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Use of a dual-wave bolus extended over an 8-h period following a pizza meal provided significantly less postprandial hyperglycemia in the late postprandial period (8-12 h) with no increased risk of hypoglycemia.

  1. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean...... and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose...

  2. Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Elin M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have previously been shown to induce comparatively low post-prandial insulin responses; irrespectively of their glycaemic indices (GI. However, the mechanism behind this lowered insulin demand remains unknown. An improved insulin economy might contribute to the benefits seen in epidemiological studies with whole grain diets on metabolic risk factors and weight regulation. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products. Methods 12 healthy subjects were given flour based rye products made from endosperm, whole grain or bran, produced with different methods (baking, simulated sour-dough baking and boiling as breakfasts in random order in a cross-over design. White wheat bread (WWB was used as a reference. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma ghrelin and subjective satiety were measured during 180 minutes. To evaluate the course of post-meal glycaemia, a measure of the glycaemic profile (GP was introduced defined as the duration for the incremental post-prandial blood glucose response divided with the blood glucose incremental peak (min/mM. Results The study shows that whole grain rye breads and endosperm rye products induced significantly (p Conclusion Our study shows that endosperm and wholegrain rye products induce low acute insulinaemic responses and improved glycaemic profiles. The results also suggest that the rye products possess beneficial appetite regulating properties. Further studies are needed to identify the unknown property or bioactive component(s responsible for these beneficial metabolic features of rye.

  3. Molecular effect of fenofibrate on PBMC gene transcription related to lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, I; Tinahones, F J; Clemente-Postigo, M; Castellano-Castillo, D; Fernández-García, J C; Macias-Gonzalez, M; Queipo-Ortuño, M I; Cardona, F

    2017-06-01

    Both fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia are considered independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia is based on fibrates, which activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). However, the metabolic pathways that activate or inhibit fibrates, and how the postprandial triglyceride levels are modified, have not yet been fully described. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to study the effects of fenofibrate in patients with the metabolic syndrome. A fat overload was given to 50 patients before and after treatment with fenofibrate for 3 months. Anthropometric and biochemical variables as well as gene expression in PBMC were analysed. After treatment with fenofibrate, we observed a decrease in both baseline and postprandial (3 h after the fat overload) levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and uric acid and an increase in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels. After treatment, there was also a rise in PPARα and RXRα expression and changes in genes regulated by PPARα, both baseline and postprandial. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that a PPARα agonist changed the expression of genes related with lipid metabolism. Treatment with fenofibrate reduced fasting and postprandial serum triglyceride levels, possibly through a mechanism related with an increase in the expression of RXRα and PPARα, by activating the pathways involved in the uptake and degradation of triglycerides and increasing the synthesis of apolipoprotein. These results suggest that PBMC may be useful for the easy study of fenofibrate actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of postprandial glucose control on diabetes-related complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting findings in the literature and lack of long-term definitive outcome studies have led to difficulty in drawing conclusions about the role of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its complications. Recent scientific publications support the role of postprandial glucose (PPG......) as a key contributor to overall glucose control and a predictor of microvascular and macrovascular events. However, the need remains for definitive evidence to support the precise relationship between PPG excursions and the development and progression of cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Drawing...... complications is unclarified and is one of the remaining unanswered questions in diabetes. Nevertheless, current evidence supports PPG control as an important strategy to consider in the comprehensive management plan of individuals with diabetes....

  5. Health effect of vegetable-based diet: lettuce consumption improves cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant status in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Catherine; Cardinault, Nicolas; Gueux, Elyett; Jaffrelo, Lydia; Rock, Edmond; Mazur, Andrzej; Amouroux, Pierre; Rémésy, Christian

    2004-08-01

    It is often assumed that fruits and vegetables contribute to protect against degenerative pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Besides epidemiological observations, scientific evidences for their mechanism of action are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the mean term and post-prandial effects of lettuce ingestion on lipid metabolism and antioxidant protection in the rat. Feeding rats a 20% lettuce diet for 3 weeks resulted in a decrease cholesterol LDL/HDL ratio and a marked decrease of liver cholesterol levels (-41%). Concurrently, fecal total steroid excretion increased (+44%) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-37%) by the lettuce diet. Lettuce diet also displayed an improvement of vitamin E/TG ratio in plasma and limited lipid peroxidation in heart as evidenced by TBARS. In post-prandial experiment, lettuce intake significantly increased both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol plasma levels which contribute to improve plasma antioxidant capacity within 2 h of consumption. Other lipid-soluble antioxidants (lutein and vitamin E) may also improve the plasma antioxidant capacity. Lettuce consumption increases the total cholesterol end-products excretion and improves antioxidant status due to the richness in antioxidants (vitamins C, E and carotenoids). In our model, lettuce clearly shows a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and on tissue oxidation. Therefore regular consumption of lettuce should contribute to improve protection against cardiovascular diseases. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Aryangat, Ajikumar V; Gerich, John E

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  7. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  8. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (Pmetabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid metabolome in response to EMS consumption.

  9. Cardiorespiratory upregulation during seawater acclimation in rainbow trout: effects on gastrointestinal perfusion and postprandial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijs, Jeroen; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Olsson, Catharina; Axelsson, Michael; Sandblom, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Increased gastrointestinal blood flow is essential for euryhaline fishes to maintain osmotic homeostasis during the initial phase of a transition from freshwater to seawater. However, the cardiorespiratory responses and hemodynamic changes required for a successful long-term transition to seawater remain largely unknown. In the present study, we simultaneously measured oxygen consumption rate (ṀO2), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to either freshwater or seawater for at least 6 wk. Seawater-acclimated trout displayed significantly elevated ṀO2 (day: 18%, night: 19%), CO (day: 22%, night: 48%), and GBF (day: 96%, night: 147%), demonstrating that an overall cardiorespiratory upregulation occurs during seawater acclimation. The elevated GBF was achieved via a combination of increased CO, mediated through elevated stroke volume (SV), and a redistribution of blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, virtually all of the increase in CO of seawater-acclimated trout was directed to the gastrointestinal tract. Although unfed seawater-acclimated trout displayed substantially elevated cardiorespiratory activity, the ingestion of a meal resulted in a similar specific dynamic action (SDA) and postprandial GBF response as in freshwater-acclimated fish. This indicates that the capacity for the transportation of absorbed nutrients, gastrointestinal tissue oxygen delivery, and acid-base regulation is maintained during digestion in seawater. The novel findings presented in this study clearly demonstrate that euryhaline fish upregulate cardiovascular function when in seawater, while retaining sufficient capacity for the metabolic and cardiovascular changes associated with the postprandial response. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Postprandial diabetic glucose tolerance is normalized by gastric bypass feeding as opposed to gastric feeding and is associated with exaggerated GLP-1 secretion: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Dorte L; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    into the bypassed gastric remnant and on the second day perorally. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, incretin hormones, peptide YY, and free fatty acids were measured. RESULTS: Peroral feeding reduced 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (7.8 vs. 11.1 mmol/l) and incremental area under the glucose curve (iAUC......) (0.33 vs. 0.49 mmol . l(-1) . min(-1)) compared with gastroduodenal feeding. beta-Cell function (iAUC(Cpeptide/Glu)) was more than twofold improved during peroral feeding, and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 response increased nearly fivefold. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in postprandial glucose......OBJECTIVE: To examine after gastric bypass the effect of peroral versus gastroduodenal feeding on glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A type 2 diabetic patient was examined on 2 consecutive days 5 weeks after gastric bypass. A standard liquid meal was given on the first day...

  11. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Legarrea Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results Both diets equally (p > 0.05 improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034, body mass index (p = 0.026, waist circumference (p = 0.083 and fat mass (p = 0.015 reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086

  12. Trend overtime of total haemoglobin, iron metabolism and trace minerals in veal calves fed high amounts of two different solid feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty Polish Friesian veal calves were administrated high amounts of two different solid feeds (maize grain and a mix diet containing 10% of straw and 8% of soy in addition to the traditional milk replacer diet. Compared to the mix diet, maize grain had a lower content of iron, copper and zinc and a minor fibre level. Effects of the two diets on calves’ blood haemoglobin, iron, iron metabolism parameters, copper and zinc concentrations were studied. Haemoglobin concentration resulted higher at the end of the fattening for calves fed the mix diet, as expected. Values remained, however, within ranges that allowed acceptable carcass paleness. Haematic iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels were not significantly different between the two solid feeds. Lower copper and zinc blood concentrations resulted for calves fed the mix diet were likely due to the feed fibre interfering with the bioavailability of the two minerals, according to what happens for iron.

  13. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS......: In a randomised design, 15 patients with long-standing T2DM and 15 healthy age-, gender- and BMI-matched control subjects were studied during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500 kcal) and isovolaemic (350 ml) liquid meals: i) 2.5 g fat, 107 g carbohydrate and 13 g protein; ii) 10 g...... secretion was similar after both OGTT and meals. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with T2DM exhibited normal gallbladder emptying to meals with a wide range of fat content. Incretin responses were similar to that in controls, and an association with postprandial gallbladder contraction could...

  14. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  15. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie R. Wilburn; Jeffrey Bourquin; Andrea Wysong; Christopher L. Melby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight ...

  16. Bitter tastants alter gastric-phase postprandial haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2014-07-03

    Since Greco-Roman times bitter tastants have been used in Europe to treat digestive disorders, yet no pharmacological mechanism has been identified which can account for this practice. This study investigates whether the bitter tastants, gentian root (Gentian lutea L.) and wormwood herb (Artemisia absinthium L.), stimulate cephalic and/or gut receptors to alter postprandial haemodynamics during the gastric-phase of digestion. Normal participants ingested (1) 100 mL water plus capsules containing either cellulose (placebo-control) or 1000 mg of each tastant (n=14); or (2) 100mL of water flavoured with 500 or 1500 mg of each tastant (a) gentian (n=12) and (b) wormwood (n=12). A single beat-to-beat cardiovascular recording was obtained for the entire session. Pre/post-ingestion contrasts with the control were analysed for (1) the encapsulated tastants, in the "10 to 15" minute post-ingestion period, and (2) the flavoured water in the "5 to 10" minute post-ingestion period. Water, the placebo-control, increased cardiac contraction force and blood pressure notwithstanding heart rate decreases. Encapsulated tastants did not further alter postprandial haemodynamics. In contrast gentian (500 and 1500 mg) and wormwood (1500 mg) flavoured water elicited increased peripheral vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, primarily by reducing stroke volume rather than heart rate. Drinking 100mL water elicits a pressor effect during the gastric-phase of digestion due to increased cardiac contraction force. The addition of bitter tastants to water elicits an additional and parallel pressor effect due to increased peripheral vascular resistance; yet the extent of the post-prandial blood pressure increases are unchanged, presumably due to baroreflex buffering. The vascular response elicited by bitter tastants can be categorised as a sympathetically-mediated cephalic-phase response. A possible mechanism by which bitter tastants could positively influence digestion is altering

  17. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  18. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  19. Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Patrick S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting and postprandial oxidative stress is elevated in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the rise in oxidative stress following feeding. Therefore we sought to determine the effects of acetyl L-carnitine arginate (ALCA on resting and postprandial biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. Methods Twenty-nine pre-diabetic men and women were randomly assigned to either 3 g·day-1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 ± 3 yrs or placebo (n = 15; 35 ± 3 yrs in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken from subjects both pre and post intervention. After each fasting sample was obtained, subjects consumed a high fat, high carbohydrate meal and additional blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post meal. Samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic variables (e.g., glucose, HbA1c, lipid panel, C-reactive protein, nitrate/nitrite, and several markers of oxidative stress. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable measured post meal, both pre and post intervention. Results ALCA, but not placebo, resulted in an increase in nitrate/nitrite (25.4 ± 1.9 to 30.1 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1 from pre to post intervention, with post intervention values greater compared to placebo (p = 0.01. No other changes of statistical significance were noted (p > 0.05, although ALCA resulted in slight improvements in glucose (109 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 mg·dL-1, HbA1c (6.6 ± 1.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2%, and HOMA-IR (3.3 ± 1.3 to 2.9 ± 1.2. AUC postprandial data were not statistically different between ALCA and placebo for any variable (p > 0.05. However, nitrate/nitrite demonstrated a moderate effect size (r = 0.35 for increase from pre (139.50 ± 18.35 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 to post (172.40 ± 21.75 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 intervention with ALCA, and the magnitude of decrease following feeding was not as pronounced as with placebo

  20. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... the two dietary treatment groups correlated largely with the amino acid content of the two diets except for methionine, lysine and arginine, where the differences were more extreme than what would be expected from differences in dietary concentrations. The apparent protein digestibility coefficient...

  1. Metabolic changes in serum metabolome in response to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Aahana; Müllner, Elisabeth; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Moazzami, Ali A

    2017-03-01

    The change in serum metabolic response from fasting state to postprandial state provides novel insights into the impact of a single meal on human metabolism. Therefore, this study explored changes in serum metabolite profile after a single meal. Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. They received a meal consisting of refined wheat bread (50 g carbohydrates, 9 g protein, 4.2 g fat and 2.7 g dietary fibre), 40 g cucumber and 300 mL noncaloric orange drink. Blood samples were collected at fasting and five postprandial time points. Metabolic profile was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Changes over time were assessed with multivariate models and ANOVA, with baseline as control. The metabolomic analyses demonstrated alterations in phospholipids, amino acids and their breakdown products, glycolytic products, acylcarnitines and ketone bodies after a single meal. More specifically, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and citrate displayed an overall declining pattern, while leucine, isoleucine, methionine and succinate increased initially but declined thereafter. A sharp decline in acylcarnitines and ketone bodies and increase in glycolytic products postprandially suggest a switch in the body's energy source from β-oxidation to glycolysis. Moreover, individuals with relatively high postprandial insulin responses generated a higher postprandial leucine responses compared to participants with lower insulin responses. The study demonstrated complex changes from catabolic to anabolic metabolism after a meal and indicated that the extent of postprandial responses is different between individuals with high and low insulin response.

  2. Low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with total adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension in Caucasian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, L; Anania, C; Osborn, J F; Ferraro, F; Bonci, E; Olivero, E; Chiesa, C

    2011-10-01

    Evidence of the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular risk factors in the young is limited. We therefore assessed the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D(3)) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and early atherosclerotic changes in 452 (304 overweight/obese and 148 healthy, normal weight) Caucasian children. We determined serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations in relation to MetS, its components (central obesity, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose impairment, and/or insulin resistance (IR)), and impairment of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) - two markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Higher 25(OH)D(3) was significantly associated with a reduced presence of MetS. Obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, IR, and MetS were all associated with increased odds of having low 25(OH)D(3) levels, after adjustment for age, sex, and Tanner stage. After additional adjustment for SDS-body mass index, elevated blood pressure (BP) and MetS remained significantly associated with low vitamin D status. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for those in the lowest (27 ng/ml) of 25(OH)D(3) for hypertension was 1.72 (1.02-2.92), and for MetS, it was 2.30 (1.20-4.40). A similar pattern of association between 25(OH)D(3), high BP, and MetS was observed when models were adjusted for waist circumference. No correlation was found between 25(OH)D(3) concentrations and either FMD or cIMT. Low 25(OH)D(3) levels in Caucasian children are inversely related to total adiposity, MetS, and hypertension.

  3. Association of fasting triglyceride concentration and postprandial triglyceride response with the carotid intima-media thickness in the middle aged: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Tim; de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin B; Rensen, Patrick C N; de Koning, Eelco; Rosendaal, Frits R; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter

    People are in a postprandial state for the majority of the day, postprandial triglyceride (TG) response may be more important in the etiology of atherosclerosis than fasting TGs. The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of fasting TG concentration (TGc) and postprandial TG response after a meal challenge with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by intima-media thickness (IMT) in a middle-aged population. A total of 5574 participants (57% women) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 56 (6) years were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study. Serum TGc was measured fasting and 30 and 150 minutes after a liquid mixed meal, and the incremental area under the curve (TGiAUC) was calculated. With linear regression analyses, we calculated the differences in IMT with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for confounding factors, and additionally for TGc or TGiAUC. Per SD of TGc (0.82 mmol/L), IMT was 8.5 μm (2.1, 14.9) greater after adjustment for TGiAUC and confounding factors. Per SD of TGiAUC (24.0 mmol/L × min), the difference in IMT was -1.7 μm (-8.5, 5.0) after adjustment for fasting TG and confounding factors. The association between TG response after a mixed meal and IMT disappeared after adjusting for TGc. The association between fasting TG concentration and IMT persisted after adjustment for postprandial TG response. These findings imply that it is not useful to perform a meal challenge in cardiovascular risk stratification. Our results support use of fasting TGc instead of postprandial TG responses for cardiovascular risk stratification in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumo de oxigênio pós-prandial de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus Postprandial oxygen consumption of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Lisboa Cunha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a viabilidade do cultivo de uma espécie, é importante o conhecimento dos fatores limitantes para sua produção. Conhecer a taxa de consumo de oxigênio pós-prandial pode auxiliar na determinação da freqüência alimentar ideal para as espécies cultivadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a taxa de consumo de oxigênio pós-prandial para juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus. A avaliação do consumo de oxigênio foi feita a 24°C e 33‰, com pampos (9,64±0,2g alimentados com 12% da biomassa por dia com dieta NRD INVE (59% proteína. Foi observado um pico de consumo de oxigênio 30min após a alimentação (1,06mgO2 g-1 h-1 e seu retorno ao nível de jejum (0,79mgO2 g-1 h-1 depois de decorridos mais 120min. A alimentação de juvenis de pampo pode ser realizada com uma freqüência de aproximadamente oito vezes por dia, pois a cada 2,5h a taxa de consumo de oxigênio já não mostra a elevação característica da fase pós-prandial, sugerindo que os processos de digestão e assimilação dos nutrientes estejam finalizados.In order to determine the viability of new species for aquaculture, it is important to know the limiting factors for its production. The knowledge about postprandial oxygen consumption of fish is useful to estimate the time for returning to appetite and allows to estimate the proper feeding frequency. The objective of this research was to study the postprandial oxygen consumption of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus. Oxygen consumption rate was determined at 24°C and 33‰ and fish (9.64±0.2g were fed daily with 12% total of biomass NRD INVE diet (59% protein. Postprandial increase in oxygen consumption was observed 30min after feeding (1.06mgO2 g-1 h-1, and it returned to the routine metabolic rate (0.79mgO2 g-1 h-1 within the next 120min. According to these results, it seems appropriated to feed juvenile pompano 8 times per day, because every 2.5h the oxygen consumption rate declines to

  5. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined....... A fishmeal-based diet served as control against three test diets in which 30 % of each of the oilseed by-products was included. Diets were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish (similar to 1 kg bulk weight) for the digestibility trials which spanned a total of 9 days. The partial inclusion...

  6. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...

  7. Ingestion of Casein in a Milk Matrix Modulates Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption Kinetics but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Snijders, Tim; Linkens, Armand M A; Hamer, Henrike M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    The slow digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics of isolated micellar casein have been held responsible for its relatively lower postprandial muscle protein synthetic response compared with rapidly digested proteins such as isolated whey. However, casein is normally consumed within a milk matrix. We hypothesized that protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response after micellar casein ingestion are modulated by the milk matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a milk matrix on casein protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis in older men. In a parallel-group design, 32 healthy older men (aged 71 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine, L-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]-tyrosine, and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine, and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine labeled casein dissolved in bovine milk serum (Cas+Serum) or water (Cas). Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and for 300 min in the postprandial period to examine whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Casein ingestion increased plasma leucine and phenylalanine concentrations and L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments, with a more rapid rise after Cas vs. Cas+Serum. Nonetheless, dietary protein-derived phenylalanine availability did not differ between Cas+Serum (47 ± 2%, mean ± SEM) and Cas (46 ± 3%) when assessed over the 300-min postprandial period (P = 0.80). The milk matrix did not modulate postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates from 0 to 120 min (0.038 ± 0.005 vs. 0.031 ± 0.007%/h) or from 120 to 300 min (0.052 ± 0.004 vs. 0.067 ± 0.005%/h) after Cas+Serum vs. Cas. Similarly, no treatment differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments were observed at 120 min (0.003 ± 0.001 vs. 0.002 ± 0.001) or 300 min (0.015 ± 0.002 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002 mole

  8. Thorough Mastication Prior to Swallowing Increases Postprandial Satiety and the Thermic Effect of a Meal in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Naho; Motokubota, Naoko; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects. In study 2, ten subjects consumed a solid meal performing 30 chews per mouthful (30 CPM), or swallowed the same, pureed meal without chewing (0 CPM) on two separate days, and postprandial EE, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite ratings and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for 3 h were examined. Both test meals were iso-caloric (2,510 kJ) and -weighted (884 g), and consumed in 20 min. From study 1, the EE of mastication itself for the 20 min was estimated to be 3.7±0.8 kJ. From study 2, significantly higher TEM (134.2±15.5 vs. 67.8±13.8 kJ/3 h, pmastication before swallowing increased postprandial satiety and the TEM in young women, suggesting such eating behavior may be useful for preventing obesity.

  9. A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyao; Abou-Samra, Abdul B; Zhang, Ren

    2015-12-21

    Lipasin/Angptl8 is a feeding-induced hepatokine that regulates triglyceride (TAG) metabolism; its therapeutical potential, mechanism of action, and relation to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), however, remain elusive. We generated five monoclonal lipasin antibodies, among which one lowered the serum TAG level when injected into mice, and the epitope was determined to be EIQVEE. Lipasin-deficient mice exhibited elevated postprandial activity of LPL in the heart and skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT), suggesting that lipasin suppresses the activity of LPL specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Consistently, mice injected with the effective antibody or with lipasin deficiency had increased postprandial cardiac LPL activity and lower TAG levels only in the fed state. These results suggest that lipasin acts, at least in part, in an endocrine manner. We propose the following model: feeding induces lipasin, activating the lipasin-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles to direct circulating TAG to WAT for storage; conversely, fasting induces Angptl4, which inhibits LPL in WAT to direct circulating TAG to cardiac and skeletal muscles for oxidation. This model suggests a general mechanism by which TAG trafficking is coordinated by lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4 at different nutritional statuses.

  10. SULF2 Strongly Prediposes to Fasting and Postprandial Triglycerides in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, H. Carlijne; Surendran, R. Preethi; Derudas, Bruno; Verrijken, An; Francque, Sven M.; Mooij, Hans L.; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J.; ’t Hart, Leen M.; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Williams, Kevin Jon; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.; Staels, Bart; Nieuwdorp, Max; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hepatic overexpression of sulfatase-2 (SULF2), a heparan sulfate remodelling enzyme, strongly contributes to high triglyceride (TG) levels in obese, type 2 diabetic (T2DM) db/db mice. Nevertheless, data in humans are lacking. Here we sought to investigate the association of human hepatic SULF2 expression and SULF2 gene variants with TG metabolism in patients with obesity and/or T2DM. Design and Methods Liver biopsies from 121 obese subjects were analyzed for relations between hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels and plasma TG. Associations between seven SULF2 tagSNPs and TG levels were assessed in 210 obese T2DM subjects with dyslipidemia. Replication of positive findings was performed in 1316 independent obese T2DM patients. Postprandial TRL clearance was evaluated in 29 obese T2DM subjects stratified by SULF2 genotype. Results Liver SULF2 expression was significantly associated with fasting plasma TG (r = 0.271; p=0.003) in obese subjects. The SULF2 rs2281279(A>G) SNP was reproducibly associated with lower fasting plasma TG levels in obese T2DM subjects (p<0.05). Carriership of the minor G allele was associated with lower levels of postprandial plasma TG (P<0.05) and retinyl esters (RE) levels (P<0.001). Conclusions These findings implicate SULF2 as potential therapeutic target in the atherogenic dyslipidemia of obesity and T2DM. PMID:24339435

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in Individual Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Pre- and Postprandial State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J; Motton, D; Rutledge, J; Keim, N; Huser, T

    2004-09-13

    Individual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) particles derived from human volunteers are non-destructively analyzed by laser tweezers Raman microspectroscopy and information on their composition and distribution is obtained. The Raman signature of single optically trapped very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), a subclass of TGRL, which play an important role in cardiovascular disease, exhibits distinct peaks associated with molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, lipids, and structural rearrangements of lipids. Our analysis of pre- and postprandial VLDL exhibits the signature of biochemical changes in individual lipoprotein particles following the consumption of meals. Interaction of VLDL with endothelium leads to the breakdown of complex triacylglycerols and the formation of a highly ordered core of free saturated fatty acids in the particle. A particle distribution analysis reveals trends in the degree to which this process has occurred in particles at different times during the postprandial period. Differences in particle distributions based on the different ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fats in the consumed meals are also easily discerned. Individual lipoprotein particles hydrolyzed in-vitro through addition of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) exhibit strikingly similar changes in their Raman spectra. These results demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the dynamics of lipid metabolism of individual TGRL particles as they interact with LpL in the endothelial cell wall using Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Early hemodynamics and metabolic changes after total abdominal evisceration for experimental multivisceral transplantation Efeitos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos iniciais da evisceração abdominal total para transplante multivisceral experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy J. Cruz Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Multivisceral transplantation (MVTx has been accepted as standard therapeutic modality for patients with short-bowel syndrome associated with irreversible liver failure. Even nowadays, experimental models of MVTx grounds high incidence of intraoperative or early recipient mortality. Despite the known deleterious effects of hepatosplanchnic exenteration the impact of this procedure on systemic hemodynamics and metabolism remains to be determined. METHODS: Nine dogs (20.1±0.5 kg were subjected to an en bloc resection of all abdominal organs including, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, liver, spleen, small bowel, and colon. A woven double velour vascular graft was interposed between the suprahepatic and infrahepatic vena cava. Systemic hemodynamic were evaluated through a Swan-Ganz catheter, ultrasonic flowprobes, and arterial lines. Systemic O2-derived variables, glucose, and lactate metabolism were analyzed throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Complete abdominal exenteration was associated with significant reduction in cardiac output, and mean arterial pressure (57% and 14%, respectively. Two hours after reperfusion a significant reduction in arterial pH and glucose were also observed. Oxygen consumption remained unaltered during the first two hours of the experiment, with a significant increase of lactate levels (1.4±0.3 vs. 7.6±0.4, pOBJETIVO: O transplante multivisceral (MVTx é preconizado como tratamento de escolha em pacientes com síndrome do intestine curto associado com falência hepática irreverssível. Modelos experimentais de MVTx apresentam altas taxas de mortalidade intra-operatória e nas primeiras horas apos a reperfusão. Apesar dos deletérios efeitos hemodinâmicos da exenteração abdominal, o impacto deste procedimento na perfusão e no metabolismo sistêmico ainda esta por ser determinado. MÉTODOS: Nove cães (20.1±0.5 kg foram submetidos a ressecção em bloco de todos os orgãos abdominais incluindo, est

  13. DIFFERENT ACUTE METABOLISM OF FRUCTOSE IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS COMPARED TO HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Anderstam

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that a fatty meal is associated with a delayed post-prandial fructose absorption and/or metabolism, as well as increased uric acid levels in HD patients. In an ongoing new study, the fructose metabolism will be further studied in CKD patients, diabetics and healthy controls.

  14. Absorption and Intermediary Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    About 20 % of ruminal microbial N in dairy cows derives from purines and pyrimidines; however, their intermediary metabolism and contribution to the overall N metabolism has sparsely been described. In the present study, the postprandial patterns of net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic...

  15. Comparison of two consecutive fat-rich and carbohydrate-rich meals on postprandial myeloperoxidase response in women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindhelm, Roger K; Alssema, Marjan; Diamant, Michaela; Teerlink, Tom; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kok, Astrid; Kostense, Piet J; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J; Scheffer, Peter G

    2008-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), expressed in leukocytes and released upon activation, is associated with CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Postprandial leukocyte recruitment and activation with subsequent MPO release may contribute to atherosclerosis and CVD. We hypothesized that MPO may increase in the postprandial state because of postprandial leukocyte recruitment and/or activation, especially in subjects with DM2. One hundred postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years (66 with normal glucose metabolism [NGM] and 34 with DM2), received 2 consecutive fat-rich meals and 2 consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before (t = 0) and at 2, 4, and 8 hours after breakfast; lunch was given at t = 4. Plasma MPO concentration was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of leukocytes in fasting blood samples was higher in DM2 compared with NGM (6.1 +/- 1.4 and 5.4 +/- 1.2 x 10(9)/L, respectively; P DM2 (51.4 +/- 12.9 and 54.5 +/- 18.4 mug/L, respectively; P = .39). Baseline MPO was positively associated with leukocytes (r = 0.20, P DM2, respectively (both P DM2 (fat-rich meals only). Our findings provide no support to our initial hypothesis that meal-induced release of MPO might be a mechanism that contributes to CVD risk.

  16. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-17

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  17. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  18. Effects of whole grain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities: a randomized trial (Sysdimet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.Altogether 131 subjects (40-70 y, BMI 26-39 kg/m(2 with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet, b wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED, or c refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control. Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites.There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable.The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly explain the known protective

  19. Glucose Metabolism from Mouth to Muscle: A Student Experiment to Teach Glucose Metabolism during Exercise and Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    We developed an experiment to help students understand basic regulation of postabsorptive and postprandial glucose metabolism and the availability of energy sources for physical activity in the fed and fasted state. Within a practical session, teams of two or three students (1 subject and 1 or 2 investigators) performed one of three different…

  20. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Muñoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B I

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using both conventional least squares regression and regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts. Further, we explored the consequences of reduced body size of foxes on life history parameters such as litter size and neonate mass. For Blanford's foxes, Red foxes from the central desert of Arabia, and Red foxes from the more mesic Asir mountains, body mass averaged 1,285 +/- 52 g, 1,967 +/- 289 g, and 3,060 +/- 482 g, respectively, whereas mean BMR, during summer, was 304.5 +/- 32.3 kJ/day, 418.0 +/- 32.4 kJ/day, and 724.1 +/- 120.2 kJ/day (+/- SD). An analysis of covariance with body mass as a covariate showed no statistical differences in BMR among foxes. Analysis of covariance indicated that Red fox from the Asir mountains had a higher TEWL than Red foxes from central Arabia or than Blanford's foxes also from the mountains. Comparisons of all species of desert and mesic foxes showed no significant differences in BMR, nor did desert foxes have a significantly lower BMR than other carnivores. TEWL of desert foxes was lower than other more mesic carnivores; deviations in TEWL ranged from -17.7% for the Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) to -57.4% for the Kit fox (Vulpes velox). Although desert foxes have a BMR comparable to other more mesic species, it appears that desert foxes do have a smaller body mass, lowering overall energy requirements. We attribute this reduction in body size to the "resource limitation hypothesis" whereby natural selection favors smaller individuals in a resource-limited environment, especially during periods of severe food shortage. However, until common garden experiments are performed

  1. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pawlik, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  2. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV peak ) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver mean + [2 × Liver sd ]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm 3 or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy

  3. Effect of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Diamond, P

    1986-02-01

    The influence of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis was studied in nine mongrel dogs (congruent to 18 kg). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and respiratory quotient (R) were continuously monitored by indirect calorimetry during the following experiments. In expt 1, four dogs were fed on alternated days either a large (3.1 MJ) or small meal (0.77 MJ). In expt 2, five different dogs were fed on alternated days either one large meal (3.1 MJ) or four consecutive small meals (0.77 MJ) spaced at 1.5-h intervals. In expt 3, the four dogs of expt 1 after being sham fed 3 times at 1.5-h intervals were given one large meal (3.1 MJ). The VO2 increase during the initial or cephalic phase (congruent to 50 min) was independent of the meal size but it was directly proportional to the amount of food ingested during the digestive phase. The total thermogenic response to four small meals (125 g) fed at 1.5-h intervals was twice as large as that of one large meal (500 g). One large meal (500 g) preceded by three periods of sham feeding was also found to be more thermogenic than a large meal only. For all experiments the changes in R were seen to parallel the postprandial fluctuations in VO2. These findings indicate that the enhanced heat production obtained when meal frequency is increased is caused by the repeated sensory stimulation produced by palatable food.

  4. Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-10-01

    Currently 1 in every 3 children aged 2-19 y is overweight or obese. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and has the potential to affect children's health. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydrate, and 29% fat]. Energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, appetite, and blood glucose were measured over a 4 h period. Four hour postprandial participants were provided with access to a lunch buffet and food intake was recorded. After breakfast, OW children in the PRO group had higher (P fat oxidation over the 4 h period than did the NW children in the CHO and PRO groups. There was no difference in postprandial EE or carbohydrate oxidation between the CHO and PRO groups over the 4 h period; however, fat oxidation was 16% higher (P children. A PRO increases postprandial EE and fat oxidation, reduces hunger, and increases satiety when compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Low-glycemic load decreases postprandial insulin and glucose and increases postprandial ghrelin in white but not black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Heymen, Steve; Hinderliter, Alan L; Galanko, Joseph; Macintosh, Beth

    2012-07-01

    Alterations in appetite hormones favoring increased postprandial satiety have been implicated in both the glycemic control and potential weight-loss benefits of a low-glycemic diet. Racial differences exist in dietary glycemic load and appetite hormone concentrations. This study examined the impact of glycemic load on appetite hormones in 20 black women [10 normal weight, BMI = 22.8 ± 1.42 (mean ± SD); 10 obese, BMI = 35.1 ± 2.77] and 20 white women (10 normal weight, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.45; 10 obese, BMI = 34.3 ± 2.77). Each woman completed two 4.5-d weight-maintenance, mixed-macronutrient, high-glycemic vs. low-glycemic load diets that concluded with a test meal of identical composition. Blood samples collected before and serially for 3 h after each test meal were assayed for plasma ghrelin and serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Compared with the high-glycemic load meal, the low-glycemic load meal was associated with lower insulin(AUC) (P = 0.02), glucose(AUC) (P = 0.01), and urge to eat ratings (P = 0.05) but with higher ghrelin(AUC) (P = 0.008). These results suggest the satiating effect of a low-glycemic load meal is not directly linked to enhanced postprandial suppression of ghrelin. Notably, these effects were significant among white but not black women, suggesting that black women may be less sensitive than white women to the glucoregulatory effects of a low-glycemic load. These findings add to a growing literature demonstrating racial differences in postprandial appetite hormone responses. If reproducible, these findings have implications for individualized diet prescription for the purposes of glucose or weight control in women.

  7. Third Exposure to a Reduced Carbohydrate Meal Lowers Evening Postprandial Insulin and GIP Responses and HOMA-IR Estimate of Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Ju; Borer, Katarina T

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states. Four groups of eight metabolically healthy weight-matched postmenopausal women were provided with three isocaloric meals (a pre-trial meal and two meals during the trial day) containing either 30% or 60% carbohydrate, with and without two-hours of moderate-intensity exercise before the last two meals. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIP, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFAs), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured during 4-h postprandial periods and 3-h exercise periods, and their areas under the curve (AUCs) were analyzed by mixed-model ANOVA, and insulin resistance during fasting and meal tolerance tests within each diet was estimated using homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR). The third low-carbohydrate meal, but not the high-carbohydrate meal, reduced: (1) evening insulin AUC by 39% without exercise and by 31% after exercise; (2) GIP AUC by 48% without exercise and by 45% after exercise, and (3) evening insulin resistance by 37% without exercise and by 24% after exercise. Pre-meal exercise did not alter insulin-, GIP- and HOMA-IR- lowering effects of low-carbohydrate diet, but exacerbated evening hyperglycemia. Evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and insulin resistance declined by over 30% after three meals that limited daily carbohydrate intake to

  8. Postprandial response of ghrelin and PYY and indices of low-grade chronic inflammation in lean young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirska-Korczala, K; Sodowski, K; Konturek, S J; Kuka, D; Kukla, M; Brzozowski, T; Cnota, W; Woźniak-Grygiel, E; Jaworek, J; Bułdak, R; Rybus-Kalinowska, B; Fryczowski, M

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study were to answer the question 1.) Whether circulating pro-inflammatory markers of endothelial dysfunction and due to chronic low-grade inflammation of obesity, are altered in untreated lean, young relatively healthy polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients in comparison with healthy controls; 2.) Whether postprandial plasma concentration pattern of ghrelin and PYY can be predictable as risk factors for atherosclerosis and depend of obesity. Forty young women with PCOS were divided in two groups: 19 lean and 21 obese. The control group included 20 lean, healthy volunteers. Plasma total and active ghrelin, total PYY and PYY(3-36), serum adiponectin and insulin were measured using RIA technique, serum sCD40L, visfatin, sP-, sE-selectins, resistin by EIA. Composition of test meal was: 527 kcal total and consisted of 24.1% fat, 54.4% carbohydrate and 21.5% protein. Total and active ghrelin and total PYY were significantly lower in obese PCOS women, whereas active ghrelin was also significantly lower in lean PCOS women compared to controls. Postprandial plasma total ghrelin levels decrease were blunted in lean and obese compared to controls (12.8 % and 18.2% vs 28.2 %). Postprandial plasma active ghrelin decreased in lean and obese PCOS groups (49.9 % and 44.1 %) and controls (63.8 %). PCOS subjects exhibited smaller rises in postprandial levels of total PYY. Postprandial plasma PYY(3-36) levels increased in obese PCOS women (30.9 %) and controls (41%), whereas lean PCOS women exhibited blunted increase (11.5%). sCD40L levels increased, whereas adiponectin decreased in PCOS groups independently, whereas rise in visfatin, sE- and sP-selectin and the fall in adiponectin was associated with obesity. sP- and sE -selectins correlated positively with obesity. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that lean untreated young PCOS women contribute to the so called "pancreatic islet adaptation to insulin resistance" because of ghrelin and PYY

  9. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  11. Postprandial responses of incretin and pancreatic hormones in non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    of the insulinotropic gut-derived incretin hormones and pancreatic hormones play a critical role in the maintenance of a normal postprandial glucose tolerance. METHODS: We studied patients with ESRD and either normal (n = 10) or impaired (n = 10) glucose tolerance, and control subjects (n = 11). Plasma concentrations...... glucose responses were comparable between groups (P > 0.082). Patients with ESRD exhibited higher fasting levels of GIP and glucagon compared with controls (P corrected GLP-1 and glucagon responses were enhanced (P corrected insulin responses and insulin excursions...... increased secretion of the insulinotropic incretin hormone GLP-1. Fasting levels and baseline-corrected responses of glucagon were elevated and gastric emptying was delayed in the ESRD patients. These perturbations seem to be caused by uraemia per se and may contribute to the disturbed glucose metabolism...

  12. Correlation between resting state fMRI total neuronal activity and PET metabolism in healthy controls and patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soddu, Andrea; Gómez, Francisco; Heine, Lizette; Di Perri, Carol; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Voss, Henning U; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Phillips, Christophe; Demertzi, Athena; Chatelle, Camille; Schrouff, Jessica; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Noirhomme, Quentin; Salmon, Eric; Tshibanda, Jean-Flory Luaba; Schiff, Nicholas D; Laureys, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The mildly invasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging technique to measure 'resting state' cerebral metabolism. This technique made it possible to assess changes in metabolic activity in clinical applications, such as the study of severe brain injury and disorders of consciousness. We assessed the possibility of creating functional MRI activity maps, which could estimate the relative levels of activity in FDG-PET cerebral metabolic maps. If no metabolic absolute measures can be extracted, our approach may still be of clinical use in centers without access to FDG-PET. It also overcomes the problem of recognizing individual networks of independent component selection in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state analysis. We extracted resting state fMRI functional connectivity maps using independent component analysis and combined only components of neuronal origin. To assess neuronality of components a classification based on support vector machine (SVM) was used. We compared the generated maps with the FDG-PET maps in 16 healthy controls, 11 vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients and four locked-in patients. The results show a significant similarity with ρ = 0.75 ± 0.05 for healthy controls and ρ = 0.58 ± 0.09 for vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients between the FDG-PET and the fMRI based maps. FDG-PET, fMRI neuronal maps, and the conjunction analysis show decreases in frontoparietal and medial regions in vegetative patients with respect to controls. Subsequent analysis in locked-in syndrome patients produced also consistent maps with healthy controls. The constructed resting state fMRI functional connectivity map points toward the possibility for fMRI resting state to estimate relative levels of activity in a metabolic map.

  13. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Pchange in palmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all Presistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resistant starch lowers postprandial glucose and leptin in overweight adults consuming a moderate-to-high-fat diet: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziarz, Mindy Patterson; Preisendanz, Sara; Juma, Shanil; Imrhan, Victorine; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2017-02-21

    High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption. Using a randomized-controlled, parallel-arm, double-blind design, 18 overweight, healthy adults consumed either muffins enriched with 30 g HAM-RS2 (n = 11) or 0 g HAM-RS2 (control; n = 7) daily for 6 weeks. The HAM-RS2 and control muffins were similar in total calories and available carbohydrate. At baseline, total PYY concentrations were significantly higher 120 min following the consumption of study muffins in the HAM-RS2 group than control group (P = 0.043). Within the HAM-RS2 group, the area under the curve (AUC) glucose (P = 0.028), AUC leptin (P = 0.022), and postprandial 120-min leptin (P = 0.028) decreased independent of changes in body composition or overall energy intake at the end of 6 weeks. Fasting total PYY increased (P = 0.033) in the HAM-RS2 group, but changes in insulin or total GLP-1 were not observed. Mean overall change in subjective satiety score did not correlate with mean AUC biomarker changes suggesting the satiety peptides did not elicit a satiation response or change in overall total caloric intake. The metabolic response from HAM-RS2 occurred despite the habitual intake of a moderate-to-high-fat diet (mean range 34.5% to 39.4% of total calories). Consuming 30

  15. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful.

  16. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, paspartame=330kcal, paspartame and sucrose preloads (paspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg...

  18. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  19. Model-based analysis of postprandial glycemic response dynamics for different types of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne J. Rozendaal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Knowledge of postprandial glycemic response (PPGR dynamics is important in nutrition management and diabetes research, care and (selfmanagement. In daily life, food intake is the most important factor influencing the occurrence of hyperglycemia. However, the large variability in PPGR dynamics to different types of food is inadequately predicted by existing glycemic measures. The objective of this study was therefore to quantitatively describe PPGR dynamics using a systems approach. Methods: Postprandial glucose and insulin data were collected from literature for many different food products and mixed meals. The predictive value of existing measures, such as the Glycemic Index, was evaluated. A physiology-based dynamic model was used to reconstruct the full postprandial response profiles of both glucose and insulin simultaneously. Results: We collected a large range of postprandial glucose and insulin dynamics for 53 common food products and mixed meals. Currently available glycemic measures were found to be inadequate to describe the heterogeneity in postprandial dynamics. By estimating model parameters from glucose and insulin data, the physiology-based dynamic model accurately describes the measured data whilst adhering to physiological constraints. Conclusions: The physiology-based dynamic model provides a systematic framework to analyze postprandial glucose and insulin profiles. By changing parameter values the model can be adjusted to simulate impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Keywords: Postprandial glycemic response, Physiology-based dynamic model, Food intake, Computational modeling, Glucose, Insulin

  20. Three types of gall-bladder motility at men with chronic cholecystitis and pyelonephritis and accompanying their parameters of kidney excretory function as well as metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M Ivanyts’ka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously it has been shown that balneotherapy in the spa Truskavets’ (Ukraїna in men with chronic cholecystitis combined with pyelonephritis causes changes in gall-bladder motility. This is combined with changes in diurese and urinary excretion of metabolites.Individual analysis revealed not only quantitative but also qualitative differences in the postprandial motility of the gall-bladder. The purpose of this study is to identify the parameters of kidney excretory function as well as metabolism under which three types of the gall-bladdermotility skills differ significantly from each other. Materialandmethods. The object of observationwere the same ones 22men aged24-70 years old,who cameto the spaTruskavets’ for the treatment of chronic cholecystitiscombined withpyelonephritis inremission. On thetone and motility of gall-bladder judged byits fasting and postprandial volume (echocamera “Radmir”. In the daily  determined content of oxalate and nitrogen metabolites: creatinine, urea and uric acid, electrolytes: phosphates, chloride, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Nitrogenous metabolites in plasma of venous blood were determined also. The survey was conducted twice, before and after balneotherapy. Results. The method of cluster analysis has formed three homogeneous cholekinetics groups, namely:normokinesia as well as hypertonic-hyperkinetic and hyperkinetic-hypertonic dyskinesia.The method of discriminatory analysis revealed 13 parameters of daily urine and three parameters of blood, as well as body weight and height, electrokinetic index and Kerdoe’s index, in the totality of which three types of cholekinetics are clearly delineated.Conclusion. The type of postprandial cholekinetics is naturally associated with a number of parameters of the excretory renal function and metabolism.

  1. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...... gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  2. Assessment of metabolic control in patients with diabetes treated with insulin using Contour USB and A1cNow+ devices (COMET study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Irene; Álvarez, Pilar; García, Nicolás; Roura, Guillem; Conget, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    The self-determination of blood glucose is relevant for diabetes mellitus (DM) insulin-treated patients. The use of glucometers with advanced features and measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may help improve metabolic control. The main objective of this study was to determine the percentage of insulin treated patients who reduced HbA1c by at least 0.4% after 6 months of using Contour and A1CNow+. Observational, prospective, multicentre study in adult DM insulin treated patients, with HbA1c> 8%. Of the 454 recruited patients analysed, a total of 333 were evaluable. After 6 months the HbA1c decreased (P 8% was observed, with this reaching: 41% for all, 45% in type 1 DM, and 25% in type 2 DM. In the glycaemic profile, a reduction (P<.05) was observed in pre- and post-prandial glycaemia in both groups (-20.7±36.4 and -37.1±47.1mg/dL, respectively), with 23% pre-prandial glucose < 130mg/dL and post-prandial < 180mg/dL CONCLUSION: The use of glucometers with advanced features, and measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may help improve metabolic control and to monitor insulin treated DM patients more closely. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Alcohol on Postprandial and Fasting Triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Van de Wiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a significant additive effect on the postprandial triglyceride peak when it accompanies a meal containing fat, especially saturated fat. This results from a decrease in the breakdown of chylomicrons and VLDL remnants due to an acute inhibitory effect of alcohol on lipoprotein lipase activity. Furthermore, alcohol increases the synthesis of large VLDL particles in the liver, which is the main source of triglycerides in the hypertriglyceridemia associated with chronic excessive alcohol intake. In case of chronic consumption, lipoprotein lipase activity seems to adapt itself. The effect of alcohol on adipose tissues is less clear. Sometimes, a severe hypertriglyceridemia induced by alcohol (SHIBA can be observed, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity increasing the risk of pancreatitis.

  4. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men.

  6. Effect of Acarbose, Sitagliptin and combination therapy on blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone concentrations in experimentally induced postprandial hyperglycemia of healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Ueda, Kaori; Lee, Peter; Oda, Hitomi; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    Acarbose (AC) and Sitagliptin (STGP) are oral hypoglycemic agents currently used either alone or in conjunction with human diabetic (Type 2) patients. AC has been used with diabetic cats, but not STGP thus far. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the potential use of AC or STGP alone and in combination for diabetic cats, by observing their effect on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone (active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) concentrations in five healthy cats, following ingestion of a meal with maltose. All treatments tended (pglucose area under the curve (AUC), with an accompanying significant reduction (pAUC as compared to no treatment. Meanwhile, a significant increase (pAUC was observed with STGP (100% higher) and combined treatment (130% greater), as compared to either AC or no treatment. Lastly, a significant reduction (pAUC was observed with STGP (21% reduction) and combined treatment (7% reduction) as compared to control. Overall, AC, STGP, or combined treatment can significantly induce positive post-prandial changes to insulin and incretin hormone levels of healthy cats. Increasing active GLP-1 and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia appear to be the principal mechanisms of combined treatment. Considering the different, but complementary mechanisms of action by which AC and STGP induce lower glucose and insulin levels, combination therapy with both these agents offers great potential for treating diabetic cats in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  8. Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Metabolic Responses to Different Amylose-amylopectin Ratio Fed Diets in Tilapia (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yao Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted in tilapia to determine the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, and postprandial blood metabolites in response to different dietary amylose-amylopectin ratios. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing an equal starch level with different amylose-amylopectin ratios of 0.11 (diet 1, 0.24 (diet 2, 0.47 (diet 3, 0.76 (diet 4 and 0.98 (diet 5 were formulated using high-amylose corn starch (as the amylose source and waxy rice (as the amylopectin source. Each diet was hand-fed to six tanks of 15 fish each, three times a day over a 6-wk period. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood metabolic test was carried out. Fish fed diet 2 exhibited the highest percent weight gain and feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, whereas fish fed with diet 5 showed the lowest growth and feed utilization among treatments. The digestibility for starch in fish fed diet 1 and 2 was higher than those in fish fed with other diets (p<0.05. The highest activities for protease, lipase and amylase were found in fish fed the diet 2, diet 1, and diet 1 respectively among dietary treatments, while the lowest values for these indexes were observed in fish fed the diet 3, diet 5 and diet 4, respectively. The liver glycogen concentrations in fish fed diets 4 and 5 were found higher than in fish fed other diets (p<0.05. The feeding rate, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and plasma parmeters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ across treatments. In terms of postprandial blood responses, peak blood glucose and triglycerides were lower after 3 or 6 h in the fish fed with diets 3–5 than in the fish fed diet 1, but delayed peak blood total amino acid time was observed in fish fed with the diets 1 or 2. The lowest peak values for each of the three blood metabolites were observed in fish fed diet 5. The

  9. Decrement of postprandial insulin secretion determines the progressive nature of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wan Sub; Kim, Soo Kyung; Kim, Hae Jin; Kang, Eun Seok; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lim, Sung Kil; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2006-10-01

    Type-2 diabetes is a progressive disease. However, little is known about whether decreased fasting or postprandial pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness is more prominent with increased duration of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between insulin secretion both during fasting and 2 h postprandial, and the duration of diabetes in type-2 diabetic patients. Cross-sectional clinical investigation. We conducted a meal tolerance test in 1466 type-2 diabetic patients and calculated fasting (M0) and postprandial (M1) beta-cell responsiveness. The fasting C-peptide, postprandial C-peptide, M0, and M1 values were lower, but HbA1c values were higher, in patients with diabetes duration > 10 years than those in other groups. There was no difference in the HbA1c levels according to the tertiles of their fasting C-peptide level. However, in a group of patients with highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the HbA1c values were significantly lower than those in other groups. After adjustment of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), the duration of diabetes was found to be negatively correlated with fasting C-peptide (gamma = -0.102), postprandial C-peptide (gamma = -0.356), M0 (gamma = -0.263), and M1 (gamma = -0.315; P multiple regression analysis, M0, M1, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) emerged as predictors of HbAlc after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI (R2 = 0.272, 0.080, and 0.056 respectively). With increasing duration of diabetes, the decrease of postprandial insulin secretion is becoming more prominent, and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness may be a more important determinant for glycemic control than fasting beta-cell responsiveness.

  10. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-04-01

    Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13 C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.

  11. Effects of food form on food intake and postprandial appetite sensations, glucose and endocrine responses, and energy expenditure in resistance trained v. sedentary older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolzan, John W.; Leidy, Heather J.; Mattes, Richard D.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2013-01-01

    Limited research has suggested that the food form of nutritional supplements (FFNS) and resistance training (RT) influence ingestive behaviour and energy balance in older adults. The effects of the FFNS and RT on acute appetitive, endocrine and metabolic responses are not adequately documented. The present study assessed the effects of the FFNS and RT on postprandial appetite sensations (hunger and fullness), endocrine responses (plasma insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)), metabolism (glucose, energy expenditure and RER) and food intake (satiation) in older adults. On separate days, eighteen sedentary (Sed) and sixteen RT healthy adults (age 62–84 years) consumed 12·5% of their energy need as an isoenergetic- and macronutrient-matched solid or beverage. Postprandial responses were assessed over 4 h. No RT × FFNS interactions were observed for any parameter. Fasting cholecystokinin was higher in the RT v. Sed group (Pingestive behaviour. The appetitive and endocrine responses suggested the solid-promoted satiety; however, the FFNS did not alter subsequent food intake. PMID:21492495

  12. Postprandial lipemia: factoring in lipemic response for ranking foods for their healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia Botelho; Moughan, Paul J; Wood, Lisa G; Singh, Harjinder; Garg, Manohar L

    2017-09-18

    One of the limitations for ranking foods and meals for healthiness on the basis of the glycaemic index (GI) is that the GI is subject to manipulation by addition of fat. Postprandial lipemia, defined as a rise in circulating triglyceride containing lipoproteins following consumption of a meal, has been recognised as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Many non-modifiable factors (pathological conditions, genetic background, age, sex and menopausal status) and life-style factors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol and medication use, dietary choices) may modulate postprandial lipemia. The structure and the composition of a food or a meal consumed also plays an important role in the rate of postprandial appearance and clearance of triglycerides in the blood. However, a major difficulty in grading foods, meals and diets according to their potential to elevate postprandial triglyceride levels has been the lack of a standardised marker that takes into consideration both the general characteristics of the food and the food's fat composition and quantity. The release rate of lipids from the food matrix during digestion also has an important role in determining the postprandial lipemic effects of a food product. This article reviews the factors that have been shown to influence postprandial lipemia with a view to develop a novel index for ranking foods according to their healthiness. This index should take into consideration not only the glycaemic but also lipemic responses.

  13. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gylling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein

  15. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia

    2015-09-17

    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%-10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be

  16. Postprandial changes in cardiometabolic disease risk in young Chinese men following isocaloric high or low protein diets, stratified by either high or low meal frequency - a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Alexander; Haldar, Sumanto; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-03-15

    Cardio-Metabolic Disease (CMD) is the leading cause of death globally and particularly in Asia. Postprandial elevation of glycaemia, insulinaemia, triglyceridaemia are associated with an increased risk of CMD. While studies have shown that higher protein intake or increased meal frequency may benefit postprandial metabolism, their combined effect has rarely been investigated using composite mixed meals. We therefore examined the combined effects of increasing meal frequency (2-large vs 6-smaller meals), with high or low-protein (40 % vs 10 % energy from protein respectively) isocaloric mixed meals on a range of postprandial CMD risk markers. In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy Chinese males (Age: 29 ± 7 years; BMI: 21.9 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) underwent 4 dietary treatments: CON-2 (2 large Low-Protein meals), CON-6 (6 Small Low-Protein meals), PRO-2 (2 Large High-Protein meals) and PRO-6 (6 Small High-Protein meals). Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and venous blood samples were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals for 8.5 h to monitor postprandial changes in glucose, insulin, triglycerides and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Blood pressure was measured at regular intervals pre- and post- meal consumption. Urine was collected to measure excretion of creatinine and F2-isoprostanes and its metabolites over the 8.5 h postprandial period. The high-protein meals, irrespective of meal frequency were beneficial for glycaemic health since glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for PRO-2 (185 ± 166 mmol.min.L(-1)) and PRO-6 (214 ± 188 mmol.min.L(-1)) were 66 and 60 % lower respectively (both p meals with higher protein content, irrespective of meal frequency appears to be beneficial for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in young, healthy Chinese males. Implications of this study may be useful in the Asian context where the consumption of high glycemic index, carbohydrate meals is prevalent. NCT02529228 .

  17. **-Postprandial pancreatic ["1"1C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Miholic, Johannes; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit; Karanikas, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    [S-methyl-"1"1C]-L-methionine (["1"1C]MET) uptake in the pancreas might be a central indicator of beta cell function. Since gastric emptying was recently shown to influence glycemic control in subjects after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, the surgical treatment of neoplasms of the pancreas head), we looked for imaginable relationships between gastric emptying, pre- and postprandial insulin concentrations, and ["1"1C]MET uptake. Nineteen tumor-free survivors after PD (age mean ± SD: 61 ± 8.7 yrs.; 10 male, 9 female) and 10 healthy controls (age: 27 ± 8.7 yrs.; 7 male, 3 female) were given a mixed test meal. One gram of paracetamol was ingested with the meal to evaluate the speed of gastric emptying. Insulin, glucose, and paracetamol plasma concentrations were measured before and over 180 minutes after ingestion. Beta cell function was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. Simultaneously, 800 MBq of ["1"1C]MET were administered and the activity (maximum tissue standardized uptake values [SUVmax]) over the pancreas was measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Total integrated SUVmax (area under the curve [AUC]) and incremental SUVmax were calculated. The uptake of ["1"1C]MET in the pancreas was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in controls compared to the PD group. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in controls compared to pancreatectomy subjects (p < 0.0001). Paracetamol AUC_3_0 correlated with the SUVmax increment between 15 and 30 minutes (R"2 = 0.27, p = 0.0263), suggesting a relationship between gastric emptying and the uptake of ["1"1C]MET. Total integrated SUVmax correlated with insulin AUC_6_0 (R"2 = 0.66,p < 0.0001) in patients after PD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed insulin AUC_6_0 and beta cell function, calculated from the fasting insulin to glucose ratio, as independent predictors of "1"1C-methionine uptake, i.e. total integrated SUVmax, in patients after PD (R"2 = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Postprandial

  18. **-Postprandial pancreatic [{sup 11}C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Miholic, Johannes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Forensic Toxicology, Vienna (Austria); Karanikas, Georgios [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Divisional Head PET-PET/CT (Nuclear Medicine), Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    [S-methyl-{sup 11}C]-L-methionine ([{sup 11}C]MET) uptake in the pancreas might be a central indicator of beta cell function. Since gastric emptying was recently shown to influence glycemic control in subjects after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, the surgical treatment of neoplasms of the pancreas head), we looked for imaginable relationships between gastric emptying, pre- and postprandial insulin concentrations, and [{sup 11}C]MET uptake. Nineteen tumor-free survivors after PD (age mean ± SD: 61 ± 8.7 yrs.; 10 male, 9 female) and 10 healthy controls (age: 27 ± 8.7 yrs.; 7 male, 3 female) were given a mixed test meal. One gram of paracetamol was ingested with the meal to evaluate the speed of gastric emptying. Insulin, glucose, and paracetamol plasma concentrations were measured before and over 180 minutes after ingestion. Beta cell function was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. Simultaneously, 800 MBq of [{sup 11}C]MET were administered and the activity (maximum tissue standardized uptake values [SUVmax]) over the pancreas was measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Total integrated SUVmax (area under the curve [AUC]) and incremental SUVmax were calculated. The uptake of [{sup 11}C]MET in the pancreas was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in controls compared to the PD group. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in controls compared to pancreatectomy subjects (p < 0.0001). Paracetamol AUC{sub 30} correlated with the SUVmax increment between 15 and 30 minutes (R{sup 2} = 0.27, p = 0.0263), suggesting a relationship between gastric emptying and the uptake of [{sup 11}C]MET. Total integrated SUVmax correlated with insulin AUC{sub 60} (R{sup 2} = 0.66,p < 0.0001) in patients after PD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed insulin AUC{sub 60} and beta cell function, calculated from the fasting insulin to glucose ratio, as independent predictors of {sup 11}C-methionine uptake, i.e. total integrated SUVmax, in

  19. Toward the Elucidation of the Metabolism of 15-E2-Isoprostane: The Total Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of a Potential Central Metabolite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Ullrich; Dinca, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 13 (2010), s. 4480-4491 ISSN 0022-3263 Grant - others:DFG(DE) Ja896/3-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : isoprostane * total synthesis * radical anion cyclization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.002, year: 2010

  20. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics...... and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming (13)C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour...... in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health....

  1. Postprandial dyspnea and malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Donald, K; Carrey, Z; Martin, J G

    1998-06-01

    To compare ventilatory response, oxygen uptake and sense of dyspnea of underweight versus normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after a standard meal, in order to investigate whether an increase in dyspnea due to diet-induced thermogenesis might lead to altered eating habits. Weight loss in patients with COPD leads to adverse health effects, but the reasons for this loss are not well understood. Prospective study. A total of 18 patients (14 men, 4 women) aged 46 to 83 with severe, stable COPD. Minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), frequency of breathing, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2) and sense of dyspnea (using the Borg scale) were measured 15 minutes before a 2.5-MJ (600-kcal) balanced liquid meal and at four 15-minute intervals after the meal. Increases in VE, VT, VO2 and VCO2 were observed for all subjects. Corrected for body surface area, the maximum postprandial changes in these indicators did not differ between the underweight and the normal-weight subjects with COPD. Work of breathing (measured in 11 subjects) did not differ between the 2 groups, nor did the number of subjects reporting increased dyspnea. Since the increases in VE, VO2, VCO2 and perceived dyspnea did not differ between the normal-weight and underweight patients, this indicates that dyspnea at mealtimes is not likely to lead to decreased food intake.

  2. Effect of hypoxia on specific dynamic action and postprandial cardiovascular physiology in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Erika J; Farrell, Anthony P

    2014-05-01

    Fish routinely encounter hypoxic environments, which may have detrimental effects on digestion and performance. The present study measured oxygen consumption (MO2), gastrointestinal blood flow (GBF), cardiac output (Vb) and heart rate (f(H)) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 10°C-11.5°C while exposed to a 1.5-h step-wise hypoxia treatment (80%, 60% and 40% saturation=16.7, 12.6 and 8.4 kPa, respectively), which began 4 h after being fed 1% of their body mass. GBF and f(H) significantly decreased by 41 and 25%-29%, respectively, at the most severe hypoxia step (40% saturation), while MO2 and Vb were maintained throughout the entire hypoxia exposure. Thus, GBF and f(H) were more sensitive to hypoxia than MO2 or Vb in digesting rainbow trout. Subsequent to the hypoxic exposure, the fish were returned to normoxia and monitored for a total of 50h after feeding. While the magnitude of SDA was unaffected, peak postprandial MO2 was reduced by 17%, and the duration of specific dynamic action (SDA) was prolonged by 6h in hypoxia-treated fish when compared to control fish. In conclusion, digestive performance was compromised both during and after the hypoxic exposure, which could lead to negative effects on growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is there any relationship between coronary artery disease and postprandial triglyceride levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Inci Aslı; Atar, Ilyas; Aydınalp, Alp; Ertan, Cağatay; Bozbaş, Hüseyin; Ozin, Bülent; Yıldırır, Aylin; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between postprandial triglyceride (PPTG) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 80 patients were included in this prospective cohort study. Oral lipid loading was used in order to measure PPTG levels. In the fasting state and after the high fat breakfast, triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic methods at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th hours. We made subgroup analysis to show the effects of lipid loading on triglyceride levels in patients with and without fasting hypertriglyceridemia. We evaluated triglyceride levels and changes of triglyceride levels in percentages after lipid loading using a general linear model for repeated measures. Sample size analysis was performed. Baseline clinical, demographic and laboratory characteristics of both groups were similar. The peak triglyceride levels were seen at the 4th hour in both groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased after lipid-rich-breakfast loading compared to baseline levels in both groups (p<0.001) but these changes were not significant (p=0.279). In patients with elevated fasting triglyceride levels, the area under the plasma triglyceride concentration curve was significantly larger in CAD group than control group (334±103 vs. 233±58 mg/dl, p=0.02). Our data show that in patients who have a high fasting triglyceride level, high levels of PPTG may be related to CAD, however high PPTG levels are not related to CAD in patients with normal fasting levels of triglyceride.

  4. Incompatibility between fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Michio; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Tamada, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Morita, Shinya; Kasayama, Soji; Shimomura, Iichiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-11-30

    It is shown that glucocorticoids have discordant effects on plasma glucose concentration through their effects on hepatic glycogen deposition, gluconeogenesis and peripheral insulin resistance. Cushing's syndrome caused by cortisol overproduction is frequently accompanied with diabetes mellitus, but fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and post-glucose load plasma glucose levels are not examined in patients with Cushing's syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate FPG, HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h PG and their relationship in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in comparison with control subjects. Sixteen patients with Cushing's syndrome (ACTH-dependent 31%, ACTH-independent 69% and diabetes mellitus 50%) and 64 controls (32 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex and BMI) were enrolled in this study. HbA1c and FPG in the patients with Cushing's syndrome were not different from the controls, whereas the FPG/HbA1c ratio was significantly lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. OGTT 2-h PG was significantly higher in the non-diabetic patients with Cushing's syndrome than the non-diabetic controls, while HbA1c was not different between both groups and FPG was significantly lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. HOMA-β but not HOMA-R was significantly higher in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. In conclusion, FPG was rather lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. Postprandial PG or post-glucose loaded PG, but not FPG, is useful to evaluate the abnormality of glucose metabolism in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

  5. Beneficial effects on fasting insulin and postprandial responses through 7-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

    2017-07-01

    97.4 pmol·L-1; P= 0.002. With NZBC during the OGTTs, areas-under-the-curve for plasma glucose (control: 752.6±79.4, NZBC: 709.8±93.3 mmol·L-1·120 min and insulin (control: 28443±12816, NZBC: 20406±7985, pmol·L-1·120 min were 5.7% (P=0.051 and 31.1% lower (P<0.001 respectively. Conclusion: A trend for lower fasting insulin with normal glucose and lower areas under the curve for glucose and insulin suggests that repeated intake of New Zealand blackcurrant powder increases insulin sensitivity. This is the first observation of a high-anthocyanin containing berry powder to increase insulin sensitivity. Regular intake of New Zealand blackcurrant powder may be beneficial for the postprandial responses in people with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome.

  6. Regular activity breaks combined with physical activity improve postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and insulin responses in healthy, normal weight adults: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ashleigh R; Fenemor, Stephen P; Perry, Tracy L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Cameron, Claire M; Skeaff, C Murray; Peddie, Meredith C

    Compared with prolonged sitting, regular activity breaks immediately lower postprandial glucose and insulin, but not triglyceride responses. Postprandial triglycerides can be lowered by physical activity but the effect is often delayed by ∼12 to 24 hours. The objective of the study was to determine whether regular activity breaks affect postprandial triglyceride response in a delayed manner similar to physical activity. In a randomized crossover trial, 36 adults (body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 [standard deviation 3.9]) completed four 2-day interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT); (2) prolonged sitting with 30 minutes of continuous walking (60% VO 2max ), at the end of Day 1 (SIT + PA D1 ); (3) Sitting with 2 minutes of walking (60% VO 2max ) every 30 minutes (RAB); (4) A combination of the continuous walking and regular activity breaks in 2 and 3 above (RAB + PA D1 ). Postprandial plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin responses were measured in venous blood over 5 hours on Day 2. Compared with SIT, both RAB (difference: -43.61 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI] -83.66 to -2.67; P = .035) and RAB + PA D1 (-65.86 mg/dL·5 hours; 95% CI -112.14 to -19.58; P = .005) attenuated triglyceride total area under the curve (tAUC). RAB + PA D1 produced the greatest reductions in insulin tAUC (-23%; 95% CI -12% to -31%; P glucose tAUC (P = .290). Postprandial triglyceride response is attenuated by regular activity breaks, when measured ∼24 hours after breaks begin. Combining regular activity breaks with 30 minutes of continuous walking further improves insulinemic and lipidemic responses. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of modified dairy fat on postprandial and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandström, B.; Hermansen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid profile of milk fat can be modified by cow feeding strategies. Our aim was postprandially and after 4 wk to compare the effect of a modified milk fat(M diet) [with 16% of the cholesterolemic saturated fatty acid (C12-16) replaced by mainly oleic and stearic acids] with the effect of D...... diet than M diet (interaction effect, diet x timesP stearic acids may havebeen obscured by the high content of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids in milk fat...... diet, including aconventional Danish milk fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. A side effect of the cow feeding regime was a 5% (w/w) increase in trans fatty acid in M diet.Eighteen subjects were fed for two periods of 4 wk strictly controlled isoenergetic test diets with 40% of energy from total fat...

  8. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    and controls and examined possible mechanisms for increased insulin sensitivity during pioglitazone treatment. STUDY SUBJECTS: Thirty PCOS patients randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day, or placebo for 16 weeks and 14 weight-matched healthy females were studied. DESIGN: Total and HMW adiponectin levels were...... measured, and euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps and indirect calorimetry were performed. Delta-values denoted changes during pioglitazone treatment (16 weeks--basal). RESULTS: Pretreatment adiponectin levels were decreased in PCOS patients vs. controls (P ...OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...

  9. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, plean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, pproduction of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  10. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; Marcotte, George R; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Breen, Leigh; von Allmen, Mark; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Higher dietary energy as protein during weight loss results in a greater loss of fat mass and retention of muscle mass; however, the impact of protein quality on the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and lipolysis, processes that are important in the maintenance of muscle and loss of fat, respectively, are unknown. We aimed to determine how the consumption of different sources of proteins (soy or whey) during a controlled short-term (14-d) hypoenergetic diet affected MPS and lipolysis. Men (n = 19) and women (n = 21) (age 35-65 y; body mass index 28-50 kg/m(2)) completed a 14-d controlled hypoenergetic diet (-750 kcal/d). Participants were randomly assigned, double blind, to receive twice-daily supplements of isolated whey (27 g/supplement) or soy (26 g/supplement), providing a total protein intake of 1.3 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d), or isoenergetic carbohydrate (25 g maltodextrin/supplement) resulting in a total protein intake of 0.7 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d). Before and after the dietary intervention, primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(2)H5]-glycerol were used to measure postabsorptive and postprandial rates of MPS and lipolysis. Preintervention, MPS was stimulated more (P whey than with soy or carbohydrate. Postintervention, postabsorptive MPS decreased similarly in all groups (all P whey group, which was less (P whey. We conclude that whey protein supplementation attenuated the decline in postprandial rates of MPS after weight loss, which may be of importance in the preservation of lean mass during longer-term weight loss interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530646. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Mottalib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC versus oatmeal (OM on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG. After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both. Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02. GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both. FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat.

  12. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  13. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  14. Influence of acute exercise of varying intensity and duration on postprandial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Bloomer, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal. To compare the impact of acute exercise on postprandial oxidative stress. We compared aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts of different intensities and durations on postprandial blood triglycerides (TAG), oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products), and antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Twelve trained men (21-35 years) underwent four conditions: (1) No exercise rest; (2) 60-min aerobic exercise at 70% heart rate reserve; (3) five 60-s sprints at 100% max capacity; and (4) ten 15-s sprints at 200% max capacity. All exercise bouts were performed on a cycle ergometer. A high-fat meal was consumed 1 h after exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected pre-meal and 2 and 4 h post-meal and analyzed for TAG, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant status. No significant interaction or condition effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with acute exercise having little to no effect on the magnitude of postprandial oxidative stress. In a sample of healthy, well-trained men, neither aerobic nor anaerobic exercise attenuates postprandial oxidative stress in response to a high-fat meal.

  15. Effect of meal composition on postprandial lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle numbers: A randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Shah

    Full Text Available It is unclear how high-protein (HP and high-monounsaturated fat (HMF meals affect postprandial blood lipids and lipoprotein particle numbers (LPN.To compare a HP versus a HMF meal on postprandial lipid and LPN responses.Twenty-four participants (age: 36.3±15.0 years; body mass index: 23.6±2.0 kg/m2; 45.8% female were fed a HP (31.9% energy from protein and a HMF (35.2% fat and 20.7% monounsaturated fat meal in a randomized cross-over trial design. Energy and carbohydrate content were the same across meals. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and 3 hour postprandial state, and assessed for lipids and LPN.Repeated measures analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 treatment by time interaction effect for triglycerides (TG, the primary variable, total high-density lipoprotein particles (T-HDLP and T-HDLP minus large-buoyant high-density lipoprotein 2b (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b. HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG at 120 (geometric mean: 90.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 76.4-106.3 vs. 146.5 (124.2-172.9 mg/dL and 180 (101.4 (83.1-123.8 vs. 148.7 (121.9-181.4 mg/dL min and higher T-HDLP at 120 (mean difference: 297.3 (95% CI: 48.6-545.9 nmol/L and 180 (291.6 (15.8-567.5 nmol/L min. The difference in T-HDLP by condition was due to the significantly higher small-dense HDLP (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b during HP versus HMF condition at 120 (mean difference: 452.6 (95% CI: 177.4-727.9 nmol/L and 180 (496.8 (263.1-730.6 nmol/L min. Area under the curve analysis showed that HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG, non-HDLP, and very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDLP responses but significantly less favorable responses in LB-HDL2b particles, T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio.The HP meal led to lower TG, non-HDLP, and VLDLP but less favorable LB-HDL2b, small-dense HDLP, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio responses versus a HMF meal. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings over multiple meals.

  16. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect...

  17. On the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide in postprandial metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Tangaa, Winnie; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    infusion of GIP (0.8 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) or saline for 300 min during and after a fixed meal (protocol 1). GE was measured using paracetamol, appetite sensations using visual analog scales, EE using indirect calorimetry, and EI during a subsequent ad libitum meal (at 300 min). Next, 10 healthy males......, fullness or prospective food consumption compared with saline. In protocol 2, no difference was seen in the plasma TAG on Intralipid + GIP/saline and Intralipid + glucose + GIP/saline days. FFA concentrations were lower on Intralipid + glucose + GIP/saline days (P saline...... days and on Intralipid + GIP day (P saline day. Insulin increased on all GIP days compared with saline days (P

  18. [Current options of insulin resistence correction in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, T Iu; Ametov, A S; Titova, O I

    2006-01-01

    To study thiasolidindion drug pioglitazone for efficacy in metabolic syndrome (MS). Twenty patients with MS were examined at baseline and after 12 week therapy with pioglitazone. The examination included estimation of fasting and postprandial glycemia, insulin resistance index, HOMA-IR index, HbAlc, lipid profile, microalbuminuria (MAU), blood pressure, endothelium-related vasodilation. Pioglitazone therapy for 12 weeks significantly reduced HbAlc, fasting and postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, improved blood lipid spectrum, reduced visceral obesity. Positive effects were also achieved on blood pressure, MAU and endothelium-related vasodilation.

  19. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  20. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.S.; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions .......European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 16 May 2012; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.48....

  1. Assessment of postprandial triglycerides in clinical practice: validation in a general population and coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benef...

  2. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  3. Postprandial kinetics of gene expression of proteins involved in the digestive process in rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and impact of diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borey, Marion; Panserat, Stephane; Surget, Anne; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Herman, Alexandre; Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Médale, Françoise; Lauga, Beatrice; Burel, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The impact of increased incorporation of plant ingredients on diets for rainbow trout was evaluated in terms of gene expression of gastric (gastric lipase, pepsinogen) and intestinal (prolidase, maltase, phospholipase A2) digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters (peptide and glucose transporters), as well as of postprandial levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides and total free amino acids. For that purpose, trout alevins were fed from the start of exogenous feeding one of three different experimental diets: a diet rich in fish meal and fish oil (FM-FO), a plant-based diet (noFM-noFO) totally free from fish meal and fish oil, but containing plant ingredients and a Mixed diet (Mixed) intermediate between the FM-FO and noFM-noFO diets. After 16 months of rearing, all fish were left unfed for 72 h and then given a single meal to satiation. Blood, stomach and anterior intestine were sampled before the meal and at 2, 6 and 12 h after this meal. The postprandial kinetics of gene expression of gastric and intestinal digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters were then followed in trout fed the FM-FO diet. The postprandial profiles showed that the expression of almost all genes studied was stimulated by the presence of nutrients in the digestive tract of trout, but the timing (appearance of peaks) varied between genes. Based on these data, we have focused on the molecular response to dietary factors in the stomach and the intestine at 6 and 12 h after feeding, respectively. The reduction in FM and FO levels of dietary incorporation induced a significant decrease in the gene expression of gastric lipase, GLUT2 and PEPT1. The plasma glucose and triglycerides levels were also reduced in trout fed the noFM-noFO diet. Consequently, the present study suggests a decrease in digestive capacities in trout fed a diet rich in plant ingredients.

  4. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  5. p38 MAPK protects human monocytes from postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega, Almudena; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2013-05-01

    Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport dietary fatty acids through the circulatory system to satisfy the energy and structural needs of the tissues. However, fatty acids are also able to modulate gene expression and/or induce cell death. We investigated the underlying mechanism by which postprandial TRLs of different fatty acid compositions can induce cell death in human monocytes. Three types of dietary fat [refined olive oil (ROO), high-palmitic sunflower oil (HPSO), and butter] with progressively increasing SFA:MUFA ratios (0.18, 0.41, and 2.08, respectively) were used as a source of postprandial TRLs (TRL-ROO, TRL-HPSO, and TRL-BUTTER) from healthy men. The monocytic cell line THP-1 was used as a model for this study. We demonstrated that postprandial TRLs increased intracellular lipid accumulation (31-106%), reactive oxygen species production (268-349%), DNA damage (133-1467%), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (800-1710%) and caspase-3 (696-1244%) activities, and phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) (54 kDa, 141-288%) and p38 (24-92%). These effects were significantly greater with TRL-BUTTER, and TRL-ROO did not induce DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, or p38 phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of p38, but not of JNK, significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and increased cell death in postprandial TRL-treated cells. These results suggest that in human monocytes, p38 is involved in survival signaling pathways that protect against the lipid-mediated cytotoxicity induced by postprandial TRLs that are abundant in saturated fatty acids.

  6. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  7. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  8. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jessie R; Bourquin, Jeffrey; Wysong, Andrea; Melby, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years) participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1) EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2) (~600 kcal) and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2) EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3) CON: no exercise control. The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes) and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes), respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL × 360 minutes) (P < 0.05). A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  9. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  10. In vivo efficacy of acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 inhibition in rodent models of postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Segreti, Jason A; Larson, Kelly J; Souers, Andrew J; Kym, Philip R; Reilly, Regina M; Collins, Christine A; Voorbach, Martin J; Zhao, Gang; Mittelstadt, Scott W; Cox, Bryan F

    2010-07-10

    Postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations have recently been identified as a major, independent risk factor for future cardiovascular events. As a result, postprandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was two-fold. Firstly, to describe and characterize a standardized model of postprandial hyperlipidemia in multiple rodent species; and secondly, apply these rodent models to the evaluation of a novel class of pharmacologic agent; acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 inhibitors. Serum triglycerides were measured before and for 4h after oral administration of a standardized volume of corn oil, to fasted C57BL/6, ob/ob, apoE(-/-) and CD-1 mice; Sprague-Dawley and JCR/LA-cp rats; and normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic hamsters. Intragastric administration of corn oil increased serum triglycerides in all animals evaluated, however the magnitude and time-course of the postprandial triglyceride excursion varied. The potent and selective DGAT-1 inhibitor A-922500 (0.03, 0.3 and 3 mg/kg, p.o.), dose-dependently attenuated the maximal postprandial rise in serum triglyceride concentrations in all species tested. At the highest dose of DGAT-1 inhibitor, the postprandial triglyceride response was abolished. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the time-course of postprandial hyperlipidemia in rodents. In addition, the ability of DGAT-1 inhibitors to attenuate postprandial hyperlipidemia in multiple rodent models, including those that feature insulin resistance, is documented. Exaggerated postprandial hyperlipidemia is inherent to insulin-resistant states in humans and contributes to the substantially elevated cardiovascular risk observed in these patients. Therefore, by attenuating postprandial hyperlipidemia, DGAT-1 inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic approach to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Postprandial heat increment does not substitute for active thermogenesis in cold-challenged star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K L; McIntyre, I W; MacArthur, R A

    2000-01-01

    The postprandial increase in metabolic rate associated with consuming, assimilating and excreting a meal is often termed the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The metabolic heat production of star-nosed moles, Condylura cristata, held at thermoneutrality was monitored for 4 h following a single 10 min session of feeding on a ration consisting of 0 g (controls), 3.5 g or 10 g of earthworms. Coefficients for metabolizable energy digestibility and digesta passage rate of earthworms fed to C. cristata were also determined. We then tested whether feeding-induced thermogenesis substitutes partially or completely for thermoregulatory heat production in these animals exposed to sub-thermoneutral air temperatures (9-24 degrees C). A single feeding on earthworms had both short- and long-term effects on the metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio of C. cristata. The observed short-term (0-65 min) rise in metabolic rate, assumed to be associated primarily with the physical costs of nutrient digestion, absorption and excretion, was similar to the calculated mean retention time (66.7+/-7.8 min; mean +/- s.e. m., N=5) of this species. This component of the HIF represented 2.9 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 3.5 g (13.21 kJ) meal of earthworms and 1.4 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 7.5 g (28.09 kJ) meal of earthworms. At all test temperatures, resting metabolic rate typically remained above fasting levels for 1-4 h following ingestion of the high-protein earthworm diet. This protracted rise in metabolic rate, presumably associated with the biochemical costs of amino acid oxidation/gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, averaged 12.8 % of the metabolizable energy and 8.7 % of the gross energy intake. Despite the potential thermoregulatory benefit, we found no evidence that biochemical HIF substitutes for facultative thermogenesis in star-nosed moles exposed to low air temperatures.

  12. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Nutrition as a mediator of oxidative stress in metabolic and reproductive disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papalou, Olga; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kassi, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place. Simultaneously, in reproductive tissues, nutrition-induced oxidative stress can potentially violate delicate oxidative balance that is mandatory to secure normal reproductive function. Taken all the above into account, nutrition and its accompanying postprandial oxidative stress, in the unique context of female hormonal background, can potentially compromise normal metabolic and reproductive functions in women and may act as an active mediator of various metabolic and reproductive disorders. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Relationship between postprandial motor activity in the human small intestine and the gastrointestinal transit of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, N.W.; Al-Janabi, M.N.; Edwards, C.A.; Barber, D.C.

    1984-04-01

    Profiles for gastric emptying and colonic filling were determined in 20 normal volunteers by means of a gamma camera and dedicated minicomputer after ingestion of a radiolabeled solid meal. These were compared with intraluminal pressure activity, recorded simultaneously from three sites (each separated by 50 cm) in the small intestine by infusion manometry. Recordings were continued for at least 8 h or until all the radioactivity appeared in the colon. Colonic filling was approximately linear, occurring at an average rate of 16% of the meal residues per hour. There were significant inverse correlations (p less than 0.01) between the pressure activity in the proximal jejunum during the first 3 h after ingestion and the times taken for 50% and 80% of the meal residues to enter the colon, and direct correlations between total small intestinal pressure activity and the half-time for gastric emptying. Phase III of the interdigestive migrating motor complex appeared between 3 and 9 h after ingestion (when between 15% and 80% of the meal remained in the small intestine), but did not necessarily migrate to the next recording site until much later. The time of appearance of phase III in the proximal jejunum was directly correlated with the half-time for gastric emptying (p less than 0.05) and with the intraluminal pressure activity recorded at that site during the first 3 h after food ingestion (p less than 0.01). The time at which 80% of the meal residues had entered the colon was significantly shorter in 6 subjects, in whom a postprandial activity front appeared to migrate throughout the small bowel, compared with 13 subjects, in whom this did not occur (5.0 +/- 0.5 h vs. 7.0 +/- 0.4 h, p less than 0.01). These studies have shown that gastrointestinal transit of a solid meal is related to both fed and fasted intraluminal pressure activity in the small intestine.

  14. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation and both alter the gut microbiota of healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Pimentel, Grégory; Bütikofer, Ueli; von Ah, Ueli; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Croxatto, Antony; Aeby, Sébastien; Drai, Jocelyne; McTernan, Philip G; Greub, Gilbert; Pralong, François P; Vergères, Guy; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in 'low-grade' inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (Pyogurt intake (FC=-1·3, P adj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, P adj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, P adjyogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target 'low-grade' inflammation.

  15. SULF2 strongly prediposes to fasting and postprandial triglycerides in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, H Carlijne; Surendran, R Preethi; Derudas, Bruno; Verrijken, An; Francque, Sven M; Mooij, Hans L; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Hart, Leen M 't; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Williams, Kevin Jon; Stroes, Erik S G; Van Gaal, Luc F; Staels, Bart; Nieuwdorp, Max; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M

    2014-05-01

    Hepatic overexpression of sulfatase-2 (SULF2), a heparan sulfate remodeling enzyme, strongly contributes to high triglyceride (TG) levels in obese, type 2 diabetic (T2DM) db/db mice. Nevertheless, data in humans are lacking. Here, the association of human hepatic SULF2 expression and SULF2 gene variants with TG metabolism in patients with obesity and/or T2DM was investigated. Liver biopsies from 121 obese subjects were analyzed for relations between hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels and plasma TG. Associations between seven SULF2 tagSNPs and TG levels were assessed in 210 obese T2DM subjects with dyslipidemia. Replication of positive findings was performed in 1,316 independent obese T2DM patients. Postprandial TRL clearance was evaluated in 29 obese T2DM subjects stratified by SULF2 genotype. Liver SULF2 expression was significantly associated with fasting plasma TG (r = 0.271; P = 0.003) in obese subjects. The SULF2 rs2281279(A>G) SNP was reproducibly associated with lower fasting plasma TG levels in obese T2DM subjects (P obesity and T2DM. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Effects of a Bioavailable Arabinoxylan-enriched White Bread Flour on Postprandial Glucose Response in Normoglycemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulia Falchi, Anna; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Palladini, Giuseppina; Perlini, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The beneficial effects of soluble fibers on carbohydrate metabolism are well documented. In this regard, we tested an arabinoxylan-enriched white bread flour, obtained by a patented process by which the bran extracted from the milling process is enzymatically hydrolyzed in order to separate the soluble fraction fiber from the insoluble fiber. We recruited 24 healthy normoglycemic volunteers [Age 34-61 ± 12.5 y; Body Mass Index (BMI) 22.1 ± 2.5 kg/m(2); Waist circumference (WC) 84.43 ± 8.0 cm; Fat Mass (FM) 22.7 ± 8.0%] attending the Dietetics Outpatient Clinic of the Internal Medicine Department at IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Subjects acutely consumed arabinoxylan-enriched white bread (weight: 100 g) or isoenergetic control breads, in a double-blind crossover study design. Plasma glucose levels were measured just before bread administration and 30 minutes afterwards. The 30-minute peak postprandial glucose concentrations after arabinoxylan-enriched meals were significantly lower than after the control meal (107±4.6 mg/dL vs. 121 ± 5.2 mg/dL; p consumption of arabinoxylan-enriched bread will benefit patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  18. The Effect of a Breakfast Rich in Slowly Digestible Starch on Glucose Metabolism: A Statistical Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Meynier, Alexandra; Goux, Aurélie; Jourdan-Salloum, Nathalie; Normand, Sylvie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brack, Olivier; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Péronnet, François; Laville, Martine

    2017-03-23

    Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, after healthy subjects consumed cereal products that differed in SDS content. Three randomized controlled clinical trials that included a total of 79 subjects were identified. Using binary classification for the variables (high versus low levels, more than 12 g of SDS per portion, and less than 1 g of SDS per portion, respectively), we found that there was a 15-fold higher chance of having a low rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) after consumption of a high-SDS product. A high SDS content was also associated with a 12-fold and 4-fold higher chance of having a low rate of disappearance of exogenous glucose (RdE) and rate of disappearance of total plasma glucose (RdT), respectively. The RaE kinetics were further analyzed by modeling the contribution of SDS content to the different phases of the RaE response. We show that the higher the SDS content per portion of cereal product, the higher its contribution to the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the RaE response after 165 min. Using the association rule technique, we found that glycemic iAUC and insulinemic iAUC values vary in the same direction. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms the effect of the SDS level in cereal products on the metabolic response, and shows for the first time that the degree to which SDS affects the RaE response differs depending on the SDS content of the food product, as well as the phase of the postprandial period.

  19. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  20. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  1. Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Brink, E.J.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a

  2. Postprandial triglyceride response in young adult men and familial risk for coronary atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Stiphout, W.A.H.J. van; Krauss, X.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Bruijn, A.M. de; Tol, A. van; Hofman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Setting: Coronary angiography departments of four central general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients: 80 sons (mean age, 24.8 years) of men with severe coronary artery disease and 55 sons (mean age, 23.2 years) of controls. Measurements: Postprandial levels of serum triglycerides, retinyl

  3. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non...

  4. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V.; Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Amer, Bashar; Larsen, Mette K.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Holst, Jens J.; Herrmann, Annkatrin; O'Neill, Sadhbh; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Afman, Lydia; Jensen, Erik; Christensen, Merete M.; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. Objective: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty

  6. Reduced postprandial GLP-1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, L; Vilsbøll, T; Nielsen, T

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We investigated postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and again following delivery when normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was re-established. METHODS: Eleven women with GDM [plasma glucose (PG) concentration...

  7. Rosiglitazone decreases postprandial production of acylation stimulating protein in type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Garry D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated plasma ASP and its precursor C3 in type 2 diabetic men with/without rosiglitazone (ROSI treatment compared to healthy non-obese men. We tested (1 whether plasma ASP or C3 are altered postprandially in subcutaneous adipose tissue or forearm muscle effluent assessed by arteriovenous (A-V differences in healthy lean men and older obese diabetic men and (2 whether treatment with ROSI changes the arteriovenous gradient of ASP and/or C3. Methods In this ongoing placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blinded study, AV differences following a mixed meal were measured in diabetic men (n = 6 as compared to healthy men (n = 9. Results Postprandial arterial and adipose venous TG and venous NEFA were increased in diabetics vs. controls (p Conclusion Increased postprandial venous production of ASP is specific for adipose tissue (absent in forearm muscle. Increased postprandial C3 and ASP in diabetic subjects is consistent with an ASP resistant state, this state is partially normalized by treatment with ROSI.

  8. Differences in postprandial hemodynamic response on a high protein versus a high carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several intervention trials have shown that diet composition affects blood pressure (BP). In this study we focused on postprandial hemodynamic changes on a high carbohydrate versus a high protein diet. Design and Method: In this randomized double-blind parallel group study, 53 adult

  9. Effect of light-load resistance exercise on postprandial amino acid transporter expression in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h...

  10. Effect of statin versus fibrate on postprandial endothelial dysfunction: role of remnant-like particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, H. W.; Twickler, M. B.; Banga, J. D.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Eeltink, H.; Erkelens, D. W.; Rabelink, T. J.; Stroes, E. S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Remnant-like particles (RLP) have been suggested to contribute to these adverse vascular effects. We investigated the effect of cerivastatin and gemfibrozil upon oral fat load induced changes in endothelial function and

  11. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Cindy E; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lambert, Joshua D; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L; Sauder, Katherine A; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-16

    Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the inhibitory effect of spices on digestive enzymes. In a 2 x 2, randomized, 4-period crossover design, we compared the effects of 14.5 g spices (black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, rosemary, and turmeric) vs. placebo incorporated into a high fat meal (1000 kcal, 45 g fat), followed by psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test) vs. rest on postprandial metabolism in 20 healthy but overweight adults. Blood was sampled at baseline and at 105, 140, 180, and 210 minutes for analysis of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Additional in vitro analyses examined the effect of the spice blend and constituent spices on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂). Mixed models were used to model the effects of spices and stress (SAS v9.3). Serum triglycerides, glucose and insulin were elevated following the meal (p Spices reduced post-meal triglycerides by 31% when the meal was followed by the rest condition (p = 0.048), but this effect was not present during stress. There was no effect of the spice blend on glucose or insulin; however, acute stress significantly increased both of these measures (p spice blend and several of the individual spices dose-dependently inhibited PL and PLA2 activity in vitro. Inclusion of spices may attenuate postprandial lipemia via inhibition of PL and PLA₂. However, the impact of psychological stress negates any influence of the spice blend on triglycerides, and further, increases blood

  12. Editorial: The rise and fall of postprandial lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The remnants of absorbed fat particles which circulate after a meal might cause atherosclerosis, but such a causal role is still unproven. High levels of such lipoprotein remnants are often found in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Increased activity and weight loss will diminish the

  13. Postprandial Effect of a High-Fat Meal on Endotoxemia in Arab Women with and without Insulin-Resistance-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A. Al-Disi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of a high-fat meal on circulating endotoxin and cardiometabolic indices in adult Arab women. The cohort consisted of 92 consenting Saudi women (18 non-diabetic (ND control subjects; Age 24.4 ± 7.9 year; body mass index (BMI 22.2 ± 2.2 Kg/m2, 24 overweight/obese (referred to as overweight-plus (overweight+ subjects (Age 32.0 ± 7.8 year; BMI 28.5 ± 1.5 Kg/m2 and 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients (Age 41.5 ± 6.2 year; BMI 35.2 ± 7.7 Kg/m2. All were given a high-fat meal (standardized meal: 75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein after an overnight fast of 12–14 h. Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood glucose, lipids, and endotoxin were serially measured for four consecutive postprandial hours. Endotoxin levels were significantly elevated prior to a high-fat meal in the overweight+ and T2DM than the controls (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the postprandial cardiometabolic changes led to a more detrimental risk profile in T2DM subjects than other groups, with serial changes most notable in glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and insulin levels (p-values < 0.05. The same single meal given to subjects with different metabolic states had varying impacts on cardiometabolic health. Endotoxemia is exacerbated by a high-fat meal in Arab subjects with T2DM, accompanied by a parallel increase in cardiometabolic risk profile, suggesting disparity in disease pathogenesis of those with or without T2DM through the altered cardiometabolic risk profile rather than variance in metabolic endotoxinaemia with a high-fat meal.

  14. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB. Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL, white rice (WR and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  15. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  16. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial

  17. Influence of Postprandial Intragastric Pressures on Drug Release from Gastroretentive Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix; Hoppe, Melanie; Koziolek, Mirko; Weitschies, Werner

    2018-05-29

    Despite extensive research in the field of gastroretentive dosage forms, this "holy grail" of oral drug delivery yet remained an unmet goal. Especially under fasting conditions, the reproducible retention of dosage forms in the stomach seems to be an impossible task. This is why such systems are often advised to be taken together with food. But also the postprandial motility can contribute significantly to the failure of gastroretentive dosage forms. To investigate the influence of postprandial pressure conditions on drug release from such systems, we used a novel in vitro dissolution tool, the dissolution stress test device. With the aid of this device, we simulated three different intragastric pressure profiles that may occur after postprandial intake. These transit scenarios were based on recently obtained, postprandial SmartPill® data. The tested systems, Glumetza® 1000 and Madopar® HBS 125, are marketed dosage forms that are based on different approaches to achieve proper gastric retention. All three transit scenarios revealed a highly pressure-sensitive drug release behavior, for both drugs. For Madopar® HBS 125, nearly complete drug release was observed even after early occurring pressures. Glumetza® 1000 seemed to be more resistant to these, most likely due to incomplete wetting of the system. On the contrary to these findings, data from standard dissolution tests using the paddle apparatus displayed controlled drug release for both systems for about 6 h. Based on these results, it can be doubted that established gastroretentive systems stay intact over a longer period of time, even under postprandial conditions.

  18. Postprandial oxytocin secretion is associated with severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Holsen, Laura M; Santin, McKale; DeSanti, Rebecca; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T; Herzog, David B; Goldstein, Jill M; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls. A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between postprandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa. We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 women with active anorexia nervosa, 9 with weight-recovered anorexia nervosa, and 13 healthy controls). Anorexia nervosa was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC) and, for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The study was conducted from January 2009 to March 2011. In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and postprandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI trait and STAI premeal and postmeal state scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, most of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of the variance in BDI-II scores. Abnormal postprandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This

  19. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  20. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  1. Potential utility of combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan for metabolic derangements in Zucker Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajioka, T; Miura, K; Kitahara, Y; Yamagishi, S

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with insulin resistance and has been recognized as a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance and/or impaired early-phase insulin secretion are major determinants of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of combination therapy with telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker and nateglinide, a rapid-onset/short-duration insulinotropic agent, for the treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia and metabolic derangements in Zucker Fatty (ZF) rats. ZF rats fed twice daily were given vehicle, 50 mg/kg of nateglinide, 5 mg/kg of telmisartan, or both for 6 weeks. Combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan for 2 weeks ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia in ZF rats fed twice daily. Furthermore, 6-week treatment with nateglinide and telmisartan not only decreased fasting plasma insulin, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels, but also improved the responses of blood glucose to insulin and subsequently reduced the decremental glucose areas under the curve in the ZF rats. Combination therapy also restored the decrease of plasma adiponectin levels in the ZF rats. Monotherapy with nateglinide or telmisartan alone didnot significantly improve these metabolic parameters. These observations demonstrate that combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan may improve the metabolic derangements by ameliorating early phase of insulin secretion as well as insulin resistance in ZF rats fed twice daily. Our present findings suggest that the combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Glucose metabolism during rotational shift-work in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Laurenti, Marcello C; Dalla Man, Chiara; Varghese, Ron T; Cobelli, Claudio; Rizza, Robert A; Matveyenko, Aleksey; Vella, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Shift-work is associated with circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine the effect of rotational shift-work on glucose metabolism in humans. We studied 12 otherwise healthy nurses performing rotational shift-work using a randomised crossover study design. On each occasion, participants underwent an isotope-labelled mixed meal test during a simulated day shift and a simulated night shift, enabling simultaneous measurement of glucose flux and beta cell function using the oral minimal model. We sought to determine differences in fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism during the day shift vs the night shift. Postprandial glycaemic excursion was higher during the night shift (381±33 vs 580±48 mmol/l per 5 h, pshift. While insulin action did not differ between study days, the beta cell responsivity to glucose (59±5 vs 44±4 × 10 -9  min -1 ; pshift. Impaired beta cell function during the night shift may result from normal circadian variation, the effect of rotational shift-work or a combination of both. As a consequence, higher postprandial glucose concentrations are observed during the night shift.

  3. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  4. Effect of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose metabolism after a fat and glucose load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Miyagishima, Kenji; Ishii, Junichi; Matsui, Shigeru; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Kenji; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    The clinical benefit of ezetimibe, an intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, for treatment of postprandial hyperlipidemia was assessed in subjects who ingested a high-fat and high-glucose test meal to mimic westernized diet. We enrolled 20 male volunteers who had at least one of the following: waist circumference ≥ 85 cm, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), or triglycerides (TG) from 150 to 400mg/dL. After 4 weeks of treatment with ezetimibe (10mg/day), the subjects ingested a high-fat and high-glucose meal. Then changes in serum lipid and glucose levels were monitored after 0, 2, 4, and 6h, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the change in each parameter. At 4 and 6h postprandially, TG levels were decreased (pAUC for TG was also decreased (pAUC for apo-B48 was also significantly decreased (pBlood glucose and insulin levels at 2h postprandially were significantly decreased by ezetimibe (pAUCs for blood glucose and insulin were also significantly decreased (pglucose metabolism, this drug is likely to be beneficial for dyslipidemia in patients with postprandial metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaah, Akua F; Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-04-02

    Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women ( n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults.

  6. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  7. Effects of a plant-based high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet versus high-monounsaturated fat/low-carbohydrate diet on postprandial lipids in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Claudia; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Mazzarella, Raffaella; Costabile, Giuseppina; Ciano, Ornella; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2009-12-01

    To search for a better dietary approach to treat postprandial lipid abnormalities and improve glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients. According to a randomized crossover design, 18 type 2 diabetic patients (aged 59 +/- 5 years; BMI 27 +/- 3 kg/m(2)) (means +/- SD) in satisfactory blood glucose control on diet or diet plus metformin followed a diet relatively rich in carbohydrates (52% total energy), rich in fiber (28 g/1,000 kcal), and with a low glycemic index (58%) (high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet) or a diet relatively low in carbohydrate (45%) and rich in monounsaturated fat (23%) (low-carbohydrate/high-monounsaturated fat diet) for 4 weeks. Thereafter, they shifted to the other diet for 4 more weeks. At the end of each period, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, and lipoprotein fractions (separated by discontinuous density gradient ultracentrifugation) were determined on blood samples taken at fasting and over 6 h after a test meal having a similar composition as the corresponding diet. In addition to a significant decrease in postprandial plasma glucose, insulin responses, and glycemic variability, the high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet also significantly improved the primary end point, since it reduced the postprandial incremental areas under the curve (IAUCs) of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in particular, chylomicrons (cholesterol IAUC: 0.05 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 mmol/l per 6 h; triglycerides IAUC: 0.71 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.58 mmol/l per 6 h, P carbohydrate and fiber, essentially based on legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole cereals, may be particularly useful for treating diabetic patients because of its multiple effects on different cardiovascular risk factors, including postprandial lipids abnormalities.

  8. A small dose of whey protein co-ingested with mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals improves postprandial glycemia and suppresses appetite in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David G; Walker, Mark; Campbell, Matthew D; Breen, Leigh; Stevenson, Emma J; West, Daniel J

    2018-04-01

    Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high-glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic and appetite responses after small doses of intact and hydrolyzed whey protein co-ingested with mixed-nutrient breakfast and lunch meals in men with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, single-blind crossover design, 11 men with type 2 diabetes [mean ± SD age: 54.9 ± 2.3 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.8% ± 0.3% (51.3 ± 3.4 mmol/mol)] attended the laboratory on 3 mornings and consumed 1) intact whey protein (15 g), 2) hydrolyzed whey protein (15 g), or 3) placebo (control) immediately before mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals, separated by 3 h. Blood samples were collected periodically and were processed for insulin, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), leptin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36), and amino acid concentrations. Interstitial glucose was measured during and for 24 h after each trial. Subjective appetite was assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Total postprandial glycemia area under the curve was reduced by 13% ± 3% after breakfast following the intact whey protein when compared with control (P  0.05). The consumption of a small 15-g dose of intact whey protein immediately before consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals improves postprandial glycemia, stimulates insulin release, and increases satiety in men with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicialtrials.gov as NCT02903199.

  9. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01989637. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Simultaneously Occurring Elevated Metabolic States Expose Constraints in Maximal Levels of Oxygen Consumption in the Oviparous Snake Lamprophis fuliginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alexander Garrett Schavran; Leu, Szu-Yun; Hicks, James W

    African house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus) were used to compare the metabolic increments associated with reproduction, digestion, and activity both individually and when combined simultaneously. Rates of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and carbon dioxide production ([Formula: see text]) were measured in adult female (nonreproductive and reproductive) and adult male snakes during rest, digestion, activity while fasting, and postprandial activity. We also compared the endurance time (i.e., time to exhaustion) during activity while fasting and postprandial activity in males and females. For nonreproductive females and males, our results indicate that the metabolic increments of digestion (∼3-6-fold) and activity while fasting (∼6-10-fold) did not interact in an additive fashion; instead, the aerobic scope associated with postprandial activity was 40%-50% lower, and animals reached exhaustion up to 11 min sooner. During reproduction, there was no change in digestive [Formula: see text], but aerobic scope for activity while fasting was 30% lower than nonreproductive values. The prioritization pattern of oxygen delivery exhibited by L. fuliginosus during postprandial activity (in both males and females) and for activity while fasting (in reproductive females) was more constrained than predicted (i.e., instead of unchanged [Formula: see text], peak values were 30%-40% lower). Overall, our results indicate that L. fuliginosus's cardiopulmonary system's capacity for oxygen delivery was not sufficient to maintain the metabolic increments associated with reproduction, digestion, and activity simultaneously without limiting aerobic scope and/or activity performance.

  11. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, Oonagh; McClean, Conor M; Medlow, Paul; Davison, Gareth W; Trinick, Tom R; Duly, Ellie; Shafat, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent...

  12. Short term aerobic exercise training increases postprandial pancreatic polypeptide but not peptide YY concentrations in obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...

  13. Agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL cholesterol measured with 3 methods in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, Merete

    2011-01-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.......LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. We used 3 LDL-C methods to study the agreement between fasting and postprandial LDL-C in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients....

  14. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  15. Effects of breaking up sitting on adolescents' postprandial glucose after consuming meals varying in energy: a cross-over randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elly A; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; Orellana, Liliana; Wadley, Glenn D; Bruce, Clinton; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lacy, Kathleen E; Dunstan, David W

    2018-03-01

    To explore the impact of uninterrupted sitting versus sitting with resistance-type activity breaks on adolescents' postprandial glucose responses while consuming a diet varying in energy. Cross-over randomised trial. Thirteen healthy participants (16.4±1.3years) completed a four-treatment cross-over trial: (1) uninterrupted sitting+high-energy diet; (2) sitting with breaks+high-energy diet; (3) uninterrupted sitting+standard-energy diet; and (4) sitting with breaks+standard-energy diet. For all four conditions, two identical meals were consumed; at 0h and 3h. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) recorded interstitial glucose concentrations every five minutes. Linear mixed models examined differences in glucose positive incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and total AUC between the sitting and diet conditions for the first meal, second meal and entire trial period. Compared to the uninterrupted sitting conditions, the breaks condition elicited a 36.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) and 35.9mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) lower iAUC response after the first and second meal, respectively, but not for the entire trial period or for total AUC. Compared to the standard-energy diet, the high-energy diet elicited a 55.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 25.8-84.2) and 75.7mmol/L/h (95%CI 8.6-142.7) higher iAUC response after the first meal and entire trial, respectively. Similar response to the high-energy diet were observed for total AUC. According to iAUC, interrupting sitting had a significant effect on lowering postprandial glucose for both dietary conditions, however, it was not significant when examining total AUC. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. ACTRN12615001145594. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Heden, Tim; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order eight obese women completed two, 12 h conditions in which they consumed 1500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4 h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2 h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min ...

  17. Postprandial oxidative losses of dietary leucine depend on the time interval between consecutive meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkowska-Ryciak, J.; Keller, J.S.; Bujko, J.; Stankiewicz-Ciupa, J.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial oxidative losses of egg white-bound [1-13C]-leucine were studied as 13C recovery in the breath of rats in relation to different time intervals between two meals. Male Wistar rats (n = 48; 68.3 ±5.9 g) divided into 4 groups (n = 12) were fed two meals a day (9:00

  18. The Effect of DPP-4 Inhibitors on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Yeong Choe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe evaluated the effects of two dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors, sitagliptin and vildagliptin, on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsA total of 170 type 2 diabetes patients treated with sitagliptin or vildagliptin for more than 24 weeks were selected. The patients were separated into two groups, sitagliptin (100 mg once daily, n=93 and vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily, n=77. We compared the effect of each DPP-4 inhibitor on metabolic parameters, including the fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial glucose (PPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and glycated albumin (GA levels, and lipid parameters at baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment.ResultsThe HbA1c, FPG, and GA levels were similar between the two groups at baseline, but the sitagliptin group displayed a higher PPG level (P=0.03. After 24 weeks of treatment, all of the glucose-related parameters were significantly decreased in both groups (P=0.001. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were only reduced in the vildagliptin group (P=0.001, although the sitagliptin group received a larger quantity of statins than the vildagliptin group (P=0.002.The mean change in the glucose- and lipid-related parameters after 24 weeks of treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (P=not significant. Neither sitagliptin nor vildagliptin treatment was associated with a reduction in the high sensitive C-reactive protein level (P=0.714.ConclusionVildagliptin and sitagliptin exert a similar effect on metabolic parameters, but vildagliptin exerts a more potent beneficial effect on lipid parameters.

  19. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2012-06-01

    Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG)-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g) pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g), TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g) or whey protein (Wh, 30 g) in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA) concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  20. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvonen Kristiina R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2 participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g, TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g or whey protein (Wh, 30 g in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  1. Acarbose improved severe postprandial hypotension in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, E; Goda, K; Nagata, K; Kitaoka, H; Ohsawa, N; Hanafusa, T

    2001-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a decrease of systolic blood pressure by more than 20 mmHg after meals. Severe PPH is a troublesome diabetic complication, which has no established means of treatment. We encountered a patient who had diabetes mellitus complicated by severe PPH and attempted to treat this problem using several medications (octreotide, midodrine hydrochloride, and acarbose). A 58-year-old male with diabetic triopathy complained of orthostatic dizziness and vertigo after meals. The blood pressure was monitored for 24 h with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor, revealing that the systolic blood pressure decreased markedly after breakfast and dinner by 45 and 50 mmHg, respectively. PPH was not improved by a subcutaneous injection of octreotide. Administration of midodrine hydrochloride reduced the frequency of hypotensive episodes from twice to once daily, but the magnitude of the postprandial fall in blood pressure was still around 30 mmHg. After the patient started to receive acarbose therapy, the postprandial fall in blood pressure was diminished to 18 mmHg and his symptoms largely disappeared. For the treatment of PPH in diabetic patients, our experience suggests that it may be appropriate to try first on alpha-glucosidase inhibitor like acarbose.

  2. Beneficial nutritional properties of olive oil: implications for postprandial lipoproteins and factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M

    2001-08-01

    Previous research concerning protective cardiovascular properties of olive oil has focussed on the beneficial consequences on blood cholesterol levels of substituting dietary saturated fatty acids with oleic acid. Despite evidence implicating raised circulating triglycerides in the postprandial state in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, little research had been conducted to investigate effects of monounsaturated fatty acids on postprandial events. In a case control study of southern (n = 30) versus northern European (n = 30) men, significant differences in postprandial triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 response were observed, with evidence of attenuated and potentially beneficial responses in the Southern Europeans. In a randomised controlled study manufactured foods typical of the Northern European food culture, were used to deliver diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (from olive oil). During the period of the olive oil enriched diet, LDL-cholesterol levels were 15% lower (p factor VII, as well as the production of factor VII antigen, was reduced on the olive oil diet. The study demonstrated significant improvements in biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in subjects osed to high olive oil diets (Southern Europeans) or transferred to such diets in the short term (Northern European volunteers). The study produced novel findings with respect to potential mechanisms by which diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce population risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Cr-enriched yeast: beyond fibers for the management of postprandial glycemic response to bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Amalia E; Stamataki, Nikoleta; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Pateras, Irene; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despoina; T Karathanos, Vaios

    2017-06-01

    Efforts regarding the amelioration of postprandial glycemic response to bread are mainly focused in the addition of soluble dietary fibers. The current study presents another approach which is based on the supplementation of flour with Cr-enriched yeast. Cr is known for its beneficial effects on improvement of glucose tolerance and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Twelve normoglycemic subjects were provided with white bread (WB, reference food) or whole wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WWCrB, rich in insoluble fibers) or white wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WCrB, poor in fibers) or whole wheat-rye-barley bread enriched with oat beta glucans (BGB, rich in soluble fibers) with 1-week intervals in amounts that yielded 50 g of available carbohydrates. Postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses as well as glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Ingestion of WWCrB, WCrB and BGB elicited lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for 120-min glycemic response compared to WB (1033.02 ± 282.32, 701.69 ± 330.86 and 748.95 ± 185.42 vs 2070.87 ± 518.44 mg/dL min, respectively, P yeast induces milder postprandial glycemic response to bread without the necessity of high fiber amounts, providing with another strategy for the management of glycemic control.

  4. Diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea by fasting and postprandial measurements of fibroblast growth factor 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Christian; Syversen, Charlotte; Bouchelouche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than...... fasting FGF19 for detection of BAD and we evaluate the reproducibility of fasting FGF19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients consecutively referred to Se homocholic acid retention test (SeHCAT) were included. Serum FGF19 was measured after an overnight fast and again 1 h postprandially and again...... in the fasting state 1 week later. RESULTS: Nine of 26 patients had SeHCAT less than 10% and fasting FGF19 was lower [median 62 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR): 47-67] than in the 17 diarrhoea controls with SeHCAT at least 10% (median 103 pg/ml, IQR: 77-135, P=0.006). Postprandial FGF19 in BAD patients (61 pg...

  5. Intermittent Standing but not a Moderate Exercise Bout Reduces Postprandial Glycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana B; Larsen, Sidsel A; Kofoed, Katja

    2017-01-01

    moderate-intensity walking bout followed by 8.5 h of sitting (MVPA), and 30-min moderate-intensity walking bout followed by 15-min standing bouts every 30 min during 8.5 h of sitting (MVPA + STAND). Three standardized meals on intervention day (day 1) and breakfast the following day (day 2) were served....... RESULTS: Cumulative postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve) was lower in STAND versus SIT (↓27%, P = 0.04, effect size [ES] = -0.7) because of decreases in postprandial glucose after breakfast on day 1 (STAND vs SIT: ↓40%, P = 0.01, ES = -0.7) and day 2 (STAND vs SIT: ↓33%, P = 0...... breakfast on day 1 only (MVPA vs SIT: ↓36%, P = 0.003, ES = -0.7; MVPA + STAND vs SIT: ↓43%, P = 0.0001, ES = -0.8). CONCLUSION: Breaking up prolonged sitting with nonambulatory standing across 9 h acutely reduced postprandial glycemic response during and the day after the intervention independent...

  6. Aqueous Extract of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Normoglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar, commonly known as nipa palm vinegar (NPV has been used as a folklore medicine among the Malay community to treat diabetes. Early work has shown that aqueous extract (AE of NPV exerts a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Thus, this study is conducted to evaluate the effect of AE on postprandial hyperglycemia in an attempt to understand its mechanism of antidiabetic action. AE were tested via in vitro intestinal glucose absorption, in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests and spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays. One mg/mL of AE showed a comparable outcome to the use of phloridzin (1 mM in vitro as it delayed glucose absorption through isolated rat jejunum more effectively than acarbose (1 mg/mL. Further in vivo confirmatory tests showed AE (500 mg/kg to cause a significant suppression in postprandial hyperglycemia 30 min following respective glucose (2 g/kg, sucrose (4 g/kg and starch (3 g/kg loadings in normal rats, compared to the control group. Conversely, in spectrophotometric enzymatic assays, AE showed rather a weak inhibitory activity against both α-glucosidase and α-amylase when compared with acarbose. The findings suggested that NPV exerts its anti-diabetic effect by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine through selective inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, therefore suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia.

  7. Exercise and postprandial lipaemia: effects on peripheral vascular function, oxidative stress and gastrointestinal transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Jim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postprandial lipaemia may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inducing endothelial dysfunction. Exercise can slow gastric emptying rates, moderating postprandial lipaemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if moderate exercise, prior to fat ingestion, influences gastrointestinal transit, lipaemia, oxidative stress and arterial wall function. Eight apparently healthy males (age 23.6 ± 2.8 yrs; height 181.4 ± 8.1 cm; weight 83.4 ± 16.2 kg; all data mean ± SD participated in the randomised, crossover design, where (i subjects ingested a high-fat meal alone (control, and (ii ingested a high-fat meal, preceded by 1 h of moderate exercise. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV was examined at baseline, post-exercise, and in the postprandial period. Gastric emptying was measured using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Measures of venous blood were obtained prior to and following exercise and at 2, 4 and 6 hours post-ingestion. PWV increased (6.5 ± 1.9 m/sec at 2 (8.9 ± 1.7 m/sec and 4 hrs (9.0 ± 1.6 m/sec post-ingestion in the control group (time × group interaction, P

  8. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Zenel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.

  9. Effect of postprandial thermogenesis on the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Ito, Nozomi; Ichikawa, Yoko; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2014-08-01

    To examine the effect of postprandial thermogenesis on the cutaneous vasodilatory response, 10 healthy male subjects exercised for 30 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake, with and without food intake. Mean skin temperature, mean body temperature (Tb), heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide elimination, and respiratory quotient were all significantly higher at baseline in the session with food intake than in the session without food intake. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against esophageal temperature (Tes) and Tb. Regression analysis revealed that the [Formula: see text] threshold for cutaneous vasodilation tended to be higher with food intake than without it, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity. To clarify the effect of postprandial thermogenesis on the threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, the between-session difference in the Tes threshold and the Tb threshold were plotted against the between-session difference in baseline Tes and baseline Tb, respectively. Linear regression analysis of the resultant plot showed significant positive linear relationships (Tes: r = 0.85, P < 0.01; Tb: r = 0.67, P < 0.05). These results suggest that postprandial thermogenesis increases baseline body temperature, which raises the body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation during exercise.

  10. Comparison of the amino acid and peptide composition and postprandial response of beef, hydrolyzed chicken, and whey protein nutritional preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Detzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing dietary protein intake synergistically improves the effect of exercise to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma amino acid response of two novel protein nutritional preparations, beef protein isolate (BeefISO™ and hydrolyzed chicken protein isolate (MyoCHX™. Methods: The postprandial plasma amino acid response over 3 hours was monitored in young adults (n=6 following consumption of 23 grams of WPC, BeefISO™, or MyoCHX™. Amino acid compositional analysis and molecular weight distributions of each protein were performed by HPLC. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way or two-way ANOVA where appropriate and corrected for multiple comparisons to account for the cross-over design. Results: Compositional evaluations revealed similar levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids for WPC and MyoCHX™. While the results of this study predictably demonstrated plasma amino acids levels increased following consumption of the different proteins, the kinetics of the postprandial response was unique to each protein source. WPC and MyoCHX™ were rapidly absorbed with maximum plasma amino acid concentrations observed at 30 and 15 min, respectively. The slightly faster absorption of MyoCHX™ was associated with the increased peptide content of MyoCHX™ (greater than 76% of protein is <2kDa. BeefISO™ exhibited sustained release characteristics as evidenced by increased post prandial amino acid concentrations after 3 hours. Conclusions: The protein preparations studied each had different amino acid profiles and absorption kinetics. WPC and MyoCHX™ contained a higher essential amino acid content and were rapidly absorbed with plasma amino acid concentrations peaking within 30 minutes following consumption. BeefISO™ contained a higher proportion of conditionally essential amino acids that steadily increased in plasma over 3 hours, indicating a sustained release

  11. Prognostic value of whole-body metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Choon-Young; Hong, Chae Moon; Kim, Do-Hoon; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), whole-body metabolic tumour volume (WBMTV), and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WBTLG) measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can predict prognosis in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 patients with newly-diagnosed ENKTL who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. WBMTV and WBTLG were measured automatically using the boundaries of voxels presenting SUV > 3.0. Uni- and multivariate analyses for survival and disease progression were performed using clinical variables and PET parameters (SUVmax, WBMTV, and WBTLG). During the follow-up period (median 26.3 months), 12 patients showed disease progression and 10 patients died from the disease. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed cut-off values for SUVmax, WBMTV and WBTLG of 8.1, 14.4 cm{sup 3} and 52.7, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score and PET parameters were significant predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis, even after adjustment for the IPI score, showed that high WBMTV was the best predictor of OS and PFS, and high SUVmax and WBTLG were significant predictors of PFS. Our results suggested that the use of PET parameters together with the IPI score may be useful for detailed prediction of prognosis in ENKTL patients. Therefore, despite a lower IPI score, patients with high PET parameter values might be considered candidates for aggressive therapy to improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  12. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  13. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Increased postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon responses and reduced postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses have been observed in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The causality of these pathophysiological traits...... postprandial GLP-1 responses as observed in some individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus....... is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...

  14. Comparison of Postprandial Lipemia between Women who are on Oral Contraceptive Methods and Those who are not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Petto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postprandial Lipemia (PPL is a physiological process that reflects the ability of the body to metabolize lipids. Even though the influence of oral contraceptives (OC on PPL is not known, it is a known fact that their use increases fasting lipid values. Objective: To compare the PPL between women who are on OC and those who are not. Methods: A prospective analytical study which assessed eutrophic women, aged between 18 and 28 years old, who were irregularly active and with fasting triglycerides ≤150 mg/dL. They were divided into two groups: oral contraceptive group (COG and non-oral contraceptive group (NCOG. Volunteers were submitted to the PPL test, in which blood samples were collected in time 0 (12-hour fasting and after the intake of lipids in times 180 and 240 minutes. In order to compare the triglyceride deltas, which reflect PPL, the two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was used for independent samples between fasting collections and 180 minutes (Δ1 and between fasting and 240 minutes (Δ2. Results: Forty women were assessed and equally divided between groups. In the fasting lipid profile, it was observed that HDL did not present significant differences and that triglycerides in COG were twice as high in comparison to NCOG. Medians of Δ1 and Δ2 presented significant differences in both comparisons (p ≤0.05. Conclusion: The results point out that women who are irregularly active and use OC present more PPL in relation to those who do not use OC, which suggests that in this population, its chronic use increases the risk of heart conditions.

  15. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  16. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  17. Theobromine consumption does not improve fasting and postprandial vascular function in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; van den Driessche, Jose J; Joris, Peter J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-12

    Theobromine, a component of cocoa, may favorably affect conventional lipid-related cardiovascular risk markers, but effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other vascular function markers are not known. To evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial vascular function markers. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 apparently healthy overweight (N = 30) and obese (N = 14) men and women with low HDL-C concentrations, consumed daily 500 mg theobromine or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, FMD, peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP) and retinal microvasculature measurements were performed. These measurements were carried out under fasting conditions and 2.5 h after a high-fat mixed meal challenge. 4-week theobromine consumption did not change fasting vascular function markers, except for a decrease in central AIx (cAIx, - 1.7 pp, P = 0.037) and a trend towards smaller venular calibers (- 2 µm, P = 0.074). Consuming a high-fat mixed meal decreased FMD (0.89 pp, P = 0.002), reactive hyperemia index (RHI, - 0.30, P Theobromine did not modify these postprandial effects, but increased postprandially the brachial artery diameter (0.03 cm, P = 0.015), and decreased the cAIx corrected for a HR of 75 (cAIx75, - 5.0 pp, P = 0.004) and peripheral AIx (pAIx, - 6.3 pp, P = 0.017). Theobromine consumption did not improve fasting and postprandial endothelial function, but increased postprandial peripheral arterial diameters and decreased the AIx. These findings do not suggest that theobromine alone contributes to the proposed cardioprotective effects of cocoa. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under study number NCT02209025.

  18. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Grudziak, Joanne; Townsend, Raymond R; Dunn, Tamara N; Grant, Ryan W; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Cummings, Bethany P; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2009-05-01

    Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal-weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in obese subjects has not been studied. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages consumed with meals on hormones and metabolic substrates in obese subjects. The study had a within-subject design conducted in the clinical and translational research center. Participants included 17 obese men (n = 9) and women (n = 8), with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2). Subjects were studied under two conditions involving ingestion of mixed nutrient meals with either glucose-sweetened beverages or fructose-sweetened beverages. The beverages provided 30% of total kilocalories. Blood samples were collected over 24 h. Area under the curve (24 h AUC) for glucose, lactate, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, uric acid, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids was measured. Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, fructose consumption was associated with lower AUCs for insulin (1052.6 +/- 135.1 vs. 549.2 +/- 79.7 muU/ml per 23 h, P glucose consumption. Increases of TGs were augmented in obese subjects with insulin resistance, suggesting that fructose consumption may exacerbate an already adverse metabolic profile present in many obese subjects.

  19. Refeeding and metabolic syndromes: two sides of the same coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, O A; Hachem, D H; Ayoub, J J

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic and clinical changes attributed to aggressive rehabilitation of malnourished subjects. The metabolic changes of refeeding are related to hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, sodium retention and hyperglycemia, and these are believed to be mainly the result of increased insulin secretion fo