WorldWideScience

Sample records for total population aged

  1. [Application of the data from China Total Diet Study to assess the distribution of lead exposure in different age-gender population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Qing; Liu, Liping; Wu, Yongning

    2012-05-01

    To assess the distribution of dietary lead exposure in different age-gender groups of Chinese residents by using the data from China Total Diet Study, and combining the new risk assessment and the PTWI withdrawn by JECFA. Methods Combining the lead concentrations of dietary samples with the food consumption data from China Total Diet Study in 2007 to obtain the distribution of dietary intake and dietary source of lead in different age-gender population groups. Dietary lead exposure of different age-gender population groups in China was in the range of 48.7 -116.7 microg/d. The status of higher lead exposure in younger age groups was not optimistic, as the mean and median margins of exposure (MOE) have been less than 1.0 (0.1 - 0.3). The main sources of dietary lead were cereals and vegetables, which covering 57% of total lead exposure. Lowering the dietary lead exposure of Chinese residents is necessary, especially of infants and children.

  2. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Probabilistic population aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We merge two methodologies, prospective measures of population aging and probabilistic population forecasts. We compare the speed of change and variability in forecasts of the old age dependency ratio and the prospective old age dependency ratio as well as the same comparison for the median age and the prospective median age. While conventional measures of population aging are computed on the basis of the number of years people have already lived, prospective measures are computed also taking account of the expected number of years they have left to live. Those remaining life expectancies change over time and differ from place to place. We compare the probabilistic distributions of the conventional and prospective measures using examples from China, Germany, Iran, and the United States. The changes over time and the variability of the prospective indicators are smaller than those that are observed in the conventional ones. A wide variety of new results emerge from the combination of methodologies. For example, for Germany, Iran, and the United States the likelihood that the prospective median age of the population in 2098 will be lower than it is today is close to 100 percent. PMID:28636675

  4. Serum tree IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an elderly population : relation to age and sex steroid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    BACKGROUND Most previous studies concerning the relationship between IGF-I and age used assays measuring total IGF-I, Although free IGF-I is considered of greater biological relevance, little is known about its relationship with sex steroids levels in elderly healthy subjects, MEASUREMENTS In a

  5. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Garlauskaitė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the aging of the population of Lithuania. After analysis it is concluded in the article that the decline in the birth rate and increase in the number of emigrants compared to immigrants have the greatest impact on aging of the population, so in order to show the aging of the population, a lot of attention should be paid to management of these demographic processes.

  6. Food for the ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The world’s ageing population is increasing and food professionals will have to address the needs of older generations more closely in the future. This unique volume reviews the characteristics of the ageing population as food consumers, the role of nutrition in healthy ageing and the design of food

  7. Habitual Physical Activity After Total Knee Replacement : analysis in 830 patients and comparison with a sex-and age-matched normative population (vol 92, pg 1109, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Roel F. M. R.; Stevens, Martin; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Background. Previous studies on physical activity after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) concentrated mainly on a return to sports activities. Objective. The objectives of this study were to determine the habitual physical activity behavior of people who had undergone TKA (TKA group) 1 to 5 years after

  8. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability......? The answer is still open, but research suggests that ageing processes are modifiable and that people are living longer without severe disability. This finding, together with technological and medical development and redistribution of work, will be important for our chances to meet the challenges of ageing...

  9. The ageing of Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgić, Jure; Jukić, Tomislav; Tomek-Roksandić, Spomenka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-06-01

    With a share of people older than 65 years of 16.64 per cent in total population, Croatia is considered a very old country regarding it's population. This percentage is one of the highest in already old Europe. Demographic projections reveal a further increase of share of people older than 65 years in future. There are many causes of this condition. This fact carries negative economic and health care implications which burden Croatia. Many administrative reforms are necessary to resolve this issue and to avoid economy problems and intergenerational conflicts.

  10. Population: Census Bureau Total Estimates (2010-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Total population estimates are estimates of the total number of residents living in an area on July 1 of each year. The Census Bureau’s Population Division produces...

  11. Standard Populations (Millions) for Age-Adjustment - SEER Population Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download files containing standard population data for use in statististical software. The files contain the same data distributed with SEER*Stat software. You can also view the standard populations, either 19 age groups or single ages.

  12. The aging population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nasri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently in an advanced stage of both the mortality andfertility transitions, which allows one to confi dently forecast the agedistribution and population size over the next four decades. Whereasthe elderly population with more than 65 years will increase at highrates (2 to 4% per year the young population will decline. Accordingto United Nations projections, the elderly population will increasefrom 3.1% of the population in 1970 to 19% in 2050. The changingage distribution of the Brazilian population brings opportunities andchallenges that could lead to serious social and economic issues ifnot dealt with properly in coming decades.

  13. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  14. Factores asociados al estado funcional en personas de 75 o más años de edad no dependientes Factors associated with functional status in a population aged >75 years without total dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Arnau

    2012-10-01

    physical performance tests: the Guralnik chair stand test of lower limb function, Lawton-Brody's index of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, and the Barthel index of basic activities of daily living (BADL. A backward multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the association of sociodemographic and clinical variables with functional status. Results: The mean age was 81.9 years and 60.6% were female. Around 50% of elderly patients without total dependence showed disability for IADL and a third showed lower limb functional limitation. The variables associated with lower limb functional status were marital status, body mass index, number of drugs, and vision and hearing impairment (R² = 0.208. The variables associated with IADL were age, cognitive impairment, vision and hearing impairment, and lower limb functional limitation (R² = 0.434. The variables associated with the Barthel index were age, sex, poor self-perceived health, and lower limb functional limitation (R² = 0.389. Conclusions The risk factors associated with functional status in our population > 75 years of age without severe dependence were the number of drugs and sensory impairment.

  15. Charasteristics of Ageing Population in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Hardati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of amount of ageing population represent the indication that a region have experienced of the ageing population. In some developing countries, of including Indonesia, growth of ageing population are estimate will mount quickly in period to come, although its percentage do not same. Whereas characteristic do not know surely. This matter is caused by there is view that ageing population of still not yet of this problem, but within long term will be are problem of if are not paid attention since now. Studying of ageing population of pursuant to its characteristic will assist in handling good problems now and also to come. With the existence of data of usable ageing population resident characteristic for the materials of population development planning in area.

  16. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  17. How fast is population ageing in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Yinhua mai; Xiujian Peng; Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Using adjusted 2000 population census data, this paper conducts China's population projections to 2050. Three fertility and four mortality scenarios yield 12 sets of results. Despite the below-replacement fertility, China's population will continue growing for many years. However, there are substantial differences among the twelve scenarios. The maximum population could range from less than 1.4 billion to more than 1.6 billion. One of the notable trends is the rapid population ageing. By the ...

  18. Aging-From molecules to populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Avlund, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    of human aging. To foster interactions and collaboration between diverse scientists interested in the biochemical, physiological, epidemiological and psychosocial aspects of aging, The University of Copenhagen Faculty of Health Sciences recently organized and co-sponsored a workshop entitled Aging......-From Molecules to Populations. The following questions about human aging were discussed at the workshop: What is the limit of human life expectancy? What are the key indicators of human aging? What are the key drivers of human aging? Which genes have the greatest impact on human aging? How similar is aging...

  19. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  20. Estimating population age structure using otolith morphometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doering-Arjes, P.; Cardinale, M.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    known-age fish individuals. Here we used known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Faroe Bank and Faroe Plateau stocks. Cod populations usually show quite large variation in growth rates and otolith shape. We showed that including otolith morphometrics into ageing processes has the potential...... populations. The intercalibration method was successful but generalization from one stock to another remains problematic. The development of an otolith growth model is needed for generalization if an operational method for different populations is required in the future....... to make ageing objective, accurate, and fast. Calibration analysis indicated that a known-age sample from the same population and environment is needed to obtain robust calibration; using a sample from a different stock more than doubles the error rate, even in the case of genetically highly related...

  1. The challenges of human population ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical...... of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20-21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create 'age-friendly' societies and promote 'ageing...

  2. Age- and Gender-Based Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population increases the risks of cognitive decline and suicide. About 25% of older adults have some type of mental health problem, such as a mood disorder not associated with normal aging. Older adults with ...

  3. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  4. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  5. Ageing populations and changing worlds of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Brian

    2014-08-01

    Population ageing has reshaped the notion of retirement. The changes carry important implications for aspirations to extend working life. Cultural expectations regarding work and retirement must adapt to the reality posed by longer lives. The modern world is characterised by perpetual - and sometime rapid - change. Transformation throughout the second half of the 20th century brought about substantial shifts in the health and longevity of people in societies across the world. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the impacts of population ageing have gathered greater awareness in public consciousness and within the policy arena. Notions of old age, retirement, and later life have been fundamentally transformed, presenting stark challenges alongside novel opportunities for individuals, communities, and governments. Many of the topics of interest with respect to ageing populations are themselves the result of shifts that were unforeseen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Acromegaly features in the aging population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoun, Nadia; El Ouahabi, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Somatotroph adenomas are rare in the aging population. Diagnosis of somatotroph adenomas is often long delayed and they are characterized by atypical clinical picture. Their diagnostic criteria are similar to those used for younger patients. Surgery, if possible, is the treatment of choice for acromegaly in the elderly. Somatostatin analogues have shown to be effective in these patients. Prognosis is inversely correlated with patient's age, duration of disease and last GH level under treatment. Beside evolution of disease, age is a major determinant of mortality. We report three cases of elderly patients with acromegaly aged 75, 70 and 66 years respectively with a literature review.

  7. The Growth of Older Inmate Populations: How Population Aging Explains Rising Age at Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Some macroeconomic aspects of global population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald; Mason, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Across the demographic transition, declining mortality followed by declining fertility produces decades of rising support ratios as child dependency falls. These improving support ratios raise per capita consumption, other things equal, but eventually deteriorate as the population ages. Population aging and the forces leading to it can produce not only frightening declines in support ratios but also very substantial increases in productivity and per capita income by raising investment in physical and human capital. Longer life, lower fertility, and population aging all raise the demand for wealth needed to provide for old-age consumption. This leads to increased capital per worker even as aggregate saving rates fall. However, capital per worker may not rise if the increased demand for wealth is satisfied by increased familial or public pension transfers to the elderly. Thus, institutions and policies matter for the consequences of population aging. The accumulation of human capital also varies across the transition. Lower fertility and mortality are associated with higher human capital investment per child, also raising labor productivity. Together, the positive changes due to human and physical capital accumulation will likely outweigh the problems of declining support ratios. We draw on estimates and analyses from the National Transfer Accounts project to illustrate and quantify these points.

  9. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  10. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  11. Designing New Meals for an Ageing Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Today's ageing population is an ever-increasing, highly diverse group of people wanting to live a healthy and enjoyable life. Seniors increasingly see the importance of eating healthy and delicious food in a pleasant environment in achieving happiness and well-being. Up until now, the food industry

  12. The total satellite population of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Oliver; Cautun, Marius; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.

    2018-05-01

    The total number and luminosity function of the population of dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) provide important constraints on the nature of the dark matter and on the astrophysics of galaxy formation at low masses. However, only a partial census of this population exists because of the flux limits and restricted sky coverage of existing Galactic surveys. We combine the sample of satellites recently discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) survey with the satellites found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (together these surveys cover nearly half the sky) to estimate the total luminosity function of satellites down to MV = 0. We apply a new Bayesian inference method in which we assume that the radial distribution of satellites independently of absolute magnitude follows that of subhaloes selected according to their peak maximum circular velocity. We find that there should be at least 124^{+40}_{-27}(68% CL, statistical error) satellites brighter than MV = 0 within 300kpc of the Sun. As a result of our use of new data and better simulations, and a more robust statistical method, we infer a much smaller population of satellites than reported in previous studies using earlier SDSS data only; we also address an underestimation of the uncertainties in earlier work by accounting for stochastic effects. We find that the inferred number of faint satellites depends only weakly on the assumed mass of the MW halo and we provide scaling relations to extend our results to different assumed halo masses and outer radii. We predict that half of our estimated total satellite population of the MW should be detected by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). The code implementing our estimation method is available online.†

  13. Energy implications of an aging population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This study provides various demographic, medical, and economic information relative to energy usage on a segment of the population, the elderly, which is growing in absolute numbers and relative population percentage. This growth is expected to continue well into the twenty-first century. The US aging population numbered 3.1 million in 1900, and by 1977 it had climbed to 23.5 million. It can be stated with reasonable certainty that this figure will rise to 31 million in the year 2000 and 43 million in the year 2020. These figures, corresponding to more than 10% of our population, are by no means insignificant. As our fossil-fuel reserves are being depleted and the cost of energy mounts, it becomes apparent that the elderly will become increasingly vulnerable to the energy crisis, primarily beause of their physical tendency to infirmity, their economic and social situation, and their susceptibility to psychological depression. This white paper concentrates on those aspects of aging and the nation's energy problem which are not usually related in our everyday consideration of these as separable problems. It seeks to identify the peculiar energy problems of the aged and to consider alternatives in the solution of these problems in light of modern technology.

  14. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We...... investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic...... structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating...

  15. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Rasmussen, Simon; Rasmussen, Morten; Stenderup, Jesper; Damgaard, Peter B; Schroeder, Hannes; Ahlström, Torbjörn; Vinner, Lasse; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Margaryan, Ashot; Higham, Tom; Chivall, David; Lynnerup, Niels; Harvig, Lise; Baron, Justyna; Della Casa, Philippe; Dąbrowski, Paweł; Duffy, Paul R; Ebel, Alexander V; Epimakhov, Andrey; Frei, Karin; Furmanek, Mirosław; Gralak, Tomasz; Gromov, Andrey; Gronkiewicz, Stanisław; Grupe, Gisela; Hajdu, Tamás; Jarysz, Radosław; Khartanovich, Valeri; Khokhlov, Alexandr; Kiss, Viktória; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Longhi, Cristina; McGlynn, George; Merkevicius, Algimantas; Merkyte, Inga; Metspalu, Mait; Mkrtchyan, Ruzan; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Paja, László; Pálfi, György; Pokutta, Dalia; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Price, T Douglas; Saag, Lehti; Sablin, Mikhail; Shishlina, Natalia; Smrčka, Václav; Soenov, Vasilii I; Szeverényi, Vajk; Tóth, Gusztáv; Trifanova, Synaru V; Varul, Liivi; Vicze, Magdolna; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zhitenev, Vladislav; Orlando, Ludovic; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-06-11

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.

  16. The impact of population ageing on future Danish drug expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors......Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...

  17. The challenges of human population ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid; Krasnik, Allan; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical, social, public health and public policy challenges, whose full implications on a societal level are only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Some of these implications are discussed in this commentary, an outcome of Cultures of Health and Ageing, a conference co-sponsored by the University of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20–21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create ‘age-friendly’ societies and promote ‘ageing-in-community’? what tools will effectively promote social engagement and prevent social detachment among older individuals? is there a risk that further extension of human lifespan would be a greater burden to the individual and to society than is warranted by the potential benefit of longer life? PMID:25452294

  18. The aging US population and residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Eisenberg, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This piece explores the relationships between a rapidly aging U.S. population and the demand for residential energy. Data indicate that elderly persons use more residential energy than younger persons. In this time of steeply rising energy costs, energy is an especially important financial issue for the elderly with low and/or fixed incomes. As the absolute number of elderly as well as their proportion of the total US population both continue to increase, energy and the elderly population looms as another energy policy challenge

  19. Christianity Facing the Ageing of Global Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population is a great challenge for the whole world including churches, Christian communities, Christian families and the so-called “Christian countries”. The respect and support for elderly people is almost a common rule of social life in developed countries regardless of religious views. But in the Christian world this obligation has very strong religious justification – obligation enshrined in the Commandments of Old (the fourth/fifth Commandment and New (the second one of The Greatest Commandments of Love Testaments. Therefore between the Christianity – understood as a set of different communities sharing their beliefs in Jesus Christ – and aging population there are many very different connections including among others: honour and respect, privilege, obligations, giving – receiving relations, duty, charity, solidarity, dependency. They are present both in the teaching and the practice of different Christian communities starting with Churches, through NGOs and Christian societies, ending with Christian families. The paper shows some of these connections. It also tries – based on a case of Poland – to answer the question whether the Christianity is ready to face the aging of global population

  20. Population ageing alongside health care spending growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Mihajlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Tsunami or population ageing has become a globally widespread phenomenon. The purpose of this review is to observe its dynamics and consequences from a local Balkan perspective. The main drivers of this unique demographic evolution are extended longevity, improved early childhood survival, absorption of women into the labor markets, and consequences of sexual revolution leading to falling female fertility. This process lasting well over a century is taking its toll on contemporary societies. Major side effects are shrinking young labor force and growing pool of elderly and retired citizens in many countries. This equation tends to worsen further in the future threatening long-term financial sustainability of public social and health insurance funds. Notable health expenditure growth, accelerating worldwide since the 1960s, is to a large degree attributable to ageing itself. Growing share of senior citizens increases demand for medical services and costs of health care provision. Home-based care provided by the family caregivers presents another important reality putting a huge burden on modern communities. Serbs are no exception in this landscape. Historical demographic evolution of this nation gives a clear evidence of advanced and accelerated ageing, which is well documented in post-World War II era. This synthesis of rich published evidence shows clear upward parallel trend between the pace of population aging and the growth of health expenditure. National authorities shall be forced to consider reform of the current health care financing pattern inherited from the demographic growth era. This might be the only way to smooth out the impact of population ageing on the financial sustainability of the health system and long-term medical care in Serbia. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI 175014

  1. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  2. Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of this research, it can be said that people throughout their life cycle always allocate a percentage of their total spending to health care costs, but the percentage of this allocation is different at different ages. In a way the demand for healthcare costs increases with aging, it rises significantly in the old age. At the macro level, due to an increase in the percentage of elderly in the population over the next decade, there will also be an increase in the share of health care costs.

  3. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although all nations in the America’s face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico’s population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world’s eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the “demographic dividend” of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico. PMID:27927730

  4. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  5. Population dietary habits and physical activity modification with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.

  6. Population Ageing in Rural Settlements in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic demographic characteristics of Croatia is the inherited dispersed population density with a large number of small settlements and the undeveloped system of regional and micro-regional centres. Such settlement structure was entirely inappropriate in the conditions of accelerated and urban-based industrialization after the Second World War. This period was characterised by a mass transition of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities, along with the abandonment of rural settlements. In addition to the strong emigration from rural areas in which younger age groups participated for the most part, there was a continuous reduction in fertility, too. All this has led to the narrowing of young age groups and consequently to the increase in the proportion of the elderly. An important factor of demographic ageing is the reduction in mortality of persons over 30 years of age and longer life respectively. Life expectancy of the Croatian population was 64.8 years in 1960 and 77.2 years in 1972. The average age constantly increased: it was 32.5 years in 1961, 35.4 in 1981 and it reached the high 41.7 years in 2011. The aggression and war against Croatia happened in the 1990s. Dramatic events affected the general social conditions and processes, strongly accelerating negative demographic trends. All this had further affected the socio-demographically eroded rural areas. There was a particularly difficult situation in the regions directly affected by the war; part of these areas had had the features of extreme demographic regression before the war sufferings and the war only further strengthened it. The overall population of Croatia is characterised by decreasing fertility, natural depopulation (negative natural change, total depopulation (since 1990 and intense population ageing. The duration and intensity of these processes clearly testifies to the demographic development of Croatia being very unfavourable. All this also

  7. Smart Cities and the Ageing Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik; Kivimäki, Anri; Haukiputo, Lotta

    Due to a growing number of elderly people, it is a necessity to create the cities that are aware of the special needs of all their citizens including the needs of aging populations. This paper shows that by combining smart homes with smart cities, we are able to provide an ICT infrastructure...... population to support independent elderly living. Using ICT in a smart city/home context can provide personalized health care, social services and intelligent community services. Homecare systems for elderly people are becoming important due to economic reasons as well as patients’ preferences. The expected...... and 3D virtual world design. In this paper we will discuss how the recent development in ICT, and its particular components, Internet of Things (IoT), Clouds of Things, the Advanced Artificial Intelligence, can become building blocks between elderly people, smart homes and smart cities. Also, we...

  8. The Health of America's Aging Prison Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Gross, Alden; Schrack, Jennifer A; Deal, Jennifer A; Eber, Gabriel B

    2018-03-23

    Older incarcerated individuals comprise the fastest growing demographic in the US prison system. Unhealthy lifestyles among incarcerated individuals and inadequate health care lead to earlier onset and more rapid progression of many chronic conditions that are prevalent among community-living older adults. There are limited peer-reviewed epidemiologic data in this area; however, there is growing interest in identifying strategies for housing aging incarcerated individuals, delivering appropriate health care in prisons, and coordinating after-release health care. In this systematic review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence of the health challenges facing the aging US prison population. Our comprehensive literature search focused on health outcomes, including diseases, comorbid conditions, mental health, cognition, and mobility. From 12,486 articles identified from the literature search, we reviewed 21 studies published between 2007 and 2017. All the studies were observational and cross-sectional, and most (n = 17) were based on regional samples. Sample sizes varied widely, ranging from 25 to 14,499 incarcerated people (median, 258). In general, compared with their younger counterparts, older incarcerated individuals reported high rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular conditions, and liver disease. Mental health problems were common, especially anxiety, fear of desire for death or suicide, and depression. Activities of daily living were challenging for up to one-fifth of the population. We found no empirical data on cognition among older incarcerated individuals. The findings of this review reveal few empirical data in this area and highlight the need for new data to drive policy and practice patterns that address critical health issues related to the aging prison population.

  9. Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The Case of Mauritius. ... the life expectancy of the population and consequently, the society is ageing. ... Originality/Value – Although some studies have been done on ageing yet ...

  10. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    of the population may be encysted. The factors governing the dynamics of active and encysted cells in the soil are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the dynamics of active and encysted populations of ciliates during the decomposition of freshly added organic material. We monitored, in soil...... microcosms, the active and total populations of ciliates, their potential prey (bacteria and small protozoa), their potential competitors (amoebae, flagellates, and nematodes), and their potential predators (nematodes). We sampled with short time intervals (2 to 6 days) and generated a data set, suitable...

  11. Social Profile Of The Aged In An Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Khan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the socio-demographic profile of urban aged population in Aligarh city.Objectives: i To describe the socio-demographic profile of the aged population in an urban area, ii To describe the attitude of these people.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting : Urban areas of Aligarh city.Participants : 3951 persons aged 60 years and aboveStudy Variables: Socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes.Statistical Analysis : By proportions.Result: 15% of the total estimated elderly population covering all 10 sectors of Aligarh city was studied. The majority ofthe elderly (72.4% belonged to 60-70 years age group. Most of them (77.2% were illiterate, 61.6% belonged to lower socio-economic classes (IV & V, 78.1 % lived in joint families. 39.6% of the aged felt that they were not being given due respect by family members. Nearly half of them had an indifferent or unhappy attitude towards life.Conclusion: The socio-demographic characteristics of the aged are important and must be kept in mind for developing programs to assist them in living as respectful senior citizens.

  12. Food management for the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, J; Coleman, L J; Haran, E

    1996-01-01

    The older population is becoming more important to our society everyday. These individuals are being studied for their past, present, and potential impact on markets and marketing. Evaluated as a user of products or services in the marketplace or an employee or volunteer within the marketing system, this segment is gaining a visibility and importance. An interview was conducted with five Nutrition Project Directors to obtain an overview of Federally Funded Nutrition Programs for the Elderly. The areas which were highlighted were service delivery, site activities, management styles, barriers to service, clientele composition, food planning and preparation, staffing, USDA funding, coordination, marketing, transportation, and volunteerism. The Second Quarter Service Provider Output Reports for 1991, which are compiled by the Nutrition Projects and submitted to the Area Agency on Aging, were utilized to obtain client profile information (Reports, 1991). The analysis sought to compare the programs offered in the five counties on a number of factors which could be quantified. It was hoped that by looking at the numerical ratios, and depicting them graphically, any trends or unique characteristics of the programs could be identified. In that the percentage of Florida's present elder population (17%) far exceeds the national average (12%) these findings could be utilized by nutrition programs outside of Florida to plan for future funds. Analysis of quantitative information on the five programs yielded information on cost comparisons and on services.

  13. The Impact of an Aging Population in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mercedia Stevenson; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-03-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of people 65 years of age or older living in the United States is projected to double by 2030 to 72 million adults, representing 20% of the total U.S. Evidence suggests that older Americans are working longer and spending more time on the job than their peers did in previous years. The increased number of older adults working longer is observed not only in the Unites States but also worldwide. There are numerous ramifications associated with the changing demographics and the expanding prevalence of an aging population in the workforce. Dynamics that arise include stereotyping and discrimination, longevity and on-site expert knowledge, variances in workplace behavior, a multigenerational employee pool, chronic disease management, occupational safety, and the application of adaptive strategies to reduce injury occurrences. Occupational health nurses play a pivotal role in implementing best practices for an aging-friendly workplace.

  14. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... the diversity and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population in fresh ..... combining morphological, biochemical and molecular data are important for ..... acid bacteria from fermented maize (Kenkey) and their interactions.

  15. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  16. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  17. The 50/50 cc Total Artificial Heart Trial: Extending the Benefits of the Total Artificial Heart to Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis; Villa, Chet R; Simón Morales, David Luís

    2017-01-01

    While use of the total artificial heart (TAH) is growing, the use of the device is not uniform across the gender and age spectrum because the vast majority of implants are in adult males. SynCardia has recently developed a smaller 50 cc TAH that was designed to accommodate patients with a body surface area as low as 1.2 m 2 (potentially even lower using virtual implantation). Herein, we describe the early use of the 50 cc TAH (10 implants in the US and 18 outside the US). Twenty-eight devices have been implanted worldwide. Nineteen (68%) patients were female, 4 (14%) were 21 years of age or younger, and 2 (7%) had a diagnosis of congenital heart disease (1 Fontan). The smallest patient, by body surface area, was 1.35 m 2 . Six patients (21%) have been placed on the Freedom Driver, all of whom have survived. Fourteen patients (50%) have had a positive outcome to date. The development of the 50 cc TAH has expanded the population of patients who may benefit from TAH support and thus may help improve outcomes for patients who have had limited biventricular support options to date. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C; Melton, L J; Harris, T; Borrud, L; Shepherd, J; McGowan, J

    2009-07-01

    Total body bone density of adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 differed as expected for some groups (men>women and blacks>whites) but not others (whites>Mexican Americans). Cross-sectional age patterns in bone mineral density (BMD) of older adults differed at skeletal sites that varied by degree of weight-bearing. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data offer the opportunity to compare bone density of demographic groups across the entire skeleton. The present study uses total body DXA data (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic, Bedford MA, USA) from the NHANES 1999-2004 to examine BMD of the total body and selected skeletal subregions in a wide age range of adult men and women from three race/ethnic groups. Total body, lumbar spine, pelvis, right leg, and left arm BMD and lean mass from 13,091 adults aged 20 years and older were used. The subregions were chosen to represent sites with different degrees of weight-bearing. Mean BMD varied in expected ways for some demographic characteristics (men>women and non-Hispanic blacks>non-Hispanic whites) but not others (non-Hispanic whites>Mexican Americans). Differences in age patterns in BMD also emerged for some characteristics (sex) but not others (race/ethnicity). Differences in cross-sectional age patterns in BMD and lean mass by degree of weight-bearing in older adults were observed for the pelvis, leg, and arm. This information may be useful for generating hypotheses about age, race, and sex differences in fracture risk in the population.

  19. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  20. Total deposition of inhaled particles related to age: comparison with age-dependent model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquemin, M.H.; Bouchikhi, A.; Yu, C.P.; Roy, M.

    1991-01-01

    To compare experimental data with age-dependent model calculations, total airway deposition of polystyrene aerosols (1, 2.05 and 2.8 μm aerodynamic diameter) was measured in ten adults, twenty children aged 12 to 15 years, ten children aged 8 to 12, and eleven under 8 years old. Ventilation was controlled, and breathing patterns were appropriate for each age, either at rest or at light exercise. Individually, deposition percentages increased with particle size and also from rest to exercise, except in children under 12 years, in whom they decreased from 20-21.5 to 14-14.5 for 1 μm particles and from 36.8-36.9 to 32.2-33.1 for 2.05 μm particles. Comparisons with the age-dependent model showed that, at rest, the observed data concerning children agreed with those predicted and were close to the adults' values, when the latter were higher than predicted. At exercise, child data were lower than predicted and lower than adult experimental data, when the latter agreed fairly well with the model. (author)

  1. OGJ300 population shrinks, but assets total grows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Bell, L.

    1995-01-01

    Publicly traded oil and gas companies in the US are declining in population but growing in financial terms. The Oil and Gas Journal 300, the annual list of publicly traded companies with oil production in the US, includes only 281 companies this year. As of the data compilation deadline, only that number of companies had filed annual financial results with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. The OGJ300 ranks companies by assets without regard to whether the companies use the successful efforts or full cost accounting method. Normally, assets for a given set of properties are higher under full cost than under successful efforts accounting

  2. Population Aging: An Emerging Research Agenda for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Kudo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, population aging has been recognized as an emerging challenge in many parts of the world. Earlier studies discussed its impacts on the sustainability of social security systems and national economic growth; however, they tended to focus on the issues at the national level and were limited to developed countries. With the knowledge that population aging will be a predominant trend in both developed and developing countries, this paper aims to: (i describe the global population aging trend and its regional demography; (ii provide a structural review of population aging challenges at the national, communal and individual levels; and (iii elaborate future research topics on population aging with a particular emphasis on developing countries. Several indicators suggest rapid population aging in the coming decades, especially in Asia, Latin America and Africa. The structural review presents the diverse challenges that affect both young and older population groups. Finally, the need for linking population aging with the sustainable development concept and the possible rural decline caused by rapid urbanization are suggested as future research topics. Further studies to establish a body of knowledge on population aging in developing countries are required to place population aging on the agenda of future sustainable development discussions.

  3. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  4. Population Aging and the Generational Economy: A Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA. ... Over coming decades, changes in population age structure will have ... at international agencies such as the World Bank, the IMF, and the UN.

  5. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  6. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  7. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...

  8. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  9. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allentoft, M. E.; Sikora, M.; Sjogren, K.-G.; Rasmussen, S.; Rasmussen, M.; Stenderup, J.; Damgaard, P. B.; Schroeder, H.; Ahlström, T.; Vinner, L.; Malaspinas, A.-S.; Margaryan, A.; Higham, T.; Chivall, D.; Lynnerup, N.; Harvig, L.; Baron, J.; Della Casa, P.; Dabrowski, P.; Duffy, P. R.; Ebel, A. V.; Epimakhov, A.; Frei, K.; Furmanek, M.; Gralak, T.; Gromov, A.; Gronkiewicz, S.; Grupe, G.; Hajdu, T.; Jarysz, R.; Khartanovich, V.; Khokhlov, A.; Kiss, V.; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, A.; Lasak, I.; Lonhgi, C.; McGlynn, G.; Merkevicius, A.; Merkyte, I.; Metspalu, M.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Moiseyev, V.; Paja, L.; Pilli, G.; Pokutta, D.; Pospieszny, L.; Price, D.; Saag, L.; Sablin, M.; Shishlina, N.; Smrčka, V.; Soenov, V. I.; Szeverenyi, V.; Tóth, G.; Trifanova, S. V.; Varul, L.; Vicze, M.; Yepiskoposyan, L.; Zhitenev, L.; Orlando, L.; Sicheritz-Ponten, T.; Brunak, S.; Nielsen, R.; Kristiansen, K.; Willerslev, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 522, č. 7555 (2015), s. 167-172 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genetics * migration * Bronze Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 38.138, year: 2015

  10. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  11. Survival Outlook for Middle-Aged Populations in South Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-12

    Oct 12, 1974 ... death at middle-age and beyond, reduces rather than in- creases ... mate longevity of populations may be genetically pro- ...... concluded that 'the characteristic life span of man and .... Ageing: The Biology of Senescence.

  12. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  13. Why Does Population Aging Matter So Much for Asia? Population Aging, Economic Growth, and Economic Security in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Asia as a whole is experiencing a rapid demographic transition toward older populations, though different countries are at different stages of this region- wide trend. We document Asia's aging population, describe the region's old-age support systems, and highlight the regional socioeconomic implications of the transition for those support systems. Aging populations present two fundamental challenges to Asian policymakers: (1) developing socioeconomic systems that can provide economic securit...

  14. Population Aging and the Generational Economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Finance, School of Business, Monash University Sunway Campus, Malaysia. ..... Governments tax prime-age adults to provide schooling to children, pensions to .... We describe the principles and methods of constructing estimates of public ...... distributions challenge the continuity of transfer practices by stressing some ...

  15. China: Awakening Giant Developing Solutions to Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning Jackie; Guo, Man; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    As the world's most populous country with the largest aging population and a rapidly growing economy, China is receiving increased attention from both the Chinese government and the governments of other countries that face low fertility and aging problems. This unprecedented shift of demographic structure has repercussions for many aspects of…

  16. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND... population of the United States, of each State, and of each Congressional district. The term voting age...

  17. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  18. Semiphysiological versus Empirical Modelling of the Population Pharmacokinetics of Free and Total Cefazolin during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Coen van Hasselt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a first population pharmacokinetic (PK model for free and total cefazolin during pregnancy, which can be used for dose regimen optimization. Secondly, analysis of PK studies in pregnant patients is challenging due to study design limitations. We therefore developed a semiphysiological modeling approach, which leveraged gestation-induced changes in creatinine clearance (CrCL into a population PK model. This model was then compared to the conventional empirical covariate model. First, a base two-compartmental PK model with a linear protein binding was developed. The empirical covariate model for gestational changes consisted of a linear relationship between CL and gestational age. The semiphysiological model was based on the base population PK model and a separately developed mixed-effect model for gestation-induced change in CrCL. Estimates for baseline clearance (CL were 0.119 L/min (RSE 58% and 0.142 L/min (RSE 44% for the empirical and semiphysiological models, respectively. Both models described the available PK data comparably well. However, as the semiphysiological model was based on prior knowledge of gestation-induced changes in renal function, this model may have improved predictive performance. This work demonstrates how a hybrid semiphysiological population PK approach may be of relevance in order to derive more informative inferences.

  19. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  20. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  1. Risk and Aging Vascular in a city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Cardiovascular diseases that every year have more prevalence in the country, are the product of risky factors, many of them modifiable and preventable. The objective of the present study has been to know and analyze the factors of cardiovascular risk and determine the vascular age in the population of Lima. Material and methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in March 2016, in the southern, northern and eastern cones of Metropolitan Lima, in people older than 30 and younger than 75 years old. The survey structured for the study collected the following variables: gender, age, arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes, physical activity and type of diet. Blood presure, weight and tall were recorded. Results: In total, 485 participants were included, 197 men and 288 women. The age was 49,5± 9,9 years old. The more frequent risky factor was the unhealthy diet (47,6%, followed by sedentary lifestyle (42,5%. Arterial hypertension was observed in 20,8%, being more frequent in men. 85.2% did not smoke and overweight was found in 47.2%, being its frequency higher in women. The low risk was determined in 60,4% and it was predominant in women, while higher risk was 18.6% in men. The average cardiovascular age was higher in 1,4 years compared to the chronological age beign more marked in men, in whom the difference was 5,8 years between 50 and 59 years old. Conclusions: The more frecuente cardiovascular risk has been unhealthy diet followed by sedentary lifestyle. The high risk was 18,6% predominating in

  2. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  3. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  4. Devastating epidemics in recent ages Greek populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Antonia; Michalaki, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulou, Helen N

    2017-12-01

    In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. In 1816 plague struck the Ionian and Aegean Islands, mainland Greece, Constantinople and Smyrna. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions. In 1922, plague appeared in Patras refugees who were expelled by the Turks from Smyrna and Asia Minor. Inoculation against smallpox was first performed in Thessaly by the Greek women, and the Greek doctors Emmanouel Timonis (1713, Oxford) and Jakovos Pylarinos (1715, Venice) made relevant scientific publications. The first leper colony opened in Chios Island. In Crete, Spinalonga was transformed into a leper island, which following the Independence War against Turkish occupation and the unification of Crete with Greece in 1913, was classified as an International Leper Hospital. Cholera struck Greece in 1853-1854 brought by the French troops during the Crimean War, and again during the Balkan Wars (1912-13) when the Bulgarian troops brought cholera to northern Greece. Due to successive wars, medical assistance was not always available, so desperate people turned many times to religion through processions in honor of local saints, for their salvation in epidemics.

  5. AGEING POPULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging population is a global phenomenon, which has affected almost all the EU states. The consequences are very important since it affects the socio-economic environment usually on the long run. Some of them could consist in increasing the public expenditure on pensions, social security and health services, which will raise the overall burden on the working population. Sometimes, a significant reduction of the labour force will even diminish the growth rate of an economy. Considering these aspects, the present paper intends to analyse the demographic situation from the EU states, the factors that have generated it and to identify the possible future trends. To determine the evolution of the ageing population phenomenon, we have analysed some demographic indicators included in various statistical reports and databases, such as the fertility rate, the median age, the percentage of population over a certain age and the age dependency ratio.

  6. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study

  7. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  8. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  9. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  10. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Charan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  11. Model-based estimation of finite population total in stratified sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented in this paper concerns the estimation of finite population total under model – based framework. Nonparametric regression approach as a method of estimating finite population total is explored. The asymptotic properties of the estimators based on nonparametric regression are also developed under ...

  12. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  13. Improvement in quality of lifesix months after primary total hip arthroplasty in a Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Akbar Jaleel; Bin Mahmood, Syed Usman; Ali, Moiz; Noordin, Shahryar

    2016-10-01

    This prospective, cohort study was carried out to assess the improvement in quality of life of patients undergoing elective primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). It was conducted at the orthopaedic department of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from June 2014 to May 2015, and comprised patients who had undergone THA. A total of 89 patients having a mean age of 41.5±12.0 years with a baseline core outcomes measure index (COMI)-hip score of > 3.5 were included. A decrease in COMI-hip score by >3 points six months post-operatively was considered improvement in quality of life. Patient satisfaction with restriction to squatting was assessed separately. The mean reduction in COMI-hip was 4.9±1.3 with 83(93%) patients experiencing significant improvement in quality of life. Age >50 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) level >III was significantly associated with no improvement in quality of life. Most patients were satisfied with their disability to squat irrespective of COMI-hip score. THA was found to be associated with significant improvement in quality of life and COMI-hip score was applicable in our population despite its inability to assess disability with restriction in squatting.

  14. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  15. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  16. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  17. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; Xu, Rui-Long; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2–20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8–14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7–12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China

  18. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2018-01-18

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article “The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging” published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations. PMID:24806337

  20. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  1. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  2. Population ageing and intergenerational conflict: a post-Keynesian view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W A

    1992-01-01

    The author reexamines the relationships among demographic aging, the dependency burden, and intergenerational conflict from a post-Keynesian perspective, in which unemployment and excess capacity are normal to the functioning of capitalist economies, and resources are not generally fully utilized. He "argues that the Keynesian process of national income determination precludes any immediate relationship between population ageing and the 'burden' imposed on income recipients. Below full employment, a rising dependency ratio is not guaranteed to reduce the expenditure share of income recipients or raise their tax rates. An exclusive emphasis on intergenerational conflict can give a misleading impression of the consequences of population ageing." The focus is on developed countries. excerpt

  3. An age-structured population balance model for microbial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte M.V.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an age-structured population balance model (ASPBM for a bioprocess in a continuous stirred-tank fermentor. It relates the macroscopic properties and dynamic behavior of biomass to the operational parameters and microscopic properties of cells. Population dynamics is governed by two time- and age-dependent density functions for living and dead cells, accounting for the influence of substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on cell division, aging and death processes. The ASPBM described biomass and substrate oscillations in aerobic continuous cultures as experimentally observed. It is noteworthy that a small data set consisting of nonsegregated measurements was sufficient to adjust a complex segregated mathematical model.

  4. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  5. Population aging and future carbon emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Michael; O'Neill, Brian; Prskawetz, Alexia; Jiang Leiwen; Pitkin, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the age composition of U.S. households over the next several decades could affect energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, the most important greenhouse gas. This article incorporates population age structure into an energy-economic growth model with multiple dynasties of heterogeneous households. The model is used to estimate and compare effects of population aging and technical change on baseline paths of U.S. energy use, and CO 2 emissions. Results show that population aging reduces long-term emissions, by almost 40% in a low population scenario, and effects of aging on emissions can be as large, or larger than, effects of technical change in some cases. These results are derived under standard assumptions and functional forms that are used in economic growth models. The model also assumes a closed economy, substitution elasticities that are fixed, and identical across age groups, and patterns of labor supply that vary by age group, but are fixed over time

  6. Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Grimoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation.

  7. A decrease in total bilirubin predicted hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum total bilirubin (TB) and LDL cholesterol. It is a retrospective observational study. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TB and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia were investigated in a health screening population. Odds ratios (ORs) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 3,866 subjects, Spearman's correlation coefficients between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years were calculated in 1,735 subjects who did not use antihyperlipidemic drugs and hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for TB were calculated in 1,992 followed subjects. The ORs (p values) of coexisting hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 1.04 (0.998) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol and other confounders. Spearman's correlation coefficients (p values) between baseline TB and LDL cholesterol at baseline and after 4 years and changes in LDL cholesterol were -0.026 (0.271), -0.078 (0.001) and -0.062 (0.010), respectively. Among 1,992 followed subjects, 481 developed hyper-LDL cholesterolemia during 4 years (60.4 per 1,000 person-years). The HRs (95% confidence intervals; p values) of incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for each 1 SD increase in TB was 0.86 (0.77-0.96; 0.006) adjusted for sex, age, smoking, LDL cholesterol, body mass index, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and other confounders. The quintiles of TB were significantly associated with the incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia adjusted for the above covariates (p for trend = 0.008). A decrease in TB predicted incident hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in a health screening population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Population Aging Drive Up Pro-Elderly Social Spending?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    -elderly biased. It then points out that population ageing actually cannot explain very much of this pro-elderly bias variance. For instance, countries such as Denmark, Finland and Sweden are demographically old societies, yet they boast among the lowest pro-elderly spending biases in the OECD world, due...... to their greater commitment to family-friendly policies, active labour market policies and similar pro-young policies. The essay reviews a series of similarly counter-intuitive findings about generational politics and policies as published in Ageing Populations in Post-Industrial Democracies (Vanhuysse and Goerres......, 2012) and makes a plea for institutionally and historically richly informed explanations of the political consequences and the policy feedback effects arising from population ageing....

  9. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  10. Simulation for competition of languages with an ageing sexual population

    OpenAIRE

    Schwämmle, Veit

    2005-01-01

    Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexual populations with ageing is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between two regions, initially speaking different languages, is studied. We find that indiv...

  11. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Freedman, Neal D; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy

    2017-08-15

    Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse. To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death. The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996. Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. 185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment. Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. 58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. National Cancer Institute.

  12. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  13. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Impact of Coercive Migrations on the Changes of Total Population Flux in the War-Engulfed Croatian Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pažanin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the war impact and the impact of coercive migrations on the changes of total population fl ux between two censuses. On the eve of and during the Croatian War of Independence, the migration of population of the Republic of Croatia from the war-engulfed areas to the free areas of the country or to the foreign countries increased. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has caused a new wave of refugees from that country and a further migrational fl ux in our country. In the article, the author has established, on the case of the war-engulfed areas of eleven Croatian counties, that the war and coercive migrations have caused a decline of population, the growth of aged population, as well as changes in national and confessional structure.

  15. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  16. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  17. Peritoneal dialysis in an ageing population: a 10-year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly prevalent and there are increasing numbers of older patients with advanced CKD. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a potential treatment. This study aims to compare PD outcomes in age-defined populations in the largest PD centre in the Republic of Ireland over 10 years.

  18. Age and growth of two populations of West Coast steenbras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... density-dependent competition for food, or biochemical genetic variations between the two populations, are possible reasons for the geographic differences found in the growth rates and length-at-age. Slow growth and longevity are characteristics of West Coast steenbras that make it extremely susceptible to overfishing; ...

  19. Polypharmacy and falls in the middle age and elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere; J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAim: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. We studied the association between multiple drug use (polypharmacy) and falls in the elderly. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study. The participants were 6928 individuals aged ≥55

  20. Variation in age and physical status prior to total knee and hip replacement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Dieppe, Paul A; March, Lyn M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether variation exists in the preoperative age, pain, stiffness, and physical function of people undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) at several centers in Australia and Europe. METHODS: Individual Western Ontario and McMaster Univers...

  1. Age-dependent changes in the total protein concentrations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related changes in total protein concentrations in ten regions of the pig brain and hypophyses from birth to 36 months of age. Age-related changes in protein concentrations in all the brain regions except the pons and cerebral cortex were not ...

  2. Estimating demographic contributions to effective population size in an age-structured wild population experiencing environmental and demographic stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Amanda E; Bignal, Eric M; McCracken, Davy I; Piertney, Stuart B; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    A population's effective size (N e ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However, estimating N e , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the N e to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. A sophisticated demographic method of estimating N e /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated. However, this method requires detailed individual- and population-level data on sex- and age-specific reproduction and survival, and has rarely been implemented. Here, we use the reproductive value method and detailed demographic data to estimate N e /N for a small and apparently isolated red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population of high conservation concern. We additionally calculated two single-sample molecular genetic estimates of N e to corroborate the demographic estimate and examine evidence for unobserved immigration and gene flow. The demographic estimate of N e /N was 0.21, reflecting a high total demographic variance (σ2dg) of 0.71. Females and males made similar overall contributions to σ2dg. However, contributions varied among sex-age classes, with greater contributions from 3 year-old females than males, but greater contributions from ≥5 year-old males than females. The demographic estimate of N e was ~30, suggesting that rates of increase of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation per generation will be relatively high. Molecular genetic estimates of N e computed from linkage disequilibrium and approximate Bayesian computation were approximately 50 and 30, respectively, providing no evidence of substantial unobserved immigration which could bias demographic estimates of N e . Our analyses identify

  3. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  4. Population age structure and asset returns: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, J M

    1998-10-01

    "This paper investigates the association between population age structure, particularly the share of the population in the 'prime saving years' 45-60, and the returns on stocks and bonds. The paper is motivated by the claim that the aging of the 'Baby Boom' cohort in the United States is a key factor in explaining the recent rise in asset values. It also addresses the associated claim that asset prices will decline when this large cohort reaches retirement age and begins to reduce its asset holdings. This paper begins by considering household age-asset accumulation profiles. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances suggest that while cross-sectional age-wealth profiles peak for households in their early 60s, cohort data on the asset ownership of the same households show a much less pronounced peak.... The paper then considers the historical relationship between demographic structure and real returns on Treasury bills, long-term government bonds, and corporate stock. The results do not suggest any robust relationship between demographic structure and asset returns.... The paper concludes by discussing factors such as international capital flows and forward-looking behavior on the part of market participants that could weaken the relationship between age structure and asset returns in a single nation." excerpt

  5. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  6. Phenotype of normal spirometry in an aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; McAvay, Gail; Van Ness, Peter H; Casaburi, Richard; Jensen, Robert L; MacIntyre, Neil; Gill, Thomas M; Yaggi, H Klar; Concato, John

    2015-10-01

    In aging populations, the commonly used Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) may misclassify normal spirometry as respiratory impairment (airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern), including the presumption of respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). To evaluate the phenotype of normal spirometry as defined by a new approach from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI), overall and across GOLD spirometric categories. Using data from COPDGene (n = 10,131; ages 45-81; smoking history, ≥10 pack-years), we evaluated spirometry and multiple phenotypes, including dyspnea severity (Modified Medical Research Council grade 0-4), health-related quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score), 6-minute-walk distance, bronchodilator reversibility (FEV1 % change), computed tomography-measured percentage of lung with emphysema (% emphysema) and gas trapping (% gas trapping), and small airway dimensions (square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm). Among 5,100 participants with GLI-defined normal spirometry, GOLD identified respiratory impairment in 1,146 (22.5%), including a restrictive pattern in 464 (9.1%), mild COPD in 380 (7.5%), moderate COPD in 302 (5.9%), and severe COPD in none. Overall, the phenotype of GLI-defined normal spirometry included normal adjusted mean values for dyspnea grade (0.8), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (15.9), 6-minute-walk distance (1,424 ft [434 m]), bronchodilator reversibility (2.7%), % emphysema (0.9%), % gas trapping (10.7%), and square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (3.65 mm); corresponding 95% confidence intervals were similarly normal. These phenotypes remained normal for GLI-defined normal spirometry across GOLD spirometric categories. GLI-defined normal spirometry, even when classified as respiratory impairment by GOLD, included adjusted mean values in the

  7. The epidemiology of dysphonia in the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jeffrey P; Johns, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    The expanding elderly population continues to exert profound effects on the United States healthcare delivery system. This review summarizes the epidemiology of dysphonia in the aging population as well as its impact on quality of life and the emerging challenges of managing elderly patients with voice disorders. Although often underreported, dysphonia is present in as many as one in three elderly patients. The differential diagnosis for dysphonia in an aging patient is broad, and multifactorial causes are common. In the elderly, dysphonia exerts significant adverse effects on quality of life and often occurs against a background of multiple chronic medical conditions, polypharmacy, hearing loss, dysphagia, and neurologic disease. Recent data have demonstrated that elderly patients respond well to both surgical and nonsurgical treatments for voice disorders. Elderly patients and medical providers, as well as families and caregivers, must be educated about the prevalence of dysphonia in the aging population, its psychosocial impact, and available treatment options. Optimizing the care of voice disorders is essential to maximizing quality of life in aging patients.

  8. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  9. AN AGING POPULATION: A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Barešová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the most currently discussed topics, the ageing population. Population aging can be discussed from different perspectives, exploring various challenges associated with it. The authors examined marketing communications from the point of view of a target group, over age 55. The main objective of this study was to find out which marketing communication tools those over age 55 prefer, including selected aspects of printed advertising. At the same time, it was examined whether there is a different gender perspective on this issue. To find out answers to the main question of this study, we conducted quantitative research by using a questionnaire survey among the population over age 55 living in the Czech Republic (Zlín Region. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in 2014, focusing on the marketing communication tools targeted at the 55+ group from the point of view of companies. The research results have shown that the target groups’ most effective (preferred marketing communication tools are printed materials (leaflets and catalogues, sales promotions, competitions, club memberships, gifts, fairs, markets and fairs, and last but not least, newspapers and magazines. Based on the results, it can be said that these tools, in comparison with others, contain sufficient information that the customer can read and think about, save, and eventually return to them. At the same time, they are tools that bring a certain benefit or advantage to the customer, which can then be verified in person. If the results are compared from a gender perspective, different preferences were revealed in the selection of marketing communication tools. There were also different views on some selected aspects of printed materials. These findings can be implemented by companies and organizations in their marketing campaigns, allowing them to better reach the target group of people over age 55

  10. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  11. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  12. The impact of old age on surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Sung; Kim, Byung Sik; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Old age is regarded as the risk factor of major abdominal surgery due to the lack of functional reserve and the increased presence of comorbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of old age on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. This study enrolled 389 gastric cancer patients who underwent totally laparoscopic gastrectomy at Hanyang University Guri Hospital and ASAN Medical Center. The patients were classified into two groups according to age as those older than 70 years and those younger than 70 years. Early surgical outcomes such as operation time, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay were evaluated. No patient was converted to open surgery. The two groups differed significantly in terms of overall postoperative complication rate, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay. The patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy differed in incidence of postoperative ileus but not in severe postoperative complication rate. The results of this study demonstrated that old age can have an effect on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. This study especially showed that elderly patients are affected by the return of bowel movement after totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. On the other hand, however, it is presumed that old age has not had a serious impact on surgical outcomes in totally laparoscopic gastrectomy because no difference in the severe postoperative complication rate was observed.

  13. Determination of the sterile release rate for stopping growing age-structured populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, Hugh John

    2016-01-01

    A freely-growing age-structured population was modelled for growth and control by sterile male releases. Equilibrium populations yield critical sterile male release rates that would hold the population at equilibrium. It is shown here that these rates may be different from the release rates required to stop a growing population and bring it to an equilibrium. A computer simulation was constructed of this population and a parameter sensitivity analysis graphed the effects on the required sterile male release rate of fertility, mating delay in adult females, net juvenile survivorship, three adult survivorship curves, the time spent in the juvenile stages, and total life span. The adult survivorship curves had the greatest effect on the required sterile release rate for population elimination. The required release rate was also determined for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) using survivorship and fertility data from a laboratory strain. The concepts of over-flooding ratio and release ratio were discussed and quantified for the cases above. (author)

  14. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE AGEING OF THE POPULATION OF ROMANIA IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghear Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demographic ageing appeared in the modern society and designates an important increase in the elderly population segment in the total of the senior population and has implications for all sections of the society. The main cause of this phenomenon is transition from the traditional system of population’s reproduction, with high birth rates, to modern regime, with both low birth rates and mortality. On long term, these new demographic tendencies will affect both the educational system, in the sense of reducing the number of pupils and students, as well as the expansion of the demand for health services and social protection.

  16. Impact of Population Aging on Asia's Future Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho

    2011-01-01

    First, the expert contributors argue, Asia must find ways to sustain rapid economic growth in the face of less favorable demographics, which implies slower growth of the workforce. Second, they contend, Asia must find ways to deliver affordable, adequate, and sustainable old-age economic security for its growing elderly population. Underpinned by rigorous analysis, a wide range of concrete policy options for sustaining economic growth while delivering economic security for the elderly are the...

  17. Live long and prosper: challenges ahead for an aging population

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Groshen; Thomas Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    Over the next thirty years, the percentage of people who are 65 and over will grow rapidly while the percentage of people in their working years will decline. This shift in the age distribution of the population will put enormous pressure on social security systems in the United States, Germany, and Japan as the number of workers whose payroll taxes fund each retiree drops sharply.

  18. The old age security hypothesis and optimal population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, B

    1989-03-01

    The application of the Samuelson-Diamond overlapping generations framework to the old age security hypothesis indicates that government intervention schemes can influence the relationship between population growth and capital accumulation. The most direct means of optimizing population growth is through taxes or subsidies that relate to the intergenerational transfer of wealth. A pay-as-you-go social security scheme, in which payment is predicated on the number of children the receiver has and is financed by taxes levied on the working population, emerges as the most likely intervention to produce the optimal steady state equilibrium. This system is able to correct any distortions the private sector may build into it. In contrast, a child support system, in which the government subsidizes or taxes workers according to their family size, can guarantee the optimal capital:labor ratio but not the optimal population growth rate. Thus, if the government seeks to decrease the population growth rate, the appropriate intervention is to levy a lump-sum social-security tax on workers and transfer the revenues to the old; the direction should be reversed if the goal is to increase population growth. Another alternative, a lump sum social security system, can guarantee optimal population growth but not a desirable capital:labor ratio. Finally, the introduction of money as a valued commodity into an economy with a high capital:labor ratio will also serve to decrease the population growth rate and solve the intergenerational transfer problem through the private sector without any need for government intervention.

  19. Population aging and the extended family in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Population aging produces changes in the availability of kin with uncertain implications for extended living arrangements. We propose a highly stylized model that can be used to analyze and project age-specific proportions of adults living in extended and nuclear households. The model is applied to Taiwan using annual data from 1978-1998. We estimate cohort and age effects showing that more recently born cohorts of seniors are less likely to live in extended households, but that as seniors age the proportion living in extended households increases. The effect of individual aging has diminished over time, however. The proportion of non-senior adults living in extended households has increased steadily because changes in the age structure have increased the availability of older kin. The model is used to project living arrangements and we conclude that the proportion living in extended households will begin to decline gradually for both seniors and non-seniors. The extended family is becoming less important in Taiwan, but it is not on the way out.

  20. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev eArora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant's ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to to 6.4 C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7° C was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense x R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (> 10 years old did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over two years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3- year- old plants that was 9.2 C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old plants. . A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets - Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets. In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed.

  1. Population ageing and healthcare demand: The case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Jure; Tajnikar, Maks

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the consequences of demographic ageing on healthcare demand in Slovenia for primary care, secondary care, hospital day-care treatments, and hospitalisations. In the paper, we develop a model for making projections of the total number of treatments using the age-group projection method with the scenario approach. The model allows the number of treatments to be observed with respect to medical services, age groups and main disease groups. The results are presented for the cross-section years 2015, 2025 and 2035. The smallest increase in the number of treatments occurs in primary care, a larger one for secondary care, and the largest for hospital day-care services and hospitalisations (up to 29.9%). The structure of demand will also change. Demand for healthcare services for children and infants will decrease while demand for diseases associated with older age groups will increase, particularly for diseases of the circulatory system, eye and adnexa, and diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs. The results presented in this paper can help improve understanding of similar processes in other countries for total healthcare demand and for changes in the structure of demand. The results show that the healthcare system in Slovenia will face a major additional burden in the next 20 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal Vitamin D Status in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population Residing in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleteng, Qiqige; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Huandong; Xia, Mingfeng; Ma, Hui; Gao, Jian; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-12-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal vitamin D status in the middle-aged and elderly population residing in Shanghai, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1,829 males and postmenopausal females older than 45 years of age in the Changfeng community of Shanghai were included in this study. The optimal vitamin D level was determined according to the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the highest bone mineral density (BMD). Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) was performed to study the correlations of 25(OH)D with PTH and BMD in the lumbar spine and total hip, adjusting for gender, age, weight, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, eGFR, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.0±19.2 nmol/L for the whole study population. The circulating PTH was maximally suppressed by the serum 25(OH)D of 55 nmol/L in the total population (60 nmol/L for males and 50 nmol/L for females). The 25(OH)D concentrations corresponding to the highest BMD at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip were 53 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L, respectively, for the whole population. These values were also higher in males than females. CONCLUSIONS The optimal 25(OH)D concentration of 55 nmol/L is sufficient to maintain the bone health and metabolic status in middle-aged and elderly individuals living in Shanghai. Males probably need higher vitamin D concentration than females. There are differences between vitamin D status based on lumbar spine BMD and total hip BMD.

  3. [Aging of the working population in the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmarinen, J; Costa, G

    2000-01-01

    The working population over 50 years of age will grow considerably during the next 15 years. After 2010, the number of retired people over 65 years of age will be almost double that of 1995, with a strong impact also on working conditions and the labour market. Work ability is a dynamic process that changes, through its components, throughout life and is the result of the interaction between individual resources (including health, functional capacity, education and skills), working conditions, and the surrounding society. Work ability creates the basis for the employability of an individual, which can be supported by a number of actions (e.g. legislation on work and retirement) and social attitudes (e.g. age discrimination). Consequently, the prevalence of limitations in work ability varies significantly according to how it is evaluated and the frequency of work disability can vary considerably in different times, locations and populations. The Work Ability Index, created and used in a Finnish 11-year longitudinal study, has been proved a useful practical tool for the assessment of workers' fitness and a good predictor of work disability. Measures able to restore, maintain or promote work ability depend on the current work status and the needs of the target groups, and must concentrate on work content, physical work environment and the work community. The actions targeted towards the individual, on the other hand, concentrate on strengthening the health status and functional resources of the workers and developing professional expertise and skills. Correctly targeted and integrated measures improve work ability of ageing workers and therefore lead to improved work quality, increased productivity and also improved quality of life and well-being. They also have positive long-term effects on the "third age", when the worker retires.

  4. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Berg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.

  5. Effects of aging on sleep structure throughout adulthood: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Walter; Piovezan, Ronaldo; Poyares, Dalva; Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have shown the evolution of sleep parameters across the lifespan, not many have included a representative sample of the general population. The objective of this study was to describe age-related changes in sleep structure, sleep respiratory parameters and periodic limb movements of the adult population of São Paulo. We selected a representative sample of the city of São Paulo, Brazil that included both genders and an age range of 20-80 years. Pregnant and lactating women, people with physical or mental impairments that prevent self-care and people who work every night were not included. This sample included 1024 individuals who were submitted to polysomnography and structured interviews. We subdivided our sample into five-year age groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare age groups. Pearson product-moment was used to evaluate correlation between age and sleep parameters. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep showed a significant age-related decrease (Pincrease (Pincreased and oxygen saturation decreased with age. The reduction in the percentage of REM sleep significantly correlated with age in women, whereas the reduction in the percentage of slow wave sleep correlated with age in men. The periodic limb movement (PLM) index increased with age in men and women. Sleep structure and duration underwent significant alterations throughout the aging process in the general population. There was an important correlation between age, sleep respiratory parameters and PLM index. In addition, men and women showed similar trends but with different effect sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population aged 18-59 years old in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Yong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Zeng, Xinying; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To understand the drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population in China. Floating population were selected through multistage clustering sampling method, stratified by 6 major industries in 170 counties and districts from 31 provinces/autonomous regions, and Xinjiang Construction Corps, in mainland China. Design-based methods were adopted to analyze the drinking behavior in subpopulations. A total of 48 697 floating population aged 18-59 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence rate of drinking was 51.7% with 71.9% in men and 24.7% in women, in the last 12 months. Among those who ever drank, the weekly drinking prevalence and daily alcohol intake were 53.9% and 18.7 g in males while 16.7% and 4.1 g in females, respectively, among those floating population. Weekly drinking prevalence rates, for both genders, increased along with the increase of age (P population from the construction industry had the highest prevalence rates on items as weekly drinking, daily alcohol intake and prevalence of unhealthy drinking behaviors, except for hazardous drinking behaviors. Drinking behavior was prevalent among floating population in China. Significant difference was seen between genders. Unhealthy drinking behaviors varied greatly among male drinkers at different age groups or education levels as well as among those working in the different industries.

  7. Increased active von Willebrand factor during disease development in the aging diabetic patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang Feng; Xia, Zuo Li; Han, Ji Ju; Wang, Yi Ting; Wang, Ji Yue; Pan, Shao Dong; Wu, Ya Ping; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guang Yao; Du, Jing Wei; Gao, Hen Qiang; de Groot, Philip G; de Laat, Bas; Hollestelle, Martine J

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to cause endothelial activation resulting in the secretion of von Willebrand factor (VWF). We have shown that levels of VWF in a glycoprotein Ib-binding conformation are increased in specific clinical settings. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether active VWF levels increase during aging and the development of diabetes within the population of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Patients and controls were divided into two groups based on age: older and younger than 60 years of age. VWF antigen, VWF propeptide, VWF activation factor and total active VWF were measured. Patients older than 60 years of age had increased levels of total active VWF, VWF activation factor and VWF propeptide compared to younger patients and controls. All measured VWF parameters were associated with age in diabetic patients. Total active VWF and VWF propeptide correlated with the period of being diagnosed with diabetes. Regression analyses showed that especially the VWF activation factor was strongly associated with diabetes in patients older than 60 years of age. In conclusion, we found that the conformation of VWF could be involved in the disease process of diabetes and that the VWF in a glycoprotein Ib-binding conformation could play a role as risk marker during the development of diabetes in combination with an increase in age. Our study shows that the active quality of VWF was more important than the quantity.

  8. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  9. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF POPULATION AGEING ON FISCAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cristina NUTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the impact that demographic changes have had during the 1995-2013 fiscal indicators such as the level of public expenditure, the total/social budget deficit or public debt in Romania. Population aging affects a number of categories of expenditures (social protection expenditure, the health care expenditure or long-term care, and government revenue, through many mechanisms.

  10. Age-Specific Mortality and Fertility Rates for Probabilistic Population Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Ševčíková, Hana; Li, Nan; Kantorová, Vladimíra; Gerland, Patrick; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations released official probabilistic population projections (PPP) for all countries for the first time in July 2014. These were obtained by projecting the period total fertility rate (TFR) and life expectancy at birth ($e_0$) using Bayesian hierarchical models, yielding a large set of future trajectories of TFR and $e_0$ for all countries and future time periods to 2100, sampled from their joint predictive distribution. Each trajectory was then converted to age-specific mortalit...

  11. The effects of temperature and diet on age grading and population age structure determination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Wen C; Ballard, J William O

    2013-10-01

    The age structure of natural population is of interest in physiological, life history and ecological studies but it is often difficult to determine. One methodological problem is that samples may need to be invasively sampled preventing subsequent taxonomic curation. A second problem is that it can be very expensive to accurately determine the age structure of given population because large sample sizes are often necessary. In this study, we test the effects of temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 26 °C) and diet (standard cornmeal and low calorie diet) on the accuracy of the non-invasive, inexpensive and high throughput near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to determine the age of Drosophila flies. Composite and simplified calibration models were developed for each sex. Independent sets for each temperature and diet treatments with flies not involved in calibration model were then used to validate the accuracy of the calibration models. The composite NIRS calibration model was generated by including flies reared under all temperatures and diets. This approach permits rapid age measurement and age structure determination in large population of flies as less than or equal to 9 days, or more than 9 days old with 85-97% and 64-99% accuracy, respectively. The simplified calibration models were generated by including flies reared at 23 °C on standard diet. Low accuracy rates were observed when simplified calibration models were used to identify (a) Drosophila reared at 17 °C and 26 °C and (b) 23 °C with low calorie diet. These results strongly suggest that appropriate calibration models need to be developed in the laboratory before this technique can be reliably used in field. These calibration models should include the major environmental variables that change across space and time in the particular natural population to be studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  13. Male aging symptoms: the positive influence of moderate and total physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p460   The aim of the research was to analyze the association of physical activity (PA intensity and duration with male aging symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study of probabilistic sample involving 416 men from two cities in southern Brazil. Data collection used a questionnaire divided into six parts: sample characteristics; anthropometric measurements; economic level by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short-version; Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS and Male Aging Symptoms Scale (AMS. The sample was divided into two groups: with and without male aging symptoms, making use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The presence of male aging symptoms was identified in 61.6% of men, especially somatic and psychological symptoms. Most were considered sufficiently active (60.1%, highlighting men without male aging symptoms (p = 0.026, with a possible effect of moderate and total PA on low-intensity symptoms (p = 0.027; p = 0.015. This study identified relationships between PA duration and intensity and intensity of male aging symptoms. PA practice with specific intensity and duration is suggested in order to obtain health benefits related to male aging symptoms.

  14. Exposure to household endotoxin and total and allergen-specific IgE in the US population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although endotoxin has strong pro-inflammatory properties, endotoxin-allergy relationship in adults and children have been inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated the association between household endotoxin levels and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) or specific IgE in the US general population, classified into three age ranges: children/adolescent, adults, and older adults. Methods: We analyzed the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 5220 participants for whom serum IgE and household endotoxin data were available was included in the analyses. Results: Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization, especially in specific IgE to plants (OR in Quartile 3 = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.44–0.76) and pets (OR in Quartile 3 = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.41–0.92), for children/adolescents. In contrast, the risk among adults and older adults increased with increasing endotoxin levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the effect of endotoxin on allergic reaction is likely to depend on age. - Highlights: • Findings regarding the endotoxin-allergy relationship in adults and children are inconsistent. • We investigated the association of endotoxin with total and specific IgE in US population. • The association between endotoxin levels and allergic markers is likely to depend on age. • Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization for children/adolescents. • The risk among adults and older adults increased with increasing endotoxin levels. - Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization for children/adolescents, but decreased the risk among adults and older

  15. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  16. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  17. Correlation between chronological age and third molar developmental stages in an Iranian population (Demirjian method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Aria; Navabi, Manijeh; Sakhdari, Shirin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Third molar development is the only available tool for estimating the age of individuals after puberty. Since this tooth has very high interethnic variability, formulas calculated to estimate the age from its development stages cannot be generalized to other populations and should be adjusted for each region. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate this method in a sample of Tehran individuals for the first time, and also to compare the development of third molars across sexes and arches, and to estimate cutoff developmental stages for legal minor/major identification. A total of 150 dental patients aged between 15 and 25 years old were prospectively enrolled, and their Demirjian stages were recorded. The associations between chronological age and Demirjian stages were evaluated. Dental formation was compared between sexes and jaws. Cutoff stages were determined to identify legal minor/major cases (above or below 18 years old). Age estimation formula was found for this population. Of the 150 included patients, 56 were males. The difference between the ages of males and females at each given developmental stage was nonsignificant ( P > 0.05), except for the H stage. Age difference between same stage teeth of the maxilla and mandible was nonsignificant. Each of the G and H stages was significantly above 18 years old ( P age were above 90% (all P Third molar development was positively affected by the chronological age ( P = 0.000) and being maxillary ( P = 0.000) but not sex ( P = 0.113). Regression formula for age estimation was: age = 6.52+ (0.64 × sex) + (0.32 × arch) + (1.86 × Demirjian stage). Development of third molar might complete after the age 22. Iranian individuals with third molars at the G and H stages are likely above 18 while those at E and F are likely below 18. Pace of molar development differs for jaws, but intergender differences are open to further investigations.

  18. Age and Early Revision After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Zachary; Baca, Geneva; Rames, Richard; Barrack, Robert; Clohisy, John; Nam, Denis

    2017-11-01

    Prior reports have noted an increased risk of early revision among younger patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) but have been confounded by the inclusion of various diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess the revision rate and the time to revision for patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis based on age. Patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis who underwent both primary and revision THA at the same institution were identified. The time between primary and revision surgery and the indication for revision were collected. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on age at the time of primary THA: 64 years or younger (group 1) or 65 years or older (group 2). Between 1996 and 2016, a total of 4662 patients (5543 hips) underwent primary THA for a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Of these, 100 patients (104 hips) received a revision THA (62 in group 1 and 42 in group 2). Mean age was 52.7±8.4 years in group 1 vs 73.4±6.3 years in group 2 (Pprimary to revision surgery was 3.0±3.2 years for group 1 and 1.1±2.1 years for group 2 (P=.001). Among patients undergoing primary THA for a diagnosis of osteoarthritis, younger age is not associated with an increased rate of early failure or revision. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1069-e1073.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Estimating age composition in Alpine native populations of Austropotamobius pallipes complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ghia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the population structure and understanding growth patterns is crucial to manage freshwater resources and to solve fundamental questions concerning endangered species conservation. Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858 species complex has been declining on a widespread basis in Europe, including Italy, but detailed data on population structure and growth are lacking. In four mountain streams populated by the species, water temperature data were collected by data-loggers. In July 2012, a total of 746 crayfish were collected at night and their length was measured. Females and males size distributions were analysed separately for each stream using Bhattacharya’s Method. Age was assigned to each length class. The mean values of the age classes were used to evaluate the growth rate of Von Bertalanffy, by the seasonalized equation. Up to six age classes were identified in two populations. Results show that three out of four populations are well-structured, and they confirm that A. pallipes complex is a K-selected species. We stress the need for long-term monitoring and the importance of obtained results in development of conservation plans of endangered crayfish.

  20. A practical review of energy saving technology for ageing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Taylor, Andrea; Whittet, Craig; Lynn, Craig; Docherty, Catherine; Stephen, Bruce; Owens, Edward; Galloway, Stuart

    2017-07-01

    Fuel poverty is a critical issue for a globally ageing population. Longer heating/cooling requirements combine with declining incomes to create a problem in need of urgent attention. One solution is to deploy technology to help elderly users feel informed about their energy use, and empowered to take steps to make it more cost effective and efficient. This study subjects a broad cross section of energy monitoring and home automation products to a formal ergonomic analysis. A high level task analysis was used to guide a product walk through, and a toolkit approach was used thereafter to drive out further insights. The findings reveal a number of serious usability issues which prevent these products from successfully accessing an important target demographic and associated energy saving and fuel poverty outcomes. Design principles and examples are distilled from the research to enable practitioners to translate the underlying research into high quality design-engineering solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Population parameters for dose calculations: initial estimates of municipal, city and provincial age group population within 20, 50 and 80 kilometers of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The study attempts to determine the total population and population growth rates of four (4) age groups per municipality/city within twenty (20), fifty (50) and eighty (80) kilometers from the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1). The population estimates were done at five (5) year intervals covering the next fifty years. The latest National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO) population projections at the provincial level under the assumption of moderate fertility and moderate mentality decline (series no. 2) were used to derive the estimates of the total population and population growth rates at the minicipality/city levels. The Bureau of Coastal and Geodetic Survey (BCGS) and the NCSO maps served as the bases for delineating the geographic and political boundaries covered by the study. The results will complement the findings of the PAEC project on agricultural parameters for radiation dose calculations and useful for related environmental studies. (author)

  2. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2009-11-18

    With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible.

  3. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  4. SEIR Model of Rumor Spreading in Online Social Network with Varying Total Population Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Suyalatu; Deng Yan-Bin; Huang Yong-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Based on the infectious disease model with disease latency, this paper proposes a new model for the rumor spreading process in online social network. In this paper what we establish an SEIR rumor spreading model to describe the online social network with varying total number of users and user deactivation rate. We calculate the exact equilibrium points and reproduction number for this model. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the online social network with increasing population size based on the original real world Facebook network. The simulation results indicate that the SEIR model of rumor spreading in online social network with changing total number of users can accurately reveal the inherent characteristics of rumor spreading process in online social network . (paper)

  5. SEIR Model of Rumor Spreading in Online Social Network with Varying Total Population Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suyalatu; Deng, Yan-Bin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2017-10-01

    Based on the infectious disease model with disease latency, this paper proposes a new model for the rumor spreading process in online social network. In this paper what we establish an SEIR rumor spreading model to describe the online social network with varying total number of users and user deactivation rate. We calculate the exact equilibrium points and reproduction number for this model. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the online social network with increasing population size based on the original real world Facebook network. The simulation results indicate that the SEIR model of rumor spreading in online social network with changing total number of users can accurately reveal the inherent characteristics of rumor spreading process in online social network. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275017 and 11173028

  6. Progressive risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls through a Total Diet Study in the Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun-su; Nguyen, Khanh-Hoang; Kim, Jongchul; Kim, Cho-il; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from foods was investigated through a Total Diet Study (TDS) for the first time in Korea. A representative food list was developed from food intake data. Non-selected foods were also included in the TDS through the mapping process to anticipate practical risk assessment. For better representativeness, data (2008–2011) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were combined with the TDS data set. And also, we estimated the dietary exposure to PCBs from various food items using a ‘best-fit’ mapping process and assessed the differences in PCB exposures by sex and age. In this study, we examined total PCBs (62 congeners) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and indicator PCBs, which are congeners that are mainly detected in various environmental matrices. The average dietary exposure (3.94 ng/kg body weight/day) that was estimated through food intake was 19.7% of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. - Highlights: • A total of 282 samples, composed of the most consumed foodstuffs in Korea, were analysed and shown in detail. • The contamination status of total PCBs in food was assessed, through their various condition on cooking methods. • The dietary intakes of PCBs in various food groups were estimated in different region, gender and age groups. • The improved and systematic food selection process was applied such as ‘mapping process’. - This study is to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCBs with the improved risk assessment method.

  7. Work-related productivity losses in an era of ageing populations: the case of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Walsh, Paul M; O Céilleachair, Alan; Skally, Mairead; Staines, Anthony; Kapur, Kanika; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sharp, Linda

    2013-02-01

    We investigated patterns and costs of lost productivity due to colorectal cancer in Ireland and examined how rising pension ages affect these costs. Data from a postal survey of colorectal cancer survivors (6 to 30 months after diagnosis; n = 159), taken from March 2010 to January 2011, were combined with population-level survival estimates and national wage data to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality, costs using the human capital approach. Almost 40% of respondents left the workforce permanently after diagnosis and 90% took temporary time off work. Total costs of lost productivity per person were 205,847 in 2008 assuming retirement at the age of 65. When the retirement age was raised to 70, productivity costs increased by almost a half. Our study demonstrated the considerable productivity costs associated with colorectal cancer and highlighted the effect of rising retirement ages on costs.

  8. A parsimonious characterization of change in global age-specific and total fertility rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand trends in global fertility from 1950-2010 though the analysis of age-specific fertility rates. This approach incorporates both the overall level, as when the total fertility rate is modeled, and different patterns of age-specific fertility to examine the relationship between changes in age-specific fertility and fertility decline. Singular value decomposition is used to capture the variation in age-specific fertility curves while reducing the number of dimensions, allowing curves to be described nearly fully with three parameters. Regional patterns and trends over time are evident in parameter values, suggesting this method provides a useful tool for considering fertility decline globally. The second and third parameters were analyzed using model-based clustering to examine patterns of age-specific fertility over time and place; four clusters were obtained. A country’s demographic transition can be traced through time by membership in the different clusters, and regional patterns in the trajectories through time and with fertility decline are identified. PMID:29377899

  9. [Accumulation of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in Pinus yunnanensis forests at different age stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Juan; Zhou, Chuan-Yan; Li, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Taking three Pinus yunnanensis forests at different ages (19, 28 and 45 a) in Panxian County of Guizhou Province as test objects, we investigated vertical distributions and accumulation rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), as well as their relationships with soil bulk density. For the three forests at different age stages, SOC and TN changed consistently along the soil profile, declining with the soil depth. Both SOC and TN storage increased with the forest age. The SOC and TN storage amounts were 96.24, 121.65 and 148.13 t x hm(-2), and 10.76, 12.96 and 13.08 t x hm(-2) for the forest stands with 19 a, 28 a and 45 a, respectively. SOC had a significant positive correlation with soil TN, while both of them had a significant negative relationship with the soil bulk density. The accumulation rates of both SOC and TN storage at different growth periods were different, and the rate in the period from age 19 to 28 was higher than in the period from age 28 to 45.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Can cochlear implantation improve neurocognition in the aging population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völter C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Völter,1 Lisa Götze,1 Stefan Dazert,1 Michael Falkenstein,2,3 Jan Peter Thomas1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum, St. Elisabeth-Hospital, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute for Work, Learning and Ageing (ALA, Bochum, Germany; 3Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Introduction: The relationship between cognition and the ability to hear is well known. Due to changes in demographics, the number of people with sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of hearing rehabilitation via cochlear implantation on cognitive decline among the aging population. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 60 subjects aged between 50 and 84 years (mean 65.8 years, SD=8.9 with a severe to profound bilateral hearing impairment. A computer-based evaluation of short- and long-term memory, processing speed, attention, working memory and inhibition was performed prior to surgery as well as 6 and 12 months after cochlear implantation. Additionally, speech perception at 65 and 80 dB (Freiburger monosyllabic speech test as well as disease-related (Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire and general (WHOQOL-OLD quality of life were assessed. Results: Six months postimplantation, speech perception, quality of life and also neurocognitive abilities significantly increased. The most remarkable improvement after 6 months was detected in executive functions such as attention (p<0.001, inhibition (p=0.025 and working memory (n-back: p=0.002; operation span task: p=0.008, followed by delayed recall (p=0.03. In contrast, long-term memory showed a significant change of performance only after 12 months (p=0.021. After 6 months, most cognitive domains remained stable, except working memory assessed by the operation span task, which significantly improved between 6 and 12 months (p<0.001. No

  12. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  13. Personalized nutrigenomics: tailoring the diet to the aging diabesity population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Ruden

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas M Ruden1, Xiangyi Lu21Wayne State University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C. S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 190 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is estimated to double by the year 2025. Diabetes is especially prominent in the elderly population because the IDF indicates age above 45 years as a major risk factor for diabetes. The most common trials for controlling diabetes focus on tighter glucose control as a means to reduce the long-term complications. However, whether tight blood sugar control or other dietary or pharmaceutical interventions in the elderly are more appropriate is not known. Major changes have taken place in our diet over the past 10,000 years since the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution, but our genes have not changed. Furthermore, the large numbers of diabetic elderly in the population are a recent phenomenon, because those with diabetes have historically died young. Genetically speaking, humans today live in a nutritional environment that differs from that for which our genetic constitution was selected. For example a high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, found in today’s Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Knowing who is at risk would be useful if it meant that one could avoid the environmental triggers that convert susceptibility to disease. The prospect of targeting specific dietary treatments at the elderly, who are predicted to gain the most therapeutic benefits, clearly has important clinical and economic consequences. In this review, we will discuss modern molecular genetic and epidemiological techniques which are now, or soon will

  14. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  15. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  16. Rehabilitation of patients aged 65 and over after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    by a randomised clinical trial by using telephone interviews and counseling postoperatively, and testing improvement in patients´health status after THR. The last study involved testing the effect of nursing intervention by providing a measurement of patients´healthrelated quality of life.......The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate improvement in health status of patients aged 65 and over after total hip replacement (THR) as a result of nursing rehabilitation. The projects conssits of three studies, first a description of patients´health status after THR, followed...

  17. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  18. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  19. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ? 35

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    João Paulo de Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS : Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36; health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD, Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS : Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001, with chronic disease (p < 0.0001, who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01, who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over

  20. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Barrett-Connor, E; Shan, J

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of age, weight change, and covariates on lipid and lipoprotein levels cross-sectionally and prospectively in an elderly population. A community-based sample of 1041 men and 1303 women aged 50 to 93 years was studied cross-sectionally in 1984 to 1987, with follow-up of 372 men and 545 women 8 years later. In the cross-sectional study, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased and levels of HDL cholesterol (HDLC) increased with age in men (all P or = 75 years) and in all weight change groups (> 2.5-kg loss, change within 2.5 kg, and > 2.5-kg gain) and in all waist girth change groups, for an overall decrement of approximately 1% per year. In multiple linear regression models, change in weight was the most important independent and consistent predictor of changes in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Similar results were obtained in analyses excluding subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or estrogen and in analyses adjusted for changes in cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, medication use, and incident myocardial infarction, cancer, or diabetes. Cross-sectional decrements in TC and LDL-C with age in men are not explained by survivor bias because they are also observed prospectively. Although weight change was the most important explanatory variable, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels also decreased in those who lost or gained weight. Age was not an independent predictor of change. Other prospective studies are recommended to better define the causes and consequences of cholesterol and lipoprotein changes in old age.

  1. Patterns of Mortality in Patients Treated with Dental Implants: A Comparison of Patient Age Groups and Corresponding Reference Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemt, Torsten; Kowar, Jan; Nilsson, Mats; Stenport, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between implant patient mortality compared to reference populations. The aim of this study was to report the mortality pattern in patients treated with dental implants up to a 15-year period, and to compare this to mortality in reference populations with regard to age at surgery, sex, and degree of tooth loss. Patient cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated for a total of 4,231 treated implant patients from a single clinic. Information was based on surgical registers in the clinic and the National Population Register in Sweden. Patients were arranged into age groups of 10 years, and CSR was compared to that of the reference population of comparable age and reported in relation to age at surgery, sex, and type of jaw/dentition. A similar, consistent, general relationship between CSR of different age groups of implant patients and reference populations could be observed for all parameters studied. Completely edentulous patients presented higher mortality than partially edentulous patients (P age groups showed mortality similar to or higher than reference populations, while older patient age groups showed increasingly lower mortality than comparable reference populations for edentulous and partially edentulous patients (P age groups of patients compared to reference populations was observed, indicating higher patient mortality in younger age groups and lower in older groups. The reported pattern is not assumed to be related to implant treatment per se, but is assumed to reflect the variation in general health of a selected subgroup of treated implant patients compared to the reference population in different age groups.

  2. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, B; Heppe, D H M; Taal, H R; Manniesing, R; Raat, H; Hofman, A; Steegers, E A P; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2014-07-01

    Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5243 children followed from early pregnancy onward in the Netherlands. Information about parental smoking was obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. At the median age of 6.0 years (90% range: 5.7-7.4), we measured anthropometrics, total fat and android/gynoid fat ratio by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and preperitoneal and subcutaneous abdominal fat were measured by ultrasound. The associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy were only present among girls (P-value for sex interactionpaternal smoking during pregnancy. Both continued maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight. The corresponding odds ratios were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.98-1.46) and 1.32 (1.10-1.58), respectively. Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with an adverse body and abdominal fat distribution and increased risk of overweight in children. Similar effects of maternal and paternal smoking suggest that direct intrauterine mechanisms and common family-based lifestyle-related factors explain the associations.

  3. Allogeneic blood transfusion and prognosis following total hip replacement: a population-based follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mehnert, Frank; Overgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR). However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. METHODS......: A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital......-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. RESULTS: Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3%) received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared...

  4. Evaluation of the contribution of smoking to total blood polonium-210 in Saudi population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabana, E.I. E-mail: eshabana@kacst.edu.sa; Elaziz, M.A. Abd; Al-Arifi, M.N.; Al-Dhawailie, A.A.; Al-Bokari, M.M-A

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study of {sup 210}Po concentrations in the blood of some smokers and nonsmokers is presented in order to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total blood {sup 210}Po in Saudi population. Blood samples were collected from 30 volunteers and analyzed by high resolution {alpha}-spectrometry using a radiochemical technique. The technique is based on the separation of polonium from other components of the sample by wet ashing with an HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidizing mixture and spontaneous deposition on a silver disc under the relevant conditions for {alpha}-particle counting. The results indicated that a significant fraction (about 30%) of blood {sup 210}Po is related to smoking.

  5. The relationship between population ageing and the economic growth in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Lo Rick; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-08-01

    Asia has witnessed robust economic growth since the 1960s. Today, emerging markets in Asia have managed to maintain rapid growth even when the world's main economies suffer from debt and banking crises. However, declining total fertility rate, increasing life expectancy, continuous change of birth and death patterns, and increasing share of old age population in the age distribution in Asia exert significant pressure on its economies. This paper analyses the relationship between population ageing and economic growth using 2 different panels of countries; one Asian and another the from the oldest countries worldwide between 1970 and 2014. The analysis is based on the Auto Regression Distributed Lag models. The MG (Mean Group) and PMG (Pooled Mean Group) estimations are applied in this analysis. The Hausman Test is conducted to decide between the MG and PMG estimators. We find that ageing will negatively affect the economy in the long run. The growing number of youths will initially have a negative effect on the economy but would eventually lead to a positive growth in the future. The old age dependency ratio has yet to have affect the Asian economy but is expected eventually to impose a negative effect as seen in the oldest nations of the world.

  6. Dietary acrylamide exposure of the French population: results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Hommet, Frédéric; Tard, Alexandra; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-03-01

    Acrylamide is a heat-induced carcinogen compound that is found in some foods consequently to cooking or other thermal processes. In the second French Total Diet Study (TDS), acrylamide was analysed in 192 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared "as consumed". Highest mean concentrations were found in potato chips/crisps (954 μg/kg), French fries and other fried potatoes (724 μg/kg), and salted biscuits other than potato chips (697 μg/kg). Exposure of general adult and child populations was assessed by combining analytical results with national consumption data. Mean acrylamide exposure was assessed to be 0.43±0.33 μg/kg of body weight (bw) per day for adults and 0.69±0.58 μg/kg bw/day for children. Although the exposure assessed is lower than in previous evaluations, the calculated margins of exposure, based on benchmark dose limits defined for carcinogenic effects, remain very low especially for young children (below 100 at the 95th percentile of exposure), indicating a health concern. It is therefore advisable to continue efforts in order to reduce dietary exposure to acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Labor Activity of the Population of Retirement Age as a Factor in Socio-Economic Development of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Barsukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of population ageing in Russia is increasingly attracting attention of scientists and politicians. Long ago researchers recognized the irreversibility of the population ageing process in the conditions of narrowed population reproduction, but the measures to mitigate the consequences in our country, unlike Western countries, are not well developed yet. Population ageing with high probability leads to the change in labor market functioning due to the reduction in the share of able-bodied population and children and, consequently, the permanent increase in the proportion of older people in the total number of population. In these conditions the effective realization of resource potential of the older generation becomes one of the most important factors in socio-economic development of the territory. This article is aimed at studying the changes and specifics of labor activity of the population of retirement age on the example of the Vologda Oblast. The first part of the article is devoted to the main aspects of the impact of population ageing on economic development. It considers the prerequisites for the formation of the regressive age structure of population in the country and the region, determines the level of “age” of Russia and the Vologda Oblast. It identifies the features of population ageing of the region and its districts and the underlying factors of transformation of the age structure of the territory. The second part of the article presents the analysis of changes in the economic activity of the population of retirement age in the Vologda Oblast, the structure of employment of the older generation. On the basis of the sociological survey data the author describes the key incentives to continue working in retirement age, the current level of employment of seniors, and the difference between actual and nominal retirement age, etc. The main conclusion of the article is the following: the population of retirement age in

  8. Use of Hip Arthroscopy and Risk of Conversion to Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Population-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, William W; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank; Lyman, Stephen; Mayman, David

    2016-04-01

    To use population-level data to (1) evaluate the conversion rate of total hip arthroplasty (THA) within 2 years of hip arthroscopy and (2) assess the influence of age, arthritis, and obesity on the rate of conversion to THA. We used the State Ambulatory Surgery Databases and State Inpatient Databases for California and Florida from 2005 through 2012, which contain 100% of patient visits. Hip arthroscopy patients were tracked for subsequent primary THA within 2 years. Out-of-state patients and patients with less than 2 years follow-up were excluded. Multivariate analysis identified risks for subsequent hip arthroplasty after arthroscopy. We identified 7,351 patients who underwent hip arthroscopy with 2 years follow-up. The mean age was 43.9 ± 13.7 years, and 58.8% were female patients. Overall, 11.7% of patients underwent THA conversion within 2 years. The conversion rate was lowest in patients aged younger than 40 years (3.0%) and highest in the 60- to 69-year-old group (35.0%) (P arthroscopy. Patients treated at high-volume hip arthroscopy centers had a lower THA conversion rate than those treated at low-volume centers (15.1% v 9.7%, P arthroscopy is performed in patients of various ages, including middle-aged and elderly patients. Older patients have a higher rate of conversion to THA, as do patients with osteoarthritis or obesity. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  10. ASQ-3 scores are sensitive to small differences in age in a Peruvian infant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K C; Zhou, V L; Tarazona, D; Tuesta, H; Velásquez-Hurtado, J E; Sadeghi, R; Llanos, F

    2017-07-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires Edition 3 (ASQ-3) are a well-validated international screen for developmental delays in young children. However, previous studies demonstrate variable scores between children eligible to take the same ASQ-3 interval. This study aimed to determine a relationship between age and ASQ-3 score for each screening interval. This was a baseline exploratory cross-sectional study of infants under 2 years old evaluated for the Peruvian social programme Cuna Más. Participants were included in Cuna Más if they lived in districts with fewer than 2000 inhabitants or 400 homes, indicating a predominantly rural population. The appropriate ASQ-3 screening interval was administered to each subject. Subjects were divided into four 2-week chronological subgroups based on age within each 2-month screening window and aggregated across all 12 screening intervals. Fisher's exact test, analysis of variance and Bonferonni post hoc test were used to compare differences between age subgroups. Linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between ASQ-3 score and both aggregated and disaggregated age subgroup. A total of 5850 Peruvian infants were evaluated in 2013. Mean age was 13 ± 6.6 months, 50.7% were male and mean maternal education was 6.6 ± 4.0 years; 34.8% infants were stunted, 7.8% were underweight, 0.9% were wasted and 2% had age adjusted greater than 35 days for prematurity for ASQ-3 interval assignment. Mean total ASQ-3 was 42.2 ± 8.2. The ASQ-3 allocated 49.6% with suspected delay in one or more developmental areas. Before and after adjusting for wealth quintile, maternal education level, infant nutritional status and prematurity adjustment, age subgroup remained significantly associated with total ASQ-3 score (β = 1.8, CI: 1.7-2.0, P < 0.001), sectional ASQ-3 score (all P < 0.001) and inversely associated with one or more scores indicating suspected developmental delay (P < 0.001). The ASQ-3 may underestimate

  11. Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.

  12. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Karsten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330. Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD, 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis.

  13. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  14. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  15. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  16. National Incidence of Patient Safety Indicators in the Total Hip Arthroplasty Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Knapik, Derrick M; Wera, Glenn D; Fitzgerald, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services use the incidence of patient safety indicators (PSIs) to determine health care value and hospital reimbursement. The national incidence of PSI has not been quantified in the total hip arthroplasty (THA) population, and it is unknown if patient insurance status is associated with PSI incidence after THA. All patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) who underwent THA in 2013 were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The incidence of PSI was determined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis code algorithms published by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The association of insurance status and the incidence of PSI during the inpatient episode was determined by comparing privately insured and Medicare patients with Medicaid/self-pay patients using a logistic regression model that controlled for patient demographics, patient comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. In 2013, the NIS included 68,644 hospitalizations with primary THA performed during the inpatient episode. During this period, 429 surgically relevant PSI were recorded in the NIS. The estimated national incidence rate of PSI after primary THA was 0.63%. In our secondary analysis, the privately insured cohort had significantly lower odds of experiencing one or more PSIs relative to the Medicaid/self-pay cohort (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.76). The national incidence of PSI among THA patients is relatively low. However, primary insurance status is associated with the incidence of one or more PSIs after THA. As value-based payment becomes more widely adopted in the United States, quality benchmarks and penalty thresholds need to account for these differences in risk-adjustment models to promote and maintain access to care in the underinsured population. Copyright

  17. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  18. Stroke trends in an aging population. The Technology Assessment Methods Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, L W; Barendregt, J J; Bonneux, L; Koudstaal, P J

    1993-07-01

    Trends in stroke incidence and survival determine changes in stroke morbidity and mortality. This study examines the extent of the incidence decline and survival improvement in the Netherlands from 1979 to 1989. In addition, it projects future changes in stroke morbidity during the period 1985 to 2005, when the country's population will be aging. A state-event transition model is used, which combines Dutch population projections and existing data on stroke epidemiology. Based on the clinical course of stroke, the model describes historical national age- and sex-specific hospital admission and mortality rates for stroke. It extrapolates observed trends and projects future changes in stroke morbidity rates. There is evidence of a continuing incidence decline. The most plausible rate of change is an annual decline of -1.9% (range, -1.7% to -2.1%) for men and -2.4% (range, -2.3% to -2.8%) for women. Projecting a constant mortality decline, the model shows a 35% decrease of the stroke incidence rate for a period of 20 years. Prevalence rates for major stroke will decline among the younger age groups but increase among the oldest because of increased survival in the latter. In absolute numbers this results in an 18% decrease of acute stroke episodes and an 11% increase of major stroke cases. The increase in survival cannot fully explain the observed mortality decline and, therefore, a concomitant incidence decline has to be assumed. Aging of the population partially outweighs the effect of an incidence decline on the total burden of stroke. Increase in cardiovascular survival leads to a further increase in major stroke prevalence among the oldest age groups.

  19. Neuraxial anesthesia improves long-term survival after total joint replacement: a retrospective nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Chuan; Tan, Ping-Heng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-04-01

    This study explored the effects of general (GA) and neuraxial (NA) anesthesia on the outcomes of primary total joint replacement (TJR) in terms of postoperative mortality, length of stay (LOS), and hospital treatment costs. From 1997 to 2010, this nationwide population-based study retrospectively evaluated 7,977 patients in Taiwan who underwent primary total hip or knee replacement. We generated two propensity-score-matched subgroups, each containing an equal number of patients who underwent TJR with either GA or NA. Of the 7,977 patients, 2,990 (37.5%) underwent GA and 4,987 (62.5%) underwent NA. Propensity-score matching was used to create comparable GA and NA groups adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, surgery type, hospital volume, and surgeon volume. Survival over the first three years following surgery was similar. The proportion of patients alive up to 14 years postoperatively for those undergoing NA was 58.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50.4 to 66.0), and for those undergoing GA it was 57.3% (95% CI 51.4 to 63.2). Neuraxial anesthesia was associated with lower median [interquartile range; IQR] hospital treatment cost ($4,079 [3,805-4,444] vs $4,113 [3,812-4,568]; P anesthesia costs are removed. The mechanism underlying the association between NA and long-term survival is unknown.

  20. Mental Health Services Use Predicted by Number of Mental Health Problems and Gender in a Total Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Posserud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7–9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH, school psychology services (SPS, health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services.

  1. Trans-generational effects on ageing in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Charmantier, A.; Verhulst, S.; Sheldon, B. C.

    Ageing, long thought to be too infrequent to study effectively in natural populations, has recently been shown to be ubiquitous, even in the wild. A major challenge now is to explain variation in the rates of ageing within populations. Here, using 49 years of data from a population of great tits

  2. Age prediction formulae from radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation at the knee in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    Age estimation in living subjects is primarily achieved through assessment of a hand-wrist radiograph and comparison with a standard reference atlas. Recently, maturation of other regions of the skeleton has also been assessed in an attempt to refine the age estimates. The current study presents a method to predict bone age directly from the knee in a modern Irish sample. Ten maturity indicators (A-J) at the knee were examined from radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females). Each indicator was assigned a maturity score. Scores for indicators A-G, H-J and A-J, respectively, were totalled to provide a cumulative maturity score for change in morphology of the epiphyses (AG), epiphyseal union (HJ) and the combination of both (AJ). Linear regression equations to predict age from the maturity scores (AG, HJ, AJ) were constructed for males and females. For males, equation-AJ demonstrated the greatest predictive capability (R(2)=0.775) while for females equation-HJ had the strongest capacity for prediction (R(2)=0.815). When equation-AJ for males and equation-HJ for females were applied to the current sample, the predicted age of 90% of subjects was within ±1.5 years of actual age for male subjects and within +2.0 to -1.9 years of actual age for female subjects. The regression formulae and associated charts represent the most contemporary method of age prediction currently available for an Irish population, and provide a further technique which can contribute to a multifactorial approach to age estimation in non-adults.

  3. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  4. Decrease of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia: Chance to increase anticipated life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level and structure of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia with an aim to determine the intensity of realized changes and to provide an answer to how much they are significant and to approach the positive trends noted in developed countries in the latest period. Although it was insufficiently represented in the demographic analysis, the analysis of mortality in old people is gaining importance in the world. Apart from the reasons which result from the increase in the number of old people and thus their greater participation in the total number of deceased, enviable results have been achieved in decreasing old age mortality, which are more and more in focus of interest. While earlier research reported on the dominant influence of the decrease of younger age mortality to the increase of the expectation of life at birth, recent analysis precisely confirm the importance of decreasing mortality in old people. In mortality conditions from 1997/98, an additional 13.4 years of life in average is expected for men in Yugoslavia, and 15.2 for women. During more than five decades, the anticipated life expectancy for people over the age of 65 increased for only 1.2 years for men and 1.9 years for women. Out of that, the greatest increase was realized in the period 1950/51 - 1960/61 in both sexes. A small decrease in the average life expectancy was marked with men in the period 1960/61 - 1970/71, and with women in the latest period. Otherwise, all up to the eighties, the annual rate of increase was considerably lower than the rate of increase for zero year. It was only in the period 1980/81-1990/91 that faster growth had an anticipated life expectancy for the 65 years old. However, during the nineties unfavorable changes continued with the older, especially, female population. When comparing the values of the average life expectancy for people over 65 in Yugoslavia with corresponding values in developed countries, the lagging in

  5. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  6. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  7. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  8. Changes in the Total Fecal Bacterial Population in Individual Horses Maintained on a Restricted Diet Over 6 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Dougal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve mature (aged 5–16 years horses and ponies of mixed breed and type were fed restricted (1.25% BM Dry matter quantities of one of two fiber based diets formulated to be iso-caloric. Diet 1 comprised of 0.8% body mass (BM of chaff based complete feed plus 0.45% BM low energy grass hay (the same hay used for both diets. Diet 2 comprised 0.1% BM of a nutrient balancer plus 1.15% BM grass hay. Fecal samples were collected at week 10 and week 16. DNA was extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the bacterial microbiome of the horse. The two most abundant phyla found in both diets and sampling periods were the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. There was a clear reduction in Bacteroidetes with a concordant increase in Firmicutes over time. There was a limited degree of stability within the bacterial community of the hindgut of horses, with 65% of bacteria retained, over a 6 week period whilst on a uniform diet. The presence of a core community defined by being present in all samples (each animal/diet combination included in the study and being present at 0.1% relative abundance (or greater was identified. In total 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified that fit the definition of core making up 21–28% of the total sequences recovered. As with total population the most abundant phyla were the Bacteroidetes followed by the Firmicutes, however there was no obvious shift in phyla due to period. Indeed, when the relative abundance of OTUs was examined across diets and periods there was no significant effect of diet or period alone or in combination on the relative abundance of the core OTUs.

  9. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  10. Population aging in the state of Parana and impact of pensions and retirements in income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Diane Nakatani-Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the aging process of the population of Paraná municipalities and its consequences in participation of pensions in total income. Were used the Census database obtained from IPARDES 1980, 1991, 2000 and 2010, in 399 municipalities of Paraná. PNAD (National Research of Household Samples, from years 1988 to 2012, database were used to measure the evolution of rent share due by pensions and annuities, through the decomposition of the Gini index methodology. We concluded that within 30 years the share of elderly in the population increased over three times, on average, for the localities of the state, going from 3.81% in 1980 to 12.83% in 2010 and there is a higher concentration of elderly in the municipalities located further north of the state. Income from pensions and retirements expanded their shares over total income by 125%; in 1988 presented a share of 7.5% over total income, increasing to 15.9% in 2012.

  11. [Comparison of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive and hypertensive population of various age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wu, S L; Li, H Y; Zhao, Q H; Ning, C H; Zhang, R Y; Yu, J X; Li, W; Chen, S H; Gao, J S

    2018-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the impact of blood pressure and age on arterial stiffness in general population. Methods: Participants who took part in 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan health examination were included. Data of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) examination were analyzed. According to the WHO criteria of age, participants were divided into 3 age groups: 18-44 years group ( n= 11 608), 45-59 years group ( n= 12 757), above 60 years group ( n= 5 002). Participants were further divided into hypertension group and non-hypertension group according to the diagnostic criteria for hypertension (2010 Chinese guidelines for the managemengt of hypertension). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) with baPWV in the total participants and then stratified by age groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence of blood pressure on arterial stiffness (baPWV≥1 400 cm/s) of various groups. Results: (1)The baseline characteristics of all participants: 35 350 participants completed 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan examinations and took part in baPWV examination. 2 237 participants without blood pressure measurement values were excluded, 1 569 participants with history of peripheral artery disease were excluded, we also excluded 1 016 participants with history of cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. Data from 29 367 participants were analyzed. The age was (48.0±12.4) years old, 21 305 were males (72.5%). (2) Distribution of baPWV in various age groups: baPWV increased with aging. In non-hypertension population, baPWV in 18-44 years group, 45-59 years group, above 60 years group were as follows: 1 299.3, 1 428.7 and 1 704.6 cm/s, respectively. For hypertension participants, the respective values of baPWV were: 1 498.4, 1 640.7 and 1 921.4 cm/s. BaPWV was significantly higher in hypertension group than non-hypertension group of respective age groups ( Page groups ( t -value

  12. Allogeneic blood transfusion and prognosis following total hip replacement: a population-based follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overgaard Soren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR. However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. Methods A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. Results Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3% received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared with matched non-transfused patients: the adjusted OR was 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.2-3.8. Blood transfusion was also associated with increased odds of pneumonia (OR 2.1; CI: 1.2-3.8, whereas the associations with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (OR 1.4; CI: 0.9-2.2 and venous thromboembolism (OR 1.2; CI: 0.7-2.1 did not reach statistical significance. The adjusted OR of reoperation due to infection was 0.6 (CI: 0.1-2.9. Conclusions Red blood cell transfusion was associated with an adverse prognosis following primary THR, in particular with increased odds of death and pneumonia. Although the odds estimates may partly reflect unmeasured bias due to blood loss, they indicate the need for careful assessment of the risk versus benefit of transfusion even in relation to routine THR procedures.

  13. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  14. Enhanced mobility for aging populations using automated vehicles : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that aging adults have travel needs that can be inadequately addressed by todays : transportation system. Automated vehicles (AVs), ranging from assistive technologies to full : automation, may offer a safe and efficient transportatio...

  15. An agent-based computational model for tuberculosis spreading on age-structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciani Rodrigues, C. C.; Espíndola, Aquino L.; Penna, T. J. P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present an agent-based computational model to study the spreading of the tuberculosis (TB) disease on age-structured populations. The model proposed is a merge of two previous models: an agent-based computational model for the spreading of tuberculosis and a bit-string model for biological aging. The combination of TB with the population aging, reproduces the coexistence of health states, as seen in real populations. In addition, the universal exponential behavior of mortalities curves is still preserved. Finally, the population distribution as function of age shows the prevalence of TB mostly in elders, for high efficacy treatments.

  16. Outsourcing Memory in Response to an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael; Schryer, Emily

    2015-11-01

    With baby boomers entering old age and longevity increasing, policymakers have focused on the physical, social, and health needs of older persons. We urge policymakers to consider cognitive aging as well, particularly normal, age-related memory decline. Psychological scientists attribute memory decline mainly to cognitive overload stemming from age-related reductions in sensory capacities, speed of cognitive processing, and the ability to filter out irrelevant information. Even in the absence of decline, however, memory is imperfect and forgetting can be especially consequential for older adults. For example, forgetting to take prescription medicines is an age-related problem largely because older adults tend to ingest many more prescription drugs. We propose that policymakers focus on increasing environmental support for memory that can reduce the burden on cognitive resources and thus improve recall. In providing environmental support, policymakers need to pay careful attention to potential age-related changes in physical and cognitive capacity, as well as behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Bilingualism provides a neural reserve for aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Guidi, Lucia; Borsa, Virginia; Canini, Matteo; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Parris, Ben A; Weekes, Brendan S

    2015-03-01

    It has been postulated that bilingualism may act as a cognitive reserve and recent behavioral evidence shows that bilinguals are diagnosed with dementia about 4-5 years later compared to monolinguals. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of these putative protective effects in a group of aging bilinguals as compared to a matched monolingual control group. For this purpose, participants completed the Erikson Flanker task and their performance was correlated to gray matter (GM) volume in order to investigate if cognitive performance predicts GM volume specifically in areas affected by aging. We performed an ex-Gaussian analysis on the resulting RTs and report that aging bilinguals performed better than aging monolinguals on the Flanker task. Bilingualism was overall associated with increased GM in the ACC. Likewise, aging induced effects upon performance correlated only for monolinguals to decreased gray matter in the DLPFC. Taken together, these neural regions might underlie the benefits of bilingualism and act as a neural reserve that protects against the cognitive decline that occurs during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infection-related and -unrelated malignancies, HIV and the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L; Borges, Áh; Ledergerber, B; Domingo, P; Castagna, A; Rockstroh, J; Knysz, B; Tomazic, J; Karpov, I; Kirk, O; Lundgren, J; Mocroft, A

    2016-09-01

    HIV-positive people have increased risk of infection-related malignancies (IRMs) and infection-unrelated malignancies (IURMs). The aim of the study was to determine the impact of aging on future IRM and IURM incidence. People enrolled in EuroSIDA and followed from the latest of the first visit or 1 January 2001 until the last visit or death were included in the study. Poisson regression was used to investigate the impact of aging on the incidence of IRMs and IURMs, adjusting for demographic, clinical and laboratory confounders. Linear exponential smoothing models forecasted future incidence. A total of 15 648 people contributed 95 033 person-years of follow-up, of whom 610 developed 643 malignancies [IRMs: 388 (60%); IURMs: 255 (40%)]. After adjustment, a higher IRM incidence was associated with a lower CD4 count [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) CD4 count IRMs. The incidences of both IURMs and IRMs increased with older age. It was projected that the incidence of IRMs would decrease by 29% over a 5-year period from 3.1 (95% CI 1.5-5.9) per 1000 person-years in 2011, whereas the IURM incidence would increase by 44% from 4.1 (95% CI 2.2-7.2) per 1000 person-years over the same period. Demographic and HIV-related risk factors for IURMs (aging and smoking) and IRMs (immunodeficiency and ongoing viral replication) differ markedly and the contribution from IURMs relative to IRMs will continue to increase as a result of aging of the HIV-infected population, high smoking and lung cancer prevalence and a low prevalence of untreated HIV infection. These findings suggest the need for targeted preventive measures and evaluation of the cost-benefit of screening for IURMs in HIV-infected populations. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  19. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine W Chong

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49. Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02. The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured

  20. Population Aging and the Generational Economy: A Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 oct. 2011 ... The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a must read for the next decade. David Bloom, Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

  1. Disaster resilience and population ageing: the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haili; Maki, Norio; Hayashi, Haruo

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating the effects of population ageing on disaster resilience. In so doing, it focuses on the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes, two major disasters that affected Japan before the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. It analyses regional population recovery on the basis of pre-disaster and post-recovery demographic characteristics using defined transition patterns of population ageing. The evaluation framework demonstrates that various recovery measures make different contributions to disaster resilience for each transition pattern of population ageing. With reference to regional population ageing, the framework allows for a prediction of disaster resilience, facilitating place vulnerability assessments and potentially informing policy-making strategies for Japan and other countries with ageing populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  2. Mini-percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Under Total Ultrasonography in Patients Aged Less Than 3 Years: A Single-center Initial Experience from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis in pediatric population is a serious problem with the incidence increased these years. In the management of larger stones (diameters >2 cm, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is considered to be the gold standard. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of mini-PCNL under total ultrasonography in patients aged 38.5°C in five patients and reactive pleural effusion in one patient. Blood loss requiring transfusion, sepsis, adjacent organ injury, and kidney loss were not observed. Conclusions: This study indicated that ultrasound-guided mini-PCNL is feasible and safe in patients aged <3 years, without major complications or radiation exposure.

  3. Fertility, Mortality and Age Composition Effects of Population Transition in China and India: 1950-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Chaurasia, Aalok Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    "This paper compares the population transition in China and India during 1950-2015 by decomposing population growth into the growth attributed to the changes in fertility and mortality (intrinsic growth), and the growth attributed to the change in population age composition (momentum growth). The analysis reveals similarities and differences in the population transition path followed by the two countries and suggests that India lags behind China by about 30 years in terms of population transi...

  4. Age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution in Japanese adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masako; Oka, Rie; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Moriuchi, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Early studies have indicated that body fat shifts from peripheral stores to central stores with aging. The objective of this study was to investigate age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution of Japanese men and women of the general population over a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). A total of 2,220 non-diabetic, apparently healthy Japanese adults (1,240 men and 980 women; age range 40-69 years) were included in the study sample. All subjects underwent a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus, and the areas of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and subcutaneous AT were quantified. When the subjects were stratified by BMI into 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2), and 27.5 kg/m(2) or higher, visceral AT was positively correlated with age in all of the BMI strata in both genders (pabdominal fat distribution, women retained the subcutaneous-dominant type of fat distribution up to 70 years.

  5. Modifiable Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the Population Aged 20-49 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Valladares Mas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: evidence provided by the Framingham Heart Study established the critical role of risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. Over half a century later, current detection and control are still inadequate. Objective: to identify modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease in individuals aged 20 to 49 years. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 276 individuals from the doctor’s office No. 1 of the Fabio di Celmo Community Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos. Patients were examined in the clinic visit and/or whole family visit. The studied variables included age, sex, skin color, risk factors (excess weight/obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial factors, which were obtained from the medical interview, physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol and triglycerides and review of individual medical records and family history. Results: risk factors most frequently identified were excess weight/obesity (42.4 %, physical inactivity (34.4 % and smoking (20.3 %. Presence of these risk factors increased with age, showing differences in the distribution by sex and was associated with psychosocial factors. Their coexistence and progress with age was significant. Conclusion: prevalence of modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease in a young population was high, with frequent association, predominating factors related to unhealthy lifestyles.

  6. [Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin

    2013-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (Parthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.

  7. Relative risks for stroke by age, sex, and population based on follow-up of 18 European populations in the MORGAM Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Kjell; Karvanen, Juha; Giampaoli, Simona

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Within the framework of the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) Project, the variations in impact of classical risk factors of stroke by population, sex, and age were analyzed. METHODS: Follow-up data were collected in 43 cohorts in 18 populations in 8...... European countries surveyed for cardiovascular risk factors. In 93 695 persons aged 19 to 77 years and free of major cardiovascular disease at baseline, total observation years were 1 234 252 and the number of stroke events analyzed was 3142. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox regression analyses....... RESULTS: Each year of age increased the risk of stroke (fatal and nonfatal together) by 9% (95% CI, 9% to 10%) in men and by 10% (9% to 10%) in women. A 10-mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure involved a similar increase in risk in men (28%; 24% to 32%) and women (25%; 20% to 29%). Smoking conferred...

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards total knee arthroplasty among the public in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Alshammari, Faris O; Aljuraisi, Abdulrahman M; Bin Amer, Lujain A; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S

    2018-04-01

    Studies on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Saudi Arabia are scarce, and none have reported the knowledge and attitude of the procedure in Saudi Arabia. Our study aims to measure the knowledge and attitude of TKA among the adult Saudi population. To encompass a representative sample of this cross-sectional survey, all 13 administrative areas were used as ready-made geographical clusters. For each cluster, stratified random sampling was performed to maximize participation in the study. In each area, random samples of mobile phone numbers were selected with a probability proportional to the administrative area population size. Sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 50% of the participants would have some level of knowledge, with a 2% margin of error and 95% confidence level. To reach our intended sample size of 1540, we contacted 1722 participants with a response rate of 89.4%. The expected percentage of public knowledge was 50%; however, the actual percentage revealed by this study was much lower (29.7%). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to assess the factors that positively affected the knowledge score regarding TKA. Age [P = 0.016 with OR of 0.47], higher income [P = 0.001 with OR of 0.52] and participants with a positive history of TKA or that have known someone who underwent the surgery [P Saudi Arabia concerning TKA, its indications and results. We recommend that doctors use the results of our survey to assess their conversations with their patients, and to determine whether the results of the procedure are adequately clarified.

  9. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population – the role of snus, gender, age, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Norberg

    2011-06-01

    use from baseline until follow-up and this was mainly due to a smoking cessation rate of < 1% a year. Snus use was started by 6.2% of the 30-year-old women (age at baseline, and this contributed to a stable prevalence of total tobacco use in this group. Seventy percent of baseline snus users still used snus at follow-up. Among smokers, 55% continued smoking, 12% of men and 7% of women switched to snus. Among those with dual tobacco use at baseline, a third of men and a fourth of women remained dual users 10 years later. Conclusion : There are increasing differences in tobacco use between educational groups. Higher smoking and snus use prevalence are found among those with basic education, and this is most pronounced in the younger group of this middle-aged population. In spite of a higher prevalence of smoking without snus use among women, total smoking prevalence is similar in men and women due to a higher prevalence of dual tobacco use, i.e. snus and cigarettes, among men. The increase in snus use is being paralleled by a slight increase in dual use and the smoking prevalence does not seem to be influenced by snus. This should be the subject of further studies and also have implications for tobacco control policies.

  10. Age-Specific Bacteriological Profile of Pediatric Septicemia; A Population- Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Shahin Eftekhari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Septicemia is a life-threatening condition particularly among pediatric population. Early initiating a proper empiric antimicrobial treatment prior to definite isolation of the pathogen through blood culture has pivotal role in reducing further mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological properties of a distinct Iranian population by patients’ age and gender throughout the year. Materials and Methods As a retrospective study between March 2013 and March 2017, all consecutive patients referred to the Hazrat Masumeh hospital of Qom-Iran with suspicious of septicemia were reviewed. Patients with prior history of antibiotic consumption as well as patients over 6 years of age were excluded; incomplete hospital records were also excluded from further evaluations. Prespecified data-extraction forms were used to collect data including characteristics of patients and the results of antibiogram. Results Total of 378 patients were enrolled in this study and 200 of them were boys (52.91%. Escherichia coli (11.6% and Klebsiella (9.5% were the most common isolated pathogens (Gram-negative after coagulase-negatives. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter (Gram-negative, and Staph. Aureus (Gram-positive were the most common pathogens among age group of 0-1 year. Winter had the greatest outbreak of bacteremia (29.1% and the autumn had the least incidence (21.4%. The least and the most antimicrobial resistance were associated with Imipenem (1.8% and Ampicillin (78.78%, respectively. Conclusion Escherichia coliand Klebsiella were the most common isolated bacteria in patients suspected to bacteremia in our region. Imipenem and Ampicillin had the least and the most antimicrobial resistance in our population, respectively.

  11. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  12. Population spherical aberration: associations with ametropia, age, corneal curvature, and image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston AC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Amanda C Kingston,1,2 Ian G Cox11Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: The aim of this analysis was to determine the total ocular wavefront aberration values of a large phakic population of physiologically normal, ametropic eyes, gathered under the same clinical protocol using the same diagnostic wavefront sensor.Materials and methods: Studies were conducted at multiple sites in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia. A Bausch + Lomb Zywave II Wavefront Aberrometer (Rochester, NY, USA was used to measure the lower and higher order aberrations of each eye. Data analysis was conducted using linear regression analysis to determine the relationship between total spherical aberration, ametropia, age, corneal curvature, and image quality.Results: Linear regression analysis showed no correlation (r = 0.0207, P = 0.4874 between degree of ametropia and the amount of spherical aberration. There was also no correlation when the population was stratified into myopic and hyperopic refractive groups (rm = 0.0529, Pm = 0.0804 and rh = 0.1572, Ph = 0.2754. There was a statistically significant and weak positive correlation (r = 0.1962, P < 0.001 between age and the amount of spherical aberration measured in the eye; spherical aberration became more positive with increasing age. Also, there was a statistically significant and moderately positive correlation (r = 0.3611, P < 0.001 with steepness of corneal curvature; spherical aberration became more positive with increasing power of the anterior corneal surface. Assessment of image quality using optical design software (Zemax™, Bellevue, WA, USA showed that there was an overall benefit in correcting the average spherical aberration of this population.Conclusion: Analysis of this dataset provides insights into the inherent spherical aberration of a typical phakic, pre-presbyopic, population and provides the ability to

  13. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Manniesing, Rashindra; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Duijts, Liesbeth; Durmuş, Büşra; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-07-01

    Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 6464 children. We measured growth characteristics in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, at birth, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Body mass index, fat mass index (body fat mass/height(2)), lean mass index (body lean mass/height(2)), android/gynoid fat ratio measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and sc and preperitoneal abdominal fat measured by ultrasound at the median age of 6.0 years (90% range, 5.7-7.4). We observed that weight gain in the second and third trimesters of fetal life and in early, mid, and late infancy were independently and positively associated with childhood body mass index (P fat mass index, android/gynoid fat ratio, and abdominal fat in childhood (P Children with both fetal and infant growth acceleration had the highest childhood body mass index, fat mass index, and sc abdominal fat, whereas children with fetal growth deceleration and infant growth acceleration had the highest value for android/gynoid fat ratio and the lowest value for lean mass index (P fat. Fetal growth deceleration followed by infant growth acceleration may lead to an adverse body fat distribution in childhood.

  14. Population ageing and pension reform in a small open economy with non-traded goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, Leon J. H.; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the implications of population ageing in an economy with a sizeable non-traded goods sector. To this effect a highly stylized micro-founded macro model is constructed in which the age structure of the population plays a non-trivial role. The model distinguishes separate birth

  15. Population Ageing and Pension Reform in a Small Open Economy with Non-Traded Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study the implications of population ageing in an economy with a sizeable non-traded goods sector. To this effect a highly stylized micro-founded macro model is constructed in which the age structure of the population plays a non-trivial role. The model distinguishes

  16. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -11 compared to 4.6 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. (author)

  17. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. ...

  19. Circulating Total Bilirubin and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of circulating total bilirubin and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a new prospective study and to determine whether adding information on total bilirubin values to established cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of CVD

  20. Pregnancy weight gain by gestational age and stillbirth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Hutcheon, J A; Bodnar, L M; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-11-21

    To study the association between total and early pregnancy (gain and risk of stillbirth, stratified by early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Population-based cohort study. Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden. Pregnant women with singleton births (n = 160 560). Pregnancy weight gain was standardised into gestational age-specific z-scores. For analyses of total pregnancy weight gain, a matched design with an incidence density sampling approach was used. Findings were also contrasted with current Institute of Medicine (IOM) weight gain recommendations. Stillbirth defined as fetal death at ≥22 completed weeks of gestation. For all BMI categories, there was no statistical association between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of a weight gain z-score of -2.0 SD to +2.0 SD. Among normal-weight women, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth for lower (-2.0 to -1.0 SD) and higher (+1.0 to +1.9 SD) total weight gain was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.48-1.49) and 1.03 (0.60-1.77), respectively, as compared with the reference category. Further, there were no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of weight gain currently recommended by the IOM. For the majority of the BMI categories, the point estimates at the extremes of weight gain values (gain and increased risks of high weight gain, but estimates were imprecise and not statistically significant. We found no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth across the range of weight gain experienced by most women. There was no association between weight gain during pregnancy and stillbirth among most women. © 2017 Karolinska Institutet. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. A Predictive Model for Acute Admission in Aged Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Nøhr, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Acute hospital admission among the elderly population is very common and have a high impact on the health services and the community, as well as on the individuals. Several studies have focused on the possible risk factors, however, predicting who is at risk for acute hospitalization associated...... with disease and symptoms is still an open research question. In this study, we investigate the use of machine learning algorithms for predicting acute admission in older people based on admission data from individual citizens 70 years and older who were hospitalized in the acute medical unit of Svendborg...

  2. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  3. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (Pgroup. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more likely to observe a diverse range of adverse events (Page group (older

  4. Ageing of a giant: a stochastic population forecast for China, 2006-2060

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Reuser, M.; Kraus, C.; Alho, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic population forecast for China with a special emphasis on population ageing. The so-called scaled model for error was used to quantify the uncertainty attached to the population predictions. Data scarcity was a major problem in the specification of the expected error

  5. Vaslui county in the national context: evolution and effects of mobility of the working age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Florina MUNTEANU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper shows the transition from internal to external migration and places Vaslui County into a spatial and time frame from the perspective of population mobility. Moreover, the consequences of the downgrading of internal migration by international migration are subject to the evolution of demographical and social indicators on which there are reflected: birth rate, general fertility, the rate of population growth, the index of demographical aging, because the involvement of the young population and young adult population in international migration led to a numerical decrease of the population with ages between 0-14, from 23,7% in 1990 to 15,0% in 2012, the increase of the majority of the old age population, of 65 years old and more, from 10,3% in 1990 to 15,0% in 2012 and of adult the population, 15-64 years old, from 66% in 1990 to 70% in 2012, according to National Institute of Statistics.

  6. Determinants of health and disability in ageing population: the COURAGE in Europe Project (collaborative research on ageing in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Chatterji, Somnath; Koskinen, Seppo; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni; Frattura, Lucilla; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gmurek, Michal; Serrano, Ramon; Finocchiaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    COURAGE in Europe was a 3-year project involving 12 partners from four European countries and the World Health Organization. It was inspired by the pressing need to integrate international studies on disability and ageing in light of an innovative perspective based on a validated data-collection protocol. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of the built environment and social networks on health, disability, quality of life and well-being. The main survey was conducted by partners in Finland, Poland and Spain where the survey has been administered to a sample of 10,800 persons, which was completed in March 2012. The newly developed and validated COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in ageing population, and the COURAGE in Europe Project has created valid and reliable scientific evidence, demonstrating cross-country comparability, for disability and ageing research and policy development. It is therefore recommended that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use the COURAGE-derived methodology. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of built environment and social networks on health, disability quality of life and well-being. The COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in the ageing population. The COURAGE in Europe Consortium recommends that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use COURAGE-derived methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Gut bifidobacteria populations in human health and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arboleya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from the childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum are generally dominant in infants whereas Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more dominant in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effect of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria can be associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria composition changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence in commonly known disease states.

  8. Transferrin saturation ratio and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality in the general population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, A G

    2014-08-01

    The transferrin saturation (TSAT) ratio is a commonly used indicator of iron deficiency and iron overload in clinical practice but precise relationships with total and cardiovascular mortality are unclear.

  9. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  10. Population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Pintor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of demographic transition began with an effort of Frank Notestein (1945 to understand the demographic changes that were occurring in Western Europe since the late nineteenth century. The demographic transition is the transition between two scenarios of population growth, which changes the age structure of the population. The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010. The changes in the age structure of the Paraná indicate a reduction in the share of young population and increasing aging population, an increase in the relative weight of the elderly population. Public policies on education, health, social security and labor market should consider the current change in the age structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the change in the age structure of the population of the state of Paraná. For this we used data Censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE on the age distribution of urban and rural Paraná and its Mesoregions. It was concluded that the change in structure occurs group widespread in all Mesoregions state. However, it occurs unevenly between urban and rural population.

  11. Demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin: grandparent boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Mrđen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin by using basic demographic indicators based on data collected from population censuses from 1971 to 2011. It analyses spatial differentiation of the ageing process at the level of the County, micro-regions, towns/municipalities and settlements. The research also provides a comparison of population ageing in different counties of the Republic of Croatia, from which it is evident that the County of Šibenik-Knin, as well as the Country of Lika-Senj, has the oldest population in Croatia. Ageing in the County of Šibenik-Knin, which was triggered by extreme rural exodus that was most intensive from the end of 1960s to the early 1970s, as well as by continuous declining fertility rates and by inherited age composition, was recorded at all territorial levels of the County. Although the ageing process started in littoral area (Primorje, hinterland (Zagora experienced a faster and more intensive ageing. Based on numerous indicators of demographic ageing and its intensity, and compared with the point value indicators of ageing, it is evident that the population of the County of Šibenik-Knin is characterized by advanced old age. However, more than half of the observed settlements are characterized by very advanced or extremely advanced old age.

  12. Habitual physical activity and vascular aging in a young to middle-age population at low cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo; Mhamdi, Leila

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regular endurance exercise has been shown to reduce the age-related increase in arterial stiffness that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and habitual physical activity on carotid artery wall thickness...... physical activity was negatively related to indices of carotid stiffness (r from -0.20 to -0.25, Page...... and physical activity were independently related to carotid stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides cross-sectional evidence that habitual physical activity is inversely related to the age-dependent increase in carotid wall stiffness in a young to middle-age population at low risk...

  13. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  14. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-09-29

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  15. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Creel

    Full Text Available Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  16. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  17. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Sun, D M; Wu, D H; Li, T M; Liu, X Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (Pbilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (Pbilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863-0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels.

  18. Estimation of age structure of fish populations from length-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.D.; Adams, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    A probability model is presented to determine the age structure of a fish population from length-frequency data. It is shown that when the age-length key is available, maximum-likelihood estimates of the age structure can be obtained. When the key is not available, approximate estimates of the age structure can be obtained. The model is used for determination of the age structure of populations of channel catfish and white crappie. Practical applications of the model to impact assessment are discussed

  19. Optimal fetal growth for the Caucasian singleton and assessment of appropriateness of fetal growth: an analysis of a total population perinatal database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appropriateness of an individual's intra uterine growth is now considered an important determinant of both short and long term outcomes, yet currently used measures have several shortcomings. This study demonstrates a method of assessing appropriateness of intrauterine growth based on the estimation of each individual's optimal newborn dimensions from routinely available perinatal data. Appropriateness of growth can then be inferred from the ratio of the value of the observed dimension to that of the optimal dimension. Methods Fractional polynomial regression models including terms for non-pathological determinants of fetal size (gestational duration, fetal gender and maternal height, age and parity were used to predict birth weight, birth length and head circumference from a population without any major risk factors for sub-optimal intra-uterine growth. This population was selected from a total population of all singleton, Caucasian births in Western Australia 1998–2002. Births were excluded if the pregnancy was exposed to factors known to influence fetal growth pathologically. The values predicted by these models were treated as the optimal values, given infant gender, gestational age, maternal height, parity, and age. Results The selected sample (N = 62,746 comprised 60.5% of the total Caucasian singleton birth cohort. Equations are presented that predict optimal birth weight, birth length and head circumference given gestational duration, fetal gender, maternal height, age and parity. The best fitting models explained 40.5% of variance for birth weight, 32.2% for birth length, and 25.2% for head circumference at birth. Conclusion Proportion of optimal birth weight (length or head circumference provides a method of assessing appropriateness of intrauterine growth that is less dependent on the health of the reference population or the quality of their morphometric data than is percentile position on a birth weight

  20. Do health care workforce, population, and service provision significantly contribute to the total health expenditure? An econometric analysis of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, M; Vasic, V; Terzic-Supic, Z

    2016-08-15

    In times of austerity, the availability of econometric health knowledge assists policy-makers in understanding and balancing health expenditure with health care plans within fiscal constraints. The objective of this study is to explore whether the health workforce supply of the public health care sector, population number, and utilization of inpatient care significantly contribute to total health expenditure. The dependent variable is the total health expenditure (THE) in Serbia from the years 2003 to 2011. The independent variables are the number of health workers employed in the public health care sector, population number, and inpatient care discharges per 100 population. The statistical analyses include the quadratic interpolation method, natural logarithm and differentiation, and multiple linear regression analyses. The level of significance is set at P Total health expenditure increased by 1.21 standard deviations, with an increase in health workforce growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Furthermore, this rate decreased by 1.12 standard deviations, with an increase in (negative) population growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Finally, the growth rate increased by 0.38 standard deviation, with an increase of the growth rate of inpatient care discharges per 100 population by 1 standard deviation (P < 0.001). Study results demonstrate that the government has been making an effort to control strongly health budget growth. Exploring causality relationships between health expenditure and health workforce is important for countries that are trying to consolidate their public health finances and achieve universal health coverage at the same time.

  1. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  2. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population: the role of snus, gender, age, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria; Gilljam, Hans; Weinehall, Lars

    2011-01-01

    cessation rate ofeducational groups. Higher smoking and snus use prevalence are found among those with basic education, and this is most pronounced in the younger group of this middle-aged population. In spite of a higher prevalence of smoking without snus use among women, total smoking prevalence is similar in men and women due to a higher prevalence of dual tobacco use, i.e. snus and cigarettes, among men. The increase in snus use is being paralleled by a slight increase in dual use and the smoking prevalence does not seem to be influenced by snus. This should be the subject of further studies and also have implications for tobacco control policies.

  3. The impact of repeated marathon running on cardiovascular function in the aging population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstedt Erin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial. Objectives To assess the extent and severity of cardiac dysfunction after the completion of full marathon running in individuals greater than 50 years of age using cardiac biomarkers, TTE, cardiac computed tomography (CCT, and CMR. Methods A total of 25 healthy volunteers (21 males, 55 ± 4 years old from the 2010 and 2011 Manitoba Full Marathons (26.2 miles were included in the study. Cardiac biomarkers and TTE were performed one week prior to the marathon, immediately after completing the race and at one-week follow-up. CMR was performed at baseline and within 24 hours of completion of the marathon, followed by CCT within 3 months of the marathon. Results All participants demonstrated an elevated cTnT post marathon. Right atrial and ventricular volumes increased, while RV systolic function decreased significantly immediately post marathon, returning to baseline values one week later. Of the entire study population, only two individuals demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement of the subendocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, with evidence of stenosis of the left anterior descending artery on CCT. Conclusions Marathon running in individuals over the age of 50 is associated with a transient, yet reversible increase in cardiac biomarkers and RV systolic dysfunction. The presence of myocardial fibrosis in older marathon athletes is infrequent, but when present, may be due to underlying occult coronary artery disease.

  4. Effect of age and gender on lipid profile in healthy rural population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are contradicting information on the influence of age and gender on blood lipid profile, some researchers believe the levels of total cholesterol and other components of lipid profile increase with age, others have proved significant negative correlation between total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ...

  5. Should total landings be used to correct estimated catch in numbers or mean-weight-at-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Many ICES fish stock assessment working groups have practised Sum Of Products, SOP, correction. This correction stems from a comparison of total weights of the known landings and the SOP over age of catch in number and mean weight-at-age, which ideally should be identical. In case of SOP...... discrepancies some countries correct catch in numbers while others correct mean weight-at-age by a common factor, the ratio between landing and SOP. The paper shows that for three sampling schemes the SOP corrections are statistically incorrect and should not be made since the SOP is an unbiased estimate...... of the total landings. Calculation of the bias of estimated catch in numbers and mean weight-at-age shows that SOP corrections of either of these estimates may increase the bias. Furthermore, for five demersal and one pelagic North Sea species it is shown that SOP discrepancies greater than 2% from...

  6. Precision and accuracy of commonly used dental age estimation charts for the New Zealand population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Stephanie; Bassed, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Little research has been undertaken for the New Zealand population in the field of dental age estimation. This research to date indicates there are differences in dental developmental rates between the New Zealand population and other global population groups, and within the New Zealand population itself. Dental age estimation methods range from dental development charts to complex biometric analysis. Dental development charts are not the most accurate method of dental age estimation, but are time saving in their use. They are an excellent screening tool, particularly for post-mortem identification purposes, and for assessing variation from population norms in living individuals. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of three dental development charts (Schour and Massler, Blenkin and Taylor, and the London Atlas), used to estimate dental age of a sample of New Zealand juveniles between the ages of 5 and 18 years old (n=875). Percentage 'best fit' to correct age category and to expected chart stage were calculated to determine which chart was the most precise for the sample. Chronological ages were compared to estimated dental ages using a two-tailed paired t-test (Pcharts tested against the New Zealand population sample, the Blenkin and Taylor Australian charts performed best overall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing tot...

  8. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  9. Longitudinal Relationships Between Positive Affect, Loneliness, and Suicide Ideation: Age-Specific Factors in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennardi, Marco; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Lara, Elvira; Arensman, Ella; Cabello, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The aims of this study were to analyze whether positive and negative affect, social support, and loneliness are factors longitudinally related to suicide ideation in the general population in different age groups. A total of 2,392 individuals from a nationally representative sample of the Spanish general population were evaluated in 2011-2012 and in 2014-2015. After including relevant control variables in the analyses, lower positive affect was prospectively related to ideation in 18- to 59-year-old individuals, whereas feelings of loneliness were related to ideation in 60-year-and-older individuals. Social support was not associated with suicide ideation in any age group. These results are in line with the need for age-tailored suicide prevention programs. The present findings might also suggest that health care professionals should consider feelings of loneliness rather than social support to assess the presence of suicide ideation in older people. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  11. The ERICE-score: the new native cardiovascular score for the low-risk and aged Mediterranean population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rafael; Brotons, Carlos; Tormo, M José; Segura, Antonio; Rigo, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Carbayo, Julio A; Gavrila, Diana; Moral, Irene; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Muñiz, Javier

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, data based on large population-based cohorts adequate to provide an accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been scarce. Thus, calibration of the EuroSCORE and Framingham scores has been proposed and done for our population. The aim was to develop a native risk prediction score to accurately estimate the individual cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population. Seven Spanish population-based cohorts including middle-aged and elderly participants were assembled. There were 11800 people (6387 women) representing 107915 person-years of follow-up. A total of 1214 cardiovascular events were identified, of which 633 were fatal. Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine the contributions of the different variables to the 10-year total cardiovascular risk. Age was the strongest cardiovascular risk factor. High systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and smoking were strong predictive factors. The contribution of serum total cholesterol was small. Antihypertensive treatment also had a significant impact on cardiovascular risk, greater in men than in women. The model showed a good discriminative power (C-statistic=0.789 in men and C=0.816 in women). Ten-year risk estimations are displayed graphically in risk charts separately for men and women. The ERICE is a new native cardiovascular risk score for the Spanish population derived from the background and contemporaneous risk of several Spanish cohorts. The ERICE score offers the direct and reliable estimation of total cardiovascular risk, taking in consideration the effect of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factor management. The ERICE score is a practical and useful tool for clinicians to estimate the total individual cardiovascular risk in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Muscle Recovery Following Bi-cruciate Substituting versus Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Akihito; Ryu, Keinosuke; Iriuchishima, Takanori; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle recovery in the lower extremities following the newly developed bi-cruciate substituting (BCS) to posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the Asian population. Forty-one knees in 41 patients undergoing BCS-TKA (41 female, average age: 71 ± 8.8) and 34 knees in 34 patients undergoing PS-TKA (33 female, average age: 73 ± 7.2) were included in this study. The maximum isometric power of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery using a handheld dynamometer. Postoperative muscle recovery was calculated regarding preoperative muscle power as 100%. Pre- and postoperative range of knee motion, femorotibial angle, and clinical scores (Knee Society score and function score) were also compared. No significant difference in sex, age, preoperative quadriceps, or preoperative hamstring power was observed between the BCS and PS-TKA groups. When regarding the preoperative muscle power as 100%, quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 61.2 ± 22%, 86.3 ± 28.3%, 97 ± 27.4%, and 112.4 ± 30.8%, respectively. Quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 72.4 ± 20.8%, 84 ± 16.9%, 95 ± 20.7%, and 110.8 ± 27%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 96.3 ± 30%, 111.4 ± 35%, 120 ± 37%, and 125 ± 31%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 95 ± 25%, 112.4 ± 27%, 117 ± 38.5%, and 120.4 ± 18.5%, respectively. No significant difference in muscle power recovery was observed at 3 ( p  = 0.995), 6 ( p  = 0.944), and 12 ( p  = 0.917) months after surgery between the two groups. No significant difference of the clinical score was observed between the groups (Knee Society score: p  = 0.479, function score: p  = 0.342). No significant

  13. Predictors of low self-rated health in patients aged 65+ after total hip replacement (THA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Hemmingsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    predicting low self-rated health after surgery. Material and method: A cross-sectional study including 287 patients aged 65+, who had had THR within 12-months were performed. Patients from five Danish counties received a mailed questionnaire assessing health status and demographic data. Short Form-36...

  14. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised: Effects of Education and Age. Normative Data for the Spanish Speaking Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonieta; Galtier, Iván; Hernández, Edith; Velasco, Pedro; Barroso, José

    2016-07-29

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised is a brief test battery for the detection and classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. The aims were to investigate the influence of age and education on the Spanish version of the ACE-R and to propose normative data for the Spanish speaking population. Three hundred thirty-four normal healthy volunteers were included in the study. They were classified in three age groups (48-64, 65-75, and 75-89 years of age) and four educational level groups (≤3; 4-8; 9-12, and ≥13 years of education). They were assessed with the version of ACE-R validated in Argentina with some modifications in order to adapt it to the Spanish population. Significant differences were obtained between all age groups in Total ACE-R, Memory, Fluency, and Language indexes. Differences were observed among the 48-64 and 76-89 age groups in the Attention-Orientation and Visuospatial indexes. Regarding education, significant difference between ≤3 years of education and the remaining groups were obtained in Total ACE-R and in all the indexes. Additionally, the group of 4-8 years of education performed significantly worse than the 9-12 and ≥13 groups in Total, Memory, Fluency, and Language indexes. Adjusted scores by education were obtained and percentiles for each age group were calculated. The results show that both age and education have an important effect on ACE-R performance. Consequently, age and education should be taken into account when interpreting results in ACE-R to improve diagnostic accuracy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The total number of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testes of men across various age groups - a stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter M; Seierøe, Karina; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    is particularly sensitive to methodological problems. Therefore, using the optical fractionator technique and a sampling design specifically optimized for human testes, we estimated the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes from 26 post mortem male subjects ranging in age from 16 to 80 years...... of Sertoli cells with age; no such decline was found for Leydig cells. Quantitative stereological analysis of post mortem tissue may help understand the influence of age or disease on the number of human testicular cells....

  16. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  17. Survival and cause of death after transcatheter aortic valve replacement as compared to an age- and sex-matched background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theut, Marie; Thygesen, Julie B; De Backer, Ole

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to assess survival and causes of death in a real-world TAVR population as compared to an age- and sex-matched background population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Each aortic stenosis (AS) patient treated with TAVR in Eastern Denmark between 2007 and 2014 (n=617) was matched with 25...... age- and sex-matched controls (n=15,425) randomly drawn from the general Danish population. In the total TAVR population, early mortality (≤90 days) was significantly higher (hazard ratio [HR] 3.90 [2.82-5.39]; p

  18. Worldwide Experience with the Syncardia Total Artificial Heart in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, David L S; Lorts, Angela; Rizwan, Raheel; Zafar, Farhan; Arabia, Francisco A; Villa, Chet R

    Individual centers have documented the use of the Syncardia Total Artificial Heart (TAH) in adolescents with heart failure; however, the number of patients at any given center is small. Herein, we describe the worldwide experience for all patients ≤21 years old supported with the TAH between May 2005 and May 2015 (n = 43). The number of patients experiencing a positive outcome at 60, 90, and 120 days were 30 (70%), 27 (63%), and 25 (58%), respectively. Successful bridge to transplantation varied by diagnosis, but outcomes reported are similar to adults supported with the TAH or biventricular assist devices.

  19. OA18 Population based end of life care - meeting the challenge of the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keri

    2015-04-01

    The key challenge for most developed countries is meeting the needs of our ageing population, in particular, those nearing the end of their lives - population-based end-of-life care. Building on a public health approach to meet needs of an area-wide population, and a practical approach of enabling generalist frontline staff care for all people in a variety of settings using the GSF Quality Improvement Programmes, we describe progress in a few GSF Cross-Boundary Care Foundation Sites taking a population-based view to meet the challenges of the ageing population. Taking a whole-system view, we explore ways to ensure all people receive quality care towards the final stages of life in line with their needs and wishes in a way that is cost-effective, responsive and compassionate. Expanding concepts of palliative/end-of-life care to include care for people with long-term conditions, dementia, and frailty. We describe practical progress in a number of GSF XBC Sites, enabling generalist frontline staff including: Identifying and prioritising people earlier Reducing 'diagnostic apartheid' Enabling more to live well and die well in the place and manner of their choosing Encouraging integrated person-centred care, reducing inappropriate over-Hospitalisation and prevention of over - medicalising. Use of GSF in various settings to enable generalist frontline staff is described, with key outcome measures and evaluations in the UK, and internationally. As the population ages, population-based end of life care will be one of the most significant developments to meet the challenges for a fit-for-purpose health service of the future. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating total economic merit for the Portuguese Holstein cattle population under new economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B.M. Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a total economic merit index that identifies more profitable animals using Portugal as a case study to illustrate the recent economic changes in milk production. Economic values were estimated following future global prices and EU policy, and taking into consideration the priorities of the Portuguese dairy sector. Economic values were derived using an objective system analysis with a positive approach, that involved the comparison of several alternatives, using real technical and economic data from national dairy farms. The estimated relative economic values revealed a high importance of production traits, low for morphological traits and a value of zero for somatic cell score. According to several future market expectations, three scenarios for milk production were defined: a realistic, a pessimistic and an optimistic setting, each with projected future economic values. Responses to selection and efficiency of selection of the indices were compared to a fourth scenario that represents the current selection situation in Portugal, based on individual estimated breeding values for milk yield. Although profit resulting from sale of milk per average lactation in the optimistic scenario was higher than in the realistic scenario, the volatility of future economic conditions and uncertainty about the future milk pricing system should be considered. Due to this market instability, genetic improvement programs require new definitions of profit functions for the near future. Effective genetic progress direction must be verified so that total economic merit formulae can be adjusted and selection criteria redirected to the newly defined target goals.

  2. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  3. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  4. Resolving the age bimodality of galaxy stellar populations on kpc scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zibetti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Anna R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Charlot, S.; Galbany, L.; García Benito, R.; Kehrig, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies in the local Universe are known to follow bimodal distributions in the global stellar population properties. We analyse the distribution of the local average stellar population ages of 654 053 sub-galactic regions resolved on ˜1 kpc scales in a volume-corrected sample of 394 galaxies, drawn

  5. The effects of ageing and urbanisation on China's future rural and urban populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates China's future population and labour force by developing a novel forecasting model for population. It combines information about age-specific parameters on fertility and mortality for both rural and urban areas using information about rural-urban migration and the transformation

  6. POPULATION Total Population NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. POPULATION Total Population BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. POPULATION Total Population COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  9. POPULATION Total Population CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  10. POPULATION Total Population NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures e...

  12. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for 5 cups/d (P-trend Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease. With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Reappraising 'the good death' for populations in the age of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kristian; Seymour, Jane

    2018-05-01

    This is the second in an occasional series of paired commentaries in Age and Ageing, the Journal of the British Geriatrics Society and the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS). The aim is to address issues of current significance and to foster dialogue and increased understanding between academics and clinicians working in comparative international settings. Both commentaries address the urgent need to improve palliative care for older people, with a critique of some stereotypes surrounding palliative care and the 'good death'. The companion commentary, published in JAGS, was written by Alexander Smith and Vyjeyanthi Periyakoil, and is grounded in their experience as academic clinicians (Smith AK, Periyakoil V. Should we bury 'The Good Death'? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2018; in press). In the present paper, we offer a perspective on the outcome and wider consequences of misalignment between current UK policy and aspirations for end of life care in relation to epidemiological trends and patient experience of death and dying.

  14. Quality-adjusted life years gained in patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Pedersen, P.U.; Søballe, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Background: Total hip replacement (THR) is an effective, but also cost-intensive health care procedure for the elderly. Because of demographic changes in Western Europe, THR-associated financial investment for health care has become a question of priorities in society. To provide a quantitative...... rationale for a discussion within Western European health care systems, we undertook a prospective assessment of the benefit of THR from the patients´ perspective and as measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Aim: To measure the difference in health related quality of life between an intervention...... treatment and telephone intervention. QALYs were calculated from measures of health-related quality of life using questionnaire SF-36. These scores were transformed to QALYs using a formula based on the method developed by Brazier (Brazier 1998). Results: Both the control and the intervention patients...

  15. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  16. Effects of age and gender in quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in a control adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)

  17. Influencing degree of ecosystems transformation on the age structure of populations apodemys sylvaticus Apodemys sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparative description of percentage ratio of age groups in populyations of background kind is conducted - Apodemus silvaticus from the habitats different on the degree of transformations. It is set, that the age composition of populations of shallow mammals can serve by the criterion of their functioning.

  18. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  19. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-11-01

    Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery, using NIRS. Twenty-eight American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients, over the age of sixty-five years undergoing total knee replacement surgery, were included. Under general anesthesia, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) were recorded before induction of anesthesia and every 2 min after tourniquet deflation for 20 min. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed 5 min before, in addition to 0, and 10 min after tourniquet deflation. The decrease of rSO(2) was not significant during 20-min deflation period. MAP, CO and SV showed significant decrease during 2 to 12, 4 to 6 and 2 to 6-min period after tourniquet deflation, respectively (P deflation caused significant changes in hemodynamic and metabolic status, but not in regional cerebral oxygen saturation. It is recommended to monitor neurologic status, as well as hemodynamic and metabolic status to avoid serious complications, especially in aged patients.

  20. Adjustment to Aging, Subjective Age and Age Representation: Assessing a Nationally-Diverse Population of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research sought to analyse older adults’ conceptualization of adjustment to aging (AtA, subjective age (SA and age representation (AR, adding a cross-national comparative perspective to aging well. Method: Questionnaires were completed, assessing participants’ background information. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing three core areas: SA, AtA and AR. Complete information on 231 older adults aged between 74-102 years (M = 83.1; SD = 6.692 from four different nationalities, was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: Seven categories were identified to contribute to AtA: ‘accomplishment, personal fulfilment and future projects’, ‘occupation, profession, autonomy and leisure’, ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’, ‘valorisation of time and age’, ‘family, social and interpersonal attachment’, ‘stability, quality and financial situation’, and ‘sense of limit and existential issues’. Five categories were identified for SA: ‘with congruence’, ‘without concern’, ‘with apprehension’, ‘young-at-heart’ and ‘good enough’. For AR, eight emergent categories were found: ‘future investment’, ‘reconciliation with life’, ‘present challenge’, ‘regret about the past’, ‘dynamic life’, ‘with contentment’, ‘as an opportunity’ and ‘with dissatisfaction’. Conclusion: This research contributes for a better understanding of what defines AtA, SA and AR in older adults. Moreover, interventions and communication approaches in clinical practice and program development in health care context should focus on shared perceptions of aging well.

  1. The burden and etiology of community-onset pneumonia in the aging Japanese population: a multicenter prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konosuke Morimoto

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of pneumonia in adults is an emerging health issue in the era of global population aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the burden of community-onset pneumonia (COP and its etiologic fractions in Japan, the world's most aged society.A multicenter prospective surveillance for COP was conducted from September 2011 to January 2013 in Japan. All pneumonia patients aged ≥ 15 years, including those with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP, were enrolled at four community hospitals on four major islands. The COP burden was estimated based on the surveillance data and national statistics.A total of 1,772 COP episodes out of 932,080 hospital visits were enrolled during the surveillance. The estimated overall incidence rates of adult COP, hospitalization, and in-hospital death were 16.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.6 to 20.9, 5.3 (4.5 to 6.2, and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 person-years (PY, respectively. The incidence rates sharply increased with age; the incidence in people aged ≥ 85 years was 10-fold higher than that in people aged 15-64 years. The estimated annual number of adult COP cases in the entire Japanese population was 1,880,000, and 69.4% were aged ≥ 65 years. Aspiration-associated pneumonia (630,000 was the leading etiologic category, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia (530,000, Haemophilus influenzae-associated pneumonia (420,000, and respiratory virus-associated pneumonia (420,000, including influenza-associated pneumonia (30,000.A substantial portion of the COP burden occurs among elderly members of the Japanese adult population. In addition to the introduction of effective vaccines for S. pneumoniae and influenza, multidimensional approaches are needed to reduce the pneumonia burden in an aging society.

  2. Racemization of aspartic acid in root dentin as a tool for age estimation in a Kuwaiti population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfawal, Mohamed Amin; Alqattan, Sahib Issa; Ghallab, Noha Ayman

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of age is one of the most significant tasks in forensic practice. Amino acid racemization is considered one of the most reliable and accurate methods of age estimation and aspartic acid shows a high racemization reaction rate. The present study has investigated the application of aspartic acid racemization in age estimation in a Kuwaiti population using root dentin from a total of 89 upper first premolar teeth. The D/L ratio of aspartic acid was obtained by HPLC technique in a test group of 50 subjects and a linear regression line was established between aspartic acid racemization and age. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.97, and the standard error of estimation was ±1.26 years. The racemization age "t" of each subject was calculated by applying the following formula: ln [(1 + D/L)/(1 - D/L)] = 0.003181 t + (-0.01591). When the proposed formula "estimated age t = ln [(1 + D/L)/(1 - D/L)] + 0.01591/0.003181" was applied to a validation group of 39 subjects, the range of error was less than one year in 82.1% of the cases and the standard error of estimation was ±1.12. The current work has established a reasonably significant correlation of the D-/L-aspartic acid ratio with age, and proposed an apparently reliable formula for calculating the age in Kuwaiti populations through aspartic acid racemization. Further research is required to find out whether similar findings are applicable to other ethnic populations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Metzler; Ayca Erdem; Chin Pao Huang

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 ...

  4. Imbalanced geodemographical structures in Târnave regional system. Case study: population ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-V. CONȚIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The demographic prospects of a regional system, the natural dynamics of the population, the potential of manpower resources, planning and forecast of its use, show a high degree of dependence on the demographical structure by age, the identified imbalances involving an increase in the vulnerability of the regional system and therefore an enhancement of geodemographical risks (acceleration of population ageing, decreasing population trend, disappearance of some rural settlements, socio-economic failures etc.. In this study, a special attention is paid to the analysis of ageing index and demographical dependency ratio, and the share of young and old people to the Târnave regional system, taking into account as milestones, the population censuses from 1910, 1992 2002 and 2011.

  5. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego; Bunin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  6. [Fruit and vegetables intake among the Chinese migrant population aged 18 to 59 years old in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Linhong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Li, Yichong; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To describe the intake of fruit and vegetables among employed migrant population aged 18 to 59 year-olds in China. Data from the Migrant Population Survey related to China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that conducted in 170 counties/districts in 31 provinces, 2012, was used. Information on non-communicable diseases and related risk factors among migrant population were collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview, physical measurement and lab tests. A total of 48 704 subjects aged 18 to 59 years old were included in our study. Sample was standardized by age and sex. Information on average daily fruit and vegetables intake, prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake, grouped by sex, age, industries, and education level were analyzed. The average daily intakes of vegetables and fruits were 353.7 (95%CI:351.3-356.2) g and 125.1 (95%CI:123.4-126.9) g respectively, among the employed migrant population aged 18-59 years old in China. Prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake was 44.1% (95% CI:43.5%-44.6% ) among employed migrant population, 46.2% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.0%)for males and 41.2% (95% CI:40.3%-42.0%)for females (χ(2) = 82.19, P fruit and vegetables intake was the highest among people working in accommodation and restaurants (46.2%, 95%CI:45.0%-47.3%) while the lowest seen among those working in social services (42.5%, 95%CI:41.4%-43.7%,χ(2) = 15.81, P fruit and vegetables intake showed a decrease along with the increase of education levels (χ(2) = 22.29, P fruit and vegetables intake. Being male and with low education level were risk factors linked with the higher prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake.

  7. Effect of age on the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly population: The Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Lin, Huandong; Gao, Jian; Li, Xiaoming; Xia, Mingfeng; Wang, Dan; Aleteng, Qiqige; Ma, Hui; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5% (or 48mmol/mol) has been recommended as a new diagnostic criterion for diabetes; however, limited literature is available regarding the effect of age on the HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and the causes for this age effect remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and why age affects the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a community-based Chinese population. In total, 4325 participants without previously known diabetes were enrolled in this study. Participants were stratified by age. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted for each age group and the area under the curve (AUC) represented the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes defined by the plasma glucose criteria. The area under the ROC curve in each one-year age group was defined as AUCage. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors inducing the association between age and AUCage based on the changes in the β and P values of age. The current threshold of HbA1c (≥6.5% or 48mmol/mol) showed low sensitivity (35.6%) and high specificity (98.9%) in diagnosing diabetes. ROC curve analyses showed that the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c in the ≥75 years age group was significantly lower than that in the 45-54 years age group (AUC: 0.755 vs. 0.878; PHbA1c was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.557, P = 0.001). When adjusting the red blood cell (RBC) count in the multiple regression model, the negative association between age and AUCage disappeared, with the regression coefficient of age reversed to 0.001 and the P value increased to 0.856. The diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes decreased with aging, and this age effect was induced by the decreasing RBC count with age. HbA1c is unsuitable for diagnosing diabetes in elderly individuals because of their physiologically decreased RBC count.

  8. Effect of age on the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly population: The Shanghai Changfeng Study.

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    Li Wu

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ≥6.5% (or 48mmol/mol has been recommended as a new diagnostic criterion for diabetes; however, limited literature is available regarding the effect of age on the HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and the causes for this age effect remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and why age affects the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes in a community-based Chinese population.In total, 4325 participants without previously known diabetes were enrolled in this study. Participants were stratified by age. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC was plotted for each age group and the area under the curve (AUC represented the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes defined by the plasma glucose criteria. The area under the ROC curve in each one-year age group was defined as AUCage. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors inducing the association between age and AUCage based on the changes in the β and P values of age.The current threshold of HbA1c (≥6.5% or 48mmol/mol showed low sensitivity (35.6% and high specificity (98.9% in diagnosing diabetes. ROC curve analyses showed that the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c in the ≥75 years age group was significantly lower than that in the 45-54 years age group (AUC: 0.755 vs. 0.878; P<0.001. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AUCage of HbA1c was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.557, P = 0.001. When adjusting the red blood cell (RBC count in the multiple regression model, the negative association between age and AUCage disappeared, with the regression coefficient of age reversed to 0.001 and the P value increased to 0.856.The diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diabetes decreased with aging, and this age effect was induced by the decreasing RBC count with age. HbA1c is unsuitable for diagnosing diabetes in elderly individuals because of their physiologically decreased RBC count.

  9. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

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    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  10. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

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    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  12. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

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    K G Makade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the field practice area of an Urban Health Training Centre of a teaching hospital in Mumbai. Results:A sample of 342 women was taken by random sampling. Questionnaire was administered in the local language.It was found that illiteracy, marriage before 18 years of age and low socioeconomic status,are significantly associated with more than 3living children.Out of these, socioeconomic status of the family had the greatest influence on bearing of the total number of children, followed by the age of women at marriage and then educational status of the women. Conclusion:Improvement in education, socioeconomic status and increasing the age at marriage can prove to be very effective for the control of population.

  13. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

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    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  14. Knowledge and Awareness of Age Related Eye Diseases: a Population-Based Survey

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    Marzieh Katibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine general awareness and knowledge about cataracts, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR, as common avoidable causes of blindness in an Iranian population. Methods: This cross-sectional population-based survey was performed on residents over 45 years of age in Tehran. The sampling frame was the list of all landline phone numbers registered by the Telecommunications Center of Iran, through which systematic random sampling was performed. Data was collected by phone-call interviews and completing a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness was defined as whether the respondent had ever heard of the disease. Knowledge was assessed by realizing different aspects of each disease. Results: Of a total of 1,084 eligible people including 574 (52.9% women and 510 (47.1% men were included and 957 subjects (response rate, 88.3% completed the interview. Awareness regarding glaucoma, cataract and DR was 46.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]:43.4 -49.8%, 82.9% (95% CI: 80.5 -85.3% and 86.2% (95% CI: 84-88.4%. In addition, 19.2% (95% CI: 16.7 -21.7%, 57.3% (95% CI: 54.2-60.4% and 72% (95% CI: 69.2 -74.8% of respondents could give at least a basic definition of the mentioned diseases, respectively. Only 22.6% (95% CI: 20-25.2% and 41.6% (95% CI: 38.5-44.7% realized glaucoma and DR as a treatable condition; in contrast, 77.2% (95% CI: 74.5-79.9% categorized cataract as treatable. Only 19% and 7.1% knew that DR and glaucoma may commence without any apparent symptoms. Conclusion: Compared with cataract and DR, most participants had limited information about glaucoma. In addition, few of the respondents were familiar with the initial symptoms of DR and glaucoma.

  15. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

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    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  16. The changes of cerebral morphology related to aging in Taiwanese population.

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    Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with the 3-dimensional (3D MRI reconstruction technique was conducted to investigate cerebral complexity changes related to age differences in native Taiwanese population. In our sample of 85 participants aged between 25 and 81, age was associated with gradual ventricular expansion. A nonlinear quadratic relationship between white matter volume and age was found overall in the brain. Widespread age-related reduction in white matter was detected from late adulthood onwards. However, no significant age-related changes in the cortex and whole brain volume were determined throughout adulthood. These findings provided information in describing brain structural complexity, which might in the future serve as an objective diagnostic index or as a predictive parameter for neurological diseases. Our method then may be used for cross-cultural longitudinal studies to evaluate the effect of disease, environment and aging on the brain.

  17. Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children.

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    Kathleen Falster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child's risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother's age at childbirth.Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC and school enrolments in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales (NSW, enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012. The study outcome was teacher-reported child development on five domains measured by the AEDC, including physical health and well-being, emotional maturity, social competence, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. Developmental vulnerability was defined as domain scores below the 2009 AEDC 10th percentile cut point. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 29.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 5.7, with 4,382 children (4.4% born to mothers aged <20 years and 20,026 children (20.1% born to mothers aged ≥35 years. The proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains was 21% overall and followed a reverse J-shaped distribution according to maternal age: it was highest in children born to mothers aged ≤15 years, at 40% (95% CI, 32-49, and was lowest in children born to mothers aged between 30 years and ≤35 years, at 17%-18%. For maternal ages 36 years to ≥45 years, the proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains increased to 17%-24%. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics significantly attenuated vulnerability risk in children born to younger mothers, while adjustment for potentially modifiable factors, such as antenatal visits, had little additional impact across all ages. Although the multi-agency linkage yielded a broad range of

  18. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  19. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

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    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  20. Cognitive lifestyle in older persons: the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

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    Valenzuela, Michael J; Leon, Irene; Suo, Chao; Piamba, Diana Martinez; Kochan, Nicole; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive lifestyle may be an important modifiable risk factor for dementia but has not yet been comprehensively studied in healthy elderly. To examine gender- and lifespan-related differences in cognitive lifestyle in a population-based cohort. 872 individuals from the second wave of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) cohort were invited to complete the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ), a validated measure of cognitive lifestyle. Of 555 questionnaires returned (64%), 253 were excluded due to prior diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, leaving n = 302 cognitively-intact elders (mean age 80.1 years, ±SD 4.7, 40.1% men). Total LEQ was significantly higher in men (97.9 ± 20.0) than women (90.0 ± 24.5), resulting mainly from midlife LEQ differences. Men were more likely to have worked in managerial or professional jobs (73.8% versus 39.5% women), and twice as likely to have supervised large groups of workers. In late life, women were significantly more likely to be living alone (68.1% versus 25.4% men), but otherwise significantly more engaged in specific cognitive activities, including reading novels (72.3% versus 52.0% men) and incorporating volunteer work (31.9% versus 19.7% men) and socializing (59.0% versus 37.0% men) into their typical day. Over the adult lifespan, it was more common for men and women to transition between LEQ tertiles than remain the same. Cognitive lifestyle changes over the adult lifespan and exhibits a range of gender-based differences. While older women are more likely to be living alone they generally lead a more active current cognitive lifestyle.

  1. Kron 3: a fourth intermediate age cluster in the SMC with evidence of multiple populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollyhead, K.; Lardo, C.; Kacharov, N.; Bastian, N.; Hilker, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Koch, A.; Grebel, E. K.; Georgiev, I.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic study of the intermediate age (≈6.5 Gyr) massive cluster Kron 3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We measure CN and CH band strengths (at ≃3839 and 4300 Å, respectively) using VLT FORS2 spectra of 16 cluster members and find a sub-population of five stars enriched in nitrogen. We conclude that this is evidence for multiple populations in Kron 3, the fourth intermediate age cluster, after Lindsay 1, NGC 416 and NGC 339 (ages 6-8 Gyr), to display this phenomenon originally thought to be a unique characteristic of old globular clusters. At ≈6.5 Gyr this is one of the youngest clusters with multiple populations, indicating that the mechanism responsible for their onset must operate until a redshift of at least 0.75, much later than the peak of globular cluster formation at redshift ˜3.

  2. The basic approach to age-structured population dynamics models, methods and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Iannelli, Mimmo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to age-structured population modeling which emphasises the connection between mathematical theory and underlying biological assumptions. Through the rigorous development of the linear theory and the nonlinear theory alongside numerics, the authors explore classical equations that describe the dynamics of certain ecological systems. Modeling aspects are discussed to show how relevant problems in the fields of demography, ecology, and epidemiology can be formulated and treated within the theory. In particular, the book presents extensions of age-structured modelling to the spread of diseases and epidemics while also addressing the issue of regularity of solutions, the asymptotic behaviour of solutions, and numerical approximation. With sections on transmission models, non-autonomous models and global dynamics, this book fills a gap in the literature on theoretical population dynamics. The Basic Approach to Age-Structured Population Dynamics will appeal to graduate students an...

  3. Correlation of chronological, skeletal, and dental age in North Indian population

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    Madhurima Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the correlation between chronological, dental, and skeletal age. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms and orthopantomograms of 100 subjects of age ranging 9–14 years were obtained for the estimation of skeletal and dental age. Dental age was assessed using Demirjian's method; skeletal age was assessed using the new improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation method given by Baccetti, Franchi, and McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out. Student's t-test and Spearman's coefficient correlation were used to assess the relation between chronological, skeletal, and dental age. Results: The Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.777 (P < 0.001 between chronological and dental age, 0.516 (P < 0.001 between chronological and skeletal age, and 0.563 (P < 0.001 between dental and skeletal age. Conclusion: There is a good correlation between chronological and dental age in North Indian population which was higher for males as compared to females. A moderate correlation was found between chronological and skeletal age as well as between dental and skeletal age.

  4. Age, growth and population structure of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles in northeast Florida using a length-based, age-structured population model

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    Eric G. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader’s life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida. The main findings of this study were: (1 lionfish exhibited rapid growth with seasonal variation in growth rates; (2 distinct cohorts were clearly identifiable in the length-frequency data, suggesting that lionfish are recruiting during a relatively short period in summer; and (3 the majority of lionfish were less than two years old with no lionfish older than three years of age, which may be the result of culling efforts as well as ontogenetic habitat shifts to deeper water.

  5. Age, growth and population structure of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) in northeast Florida using a length-based, age-structured population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Swenarton, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader's life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish ( Pterois volitans/miles ) have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida. The main findings of this study were: (1) lionfish exhibited rapid growth with seasonal variation in growth rates; (2) distinct cohorts were clearly identifiable in the length-frequency data, suggesting that lionfish are recruiting during a relatively short period in summer; and (3) the majority of lionfish were less than two years old with no lionfish older than three years of age, which may be the result of culling efforts as well as ontogenetic habitat shifts to deeper water.

  6. Effects of circadian clock genes and environmental factors on cognitive aging in old adults in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eugene; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Liu, Yu-Li; Yang, Albert C; Kao, Chung-Feng; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-04-11

    Previous animal studies have indicated associations between circadian clock genes and cognitive impairment . In this study, we assessed whether 11 circadian clockgenes are associated with cognitive aging independently and/or through complex interactions in an old Taiwanese population. We also analyzed the interactions between environmental factors and these genes in influencing cognitive aging. A total of 634 Taiwanese subjects aged over 60 years from the Taiwan Biobank were analyzed. Mini-Mental State Examinations (MMSE) were administered to all subjects, and MMSE scores were used to evaluate cognitive function. Our data showed associations between cognitive aging and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 key circadian clock genes, CLOCK rs3749473 (p = 0.0017), NPAS2 rs17655330 (p = 0.0013), RORA rs13329238 (p = 0.0009), and RORB rs10781247 (p = 7.9 x 10-5). We also found that interactions between CLOCK rs3749473, NPAS2 rs17655330, RORA rs13329238, and RORB rs10781247 affected cognitive aging (p = 0.007). Finally, we investigated the influence of interactions between CLOCK rs3749473, RORA rs13329238, and RORB rs10781247 with environmental factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, and social support on cognitive aging (p = 0.002 ~ 0.01). Our study indicates that circadian clock genes such as the CLOCK, NPAS2, RORA, and RORB genes may contribute to the risk of cognitive aging independently as well as through gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

  7. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

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    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age

  8. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  9. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-03-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  10. Recognition of the Health Related Factors of Aged Population of Minoodar in Order to Design Research Interventions (1387

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    Saeid Asefzadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The assessment of the elderly’s health condition can help to design interventional studies to promote their satisfaction and quality of delivered medical services. We intended to evaluate health priorities of the aged population of Minoodasht district. Methods & Materials: The data were collected from 119 people aged 60 or over through door-to-door structured interviews containing 25 stems with in the location during March 2009. The data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: A total of 119 people 57% men and 43% women with average age of 65.7 years old, were interviewed. The most prevalent disease within the target population were musculoskeletal (22.6%, cardiovascular (15.5%, digestive and endocrine (15.5%, infectious (14.3%, respiratory (11% and CNS (5.9% disorders. The average rate of hospitalization of the people was 40% per year. The causes of hospitalization were cardiovascular diseases (25%, surgeries (20.5%, infectious diseases (13.6%, eye diseases (9.1%, gynecology (4.5%, and casualties (4.5% of the total. The average expenditure per prescription was 60330 Rials (Iranian currency. Conclusion: The study revealed that preventive interventions within the pilot proposals should be implemented to improve the health status of the people of the area. A health consultancy unit is also being initiated for this purpose.

  11. New models for age estimation and assessment of their accuracy using developing mandibular third molar teeth in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangto, P; Iamaroon, A; Prasitwattanaseree, S; Mahakkanukrauh, P; Janhom, A

    2017-03-01

    Age estimation using developing third molar teeth is considered an important and accurate technique for both clinical and forensic practices. The aims of this study were to establish population-specific reference data, to develop age prediction models using mandibular third molar development, to test the accuracy of the resulting models, and to find the probability of persons being at the age thresholds of legal relevance in a Thai population. A total of 1867 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals aged between 8 and 23 years was selected to assess dental age. The mandibular third molar development was divided into nine stages. The stages were evaluated and each stage was transformed into a development score. Quadratic regression was employed to develop age prediction models. Our results show that males reached mandibular third molar root formation stages earlier than females. The models revealed a high correlation coefficient for both left and right mandibular third molar teeth in both sexes (R = 0.945 and 0.944 in males, R = 0.922 and 0.923 in females, respectively). Furthermore, the accuracy of the resulting models was tested in randomly selected 374 cases and showed low error values between the predicted dental age and the chronological age for both left and right mandibular third molar teeth in both sexes (-0.13 and -0.17 years in males, 0.01 and 0.03 years in females, respectively). In Thai samples, when the mandibular third molar teeth reached stage H, the probability of the person being over 18 years was 100 % in both sexes.

  12. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

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    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur.Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas.Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined.Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  13. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur. Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas. Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined. Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  14. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  15. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, C.E.; Beaumont, L.F.; Morrison, J.; Sala, A.; Barr, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  16. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  17. Health and quality of life in an aging population – food and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Wendin, Karin Maria Elisabet; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our...... older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences are increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality...

  18. Dynamic of age structure and the number of population in Ozyorsk and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchenko, O.; Rtischeva, M.

    2001-01-01

    In connection with serious social-economic and ecological problems in our country an analysis of demographic processes in cities of atomic industry causes a big of interest. The aim of this work was an evaluation of dynamic of age structure of population of city Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of nuclear plant 'Mayak' of 'first-born' of atomic industry in Russia. Data received in city's administration, included the information about number of population, its age composition taking into account of natural increase and of migration processes for a period from 1959 to 1997. (authors)

  19. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Emily M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Leitherer, Claus, E-mail: Emily.Levesque@colorado.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the Hβ, Hα, and Brγ recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  20. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

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    Conor Lawless

    Full Text Available Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage. However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS. We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  1. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Conor; Jurk, Diana; Gillespie, Colin S; Shanley, Daryl; Saretzki, Gabriele; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Passos, João F

    2012-01-01

    Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage). However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS). We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  2. Changes of population by age and gender structure of Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

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    Resul Hamiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.

  3. Population aging, macroeconomic changes, and global diabetes prevalence, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Nikkil; Ali, Mohammed K; Mehta, Neil K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is an important contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The contributions of population aging and macroeconomic changes to the growth in diabetes prevalence over the past 20 years are unclear. We used cross-sectional data on age- and sex-specific counts of people with diabetes by country, national population estimates, and country-specific macroeconomic variables for the years 1990, 2000, and 2008. Decomposition analysis was performed to quantify the contribution of population aging to the change in global diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Next, age-standardization was used to estimate the contribution of age composition to differences in diabetes prevalence between high-income (HIC) and low-to-middle-income countries (LMICs). Finally, we used non-parametric correlation and multivariate first-difference regression estimates to examine the relationship between macroeconomic changes and the change in diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Globally, diabetes prevalence grew by two percentage points between 1990 (7.4 %) and 2008 (9.4 %). Population aging was responsible for 19 % of the growth, with 81 % attributable to increases in the age-specific prevalences. In both LMICs and HICs, about half the growth in age-specific prevalences was from increasing levels of diabetes between ages 45-65 (51 % in HICs and 46 % in LMICs). After age-standardization, the difference in the prevalence of diabetes between LMICs and HICs was larger (1.9 % point difference in 1990; 1.5 % point difference in 2008). We found no evidence that macroeconomic changes were associated with the growth in diabetes prevalence. Population aging explains a minority of the recent growth in global diabetes prevalence. The increase in global diabetes between 1990 and 2008 was primarily due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes at ages 45-65. We do not find evidence that basic indicators of economic growth, development, globalization, or urbanization were related

  4. Active infection with Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population of middle aged to elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Peschke, F

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate prevalence and determinants of current Helicobacter pylori infection in an asymptomatic population of middle-aged to elderly people. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 337 participants of a general education programme of the University of Ulm aged 50......-85 years. Prevalence of infection as determined by means of the [13C]urea breath test was 34.8% (95% CI 29.6-40.3%); overall, 33.8% (95% CI 23.0-46.0) in the age group 50-59 years, 32.4% (95% CI 25.4-39.9) in the age group 60-69 years and 41.0% (95% CI 30.0-52.7) in the age group 70-85 years. Duration...... subjects may not be as high as seroprevalence studies have suggested. Socioeconomic characteristics of childhood living conditions appear to be important determinants of infection status even at older age....

  5. Substance Use Disorders and Related Health Problems in an Aging Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Walker, Veronica; Turney, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD), including alcohol and tobacco, have been associated with chronic, infectious diseases, and mental health disorders. Few studies have examined associations between SUD and health issues for aging offenders (≥ 45 years old), who may have been long-term users. This study investigated associations between SUD and health problems in a prison population (men and women). We included 10,988 offenders, of whom 26.8% were aging. Aging offenders were more likely than younger peers to have health problems, such as cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, (80.8% compared with 63.6%). We found that aging African Americans with SUD had greater odds for being diagnosed with chronic conditions than White peers (p <.0001). Controlling for SUD, cardiovascular disease emerged as the most significant and frequently associated health problem for aging offenders. Results suggest a need to focus on the health of aging offenders with a history of SUD, particularly African Americans.

  6. Early Statin Use and the Progression of Alzheimer Disease: A Total Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Cheng; Chuang, Yun-Shiuan; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Chiu, Kuei-Fen; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2015-11-01

    The protective effect of statin on Alzheimer disease (AD) is still controversial, probably due to the debate about when to start the use of statin and the lack of any large-scale randomized evidence that actually supports the hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of early statin use on mild-to-moderate AD in the total Taiwanese population.This was a total population-based case-control study, using the total population of Taiwanese citizens seen in general medical practice; therefore, the findings can be applied to the general population. The study patients were those with newly diagnosed dementia (ICD-9 290.x) and prescribed any acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance dataset in 1997 to 2008. The newly diagnosed eligible mild-to-moderate AD patients were traced from the dates of their index dates, which was defined as the first day to receive any AChEI treatment, back to 1 year (exposure period) to categorize them into AD with early statin use and without early statin use. Early statin use was defined as patients using statin before AChEI treatment. Alzheimer disease patients with early statin use were those receiving any statin treatment during the exposure period. Then, we used propensity-score-matched strategy to match these 2 groups as 1:1. The matched study patients were followed-up from their index dates. The primary outcome was the discontinuation of AChEI treatment, indicating AD progression.There were 719 mild-to-moderate AD-paired patients with early statin use and without early statin use for analyses. Alzheimer disease progression was statistically lower in AD patients with early statin use than those without (P = 0.00054). After adjusting for other covariates, mild-to-moderate AD patients with early stain use exhibited a 0.85-risk (95% CI = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.0066) to have AD progression than those without.Early statin use was significantly associated with a reduction in AD

  7. Demographic aging in the United States: implications for population and income redistribution to the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J; Spar, M A

    1982-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of a prolonged period of sustained low fertility upon shifts in the population distribution of the United States among Department of Energy (DOE) regions." The authors also examine the impact of demographic aging on income distribution up to the year 2000 using the assumptions made in the Series III population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1977. It is noted that migration will emerge as the primary agent for internal population redistribution. excerpt

  8. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  9. Dynamic of age structure and the number of population in Ozersk and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchenko, O.; Rtischeva, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was an evaluation of the dynamics of age structure and population for the city of Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of the nuclear plant Mayak, the 'first-born' of the Russian atomic industry. The obtained results indicate that since 1950 demographic processes in Ozyorsk were more favorable, in spite of fact that it was in this period workers of Mayak nuclear plant and population as a whole, got comparatively greater radiation doses than in the following years. However, dynamics the number of population has an unfavorable trend to reduce, connected with sharp worsening of social-economic situation in the town as a whole, as a result of the economic reforms in the country. Reduction of the number of population in the town is expressed by the negative natural growth and by reducing migration processes, which resulted in sharp decrease of the general growth of population, and in its stopping in 1998. (authors)

  10. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  11. Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in Gujarati population: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Neha; Jain, Sandeep; Kumar, Manish; Rupakar, Pratik; Choyal, Kanaram; Prajapati, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Age assessment may be a crucial step in postmortem profiling leading to confirmative identification. In children, Demirjian's method based on eight developmental stages was developed to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. Of this study was to evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's eight teeth method following the French maturity scores and Indian-specific formula from developmental stages of third molar with the help of orthopantomograms using the Demirjian method. Dental panoramic tomograms from 30 subjects each of known chronological age and sex were collected and were evaluated according to Demirjian's criteria. Age calculations were performed using Demirjian's formula and Indian formula. Statistical analysis used was Chi-square test and ANOVA test and the P values obtained were statistically significant. There was an average underestimation of age with both Indian and Demirjian's formulas. The mean absolute error was lower using Indian formula hence it can be applied for age estimation in present Gujarati population. Also, females were ahead of achieving dental maturity than males thus completion of dental development is attained earlier in females. Greater accuracy can be obtained if population-specific formulas considering the ethnic and environmental variation are derived performing the regression analysis.

  12. Migration and Ageing of the Island Population – Five Stories from Iž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Klempić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses population development on the island of Iž during the period from 1857 to 2001, with special focus on the role that migration has on the ageing of the population. The processes that effected the demographic picture of the island during the twentieth century were high war loses in two world wars and continuous migration. Depopulation on Iž began in 1921 and has persisted until today. According to the last census, 557 persons live on the island, which is half the number that was registered in the first census. The dominant demo-reproduction processes are depopulation and ageing. All indicators in regard to the age structure show a very old population. At the same time, there is a strong return migration flow of persons that have received pensions after having worked elsewhere, which further increases the percentage of elderly in the overall population. Apart from analysis of the demographic data, the aim of the paper was also to determine the existing models of return migration, based on the example of several typical migration experiences. The authors attempted to illustrate the effect of migration on the life cycle of the Iž’s older population through five typical island stories, collected in October 2001 while interviewing persons 60 or more years of age. If a major change does not occur in regard to the present trend of emigration of the younger population (creation of jobs, revival of economic activities that have a future on the island etc. and in the behaviour of younger islanders (both those living at present on the island and those living elsewhere who would accept such new programmes, Iž will remain in the group of islands that is threatened by further ageing and depopulation.

  13. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  14. Relationship between the population age structure and recreational landscape: an example of Dubrava, Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Crljenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this article follows a premise that demographic characteristics of a population, which constructs and consumes space on a daily basis, and cultural landscapes are interconnected, i.e. that certain demographics can be read from urban cultural landscapes in a greater or lesser extent. Of all the demographic structures incorporated in Croatian urban landscapes it is easiest to recognize the age, educational, religious, economic and ethnic/national composition, while the racial and gender structures are almost unnoticed. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the relationship between the population age structure and recreational landscapes of the eastern outskirts of Zagreb – Dubrava. By using the statistical analysis in the first part of the article, the author discusses the past and current age composition, as well as the trend of population aging. After that, the author provides descriptive and/or statistical analysis of some elements of recreational landscape in Dubrava, such as green areas, children’s and sports playgrounds, public gardens, sports centers, Grad mladih, and second homes, in order to determine the contemporary situation in the landscape. Considering the dominant process of rapid aging of the Dubrava population, a mismatch between the needs for recreation of the aged population and the real situation in the space was noticed. The lack of recreational facilities is evident not only for those intended for elderly residents, but also for the younger ones; the reasons are usually associated with the lack of financial resources, and in some cases with decision-making processes on a higher level than those of the city districts. Two subtypes of recreational landscapes were differentiated: sports and recreational landscape and second home landscape.

  15. Exercise, Arterial Crosstalk-Modulation, and Inflammation in an Aging Population: The ExAMIN AGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streese, Lukas; Deiseroth, Arne; Schäfer, Juliane; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Hanssen, Henner

    2018-01-01

    will identify cardiovascular biomarkers that best resemble underlying cardiovascular risk in age and disease. The integrated approach will help define new recommendations for treatment guidance of exercise therapy in an aging population. ClinicalTrials. gov: NCT02796976; registered 02 June 2016 (retrospectively registered).

  16. Smart Aging Platform for Evaluating Cognitive Functions in Aging: A Comparison with the MoCA in a Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bottiroli

    2017-11-01

    aging. Future studies will validate this platform also in the clinical aging populations.

  17. Exercise, Arterial Crosstalk-Modulation, and Inflammation in an Aging Population: The ExAMIN AGE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Streese

    2018-02-01

    research will identify cardiovascular biomarkers that best resemble underlying cardiovascular risk in age and disease. The integrated approach will help define new recommendations for treatment guidance of exercise therapy in an aging population.ClinicalTrials. gov: NCT02796976; registered 02 June 2016 (retrospectively registered.

  18. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  19. Relationship between product demand, tibial polyethylene insert shelf age, and total knee arthroplasty survival: retrospective review of total knees of one design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Joshua A; Collier, Matthew B; Engh, C Anderson; Engh, Gerard A

    2006-04-01

    Shelf aging of gamma-irradiated-in-air polyethylene tibial components has been associated with increased articular surface wear and an elevated risk for revision. Nine hundred fifty cruciate-retaining inserts of one design were implanted between 1987 and 1996 (shelf age, 1.0 +/- 1.2 years). Less frequently used inserts (smallest/largest sizes, thicker thicknesses, supplemental articular constraint) had longer shelf ages (means ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 years). Survival analysis showed that shelf age (P product demand and can be of aid when diagnosing the painful knee.

  20. Real-time web-based assessment of total population risk of future emergency department utilization: statewide prospective active case finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongkai; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Y; Zhu, Chunqing; Zhao, Yifan; Hao, Shiying; Zheng, Le; Fu, Changlin; Wen, Qiaojun; Ji, Jun; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Xiaolin; Dai, Dorothy; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B

    2015-01-13

    An easily accessible real-time Web-based utility to assess patient risks of future emergency department (ED) visits can help the health care provider guide the allocation of resources to better manage higher-risk patient populations and thereby reduce unnecessary use of EDs. Our main objective was to develop a Health Information Exchange-based, next 6-month ED risk surveillance system in the state of Maine. Data on electronic medical record (EMR) encounters integrated by HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange, were used to develop the Web-based surveillance system for a population ED future 6-month risk prediction. To model, a retrospective cohort of 829,641 patients with comprehensive clinical histories from January 1 to December 31, 2012 was used for training and then tested with a prospective cohort of 875,979 patients from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013. The multivariate statistical analysis identified 101 variables predictive of future defined 6-month risk of ED visit: 4 age groups, history of 8 different encounter types, history of 17 primary and 8 secondary diagnoses, 8 specific chronic diseases, 28 laboratory test results, history of 3 radiographic tests, and history of 25 outpatient prescription medications. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective cohorts were 0.739 and 0.732 respectively. Integration of our method into the HIN secure statewide data system in real time prospectively validated its performance. Cluster analysis in both the retrospective and prospective analyses revealed discrete subpopulations of high-risk patients, grouped around multiple "anchoring" demographics and chronic conditions. With the Web-based population risk-monitoring enterprise dashboards, the effectiveness of the active case finding algorithm has been validated by clinicians and caregivers in Maine. The active case finding model and associated real-time Web-based app were designed to track the evolving nature of total population risk, in a

  1. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  2. Assessment of living conditions of the Ukranian working-age population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    as many women performing the majority of the duties as men. About one-third of the respondents considered their profession to be prestigious, about half - average, a quarter – low prestige. Respondents: the working-age population of Ukraine – males aged 18-65, females aged 18-60. The sample is split up......, a quarter (24%) – performed the majority of the duties themselves, 20% – reported that the majority of the duties were performed by the other family member, 14% - all the duties were performed by the respondent, and only 5% – all the duties were performed by the other family member. There were four times...

  3. Recovery of the Erythropoietin-Sensitive Stem-Cell Population following Total-Body X-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byron, J. W. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1968-08-15

    Erythropoietin acts upon haemopoietic stem cells to initiate their differentiation into the erythroid series. This effect may be used in polycythaemic mice to estimate changes in the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population following total-body irradiation (TBR). Generally, single doses of erythropoietin, less than that needed for maximum stem-cell response, are used to estimate changes in the stem-cell population. The validity of results using this test is based upon accepting several assumptions regarding erythropoietin kinetics. These are: (a) the contribution of endogenous erythropoietin is always negligible; (b) the origin of the dose-response curve to erythropoietin alters only because of changes in stem-cell numbers; (c) the proportion of stem cells responding to a given concentration of erythropoietin is independent of stem-cell numbers; (d) the slope of the dose-response curve does not alter; and (e) competition between erythropoietin and other factors for the stem cells remains unchanged. The studies to be reported indicate that some of these assumptions m a y not always be valid. Following 150 rad TBR, changes in erythropoietin dose-response curves were not always due to changes in the size of the stem-cell population, but also due to changes in erythropoietin kinetics. Changes in erythropoietin kinetics could be corrected for by using doses of erythropoietin which at any particular time after TBR gave maximum stem-cell response; through full dose-response studies, the nature of changes in erythropoietin kinetics following TBR could be established. These studies appear to explain discrepancies in results obtained in different laboratories using the erythropoietin test. The effect of 150 rad TBR on the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population is an initial depression within 30 min to 20% of normal followed by a second depression (post-irradiation dip) at about 12 h. Twenty-four hours after TBR there is a recovery to the initial depression. This

  4. Digitized morphometric analysis of dental pulp of permanent mandibular second molar for age estimation of Davangere population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nerella Narendra; Panchaksharappa, Mamatha Gowda; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to estimate the age of Davangere population by evaluating the pulp to tooth area ratio (PTR) by using digitized intraoral periapical radiographs of permanent mandibular second molar. 400 intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) of permanent mandibular 2nd molar of both the sexes aged 14-60 years were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and PTR was calculated by AUTOCAD software. Intra and Inter observer variability was also assessed. Regression analysis was used to estimate the age of an individual by taking PTR as dependent variable. The mean PTR of males and females was 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 respectively. Negative correlation was observed, when age was compared with PTR {r = -0.441, -0.406 & -0.419 among males, females and total subjects (p AUTOCAD software. Also high differences were observed between estimated and chronological age of 12 years which is not in the acceptable range. But it provides a new window for research in the forensic sciences in estimating the adult age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. [Health problems of working-age population in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Tikhonova, G I

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with health problems of working-age population in the Russian Federation. According to foreign and domestic experts reduction of the able-bodied population and its fraction in the general population will be accompanied by ageing of labour force in the nearest two decades. Despite the growth of life expectancy in 2006-2007 demonstrated by disability, mortality and life expectancy indices for the age group of interest, its health status is considered to be critical. Mathematical simulation of mortality rates allowed for the assessment of potential years of life lost (PYLL) from leading causes of death among active working population. The data obtained provide a basis for the elaboration of medical and social programs aimed at increasing life expectancy. The most essential role in current negative tendencies in the health of active working population belongs to the deterioration of work conditions and safety at industrial enterprises coupled to low efficiency of occupational health prevention system accounting for the significantly reduced accessibility of health services. Restoration of occupational health system in Russia is of crucial importance. Experts of the Institute of Occupational Health have elaborated a draft National Action Plan designed to improve health protection of labour force in this country; its implementation would help to solve demographic problems and increase the amount and quality of labour force.

  6. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO₂ Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, David M; Erdem, Ayca; Huang, Chin Pao

    2018-03-25

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3-4.2 × 10⁶ cells/mL) at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L) caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO₂ NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae.

  7. Demographic transition and population ageing in India: Implications on the elderly of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing population of India will transform into the elderly in future. The issue of health of the elderly population in India has arrested the attention of health policy makers and the researchers, in the recent past. Demographic structure, quality of life, healthcare services and government planning have serious implications on the ageing population. The objective of the research article is to systematically and critically evaluate the impact of demographic transition, projected demographic indicators and changing population characteristics on the health status of the elderly persons living in India in the coming decades. Analysis and discussions are based on secondary data published by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India. The results indicate that India will be an ageing nation in the coming years and improvements in health, education and government planning are likely to enhance the life expectancy of the elderly, while the share of children will reduce, suggesting an increase in dependency of the older persons on the adult population. The article provides insights into workable solutions and suggests key recommendations to attain faster demographic dividend. India would be competing with the pressure of a dramatic demographic bulge in future.

  8. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Metzler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs. The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 cells/mL at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO2 NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae.

  9. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, David M.; Erdem, Ayca; Huang, Chin Pao

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 cells/mL) at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L) caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO2 NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae. PMID:29587381

  10. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  11. An aging population: relationships between socio-demographics, motivations and participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Robert C. Burns; Chad D. Pierskalla; Alan Graefe

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the outdoor recreation behavior of Oregon's aging population, including developing a socio-demographic profile and examining the importance of their current motivations with the importance of their expected motivations 10 years from now. A stratified random sample was drawn of Oregon residents, and a mailback questionnaire...

  12. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  13. Social Security Reform and Population Ageing in a Two-Sector Growth Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy.The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector and

  14. Social security reform and population ageing in a two-sector growth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groezen, Bas van; Meijdam, L.; Verbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the e¤ects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy. The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector. Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector

  15. The aging population in the twenty-first century: statistics for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilford, Dorothy M

    1988-01-01

    ... on Statistics for an Aging Population Sam Shapiro, Chair Committee on National Statistics Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative...

  16. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  17. Future challenges for clinical care of an ageing population infected with HIV: a modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Mikaela; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne; Smit, Colette; Thyagarajan, Kalyani; Sighem, Ard van; de Wolf, Frank; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    The population infected with HIV is getting older and these people will increasingly develop age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to quantify the scale of the change and the implications for HIV care in the Netherlands in the future. We constructed an individual-based model of the

  18. Health and quality of life in an aging population - Food and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacalone, Davide; Wendin, Karin; Kremer, Stefanie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Bredie, Wender L.P.; Olsson, Viktoria; Otto, Marie H.; Skjoldborg, Signe; Lindberg, Ulla; Risvik, Einar

    2016-01-01

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our

  19. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  20. Future requirements for and supply of ophthalmologists for an aging population in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Ansah (John); D.F. de Korne (Dirk); S. Bayer (Steffen); C. Pan (Chong); T. Jayabaskar (Thiyagarajan); D.B. Matchar (David); N. Lew (Nicola); A. Phua (Andrew); V. Koh (Victoria); E.L. Lamoureux (Ecosse); D. Quek (Desmond)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Background Singapore’s population, as that of many other countries, is aging; this is likely to lead to an increase in eye diseases and the demand for eye care. Since ophthalmologist training is long and expensive, early planning is essential. This paper forecasts workforce

  1. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  2. HIV/AIDS Interventions in an Aging U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 25 percent of people living with HIV in the United States in 2006 were age 50 and older. HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. Scholarly research has identified the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in the…

  3. From Demographic Dividend to Demographic Burden? : Regional Trends of Population Aging in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in...

  4. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  5. Patient-Reported Outcomes, Quality of Life, and Satisfaction Rates in Young Patients Aged 50 Years or Younger After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Graham Seow-Hng; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Tay, Darren Keng-Jin; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Yeo, Seng-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown a discrepancy between traditional functional outcomes and patient satisfaction, with some reporting less than 85% satisfaction in older patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). As native knee biomechanics are not completely replicated, the resulting functional limitations may cause dissatisfaction in higher-demand individuals. Few studies have recorded patient-reported outcomes, health-related quality of life scores, and patient satisfaction in a young population undergoing TKA. One hundred thirty-six primary TKAs were performed in 114 patients aged 50 years or younger (mean age, 47.0 years; range, 30-50 years) at a single institution. The main diagnoses were osteoarthritis (85%) and rheumatoid arthritis (10%). The range of motion, Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and Physical and Mental Component Scores of Short Form-36 increased significantly (P patients had good/excellent knee scores, 71.3% had good/excellent function scores, 94.9% met the minimal clinically important difference for the Oxford Knee Score, and 84.6% met the minimal clinically important difference for the Physical Component Score. We found that 88.8% of patients were satisfied with their surgeries, whereas 86.8% had their expectations fulfilled. Survivorship using revision as an end point was 97.8% at a mean of 7 years (range, 3-16 years). Patients aged 50 years or younger undergoing TKA can experience significant improvements in their quality of life, have their expectations met, and be satisfied with their surgeries, at rates similar to those of non-age-restricted populations. Surgeons should inform them of these benefits and the potential risk of revision surgery in the future, albeit increasingly shown to be low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mortality in Individuals Aged 80 and Older with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Blood Pressure, and Total Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shota; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate whether low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and total cholesterol (TC) are associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in very old individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Population-based cohort study. Primary care database in the United Kingdom. Individuals aged 80 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 25,966). Associations between baseline HbA1c, BP, and TC and all-cause mortality were evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, lifestyle variables, HbA1c, BP, TC, comorbidities, prescribing of antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs, and participants' general practice. There were 4,490 deaths during follow-up (median 2.0 years; mortality 104.7 per 1,000 person-years). Mortality in participants with low (type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further research is required to understand these associations and to identify optimal treatment targets in this population. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  8. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some economic consequences of an ageing and declining population in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, G W

    1983-01-01

    Figures for 1981 indicate that Denmark has a fertility level of 1.45 which has been below replacement level since 1968. In that same time period, natural increase has decreased from over 27,000 in 1968 to only 1354 in 1980 and a negative natural increase in 1981 with deaths outnumbering births by 3001. Even during the depression in the 1930's, net population increase was between 6-9/1000 with a fertility level which hovered around replacement level. At that time, the number of females in the childbearing ages was enough to provide population growth, whereas the number is much less today. Population increase is only 0.3/1000. The national population projections for Denmark for 1981-2010 assume an increase in the fertility level from 1.45-1.70 by 1991 after which it remains constant. The number of 20-39 year olds increased steadily until 1945 after which there was a decline as the cohorts from periods with low fertility levels entered this age group, but this was again followed by a steady increase to the present day. The number of females aged 0-39 years is expected to decrease in all age groups to the year 2000. Those aged 40-59 increased in numbers from 1920 to the mid 1960s, since then they have decreased in number, but an increase is forcast for the remainder of the century. The number of elderly females also increased steadily from 1930-80, from about 200,000 to over 550,000; this is expected to continue until 1990 when a short-term decline will set in. Regarding the economic and social consequences of these trends, it is shown that the present decline in fertility has its origins in a period of low unemployment and its negative growth while there was still relatively low unemployment and economic growth. In 1973 the unemployed rate was 0.9% of the work force and this rose to 9.2% in 1981. The Danish population has aged from one with 1/4 million people aged 60 and over at the turn of the century to about 1 million of that age today. Also, the aged themselves

  10. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  11. Rates of stillbirth by gestational age and cause in Inuit and First Nations populations in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Zoungrana, Hamado; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-04-02

    Inuit and First Nations populations have higher rates of stillbirth than non-Aboriginal populations in Canada do, but little is known about the timing and cause of stillbirth in Aboriginal populations. We compared gestational age- and cause-specific stillbirth rates in Inuit and First Nations populations with the rates in the non-Aboriginal population in Quebec. Data included singleton stillbirths and live births at 24 or more gestational weeks among Quebec residents from 1981 to 2009. We calculated odds ratios (ORs), rate differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the retrospective cohort of Inuit and First Nations births relative to non-Aboriginal births using fetuses at risk (i.e., ongoing pregnancies) as denominators and adjusting for maternal characteristics. The main outcomes were stillbirth by gestational age (24-27, 28-36, ≥ 37 wk) and cause of death. Rates of stillbirth per 1000 births were greater among Inuit (6.8) and First Nations (5.7) than among non-Aboriginal (3.6) residents. Relative to the non-Aboriginal population, the risk of stillbirth was greater at term (≥ 37 wk) than before term for both Inuit (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.8) and First Nations (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 3.3) populations. Causes most strongly associated with stillbirth were poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies among the Inuit, and hypertension and diabetes among the First Nations residents. Stillbirth rates in Aboriginal populations were particularly high at term gestation. Poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies were important causes of stillbirth among the Inuit, and diabetic and hypertensive complications were important causes in the First Nations population. Prevention may require improvements in pregnancy and obstetric care.

  12. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  13. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA

  14. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs, and prevalence ratios (PRs to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88 and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08 for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10 and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10, for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03, Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03, and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01. Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while

  15. Ecological dynamics of age selective harvesting of fish population: Maximum sustainable yield and its control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Debaldev; Agrawal, Rashmi; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Samanta, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Age-selective harvesting of prey and predator are considered by multi-delayed prey-predator system. • System experiences stable coexistence to oscillatory mode and vice versa via Hopf-bifurcation depending upon the parametric restrictions. • MSY, bionomic equilibrium and optimal harvesting policy are also depending upon the age-selection of prey and predator. • All the analytic results are delay dependent. • Numerical examples support the analytical findings. - Abstract: Life history of ecological resource management and empirical studies are increasingly documenting the impact of selective harvesting process on the evolutionary stable strategy of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In the present study, the interaction between population and their independent and combined selective harvesting are framed by a multi-delayed prey-predator system. Depending upon the age selection strategy, system experiences stable coexistence to oscillatory mode and vice versa via Hopf-bifurcation. Economic evolution of the system which is mainly featured by maximum sustainable yield (MSY), bionomic equilibrium and optimal harvesting vary largely with the commensurate age selections of both population because equilibrium population abundance becomes age-selection dependent. Our study indicates that balance between harvesting delays and harvesting intensities should be maintained for better ecosystem management. Numerical examples support the analytical findings.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors: Is the metabolic syndrome related to aging? Epidemiology in a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Armindo Sousa; Seixas, Rui; Gálvez, Juan Manuel; Climent, Vicente

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population. The secondary objective is to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric alterations and the prevalence of target organ damage and their relationship with aging. The sample for the study was obtained by means of a consecutive population-based demonstration in 803 adults over 18 years of age belonging to the labor force of the company Grupo Delta SA. The study was carried out according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The individuals included in the study voluntarily participated, once informed of the purpose of the study, giving their prior verbal consent, to the company's human resources department, in the case of Delta Group workers. 23.8% of the population has metabolic syndrome more prevalent in males, no smoking, no significant alcohol consumption, sedentary, with a high Body mass index (BMI). Its prevalence increases with age. We found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age and is present in people of working age, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, work-related absences, and socio-economic costs. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The longitudinal trajectory of post-surgical % total weight loss among middle-aged women who had undergone bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Chul Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Middle-aged women are at a higher risk of being obese. We examined the trajectory of post-surgical % total weight loss (%TWL among middle-aged female bariatric patients. We fitted sequential generalized estimating equations models to analyze a sample of women who received bariatric surgery in 1995–2012, aged 40–65 years at the time of surgery (N = 158,292 whose pre-operative body mass index (BMI was ≥30 kg/m2 in the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. The %TWL computed by 100% × (pre-surgery BMI − post-surgery BMI / pre-surgery BMI showed different trajectories depending on type of surgery. For gastric banding, %TWL increased rapidly right after bariatric surgery and started to decrease around 1 year after surgery. For Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy, %TWL overall did not show remarkable changes from around 1 year after surgery. The highest increase in %TWL was observed in patients whose pre-operative BMI was 40 or higher and those who had undergone RYGB (ps < 0.001. Whereas the trajectories of %TWL among patients with sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding did not differ much between different pre-operative BMI groups, the trajectories for RYGB were notably different between different pre-operative BMI groups (ps < 0.001. Middle-aged female bariatric patients are likely to achieve the highest %TWL if they receive RYGB and if their pre-operative BMI is 40 or higher. Further research is warranted to corroborate the present study's finding on the long-term effect of different types of bariatric surgery on %TWL among middle-aged women.

  18. Age and total and free prostate-specific antigen levels for predicting prostate volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Soner; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Keles, Ibrahim; Demirci, Hakan; Turkoglu, Ali Riza; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Karalar, Mustafa; Demirbas, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the predictive values of free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), total PSA (tPSA) and age on the prostate volume. The data of 2148 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had transrectal ultrasonography guided 10 core biopsies owing to the findings obtained on digital rectal examination and presence of high PSA levels (PSA = 2.5-10 ng/dl), and proven to have BPH histopathologically were included in the study. Age, tPSA, fPSA and the prostate volumes (PV) of the patients were noted. One thousand patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The PV of the patients were significantly correlated with age, tPSA and fPSA (p < 0.001 and r = 0.307, p < 0.001 and r = 0.382, p < 0.001 and r = 0.296, respectively). On linear regression model, fPSA was found as a stronger predictive for PV (AUC = 0.75, p < 0.001) when compared to age (AUC = 0.64, p < 0.001), and tPSA (AUC = 0.69, p = 0.013). Although tPSA is an important prognostic factor for predicting PV, the predictive value of fPSA is higher. PV can easily be predicted by using age, and serum tPSA and fPSA levels.

  19. Establishment of a paediatric age-related reference interval for the measurement of urinary total fractionated metanephrines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, Alison

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Normetanephrine and metanephrine are intermediate metabolites of noradrenaline and adrenaline metabolism. To assess whether normetanephrine and metanephrine analysis may aid in the diagnosis of Neuroblastoma, a reference interval for these metabolites must first be established. AIM: The overall aim of this study was to establish a paediatric age-related reference interval for the measurement of total fractionated metanephrines. METHODS: A total of 267 urine samples were analysed following acid hydrolysis. This releases the metanephrines from their sulphate-bound metabolites. The samples were analysed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electro-chemical detection on a Gilson automated sequential trace enrichment of dialysate sample system. RESULTS: Data were analysed using Minitab Release version 14. Outliers were removed using the Dixon\\/Reed one-third rule. Partitioning of the age groups was achieved using Harris and Boyd\\'s standard normal deviate test. Non-parametric analysis of the data was performed, followed by the establishment of the 2.5th and the 97.5th reference limits. CONCLUSIONS: The established reference intervals are described in Table 2.

  20. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand Grip Strength: age and gender stratified normative data in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006 which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.5. Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature.

  2. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in a Danish 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Cohort Compared to the Total Danish Population-A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Hoeffding, Louise K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We, therefore, conducted the first large-scale population based study on the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia...... in persons identified with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. METHODS: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all Danish citizens born during 1955-2004 and the cohort was followed from January 1, 1994 until December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed using survival analyses...... and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, and parental mental health history. RESULTS: A total of 156 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were identified, out of which 6 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders following identification with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Identified...

  3. The Influence of Migration on Population Ageing in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic research in regard to the islands of Cres and Lošinj belongs in the domain of small population studies. Throughout history, and especially after World War II, the islands experienced very strong emigration and later immigration processes. After fifty or more years of continual emigration, immigration began on the island of Lošinj in the 1960s, and on Cres in the 1970s. This reversal from strong depopulation to a significant increase in the size of the population, if the islands are examined as a whole, reveals certain demographic particularities in comparison with other Croatian islands. The long-term reduction of the birth rate and prolonged emigration from settlements in the interior of Cres and from all the islands of the Lošinj archipelago has been the cause of many elderly, single-person and abandoned households. All the analytical indicators pertaining to the age structure are above the threshold which marks the beginning of population ageing. The average age on all the islands has for over thirty years been well above 30, whereas in the Lošinj archipelago it has been above the reproductive age – i.e. about 50. The age coefficient varies between 14.02 for Lošinj and 49.22 for Ilovik. The island of Lošinj itself has the youngest population, and hence the lowest indicators of ageing. The burden on the working-age contingent on each island has changed at a different rate and in a different direction during the last three inter-census periods. The co-efficient of dependency of the young is increasing on all the islands, while the co-efficient of dependency of the elderly age groups is falling on Lošinj, Ilovik, Unije and Cres. The reduction of the birth rate and the negative migration balance caused by high emigration of mainly young, unmarried males has caused a seks ratio imbalance in favour of females. The general co-efficient of females, according to the 1991 census was between 105.7 on Lošinj and 145.5 on Unije. The

  4. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borné, Yan; Smith, J Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and mixed cells) were analyzed in 26,667 men and women, 45-73 years old, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Information about the R262W polymorphism (rs3184504) in SH2B3 was genotyped in 24,489 subjects. Incidence of diabetes was studied during a mean follow-up of 14 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine incidence of diabetes by total and differential leukocyte counts. Mendelian randomization analysis using R262W as an instrumental variable was performed with two-stage least squares regression. A total of 2,946 subjects developed diabetes during the follow-up period. After taking several possible confounders into account, concentrations of total leukocyte count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were all significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; quartile 4 vs quartile 1) were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) for total leukocytes, 1.33 (1.19-1.49) for neutrophils and 1.29 (1.15-1.44) for lymphocytes. The R262W polymorphism was strongly associated with leukocytes (0.11x109 cells/l per T allele, p = 1.14 x10-12), lymphocytes (p = 4.3 x10-16), neutrophils (p = 8.0 x10-6) and mixed cells (p = 3.0 x10-6). However, there was no significant association between R262W and fasting glucose, HbA1c or incidence of diabetes. Concentrations of total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes are associated with incidence of diabetes. However, the lack of association with the R262W polymorphism suggests that the associations

  5. The prognosis of impaired left ventricular systolic function and heart failure in a middle-aged and elderly population in an urban population segment of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Ilan; Mehlsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Frants

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample.......To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample....

  6. Prevalence of severe acute malnutrition and associated sociodemographic factors among children aged 6 months–5 years in rural population of Northern India: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 documented that nearly 57 million children are undernourished in India, which is one-third of the world's share. We planned a study to identify the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM among children aged <5 years in a rural population of Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 2 blocks of District Meerut during 2012–2014. A total of 70 villages were identified and all children in the age group 6–60 months were approached through house-to-house visits. Data on sociodemographic profile and anthropometry were collected utilizing standards methods and equipment. The Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (WHZ were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO reference data as standard. SAM (severe wasting was defined as per the WHO criteria (WHZ score −3 standard deviation or severe visible wasting or bipedal edema. Results: A total of 19,449 children were screened and 18,463 children (age, 32.6 ± 15.4 years, and 53.4% males were enrolled, and 466 were excluded due to erroneous age estimation and physical deformities. The prevalence of SAM was 2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.02–2.44%, (409/18,463. Multivariate logistic regression documented age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.98, nuclear family (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54, lower occupation of head of family (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.59, and lower paternal education (OR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.91 as independent predictor of SAM. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAM was lower (2.2% in this Northern district of India as compared to national prevalence (7.9%. Younger age, nuclear family, lower parental education, and poor occupation of the head of the family predispose a child to SAM.

  7. Disability in society-medical and non-medical determinants for disability pension in a Norwegian total county population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sociomedical determinants and developments for the medically based disability pension in Norway by linking individual based data from a county health survey to data on disability from the National Insurance Administration. Two cross-sectional total population health surveys with an approximate 10-year interval were conducted in Nord-Trøndelag county, HUNT I (1984-86) and HUNT II (1995-97), which allows for analyses of changes over time, supplied with official incidence data on disability pension. The large-scale variations and overall increasing incidence rates of disability pension in Norway during the last 20 years also applied to the county of Nord-Trøndelag. The prevalence of disability pension generally increased in the population from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. A striking finding was a consistent pattern of increasing prevalence of disability pension with decreasing socio-economic status and education. A geographic pattern for disability pension prevalence on a municipality level suggested that structural and cultural factors were important in determining the level of disability in society. Medical determinants alone cannot explain either the dramatic variations or the overall increased incidence rates of disability pension in the last two decades in Norway. The results demonstrate the importance of social, non-medical and contextual determinants for disability pension, how these determinants result in important prevalence differences by socio-economic status, and their impact on the level of disability in society.

  8. Assessment of the Swedish EQ-5D experience-based value sets in a total hip replacement population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Szilárd; Burström, Kristina; Zethraeus, Niklas; Eneqvist, Ted; Garellick, Göran; Rolfson, Ola

    2015-12-01

    All patients undergoing elective total hip replacement (THR) in Sweden are asked to complete a survey, including the EQ-5D. Thus far, EQ-5D values have been presented using the UK TTO value set based on hypothetical values. Shift to the use of the recently introduced Swedish experience-based value set, derived from a representative Swedish population, is an appealing alternative. To investigate how accurate the Swedish experience-based VAS value set predicts observed EQ VAS values and to compare correlations between Swedish and UK value sets including two provisional value sets derived from the THR population. Pre- and one-year postoperative data from 56,062 THR patients from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register were used. Agreement between the observed and the predicted EQ VAS values was assessed with correlation. Based on pre- and postoperative data, we constructed two provisional VAS value sets. Correlations between observed and calculated values using the Swedish VAS value set were moderate (r = 0.46) in preoperative data and high (r = 0.72) in postoperative data. Correlations between UK and register-based value sets were constantly lower compared to Swedish value sets. Register-based values and Swedish values were highly correlated. The Swedish value sets are more accurate in terms of representation of the Swedish THR patients than the currently used UK TTO value set. We find it feasible to use the experience-based Swedish value sets for further presentation of EQ-5D values in the Swedish THR population.

  9. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  10. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, V A; Atkinson, P M; Pezzulo, C; Sorichetta, A; Weiss, D; Bird, T; Erbach-Schoenberg, E; Tatem, A J

    2015-04-06

    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings.

  12. Evaluation of PSA-age volume score in predicting prostate cancer in Chinese populationArticle Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Guang-Liang; Yu, Yang; Tong, Shi-Jun; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Mao, Shan-Hua; Na, Rong; Ding, Qiang

    2018-02-06

    This study was performed to evaluate prostate-specific antigen-age volume (PSA-AV) scores in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) in a Chinese biopsy population. A total of 2355 men who underwent initial prostate biopsy from January 2006 to November 2015 in Huashan Hospital were recruited in the current study. The PSA-AV scores were calculated and assessed together with PSA and PSA density (PSAD) retrospectively. Among 2133 patients included in the analysis, 947 (44.4%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean age, PSA, and positive rates of digital rectal examination result and transrectal ultrasound result were statistically higher in men diagnosed with PCa (all P PSA-AV were 0.864 and 0.851, respectively, in predicting PCa in the entire population, both performed better than PSA (AUC = 0.805; P PSA-AV was more obvious in subgroup with PSA ranging from 2.0 ng ml-1 to 20.0 ng ml-1. A PSA-AV score of 400 had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.7% and 40.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the PSA-AV score performed equally with PSAD and was better than PSA in predicting PCa. This indicated that PSA-AV score could be a useful tool for predicting PCa in Chinese population.

  13. Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshawar, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, A.; Shah, A.S.; Sultana, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension, a condition developed as a result of high blood pressure is strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Obesity was noted to be a single best predictor of hypertension incidence, and was regarded as a major controllable contributor to hypertension. Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI. Present study was conducted in Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to investigate the relation of hypertension with BMI and age. The objective of the present investigation is to establish a relationship between hypertension and BMI in male and female population of Peshawar with consideration of age. Methods: This study was conducted at KMC, Peshawar during 2008-2009. A total of 1006 adult male and female volunteers were the subject of present research and were categorised in terms of their ages. BMI was determined from weight and height; the subjects were grouped as normal, overweight and obese. Hypertension was determined from the measure of blood pressure. Results: The results show a consistence relation between BMI and hypertension within age groups in both male and females. The figures exhibited a relation of age with BMI and hypertension in both males and females subjects. Conclusion: The results showed a higher trend of hypertension with increasing BMI. In young females it was noted that with a shift from normal BMI the incidence of hypertension was very high. (author)

  14. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  15. Cross-population validation of statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Legault, Véronique; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Measuring physiological dysregulation during aging could be a key tool both to understand underlying aging mechanisms and to predict clinical outcomes in patients. However, most existing indices are either circular or hard to interpret biologically. Recently, we showed that statistical distance of 14 common blood biomarkers (a measure of how strange an individual's biomarker profile is) was associated with age and mortality in the WHAS II data set, validating its use as a measure of physiological dysregulation. Here, we extend the analyses to other data sets (WHAS I and InCHIANTI) to assess the stability of the measure across populations. We found that the statistical criteria used to determine the original 14 biomarkers produced diverging results across populations; in other words, had we started with a different data set, we would have chosen a different set of markers. Nonetheless, the same 14 markers (or the subset of 12 available for InCHIANTI) produced highly similar predictions of age and mortality. We include analyses of all combinatorial subsets of the markers and show that results do not depend much on biomarker choice or data set, but that more markers produce a stronger signal. We conclude that statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation is stable across populations in Europe and North America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  17. Evaluation of Distal Femoral Rotational Alignment with Spiral CT Scan before Total Knee Arthroplasty (A Study in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Jabalameli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the landmarks for rotation of the distal femur is a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Although the posterior femoral condyle axis is a good landmark for surgeons, the surgical transepicondylar axis may be a better option with the help of preoperative CT scanning. The purpose of this study was to ascertain relationships among the axes’ guiding distal femur rotational alignment in preoperative CT scans of Iranian patients who were candidates for total knee arthroplasty and the effects of age, gender, and knee alignment on these relationships. Methods: One hundred and eight cases who were admitted to two university hospitals for total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. The rotation of the distal femur was evaluated using single axial CT images through the femoral epicondyle. Four lines were drawn digitally in this view: anatomical and surgical transepicondylar axes, posterior condylar axis and the Whiteside anteroposterior line. The alignment of the extremity was evaluated in the standing alignment view. Then the angles were measured along these lines and their relationship was evaluated. Results: The mean angle between the anatomical transepicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis and between the surgical transepicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis were 5.9 ± 1.6 degrees and 1.6±1.7 degrees respectively. The mean angle between the Whiteside’s anteroposterior line and the line perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis was 3.7±2.1 degrees. Significant differences existed between the two genders in these relationships. No significant correlation between the age of patients and angles of the distal femur was detected. The anatomical surgical transepicondylar axis was in 4.3 degrees external rotation in relation to the surgical transepicondylar axis. Conclusion: Preoperative CT scanning can help accurately determine rotational landmarks of the distal femur. If one of the reference axes cannot be

  18. [Loss of total 5-methylcytosine from the genome during cell culture aging coincides with the Hayflick limit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1993-01-01

    Analyzing the data about the age-related 5-methylcytosine (5mC) loss from DNA of cell cultures, the following conclusions have been made: 1. The rate of 5mC loss from DNA does not depend on the cell donor age; it remains constant during the logarithmic phase of cell growth, and may vary significantly in different cell lines. 2. The rate is inversely proportional to their Hayflick limit and to the species lifespan of cell donors. 3. In immortal cell lines the 5mC content in DNA is stable or increases with aging. 4. Hayflick limit estimations coincide with or are lower than the number of cell population doublings that corresponds to all 5mC loss from cell genome. A simple and fast method has been proposed for Hayflick limit prognostication by analysis of the rate of DNA hypomethylation. It may be used for early diagnosis of precrisis and immortal cell lines. Evidence has been obtained that age-dependent 5mC loss from DNA is the result of accumulating 5mC-->T+C substitutions that occur during DNA methylation in every cell division. The loss of all genomic 5mC residues during the lifespan may correspond to accumulation of about 3 x 10(6) 5mC-->T transitions or, on average, one mutation per gene. This may be one of the main reasons of the "catastrophe of errors" and cessation of cell proliferation. It is calculated that the rate of 5mC-->T transitions in normal cells may be 2.3 x 10(-5) per site in each cell doubling in human, 6 x 10(-5) in hamster, and 4.6 x 10(-4) in mouse. DNA methylation as a generator of mutations may be a "counter" of cell divisions and thus be one of the molecular mechanisms of the Hayflick phenomenon. The conclusion is made that the DNA methylation system may be considered as a genetically programmed mechanism for accumulating mutations during cell aging.

  19. Neuropsychologic status at the age 4 years and atopy in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julvez, J; Torrent, M; Guxens, M; Antó, J M; Guerra, S; Sunyer, J

    2009-09-01

    Mental health has been reported to be associated with allergy, but only a few cohort studies have assessed if neurodevelopment predicts atopy. To investigate if neurobehavioral status of healthy 4-year-old children was associated with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) at the same age and skin prick test results 2 years later. A population-based birth cohort enrolled 482 children, 422 of them (87%) provided neurobehavioral data, 341 (71%) had specific IgE measured at the age of 4 years; and 395 (82%) had skin prick tests completed at the age of 6 years. Atopy was defined as IgE levels higher than 0.35 kU/l to any of the three tested allergens at the age of 4 or as a positive skin prick test to any of the six tested allergens at the age of 6. McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities and California Preschool Social Competence Scale were the psychometric instruments used. Twelve percent of children at the age of 4 and 17% at the age of 6 were atopic. Neurobehavioral scores were negatively associated with 6-year-old atopy after adjustment for socio-demographic and allergic factors, A relative risk of 3.06 (95% CI: 1.30-7.24) was associated with the lowest tertile (scorings eczema at the age of 6, but not at the age of 4, were associated with neurodevelopment at the age of 4. Neuropsychologic functioning and later atopy are negatively associated in preschool age children.

  20. Dyslipidemia and its risk factors among urban middle-aged Iranians: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in an urban group of Iranian adult population. In this study, based on the criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was evaluated in a population of 4737 people aged 45-69 years who participated in the second phase of an ophthalmology cohort study in Shahroud. Dyslipidemia prevalence was determined by age, sex, and risk factors of the disease; the findings were tested by using simple and multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.5% (CI 95%: 64.4-68.6) in males, 61.3% (CI 95%: 59.5-63.2) in females, and 63.4% (CI 95%: 62.0-64.9%) in both sexes. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C, respectively, was 28.8%, 13.4%, 42.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression model, increase of age (for females), abdominal obesity, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with an increased odd of dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in middle-aged urban population in Iran is high, and with increasing age there is an increased risk of dyslipidemia. Hence, considering the growing trend of aging in Iran, there is need for taking special measures to deal with dyslipidemia as a health priority. Furthermore, the need for planning in order to reduce the risk of dyslipidemia and prevent its complications is greater than ever. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M

    1994-12-01

    A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

  2. Ten Year Follow-Up of Gap Balanced, Rotating Platform Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients Under 60 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H; Barnett, Steven L; Patel, Jay J; Nassif, Nader A; Cummings, Dennis J; Gorab, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    68 patients (91 primary total knee arthroplasties) were evaluated at a mean 10-year, minimum 5 year follow up in patients younger than sixty years of age utilizing the gap balanced, rotating platform design. Follow up assessment included implant survivorship, adverse events, x-rays, Knee Society rating system and clinical evaluation. Three revisions were performed with only one for aseptic loosening at 45 months. Two manipulations were performed in the early postoperative period. Survivorship of the rotating platform, gap balanced knee was 96.7% using surgical revision for any reason and 98.9% using aseptic loosening as endpoints. The rotating platform design using the gap balancing technique in young patients had excellent survivorship at 10-year mean follow up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of population ageing on the social security expenditure and economic growth in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, N

    1987-05-01

    The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt

  4. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Christiansen-Jucht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors.

  5. The implications of increased survivorship for mortality variation in aging populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelman, Michal; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Agree, Emily M

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable growth in life expectancy during the twentieth century inspired predictions of a future in which all people, not just a fortunate few, will live long lives ending at or near the maximum human life span. We show that increased longevity has been accompanied by less variation in ages...... at death, but survivors to the oldest ages have grown increasingly heterogeneous in their mortality risks. These trends are consistent across countries, and apply even to populations with record-low variability in the length of life. We argue that as a result of continuing improvements in survival, delayed...

  6. Dental care for aging populations in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Vigild, Merete; Nitschke, Ina

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews access to and financing of dental care for aging populations in selected nations in Europe. Old age per se does not seem to be a major factor in determining the use of dental services. Dentition status, on the other hand, is a major determinant of dental attendance. In additi...... in Europe as well as in the United States....... dentistry discourage dentists from seeking opportunities to treat geriatric patients? Overall, the availability of dental services, the organization of the dental health care delivery system, and price subsidy for dental treatment are important factors influencing access to dental care among older people...

  7. Will generalist physician supply meet demands of an increasing and aging population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, Jack M; Cultice, James M; Kruse, Robin L

    2008-01-01

    We predict that population growth and aging will increase family physicians' and general internists' workloads by 29 percent between 2005 and 2025. We expect a 13 percent increased workload for care of children by pediatricians and family physicians. However, the supply of generalists for adult care, adjusted for age and sex, will increase 7 percent, or only 2 percent if the number of graduates continues to decline through 2008. We expect deficits of 35,000-44,000 adult care generalists, although the supply for care of children should be adequate. These forces threaten the nation's foundation of primary care for adults.

  8. High Satisfaction and Return to Sports After Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Aged 55 Years and Younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Sinatro, Alec; Wu, Hao-Hua; Dines, Joshua S; Warren, Russell F; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2017-06-01

    Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution. Exclusion criteria included age at the time of surgery >55 years and sports questionnaire, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. From 70 eligible patients, 59 patients (61 shoulders) were included with an average follow-up of 61.0 months (range, 25-103 months) and average age at the time of surgery of 48.9 years (range, 25-55 years). The average VAS score improved from 5.6 to 0.9 ( P sports. Moreover, patients in 96.4% of shoulders (55/57) restarted at least 1 sport at an average of 6.7 months. Direct rates of return were as follows: fitness sports (97.2%), golf (93.3%), singles tennis (87.5%), swimming (77.7%), basketball (75.0%), and flag football (66.7%). Patients in 47 shoulders (82.4%) returned to a similar or higher level of sports; 90.3% returned to high-demand sports, and 83.8% returned to high upper extremity sports. There was no significant difference in rates of return to sports by body mass index, sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, revision status, and dominant extremity. In patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA, there was a 96.4% rate of return to ≥1 previous sports at an average of 6.7 months. Furthermore, at an average follow-up of 61.0 months, no patients needed revision of their glenoid component, despite an 83.8% rate of return to high upper extremity sports. While caution should still be advised in young, active patients undergoing TSA, these results demonstrate a high satisfaction rate and improved ability to return to most sports after surgery.

  9. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An Epidemiologic Study on Ageing and Dysphagia in the Acute Care Geriatric-Hospitalized Population: A Replication and Continuation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Agogo, George O; Cooney, Leo M

    2016-10-01

    United States census data project dramatic increases in the geriatric population ageing demographics by 2060 with concomitant health-care consequences. The purpose of this replication and continuation study was to collect new 2014 demographic data relative to ageing, swallow evaluation referral rates, and oral feeding status in geriatric-hospitalized patients for comparison with published data from 2000 to 2007. This was a planned data acquisition study of consecutive hospitalized patients referred for swallow assessments. Swallow evaluation referral rates for 2014 were described according to inpatient discharges, age range 60-105 years grouped by decade, gender, admitting diagnostic category, results of swallow evaluations, and oral feeding status. Determination of aspiration risk status was made with the Yale Swallow Protocol and diagnosis of dysphagia made with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). There were 1348 referrals and 961 patients ≥60 years of age participated. Overall swallow evaluation referral rates increased an average of 63 % between the comparison years 2007 and 2014 with consistent increases corresponding to the decades, i.e., 60-69 (46 %), 70-79 (68 %), 80-89 (53 %), and 90+ (222 %). A total of 75 % of participants resumed oral alimentation and oral medications. Swallow evaluation referral rates increased by 63 % for 60-90+ year-old acute care geriatric-hospitalized participants despite only a 23 % increase in inpatient discharges for the years 2007 versus 2014. This corroborated previously reported increases for individual years from 2000 to 2007. For timely, safe, and successful initiation of oral alimentation, it is important to perform a reliable swallow screen for aspiration risk assessment with the Yale Swallow Protocol and, if failed, instrumental testing with FEES. More dysphagia specialists are needed through 2060 and beyond due to projections of continued population ageing resulting in ever increasing

  11. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population : A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Marinovic, Axe A. Bonacic; de Rond, Lia G. H.; van Maurik, Marian; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group

  12. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population: A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M H; Bonacic Marinovic, Axel A; de Rond, Lia G H; van Maurik, Marjan; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group for vaccine

  13. Depression in older people : meeting the challenges of an ageing population

    OpenAIRE

    Raeburn, Alison Somers

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in part fulfilment of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. It comprises two parts: a systematic review and an empirical research study. These are two distinct articles both aiming to provide insight into the challenges of late life depression. Firstly, the ageing population will mean that mental health services are likely to see an increase in older people with depression, many of whom will have neurological conditions common in late life, inc...

  14. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jovi?i?, Ana ?.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...

  15. Designing Fit for Purpose Health and Social Services for Ageing Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is occurring in all countries, regardless of the level of economic development. While the rising burden of chronic diseases and disabilities as a consequence of this demographic transition is well recognized, the increasing prevalence of geriatric syndromes as a public health issue is not as well recognized. Recently the World Health Organization’s World Health and Ageing Report emphasized functional ability as an important outcome for aging populations, highlighting the concept of raising intrinsic capacity throughout the life course. The complementary perspective is the prevention of frailty, which has physical, cognitive, social and psychological dimensions. Therefore, services for older people should encompass medical as well as social components. The need and evolution for a transition in health and social services in Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China which has a population with the world’s highest life expectancy, is presented as an example of how one developed economy attempts to meet the challenges of population ageing. There is a need to shift to integrated care in the community instead of specialty dominated hospital care, and to establish regular activities in the community to adopt and maintain a lifestyle that reduces frailty and disability (or promotes intrinsic capacity. A top down approach with financial incentives, together with public education to help drive policy changes, are key drivers of change. It is expected that there will be much heterogeneity between different countries in terms of barriers and facilitators, such that each country needs to document their needs and design appropriate services.

  16. Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Seychelles population aged 50 to 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Patrick; Madeleine, George; Riesen, Walter; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its risk factors are well known in Western countries but few data are available from low- and middle- income countries. We are not aware of systematically collected population- based data on AAA in the African region. We evaluated the prevalence of AAA in a population- based cardiovascular survey conducted in the Republic of Seychelles in 2004 (Indian Ocean, African region). Among the 353 participants aged 50 to 64 years and screened with ultrasound, the prevalence of AAA was 0.3% (95% CI: 0- 0.9) and the prevalence of ectatic dilatations of the abdominal aorta was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2- 2.8). The prevalence of AAA in the general population seemed lower in Seychelles than in Western countries, despite a high prevalence in Seychelles of risk factors of AAA, such as smoking (in men), high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia.

  17. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  18. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (pnutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Physical Activity and Obesity on Type 2 Diabetes in a Middle-Aged Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of physical activities such as occupational, household and daily lifestyle activities and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged population. Methods. All people (n = 2053), aged 45-64 years were selected for this study from the large sample of population-based cross-sectional data collected in the 1990-1994 by National Health Survey of Pakistan. The participants completed in-person interviews at baseline; the overall response rate was 92.6%. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of developing the type 2 diabetes. Results. Stair climbing was found to be inversely associated with the risk of diabetes and cycling was also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (RR=0.82; 95% CI 0.68 1.00, P=.048). The relationship between physical activity and reduced risk of diabetes adjusted for age and body mass index was statistically significant only in women (P<.01). Conclusions. This study provides an incentive that physical activity in leisure-time exercise or daily activity reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population.

  20. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanna Merli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1 masculine sex ratios at birth and (2 a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase in behaviors associated with greater risk of HIV infection. We first simulate the relative contributions of the sex ratio at birth and the population age structure to the oversupply of males in the market for sexual partners and show that the sex ratio at birth only aggravates the severe oversupply of males which is primarily a consequence of the population age structure. We then examine the potential consequences of this demographic distortion for the spread of HIV infection and show that, to the extent that males adapt to the dearth of suitable female partners by seeking unprotected sexual contacts with female sex workers, the impact of the oversupply of males in the sexual partnership market on the spread of HIV will be severe.

  1. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  2. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Burden of total and cause-specific mortality related to tobacco smoking among adults aged ≥ 45 years in Asia: a pooled analysis of 21 cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest.We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51 and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58 elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2% and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0% of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700. Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y.Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented. Please see later in the article for

  4. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tao; Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xijie

    2016-01-01

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ"1"5N and δ"1"3C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540–2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540–1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. - Highlights: • Emperor penguin colonized at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic as early as AD 1540. • Populations of emperor penguin at Amanda Bay increase during the little ice age. • Depleted N isotope ratios of Emperor penguins during the LIA were observed.

  5. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Tao, E-mail: huangt@ahu.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Liguang, E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yin, Xijie [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540–2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540–1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. - Highlights: • Emperor penguin colonized at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic as early as AD 1540. • Populations of emperor penguin at Amanda Bay increase during the little ice age. • Depleted N isotope ratios of Emperor penguins during the LIA were observed.

  6. Variation in Use of Pediatric Cardiology Subspecialty Care: A Total Population Study in California, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Lisa J; Fernandes, Susan M; Saynina, Olga; Grady, Stafford; Sanders, Lee; Staves, Kelly; Wise, Paul H

    2015-07-07

    American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines emphasize regionalized systems of care for pediatric chronic illness. There remains a paucity of information on the status of regionalized systems of care for pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD). This study evaluated variations in use of pediatric cardiology specialty care centers (PCSCC) for pediatric patients with CHD in California between 1983 and 2011. We performed a retrospective, total population analysis of pediatric CHD patients using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development unmasked database. PCSCCs were identified by California's Title V program. There were 164,310 discharges meeting inclusion criterion. Discharges from PCSCCs grew from 58% to 88% between 1983 and 2011. Regionalized care was highest for surgical (96%) versus nonsurgical (71%) admissions. Admissions with a public payer increased from 42% (1983) to 61% (2011). Total bed days nearly doubled, and median length of stay increased from 2 to 3 days (nonspecialty care) and from 4 to 5 days (specialty care). There was a decrease in the pediatric CHD in-hospital death rate from 5.1 to 2.3 per 100,000 between 1983 and 2011, and a shift toward a larger percent of deaths occurring in the newborn period. California's inpatient regionalized specialty care of pediatric CHD has increased substantially since 1983, especially for surgical CHD discharges. The death rate has decreased, the number of bed days has increased, and a large proportion of these discharges now have public payers. Health care reform efforts must consider these shifts while protecting advances in regionalization of pediatric CHD care. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of total hip and knee replacements for the Australian population with osteoarthritis: discrete-event simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Higashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis constitutes a major musculoskeletal burden for the aged Australians. Hip and knee replacement surgeries are effective interventions once all conservative therapies to manage the symptoms have been exhausted. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of hip and knee replacements in Australia. To our best knowledge, the study is the first attempt to account for the dual nature of hip and knee osteoarthritis in modelling the severities of right and left joints separately. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a discrete-event simulation model that follows up the individuals with osteoarthritis over their lifetimes. The model defines separate attributes for right and left joints and accounts for several repeat replacements. The Australian population with osteoarthritis who were 40 years of age or older in 2003 were followed up until extinct. Intervention effects were modelled by means of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs averted. Both hip and knee replacements are highly cost effective (AUD 5,000 per DALY and AUD 12,000 per DALY respectively under an AUD 50,000/DALY threshold level. The exclusion of cost offsets, and inclusion of future unrelated health care costs in extended years of life, did not change the findings that the interventions are cost-effective (AUD 17,000 per DALY and AUD 26,000 per DALY respectively. However, there was a substantial difference between hip and knee replacements where surgeries administered for hips were more cost-effective than for knees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both hip and knee replacements are cost-effective interventions to improve the quality of life of people with osteoarthritis. It was also shown that the dual nature of hip and knee OA should be taken into account to provide more accurate estimation on the cost-effectiveness of hip and knee replacements.

  8. Age-associated impact on presentation and outcome for penetrating thoracic trauma in the adult and pediatric patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollberg, Nathan M; Tabachnick, Deborah; Lin, Fang-Ju; Merlotti, Gary J; Varghese, Thomas K; Arensman, Robert M; Massad, Malek G

    2014-02-01

    Studies reporting on penetrating thoracic trauma in the pediatric population have been limited by small numbers and implied differences with the adult population. Our objectives were to report on a large cohort of pediatric patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma and to determine age-related impacts on management and outcome through comparison with an adult cohort. A Level I trauma center registry was queried between 2006 and 2012. All patients presenting with penetrating thoracic trauma were identified. Patient demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, admission physiology, and outcome were recorded. Patients were compared, and outcomes were analyzed based on age at presentation, with patients 17 years or younger defining our pediatric cohort. A total of 1,423 patients with penetrating thoracic trauma were admitted during the study period. Two hundred twenty patients (15.5%) were pediatric, with 205 being adolescents (13-17 years) and 15 being children (≤ 12 years). In terms of management for the pediatric population, tube thoracostomy alone was needed in 32.7% (72 of 220), whereas operative thoracic exploration was performed in 20.0% (44 of 220). Overall mortality was 13.6% (30 of 220). There was no significant difference between the pediatric and adult population with regard to injury mechanism or severity, need for therapeutic intervention, operative approach, use of emergency department thoracotomy, or outcome. Stepwise logistic regression failed to identify age as a predictor for the need for either therapeutic intervention or mortality between the two age groups as a whole. However, subgroup analysis revealed that being 12 years or younger (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-11.4) was an independent predictor of mortality. Management of traumatic penetrating thoracic injuries in terms of the need for therapeutic intervention and operative approach was similar between the adult and pediatric populations. Mortality from

  9. Knowledge about factors that influence fertility among Australians of reproductive age: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Setter, Tracey; Norman, Robert J; Holden, Carol A; Michelmore, Janet; Johnson, Louise

    2013-02-01

    To explore knowledge about the effects on fertility of age, obesity, smoking, and timing of intercourse among Australians of reproductive age. Telephone survey of a representative sample of Australians. Not applicable. Australians aged 18 to 45 years who wish to have a child or another child now or in the future. None. Knowledge about the effect on fertility of age, obesity, smoking, and timing of intercourse. A total of 462 interviews were conducted. The majority of respondents underestimated, by about 10 years, the age at which male and female fertility starts to decline. Only one in four correctly identified that female fertility starts to decline before age 35, and one in three identified that male fertility starts to decline before age 45. Most (59%) were aware that female obesity and smoking affect fertility, but fewer recognized that male obesity (30%) and smoking (36%) also influence fertility. Almost 40% of respondents had inadequate knowledge of when in the menstrual cycle a woman is most likely to conceive. Considerable knowledge gaps about modifiable factors that affect fertility were identified. These are targeted in a national education campaign to promote awareness of factors that influence fertility. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of natural tooth colour with aging in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Polo, Cristina; Gómez Polo, Miguel; Montero, Javier; Martínez Vazquez De Parga, Juan Antonio; Celemin Viñuela, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    To analyse natural tooth colour in the Spanish population according to the colour coordinates lightness (L*), chroma (C*), hue (h*), red-green axis (a*) and yellow-blue axis (b*) in order to quantify the correlation and changes of tooth colour with age and sex. Natural tooth colour was measured in a sample of 1,361 Spanish participants of both sexes distributed within an age range of 16 to 89 years. The Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer was used and the CIELAB and CIELCh systems were followed. Pearson's bivariate correlations between age and colour coordinates were highly significant for L* (r=-0.674, P≤0.001), h* (r=-0.468, P≤0.001) and C* (r=0.417, P≤0.001). The correlation between age and colour coordinates was stronger for men than for women, for all colour coordinates. The results showed that C*, b* and a* increased by 0.60, 0.56 and 0.26 units/year on average, respectively, whereas L* and h* decreased progressively with age (by 0.60 units/year, on average), and colour differences increased in a systematic way as the gap between the ages being compared grew wider. The strongest correlation was found between age and L*, then between age and h* (both inverse relationships) and then between age and a*, C* and b* (direct relationships). In addition, a similar degree of change in the colour coordinates L*, C* and h* (of 0.60 units/year on average) was observed for natural tooth colour. Knowledge of the chromatic range of natural teeth may help to choose colour for the replacement of missing elements. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Age-specific association of migraine with cryptogenic TIA and stroke: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M

    2015-10-27

    To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2012). Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-2.16, p TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. © Crown copyright 2014.

  13. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ribeiro do Couto, Bruno; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    Sleep quality has a significant impact on health and quality of life and is affected, among other factors, by age and sex. However, the prevalence of problems in this area in the general population is not well known. Therefore, our objective was to study the prevalence and main characteristics of sleep quality in an adult population sample. 2,144 subjects aged between 43 and 71 years belonging to the Murcia (Spain) Twin Registry. Sleep quality was measured by self-report through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the results. The prevalence of poor sleep quality stands at 38.2%. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that women were almost twice as likely as men (OR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.54 to 2.28) to have poor quality of sleep. Age was directly and significantly associated with a low quality of sleep (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.06). The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  15. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  16. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Ageing and chronic diseases in Senegal. A comparison between rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboz, P; Touré, M; Hane, F; Macia, E; Coumé, M; Bâ, A; Boëtsch, G; Guèye, L; Chapuis-Lucciani, N

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare the prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity in rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) Senegalese populations aged 50 and over. The survey was conducted on individuals aged 50 and older living in the rural area (N=478) and in the urban area (N=220). We have collected data about age, gender, marital status, education level, and knowledge, treatment of hypertension, height, weight and blood pressure. We have observed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban area (Dakar) than in the rural one (Ferlo). The risk of overweight or obesity decreased when age increased, and women had weight problems more often than men. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was lower in rural area (55.86%) than in Dakar (66.36%), but increased at an older age. However, the logistic regression showed that these increased proportion of hypertension in Dakar is linked to the more important proportion of overweight and obese people in this area. Moreover, rates of knowledge, treatment and control of hypertension are particularly low in the rural area of Senegal. In conclusion, age-associated diseases should be better managed in Senegal, particularly in rural areas.

  18. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  19. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge.Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9% and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68. 219 patients (13% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58% patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68% patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42% of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001 predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001 and TLC (p = 0.018 show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63] and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38] to be significant

  20. We are family--parents, siblings, and eating disorders in a prospective total-population study of 250,000 Swedish males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrén, Jennie C; Chiesa, Flaminia; Koupil, Ilona; Magnusson, Cecilia; Dalman, Christina; Goodman, Anna

    2013-11-01

    We examined how parental characteristics and other aspects of family background were associated with the development of eating disorders (ED) in males and females. We used register data and record linkage to create the prospective, total-population study the Stockholm Youth Cohort. This cohort comprises all children and adolescents who were ever residents in Stockholm County between 2001 and 2007, plus their parents and siblings. Individuals born between 1984 and 1995 (N = 249, 884) were followed up for ED from age 12 to end of 2007. We used Cox regression modeling to investigate how ED incidence was associated with family socioeconomic position, parental age, and family composition. In total, 3,251 cases of ED (2,971 females; 280 males) were recorded. Higher parental education independently predicted a higher rate of ED in females [e.g., adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.69 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.02) for degree-level vs. elementary-level maternal education], but not in males [HR 0.73 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.28), p siblings was associated with lower rate of ED [e.g., fully adjusted HR 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97) per sibling], whereas an increasing number of half-siblings was associated with a higher rate [HR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) per sibling]. The effect of parental education on ED rate varies between males and females, whereas the effect of number of siblings varies according to whether they are full or half-siblings. A deeper understanding of these associations and their underlying mechanisms may provide etiological insights and inform the design of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Spatio-temporal variation in age structure and abundance of the endangered snail kite: Pooling across regions masks a declining and aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian E.; Kendall, William L.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2016-01-01

    While variation in age structure over time and space has long been considered important for population dynamics and conservation, reliable estimates of such spatio-temporal variation in age structure have been elusive for wild vertebrate populations. This limitation has arisen because of problems of imperfect detection, the potential for temporary emigration impacting assessments of age structure, and limited information on age. However, identifying patterns in age structure is important for making reliable predictions of both short- and long-term dynamics of populations of conservation concern. Using a multistate superpopulation estimator, we estimated region-specific abundance and age structure (the proportion of individuals within each age class) of a highly endangered population of snail kites for two separate regions in Florida over 17 years (1997–2013). We find that in the southern region of the snail kite—a region known to be critical for the long-term persistence of the species—the population has declined significantly since 1997, and during this time, it has increasingly become dominated by older snail kites (> 12 years old). In contrast, in the northern region—a region historically thought to serve primarily as drought refugia—the population has increased significantly since 2007 and age structure is more evenly distributed among age classes. Given that snail kites show senescence at approximately 13 years of age, where individuals suffer higher mortality rates and lower breeding rates, these results reveal an alarming trend for the southern region. Our work illustrates the importance of accounting for spatial structure when assessing changes in abundance and age distribution and the need for monitoring of age structure in imperiled species.

  2. The cutoffs and performance of glycated hemoglobin for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes in a young and middle-aged population and in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuang-Tong; Xiao, Hai-Ying; Tian, Hui; Li, Chun-Lin; Fang, Fu-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Xiao-Ling; Li, Nan; Miao, Xin-Yu; Yang, Yan; Wang, Liang-Chen; Zou, Xiao-Man; Ma, Fang-Ling; He, Yao; Sai, Xiao-Yong

    2015-08-01

    The aims were to compare the appropriate cutoffs of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a population of varying ages and to evaluate the performance of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes. A total of 1064 participants in the young and middle-aged group and 1671 in the elderly group were included and underwent HbA1c testing and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated to evaluate the optimal HbA1c cutoffs. Kappa coefficients were used to test for agreement between HbA1c categorization and OGTT-based diagnoses. The optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diagnosing diabetes were 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) in the young and middle-aged group with a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 86.7%, and AUC of 0.821 (95% CI: 0.686, 0.955) and 5.9% (41 mmol/mol) in the elderly group with a sensitivity of 80.4%, specificity of 73.3%, and AUC of 0.831 (0.801, 0.861). The optimal cutoffs for diagnosing prediabetes were 5.6% (38 mmol/mol) and 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) in the young and middle-aged group and in the elderly group, respectively. Agreement between the OGTT-based diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes and the optimal HbA1c cutoff was low (all kappa coefficients prediabetes were appropriate. Furthermore, the performance of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes was poor. HbA1c should be used in combination with traditional glucose criteria when detecting and diagnosing diabetes or prediabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  4. Hyperlipemia in a population of aged donkeys: description, prevalence, and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, F A; Du Toit, N; Hazell-Smith, E; Trawford, A F

    2011-01-01

    Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey, with mortality rates of up to 80% reported. Such a poor prognosis makes prevention of this disorder or amelioration in the early stages crucial. The objective of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of hyperlipemia in a population of donkeys and to determine risk factors for development of the disease. A total of 449 cases were investigated from a population of 3829 donkeys; donkeys were resident at The Donkey Sanctuary, a charity providing refuge for unwanted donkeys in the UK. Animals were selected on the basis of presence of clinical disease. A retrospective case-control study design was used, and all donkeys presenting with hyperlipemia over a 4-year period were included. Each case was matched with 2 controls that had not suffered from hyperlipemia in the previous month. Multivariable analysis was carried out to determine risk factors. A total of 449 clinical cases of hyperlipemia were reported with an associated mortality rate of 48.5%. Concurrent disease was present in 72% of donkeys and was the greatest risk factor (OR = 76.98); others included cardboard bedding (OR = 3.86), movement (OR = 3.94), weight loss (OR = 6.4), dental disease (OR = 1.73), and concentrate feeding (OR = 1.87). This study shows that this population of donkeys in the UK often develops hyperlipemia, particularly in response to stress or primary illness, and provides useful insights in to health and management risk factors that may be addressed to decrease the risk of hyperlipemia both in the study population and in other similar donkey populations. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Similar patterns of age-specific reproduction in an island and mainland population of great tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Sheldon, B.C.; Verhulst, S.; Visser, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The process of ageing was long thought to be too infrequent to affect life-histories in natural populations. Long-term studies have, however, recently demonstrated ageing to be ubiquitous even in the wild, although confounding factors, such as emigration instead of mortality, or inter-population

  6. Use of vitamin supplements and risk of total cancer and cardiovascular disease among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara Junko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the popular use of vitamin supplements and several prospective cohort studies investigating their effect on cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD, scientific data supporting their benefits remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be partly explained by the fact that use of supplements is an inconsistent behavior in individuals. We examined whether vitamin supplement use patterns affect cancer and CVD risk in a population-based cohort study in Japan. Methods A total of 28,903 men and 33,726 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort, who answered questions about vitamin supplement use in the first survey from 1990-1994 and the second survey from 1995-1998, were categorized into four groups (never use, past use, recent use, and consistent use and followed to the end of 2006 for cancer and 2005 for CVD. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to describe the relative risks of cancer and CVD associated with vitamin supplement use. Results During follow-up, 4501 cancer and 1858 CVD cases were identified. Multivariate adjusted analysis revealed no association of any pattern of vitamin supplement use with the risk of cancer and CVD in men. In women, consistent use was associated with lower risk of CVD (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89, whereas past (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33 and recent use (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52 were associated with higher risk of cancer. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to examine simultaneously the associations between vitamin supplement use patterns and risk of cancer and CVD. This prospective cohort study demonstrated that vitamin supplement use has little effect on the risk of cancer or CVD in men. In women, however, consistent vitamin supplement use might reduce the risk of CVD. Elevated risk of cancer associated with past and recent use of vitamin supplements in women may be partly

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Staeb, Clarissa; Jörgensen, Lena; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina; Osborn, David P J; Hayes, Joseph F

    2017-09-01

    Severe mental illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The elevated risk of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in people with severe mental illness is of concern, but the full extent of this problem is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for BBVs in people with severe mental illness. In this nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study, we estimated the point prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) in people with severe mental illness, including the total adult (≥18 years) Swedish population. We defined severe mental illness as a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychotic illness according to the Swedish version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 8, 9, or 10. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of BBVs in individuals with severe mental illness, relative to the general population, and to identify independent risk factors (age, sex, immigration status, socioeconomic status, education, and substance misuse) for BBV infection. We also did a sensitivity analysis excluding BBV diagnoses made before the introduction of the Register for Infection Disease Control (1997). Of 6 815 931 adults in Sweden, 97 797 (1·43%) individuals had a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Prevalence of BBVs was elevated in people with severe mental illness, of which 230 (0·24%) had HIV, 518 (0·53%) had HBV, and 4476 (4·58%) had HCV. After accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of HIV were 2·57 (95% CI 2·25-2·94, pmental illness than in the general population, whereas the odds of HBV were 2·29 (2·09-2·51, pmental illness and identify interventions preventing infection. Targeting of comorbid substance misuse would have particular effect on reduction of BBV prevalence in this population. Medical Research Council and Swedish Research Council. Copyright © 2017 The Author

  8. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  9. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The aging population: imperative to uncouple sex and gender to establish "gender equal" health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna

    2015-04-01

    The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of an age structured model for tick populations subject to seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate an age-structured hyperbolic equation model by allowing the birth and death functions to be density dependent and periodic in time with the consideration of seasonal effects. By studying the integral form solution of this general hyperbolic equation obtained through the method of integration along characteristics, we give a detailed proof of the uniqueness and existence of the solution in light of the contraction mapping theorem. With additional biologically natural assumptions, using the tick population growth as a motivating example, we derive an age-structured model with time-dependent periodic maturation delays, which is quite different from the existing population models with time-independent maturation delays. For this periodic differential system with seasonal delays, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of the next generation operator. Then, we show the tick population tends to die out when R0 1. When there is no intra-specific competition among immature individuals due to the sufficient availability of immature tick hosts, the global stability of the positive periodic state for the whole model system of four delay differential equations can be obtained with the observation that a scalar subsystem for the adult stage size can be decoupled. The challenge for the proof of such a global stability result can be overcome by introducing a new phase space, based on which, a periodic solution semiflow can be defined which is eventually strongly monotone and strictly subhomogeneous.

  12. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances M Cronin

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764 rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems, suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%, compared to 1% (0.2-2.3 for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  13. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  14. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate\\'s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children\\'s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent\\'s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor\\/fair health and\\/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  15. Relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration in Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between high temperature essential factor A-1(HTRA1polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration(AMDin Han population. METHODS: Totally 201 patients of wet AMD in Han population were selected from May 2014 to January 2017 in our hospital as disease group, and 201 healthy persons of Han were selected as health group. Blood samples of peripheral vein were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. HTRA1 polymorphism loci were detected, and the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci of HTRA1 gene were detected by Sequenom mass spectrometry platform. Then the relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet AMD were analyzed. RESULTS: The grade distributions of the genotype of the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci in the two groups subjects had significant differences(PPPOR values of rs11200638 genotype AA and AG were respectively 5.36 and 3.45, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(POR values of rs2248799 genotype TT and TC were respectively 2.36 and 1.98, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(PCONCLUSION: The rs11200638 and rs2248799 polymorphisms of HTRA1 gene are associated with the incidence of wet AMD, and the genotype AA and TT are closely related to the risk of wet AMD in Han population, of which the higher frequencies can increase the risk of wet AMD.

  16. Dental Implants in an Aged Population: Evaluation of Periodontal Health, Bone Loss, Implant Survival, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William; Hujoel, Philippe; Becker, Burton E; Wohrle, Peter

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate aged partially and fully edentulous patients who received dental implants and were maintained over time. Further, to determine how the partially and edentulous ageing populations (65 and above) with dental implants maintain bone levels, proper oral hygiene, and perceive benefits of dental implants. Since 1995, patients receiving dental implants have been prospectively entered into an Access-based computerized program (Triton Tacking System). Patient demographics (age, sex), bone quality, quantity, implant location, and type of surgery have been continuously entered into the database. The database was queried for patients receiving implants (first stage) between 66 and 93 years of age. Thirty-one patients were within this age group. Twenty-five patients returned to the clinic for periodontal and dental implant evaluation. The Periodontal Index was used to evaluate selected teeth in terms of probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque accumulation, and mobility. Using NIH Image J, radiographs taken at second stage and last examination were measured for changes in interproximal bone levels. Once identified, each patient anomalously filled out an abbreviated quality of health life form. Due to small sample size, descriptive statistics were used to compare clinical findings. Fifteen males ranging from 78 to 84 (mean age 84 years) years and 16 females from 66 to 93 (mean age 83 years) (age range 66-93) were contacted by phone or mail and asked to return to our office for a re-examination. For this group, the first dental implants were placed in 1996 (n = initial two implants) and continuously recorded through 2013 (n = last seven implants). Thirty-one patients received a total of 84 implants. Two patients were edentulous, and the remaining were partially edentulous. Four implants were lost. Between implant placement and 6- to 7-year interval, 13 patients with 40 implants had a cumulative survival rate of 94.6%. Of the original group (n = 33), three

  17. Is the age at menopause a cause of sexual dysfunction? A Brazilian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Caio; Valadares, Ana L R; Baccaro, Luiz F; Pedro, Adriana O; Filho, Jeffrey L; Lima, Marcelo; Costa-Paiva, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and the components of sexual function in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional population-based study, data of 540 women aged 45 to 60 years regarding the age they were when they achieved menopause and its association with sexual dysfunction (evaluated using the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire) were obtained through interviews. We assessed the data for associations between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. Age at menopause was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Arousal (dysfunction) was the only component of sexual function that was associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (P = 0.01). It was reported by 64.2% of women with POI (women 45 years, respectively (P = 0.04). In women with POI or early menopause, Poisson regression analysis showed that having a partner with sexual problems (prevalence ratio [PR] = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.3-13,2; P POI. The major factors affecting this association were having a partner with sexual problems, dyspareunia, and no satisfaction with the partner as a lover. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating partner problems and improving lubrication in these groups of women.

  18. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.

  19. Can they carry on working? Later retirement, health, and social inequality in an aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaby, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In debates on pensions and retirement age, little attention has been paid to the relation between increased effective retirement age and the health of the older population. This article focuses on Britain at a crucial point in the past, when the reconstruction that followed recession in the late 1970s and early 1980s used previously accumulated pension and redundancy funds to pay off workers and make labor markets "flexible." Using secondary data analysis of surveys of the same nationally representative sample in 1984 and 1991, the author argues that, while early retirement and retirement at age 60 (women) and 65 (men) took many able-bodied people out of the labor force, every increase in retirement age would have faced diminishing returns. Moreover, unemployment and exit from the labor market were accompanied in most cases by a perceived decline in well-being. The findings suggest that retirement should be tapered, not abrupt. Finally, there was pronounced inequality in the aging process that would have led to a situation in which a uniform policy on later retirement deepened the disadvantage of those least able to fend for themselves. Accordingly, the present U.K. government should positively discriminate in favor of the disadvantaged at retirement by reinforcing the state pension.

  20. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  1. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, K Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B; Mohanbabu, V; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-05-01

    To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization.

  2. The chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han population in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Maofeng; Qiu, Lihua; Gao, Zhi; Bhandari, Kishor

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the chronology of third molar mineralization in Han population of southwestern China and find its unique characteristics so that it would provide a reference in several legal cases like forensic age estimation. The study used Demirjian's staging method to study 2192 orthopantomograms of 984 male and 1208 female subjects aged between 8 and 25 years. The statistical data was analyzed by Student's t test and ANOVA. The conclusions of the study are: (1) The chronological mineralization age of third molars of Han population in Southwestern China is similar to the Turkish and the Japanese, was earlier than the Austrian and Han of South China, but later than the Spanish. (2) The mineralization timing of the third molars between two sides in maxilla or mandible has no significant differences in the same gender group. (3) There is no significant difference in mineralization of third molars between male and female, except for tooth 48 in Demirjian's stage E. (4) The mineralization of third molar in maxilla is earlier than mandible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Third molar cut-off value in assessing the legal age of 18 in Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) [17]. This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and e