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Sample records for total plant water

  1. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  2. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  3. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  4. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  5. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  6. Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP, Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples′ turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.

  7. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  8. Total Nitrogen in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess nitrogen in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALN is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  9. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  10. Tritium in water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.

    1977-10-01

    A summary is presented of the results obtained in programs on the measurement of the T concentration in the immediate and more distant environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KFK). The amount of T released with the waste water and the exhaust air from the KFK in the years 1969 until 1976 is indicated. The total releases ranged from 2000 Ci/a to 5200 Ci/a in the period of reporting. The fractions contained in the exhaust air and in the waste water were subjected to considerable variations over the years. The results of measurements for water samples are presented as annual mean values. The annual values of measured results obtained for precipitations on the site clearly exceed the values measured at sampling stations outside the KFK. Of the surface waters monitored the rivers Rhine and Neckar showed the highest T values. In smaller flowing waters the T concentration is also influenced by the percentage of waste water from communities. Obviously the tritium content of the ground and drinking water depends on the depth of sampling. Drinking water raised from a small depth in the vicinity of the Rhine is subjected to the same variations as the water from the river Rhine. To find out relations to the T offer of the relevant media close to the plants, the T concentrations in tissue water of plants and in air humidity, ground water and precipitations were investigated. Variations of the T concentration in air humidity correlate with the variations of the T concentration in the tissue water of plants. The T concentration level in the tissue water of plants is close to the T concentration in air humidity. The following time constants and half-lives, respectively, are found: for oak and hornbeam leaves 2+-1 days, for spruce needles 3+-1.5 days, for pine needles 6+-3 days. The dispersion of T released into the air and into the water is dealt with briefly. (orig.) [de

  11. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, H. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant π pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  12. Total generating costs: coal and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal- and nuclear-fueled electric-generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200-MWe PWRs; 1200-MWe BWRs; 800-and 1200-MWe High-Sulfur Coal units, and 800- and 1200-MWe Low-Sulfur Coal units. The total generating cost estimates were developed for commercial operation dates of 1985 and 1990; for 5 and 8% escalation rates, for 10 and 12% discount rates; and, for capacity factors of 50, 60, 70, and 80%. The report describes the methodology for obtaining annualized capital costs, levelized coal and nuclear fuel costs, levelized operation and maintenance costs, and the resulting total generating costs for each type of station. The costs are applicable to a hypothetical Middletwon site in the Northeastern United States. Plant descriptions with general design parameters are included. The report also reprints for convenience, summaries of capital cost by account type developed in the previous commercial electric-power cost studies. Appropriate references are given for additional detailed information. Sufficient detail is given to allow the reader to develop total generating costs for other cases or conditions

  13. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  14. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  15. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  16. Total quality drives nuclear plant improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Total quality (TQ) at Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) is fulfilling a 1985 vision of Sherwood H. Smith, Jr., CP and L's chairman, president, and chief executive officer. The TQ concept has provided a way for employees to align their creative energies toward meeting the business needs of the company. Throughout CP and L, TQ has been recognized as the vehicle for reducing operating costs and improving customer satisfaction. Within the nuclear organization, application of the TQ process has helped to improve communications, resolve challenges, and provide more consistent work practices among CP and L's three nuclear plants. Total quality was introduced from the top down, with initial benefits coming from team interactions. Senior management at CP and L defined the corporate expectations and outlined the training requirements for implementing TQ. Management staffs at each organizational level became steering committees for TQ team activities within their departments. Teams of employees most knowledgeable about a given work area were empowered to solve problems or overcome obstacles related to that work area. Employees learned to become better team players and to appreciate the quality of decisions reached through group consensus. Now, formalized methods that started TQ are becoming part of the day-to-day work ethic

  17. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  18. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S H Boutilier

    Full Text Available Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  19. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  20. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  1. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  3. Heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides an auxiliary contactor column or exchange tower to receive stripped gas and vapour from a stripper. An auxiliary supply of heated feed water is passed in isotope exchanging relation with the gas in the auxiliary contactor to raise the deuterium content of the gas, which then is returned to the main process, at the hot tower or at the feed absorption tower as already described in relation to previous practice. Flow balance between gas and water in the auxiliary contactor is achieved relatively simply by monitoring the deuterium content of the hot water leaving the contactor column, and regulating the supply of hot water, to the contactor column in response thereto. (author)

  4. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under ... model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage.

  5. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.) [de

  6. (Plant growth with limited water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  7. Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lian-en

    1984-01-01

    Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water: An attempt is made to obtain shallow-water optimal ship forms for total resistance by means of "tent" function representation under the constraints that the main dimensions of the ship and the water-line area were kept constant. The objective function in the quadratic programming is the sum of wave-making resistance calculated by Sretenski's formula and viscou...

  8. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2000-01-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time 18 F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then 18 F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of 18 F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of 18 F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  9. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  10. Plant water relations I: uptake and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow trach...

  11. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  12. Supercritical Water Oxidation Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The work presented here is the evaluation of the modified wet‐oxidation method described as Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) for the analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) in very difficult oil/gas produced water sample matrices.

  13. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  14. Advanced light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedraityte, Zivile

    2008-01-01

    For nuclear power to be competitive with the other methods of electrical power generation the economic performance should be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on line generating electricity relative to time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described which is used to resolve maintenance related operating cycle length barriers. Advanced light water nuclear power plant is designed with the purpose to maximize online generating time by increasing operating cycle length. (author)

  15. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  16. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  17. Plant responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  18. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  19. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  20. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  1. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  2. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  3. Use of total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) to determine total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, W.; Wong, W.; Sheng, H.P.; Klein, P.; Klish, W.

    1986-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) has been introduced as a safe and rapid method to estimate body composition in infants and adults. Recently, a second generation instrument that operates in a scanning mode has been developed. A study was undertaken to calibrate this new instrument and to assess the feasibility of its use in estimating total body water. Six healthy adults, 3 males and 3 females, ranging in age from 25 to 57 years, and in weight from 43.3 to 104.7 kg were analyzed. Simultaneously, determinations of total body water were made by standard dilutional techniques using H 2 18 O. A baseline plasma sample was obtained and 60 mg 18 O/kg was given orally as H 2 18 O. Five hr later, a postdose plasma sample was obtained. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio in the plasma samples was determined as CO 2 by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and used to calculate the H 2 18 O volume of distribution. The total body water values ranged from 26.35 to 58.02 and represented 51 to 58% of body weight. There was good linear correlation between the total body water measurement and its phase average (TOBEC number) with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998. The standard error of the estimate was 0.98. In addition to estimating fat and fat-free mass, the TOBEC method also estimates total body water with excellent correlation to physical dilutions methods

  4. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  5. Chemistry of the water in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook and practical manual gives a comprehensive review of the scientific knowledge of water as operating substance and of the chemistry of water in thermal power plants. The fundamentals of water chemistry and of the conventional and nuclear water/steam circuit are described. The contents of the chapters are: 1. The atom, 2. The chemical bond, 3. The dissolving capacity of water, 4. Operational parameters and their measurement, 5. Corrosion, 6. The water/steam coolant loop of conventional plants (WSC), 7. The pressurized water reactor (PWR), 8. The boiling water reactor (BWR), 9. The total and partial desalination properties of ion exchangers, 10. The cooling water, 11. The failure of Harrisburg in a simple presentation. (HK) [de

  6. Water protection in coke-plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  7. Water regime of steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesz, Janos

    2011-01-01

    The water regime of water-steam thermal power plants (secondary side of pressurized water reactors (PWR); fossil-fired thermal power plants - referred to as steam power plants) has changed in the past 30 years, due to a shift from water chemistry to water regime approach. The article summarizes measures (that have been realised by chemists of NPP Paks) on which the secondary side of NPP Paks has become a high purity water-steam power plant and by which the water chemistry stress corrosion risk of heat transfer tubes in the VVER-440 steam generators was minimized. The measures can also be applied to the water regime of fossil-fired thermal power plants with super- and subcritical steam pressure. Based on the reliability analogue of PWR steam generators, water regime can be defined as the harmony of construction, material(s) and water chemistry, which needs to be provided in not only the steam generators (boiler) but in each heat exchanger of steam power plant: - Construction determines the processes of flow, heat and mass transfer and their local inequalities; - Material(s) determines the minimal rate of general corrosion and the sensitivity for local corrosion damage; - Water chemistry influences the general corrosion of material(s) and the corrosion products transport, as well as the formation of local corrosion environment. (orig.)

  8. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  9. Total data management in the La Hague reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthion, Y.; Perot, J.P.; Silie, P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the complexity of a spent fuel reprocessing plant and its nuclear characteristics, the operators must have real-time access to updated information on many subjects. To meet these requirements effectively, Cogema has installed a number of diversified data processing systems linked by a communications network called Haguenet. The whole system forms the La Hague Total Data Management System (TDMS) which performs a full range of functions, namely production data management, maintenance data management, technical documentation and miscellaneous. Some examples of the main process data management applications implemented within the La Hague TDMS are briefly described (nuclear materials and waste follow-up, analytical data management, operating procedures management and site inspection management). Also presented are some examples of the maintenance-related systems implemented within the La Hague TDMS (diagnostic assistance system, software maintenance center, maintenance interventions demand and spare parts data management). (Z.S.)

  10. Total quality management to improve gas plant profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Wood, G.; Thompson, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of total quality management (TQM) techniques to the gas processing industry. It also assesses the profit potential for applying TQM in a typical plant situation. Companies utilizing TQM techniques will enjoy a competitive advantage. It represents a new way of doing business for the gas processing industry and incorporates many of Dr. W. Edwards Deming's methods which are often cited as one of the competitive advantages used by the Japanese. TQM can be described as a collection of systems or techniques that work toward two major objectives: To continuously improve the process or operation; and To view meeting the customer's needs as an important criterion for success. As applied to a typical U.S. gas processing operation, it involves several different techniques which are outlined in the paper. The benefits of TQM are detailed in this paper. All of these benefits go directly to a plant's bottom line profitability. The paper also describes ho to establish a program and identifies the factors necessary for successful implementation

  11. Advanced water chemistry management in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, V.; Sigon, F.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced water management based on low external impact cycle chemistry technologies and processes, effective on-line water control and monitoring, has been verified to improve water utilization and to reduce plant liquid supply and discharge. Simulations have been performed to optimize system configurations and performances, with reference to a 4 x 320 MWe/once-through boiler/AVT/river cooled power plant, to assess the effectiveness of membrane separation technologies allowing waste water reuse, to enhance water management system design and to compare these solutions on a cost/benefit analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Possibilities of tritium removal from waste waters of pressurized water reactors and fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.V.; Pupezin, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Starting from parameters known for heavy water production processes, a parallel was made with separation of tritium from water. The quantity in common is the total cascade flow. The most efficient processes appear to be hydrogen sulfide, water exchange, hydrogen- and water distillation. Prospects of application of new processes are discussed briefly. Problems concerning detritiation of pressurized water reactors and large fuel reprocessing plants are analyzed. Detritiation of the former should not present problems. With the latter, economical detritiation can be achieved only after some plant flow patterns are changed. (U.S.)

  13. Cost analysis of light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooz, W.E.

    1978-06-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the capital costs of light water reactor (LWR) electrical power plants. The objective is twofold: to determine what factors are statistically related to capital costs and to produce a methodology for estimating these costs. The analysis in the study is based on the time and cost data that are available on U.S. nuclear power plants. Out of a total of about 60 operating plants, useful capital-cost data were available on only 39 plants. In addition, construction-time data were available on about 65 plants, and data on completed construction permit applications were available for about 132 plants. The cost data were first systematically adjusted to constant dollars. Then multivariate regression analyses were performed by using independent variables consisting of various physical and locational characteristics of the plants. The dependent variables analyzed were the time required to obtain a construction permit, the construction time, and the capital cost

  14. Water conservation by 3 R's - case histories of Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Hiremath, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    The basics of water conservation revolve around three R's of Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse. The Heavy Water Plants are an excellent example of water savings, and these case studies will be of interest to the chemical industry. The issues involved with water conservation and re-use in different Heavy Water Plants are of different nature. In H 2 S-H 2 O process plants the water consumption has been substantially decreased as compared to the design water needs. To quote the figures HWP (Kota) was designed to consume 2280 m 3 /hr water, which included 453 m 3 /hr water as feed for deuterium extraction. Today the plant operates with only 1250 m 3 /hr water while processing 500 m 3 /hr feed; and is headed to decrease the total water consumption to 700 m 3 /hr. Similarly at HWP (Manuguru) the design had provided 5600 m 3 /hr water consumption, which is today operating with only 1750 m 3 /hr and poised to operate with 1600 m 3 /hr. The issues of water conservation in Ammonia Hydrogen exchange plants have an additional dimension since water losses mean direct loss of heavy water production. In adjoining ammonia plants deuterium shifts to steam in the reformer and shift converter, and this excess steam is condensed as rich condensate. It becomes incumbent on the fertilizer plant to maintain a tight discipline for conserving and re-using the rich condensate so that deuterium concentration in the synthesis gas is maintained. Efforts are also underway to utilize rich condensate of GSFC in the newly developed technology of water ammonia exchange at HWP (Baroda) and we are targeting 20% production gains by implementation of this scheme and with no increase in the pollution load. These case histories will be of interest to Chemical Process Industry. (author)

  15. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  16. Water treatment for 500 MWe PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasist, Sudheer; Sharma, M.C.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of treated water is required for power generation. For a typical 500 MWe PHWR inland station with cooling towers, raw water at the rate of 6000 m 3 /hr is required. Impurities in cooling water give rise to the problems of corrosion, scaling, microbiological contamination, fouling, silical deposition etc. These problems lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced heat transfer efficiency, and possible production cut backs or shutdowns. The problems in coastal based power plants are more serious because of the highly corrosive nature of sea water used for cooling. An overview of the cooling water systems and water treatment method is enumerated. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  17. Water management and productivity in planted forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Nettles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.

  18. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  19. Assets optimization at Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiremath, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the world where the fittest can only survive, manufacturing and production enterprises are under intense pressure to achieve maximum efficiency in each and every field related to the ultimate production of plant. The winners will be those that use their assets, i.e men, material, machinery and money most effectively. The objective is to optimize the utilization of all plant assets-from entire process lines to individual pressure vessels, piping, process machinery, and vital machine components. Assets of Heavy Water Plants mainly consist of Civil Structures, Equipment and Systems (Mechanical, Electrical) and Resources like Water, Energy and Environment

  20. Water intaking facility of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuhito; Iwata, Nobukatsu; Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a water intaking facility of a nuclear power plant, a dam is disposed at a position near a sea shore for preventing sea water introduced in open conduit from flowing to the outer sea upon ebbing of tsunamis. The upper end of the dam is set lower than the lower end of a water-intake pipe of a sea water pump of an ordinary system. A water-intake pipe is disposed to such a length that a sea water pump of an emergency system continues to suck the sea water when the water level of the introduced sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam during the ebb tide. In addition, a means for stopping the operation of the sea water pump of the ordinary system upon starting of the ebb is disposed. Upon reactor scram for occurrence of earthquakes and the like, either the sea water pump in the ordinary system or the seawater pump in the emergency system operates to ensure required amount of sea water for cooling the reactor. In addition, even if the level of the sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam, since the sea water pump in the emergency system continues to suck sea water, unnecessary suction for sea water by the ordinary sea water pumps can be eliminated. (N.H.)

  1. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and/or that their cuticle is

  2. Reliability of reactor plant water cleanup pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick 2 nuclear plant experienced a high reactor water cleanup pump-failure rate until inlet temperature and flow were reduced and mechanical modifications were implemented. Failures have been zero for about one year, and water cleanup efficiency has increased

  3. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  4. Drought Tip: Keeping Plants Alive under Drought or Water Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartin, Janet; Oki, Loren; Fujino, Dave; Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants that don't receive enough water eventually show signs of water stress. During a drought or under water restrictions aimed at water conservation, keeping plants alive can be particularly difficult.

  5. Active condensation of water by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomenon in question is found everywhere, but it is particularly important for plants in arid ecosystems.

  6. Pilot plant for exploitation of geothermal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragan T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sijarinska spa, there are some 15 mineral and thermomineral springs, that are already being used for therapeutic purposes. For the exploitation of heat energy boring B-4 is very interesting. It is a boring of a closed type, with the water temperature of about 78°C and a flow rate of about 33 l/s. Waters with the flow rate of about 6 l/s are currently used for heating of the Gejzer hotel, and waters of the flow rate of about 0,121 l/s for the pilot drying plant. The paper presents this pilot plant. .

  7. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  8. Experimental study on total dissolved gas supersaturation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more high dams have been constructed and operated in China. The total dissolved gas (TDG supersaturation caused by dam discharge leads to gas bubble disease or even death of fish. Through a series of experiments, the conditions and requirements of supersaturated TDG generation were examined in this study. The results show that pressure (water depth, aeration, and bubble dissolution time are required for supersaturated TDG generation, and the air-water contact area and turbulence intensity are the main factors that affect the generation rate of supersaturated TDG. The TDG supersaturation levels can be reduced by discharging water to shallow shoals downstream of the dam or using negative pressure pipelines. Furthermore, the TDG supersaturation levels in stilling basins have no direct relationship with those in reservoirs. These results are of great importance for further research on the prediction of supersaturated TDG generation caused by dam discharge and aquatic protection.

  9. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators increased the total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... the exogenous application of flavonoids reports plant growth regulation ... method used for extraction and quantification of endogenous gibberellins was ... 365 nm) while separation was done on a C18 reverse-phase HPLC.

  10. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  11. Pressurised-water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergloeff, D.

    1976-01-01

    This additional patent improves the plant described in main patent 2244562 where the primary coolant pump is built into the housing of the steam raising unit, by overcoming certain difficulties in the transition from the specially extensive tube floor of the steam raising unit to the narrow crossection of the pump penetration. This is achieved by the formation of an unsymmetrical inlet funnel between the tube floor of the steam raising unit and the suction side of the pump. A side wall of the funnel forms the separating wall between the inlet and the outlet chamber below the tube floor of the steam raising unit. The crossection of the inlet funnel is reduced towards the pump by 2/3 to 1/3. Even laminar flow conditions are obtained at all flow velocities. Erosion, which disturbs flow and causes cavitation, no longer occurs. (ORU) [de

  12. Water, gravity and trees: Relationship of tree-ring widths and total water storage dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt, B.; Heinrich, I.; Merz, B.; Blume, T.; Güntner, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water stored in the subsurface as groundwater or soil moisture is the main fresh water source not only for drinking water and food production but also for the natural vegetation. In a changing environment water availability becomes a critical issue in many different regions. Long-term observations of the past are needed to improve the understanding of the hydrological system and the prediction of future developments. Tree ring data have repeatedly proved to be valuable sources for reconstructing long-term climate dynamics, e.g. temperature, precipitation and different hydrological variables. In water-limited environments, tree growth is primarily influenced by total water stored in the subsurface and hence, tree-ring records usually contain information about subsurface water storage. The challenge is to retrieve the information on total water storage from tree rings, because a training dataset of water stored in the sub-surface is required for calibration against the tree-ring series. However, measuring water stored in the subsurface is notoriously difficult. We here present high-precision temporal gravimeter measurements which allow for the depth-integrated quantification of total water storage dynamics at the field scale. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of total water storage change and tree ring growth also in the context of the complex interactions of other meteorological forcing factors. A tree-ring chronology was derived from a Norway spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest, Germany. Total water storage dynamics were measured directly by the superconducting gravimeter of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell for a 9-years period. Time series were extended to 63-years period by a hydrological model using gravity data as the only calibration constrain. Finally, water storage changes were reconstructed based on the relationship between the hydrological model and the tree-ring chronology. Measurement results indicate that tree-ring growth is primarily

  13. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G

    2017-02-01

    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  15. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  16. Heavy water physical verification in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.; Schuricht, V.; Beetle, T.; Szabo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a report on the Agency experience in verifying heavy water inventories in power plants. The safeguards objectives and goals for such activities are defined in the paper. The heavy water is stratified according to the flow within the power plant, including upgraders. A safeguards scheme based on a combination of records auditing, comparing records and reports, and physical verification has been developed. This scheme has elevated the status of heavy water safeguards to a level comparable to nuclear material safeguards in bulk facilities. It leads to attribute and variable verification of the heavy water inventory in the different system components and in the store. The verification methods include volume and weight determination, sampling and analysis, non-destructive assay (NDA), and criticality check. The analysis of the different measurement methods and their limits of accuracy are discussed in the paper

  17. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  18. Total quality control: the deming management philosophy applied to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Wetherell, D.L.; Melhem, S.A.; Sato, M.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, a call has come for the development of inherently safe nuclear reactor systems that cannot have large-scale accidents. In the search for the perfect inherently safe reactor system, some are calling for the institution of computerized automated control of reactors eliminating most human operators from the control room. A different approach to the problem of the control of inherently safe reactors is that both future and present nuclear power plants need to institute total quality control (TQC) to plant operations and management. The Deming management philosophy of TQC has been implemented in a wide range of industries - particularly in Japan and the US. Specific attention is given, however, to TQC implementation in the electric power industry as applied to nuclear plants. The Kansai Electric Power Company and Florida Power and Light Company have recently implemented TQC. Statistical quality control methods have been applied to monitor and control reactor variables (for example, to the steam generator water level important to start-up operations of pressurized water reactors)

  19. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  20. Effect of TOC [total organic carbon] on a PWR secondary cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gau, J.Y.; Oung, J.C.; Wang, T.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) during the wet layup of the steam generator was a problem in PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The results of surveys of TOC in PWR secondary cooling water systems had shown that the impurity of hydrazine and the bacteria were the main reasons that increase TOC. These do not have a corrosion effect on Inconel 600 and carbon steel when the secondary cooling water containing the TOC is below 200 ppb. But the anaerobic bacteria from the steam generator in wet layup will increase corrosion rate of carbon steel and crevice corrosion of Inconel 600. (author)

  1. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  2. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of N-15 and total N using an automated nitrogen analyser interfaced to a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (ANA-MS method) was evaluated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated analyses of homogeneous standards and samples at natural abundance...... was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  3. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  4. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-11-12

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  5. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  6. Developments in nuclear power plant water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzetti, K.; Wood, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the changing role of water chemistry in current operation of nuclear power plants. Water chemistry was sometimes perceived as the cause of materials problems, such as denting in PWR steam generators and intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. However, starting in the last decade, new chemistry options have been introduced to mitigate stress corrosion cracking and reduce fuel performance concerns. In BWRs and PWRs alike, water chemistry has evolved to successfully mitigate many problems as they have developed. The increasing complexity of the chemistry alternatives, coupled with the pressures to increase output and reduce costs, have demonstrated the need for new approaches to managing plant chemistry, which are addressed in the final part of this paper. (orig.)

  7. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  8. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations

  9. Organic and weed control in water supply reservoirs of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswaran, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic weeds and algal control in water supply reservoirs used for multipurpose use need specific attention, since they pose a lot of problem for the operating plants by affecting (a) the water quality of boiler and feed waters, (b) the performance of DM plants by reducing the efficiency of Anion beds, (c) the performance of Activated Carbon Filters (ACF) and (d) fouling induced corrosion problems in cooling water systems (Heat Exchangers and Piping materials) causing plant outages leading to production losses. The photosynthetic activity of planktonic plants which are growing abundantly in the open reservoir, sustained by the relatively high inorganic phosphate levels shoots up the pH of the reservoir water to very high levels. High pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and depleted plants can increase corrosion problems affecting plant performance. This paper focuses on the type of weeds prominent in the water supply reservoir at Kalpakkam and the associated problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). (author)

  10. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  11. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  12. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  14. Dynamic modelling of Industrial Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the isotopic enrichment unites of the Industrial Heavy Water Plant, located in Arroyito, Neuquen, Argentina, was modeled and simulated in the present work. Dynamic models of the chemical and isotopic interchange processes existent in the plant, were developed. This served as a base to obtain representative models of the different unit and control systems. The developed models were represented in a modular code for each unit. Each simulator consists of approximately one hundred non-linear-first-order differential equations and some other algebraic equation, which are time resolved by the code. The different simulators allow to change a big number of boundary conditions and the control systems set point for each simulation, so that the program become very versatile. The output of the code allows to see the evolution through time of the variables of interest. An interface which facilitates the use of the first enrichment stage simulator was developed. This interface allows an easy access to generate wished events during the simulation and includes the possibility to plot evolution of the variables involved. The obtained results agree with the expected tendencies. The calculated nominal steady state matches by the manufacturer. The different steady states obtained, agree with previous works. The times and tendencies involved in the transients generated by the program, are in good agreement with the experience obtained at the plant. Based in the obtained results, it is concluded that the characteristic times of the plant are determined by the masses involved in the process. Different characteristics in the system dynamic behavior were generated with the different simulators, and were validated by plant personnel. This work allowed to understand the different process involved in the heavy water manufacture, and to develop a very useful tool for the personnel of the plant. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs. plant. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs

  15. Scenarios for Low Carbon and Low Water Electric Power Plant Operations: Implications for Upstream Water Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodder, Rebecca S; Barnwell, Jessica T; Yelverton, William H

    2016-11-01

    Electric sector water use, in particular for thermoelectric operations, is a critical component of the water-energy nexus. On a life cycle basis per unit of electricity generated, operational (e.g., cooling system) water use is substantially higher than water demands for the fuel cycle (e.g., natural gas and coal) and power plant manufacturing (e.g., equipment and construction). However, could shifting toward low carbon and low water electric power operations create trade-offs across the electricity life cycle? We compare business-as-usual with scenarios of carbon reductions and water constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model. Our scenarios show that, for water withdrawals, the trade-offs are minimal: operational water use accounts for over 95% of life cycle withdrawals. For water consumption, however, this analysis identifies potential trade-offs under some scenarios. Nationally, water use for the fuel cycle and power plant manufacturing can reach up to 26% of the total life cycle consumption. In the western United States, nonoperational consumption can even exceed operational demands. In particular, water use for biomass feedstock irrigation and manufacturing/construction of solar power facilities could increase with high deployment. As the United States moves toward lower carbon electric power operations, consideration of shifting water demands can help avoid unintended consequences.

  16. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  17. Water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    In the past few years, licensees of operating reactors have reported a large number of water hammer events during commercial operation. Most of these events resulted in damage to piping supports and restraints. A few cases involved small cracks or ruptures in feedwater systems. As a result, in 1977 the NRC staff initiated a review of reported water hammer events and of the potential for occurrence of water hammer in all fluid systems that could have an impact on plant safety. The objectives of the review were to identify the causes of water hammer events that could affect reactor safety and to recommend further staff actions needed to reduce the likelihood of such events

  18. Introduction of total productive maintenance in steelworks plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of TPM - Total Productive Maintenance and its basic method 5S (sort, systematize, sweep, sanitize, self-discipline. The new management concept is realized in Japanese and USA companies. On the Polish market the methods was adopted in the first years of 21st century by car manufacturers and household equipment producers. Nowadays the concept is tested by steelworks in Polish steel industry. The process of introduction of these methods is long, difficult and requires organizational and technical changes. The companies which realize Awareness Management Project of workers in Health and Safety System use other methods whose primary goal is to ensure objectivity and comparability of results and skill assessment of particular employees (the Current and Periodic Assessment System for worker and supervision positions.

  19. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanowska Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity. The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.

  20. Steam plant for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the research and development organisations and users to highlight those aspects of the steam turbine and associated plant which are particularly related to the PWR system. The contents include: Characteristics of the steam system (including feed train, dump system and safety aspects); overall design aspects of high and half speed turbines; design aspects of the steam generator and seismic considerations; moisture separators and reheaters; feed pumps and their drives; water treatment; safety related valves; operational experience; availability and performance

  1. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  2. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  3. Can tritiated water-dilution space accurately predict total body water in chukar partridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, B.G.; Williams, J.B.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) volumes determined from the dilution space of injected tritiated water have consistently overestimated actual water volumes (determined by desiccation to constant mass) in reptiles and mammals, but results for birds are controversial. We investigated potential errors in both the dilution method and the desiccation method in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Tritiated water dilution yielded an accurate measurement of water mass in vitro. However, in vivo, this method yielded a 4.6% overestimate of the amount of water (3.1% of live body mass) in chukar partridges, apparently largely because of loss of tritium from body water to sites of dissociable hydrogens on body solids. An additional source of overestimation (approximately 2% of body mass) was loss of tritium to the solids in blood samples during distillation of blood to obtain pure water for tritium analysis. Measuring tritium activity in plasma samples avoided this problem but required measurement of, and correction for, the dry matter content in plasma. Desiccation to constant mass by lyophilization or oven-drying also overestimated the amount of water actually in the bodies of chukar partridges by 1.4% of body mass, because these values included water adsorbed onto the outside of feathers. When desiccating defeathered carcasses, oven-drying at 70 degrees C yielded TBW values identical to those obtained from lyophilization, but TBW was overestimated (0.5% of body mass) by drying at 100 degrees C due to loss of organic substances as well as water

  4. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  5. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeke, Benedict C.; Thomson, M. Sue; Moss, Elica M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R 2 = 0.998) and turbidity (R 2 = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern

  6. Water cooled type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To construct high efficiency a PWR type nuclear power plant with a simple structure by preparing high temperature and pressure water by a PWR type nuclear reactor and a pressurizer, converting the high temperature and high pressure water into steam with a pressure reducing valve and introducing the steam into a turbine, thereby generating electricity. Constitution: A pressurizer is connected downstream of a PWR type nuclear reactor, thereby maintaining the reactor at high pressure. A pressure-reducing valve is provided downstream of the pressurizer, the high temperature and pressure water is reduced in pressure, thereby producing steam. The steam is fed to a turbine, and electric power is generated by a generator connected to the turbine. The steam exhausted from the turbine is condensed by a condenser into water, and the water is returned through a feedwater heater to the reactor. Since the high temperature and pressure water in thus reduced in pressure thereby evaporating it, the steam can be more efficiently produced than by a steam generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  8. Light water ultra-safe plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1989-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During 1987 and 1988, the Department of Energy provided funds to the Nuclear Engineering Department at Penn State to investigate a plant reconfiguration originated by M.A. Schultz called ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept''. This report presents a final summary of the project with references to several masters' theses and addendum reports for further detail. The two year research effort included design verification with detailed computer simulation of: (a) normal operation characteristics of the unique pressurizing concept, (b) severe transients without loss of coolant, (c) combined primary and secondary system modeling, and (d) small break and large break loss of coolant accidents. Other studies included safety analysis, low power density core design, and control system design to greatly simplify the control room and required operator responses to plant upset conditions. The overall conclusion is that a reconfigured pressurized water reactor can achieve real and perceived safety improvements. Additionally, control system research to produce greatly simplified control rooms and operator requirements should be continued in future projects

  9. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Fukumoto, Toshihiko

    1991-01-01

    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  10. Determination of total As in onion plants growing in contaminated substrates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue-Meru Marco Parra

    2011-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important cultivars in the world and its production level occupies the second place in Venezuela. It becomes important to develop analytical procedures for arsenic determination and to study the effect of this element on the cultures, as well the absorption, transport and translocation processes. A TXRF method for As determination in onions was developed. Two treatments were applied to the onion plants, As contaminated and control. The contaminant was added to the plants to an amount of 100 μg, in a single time 3 weeks after the transplant of plantlets. The green leaves bulbs, and roots together with the stems were separated 45 days after transplant and analyzed by TXRF and HG-AAS for total Arsenic determination. A good agreement was found between these two techniques, demonstrating the accuracy of the TXRF procedure. It was found that the highest concentration corresponded to the root and stems (37 ± 31 μg g -1 ), followed by the bulbs (11 ± 7 μg g -1 ), being the smallest level found in the green leaves (4 ± 3 μg g -1 ). At low As contamination levels of 0.25 μg g -1 , a risk for translocation of the toxic element to the edible parts of the onion plants exists. At this level the normal development of the plant is not affected, being the only exception the root length, which is significantly higher in the contaminated treatment. (author)

  11. Analysis of selected elements in water in the drinking water preparation plants in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanasijević Davor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade's water supply relies mainly on the River Sava and groundwater supply wells, which are located in the vicinity of the river and Ada Ciganlija. In this paper, the content of aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, barium and lead was analyzed in raw water as well as drinking water distributed by the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. A total of 14 samples were examined from all water treatment plants that are part of the distribution system. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of drinking water preparation process in the plants belonging to the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. The content of certain elements varies considerably in raw water (river and groundwater: the concentration of boron in river water is two to three times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of arsenic in river water is ten to twenty five times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of aluminum in all groundwater samples was below the detection limit of the instrument (0.50 μg/dm3, whilst in the river water the content of aluminum was about 50 μg/dm3 and the concentration of manganese in the river water was up to 10 times lower than the concentrations in groundwater. In all drinking water samples the concentration of the elements were bellow the maximum allowed levels according to the Serbian regulations. Correlation coefficients determined for boron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium and lead, which were analyzed in raw waters, show that four groups of elements can be distinguished. Boron, manganese, arsenic and barium are related to each other and probably have a common natural origin; copper and lead probably have a common anthropogenic origin; correlation of nickel and cobalt was observed, while zinc was not in

  12. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  13. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  14. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R2=0.63. Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP.

  15. Water column separation in power plant circulating water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    Power plant circulating water system condensers operate with a siphon. Column separation is a common occurence in such condensers during low pressure transients. The assumptions that no gas evolves from solution leads to very conservative values of maximum pressures upon rejoining of separated column. A less conservative method led to the development of a macroscopic mathematical model including the presence of air and vapor in a cavity which forms at the top of the condenser. The method of characteristics is used to solve the equations. A case study is analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the developed mathematical model and to provide comparisons of the results obtained

  16. [Effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil and water loss and water use efficiency of slope farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian-Qing; Li, Rong; Han, Qing-Fang; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Wang, Wei; Yan, Bo; Yang, Bao-Ping

    2012-08-01

    In order to enhance the soil water-retaining capacity of slope farmland and reduce its soil and water loss, a field study was conducted in 2007-2010 to examine the effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil water regime, soil and water loss characteristics, and water use efficiency of a 10 degrees-15 degrees slope farmland in the arid area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China. Compared with the traditional no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer significantly, with an increment of 4.9% -7.0%. Strip planting and fallow rotation pattern could also effectively conserve the soil water in rain season, and obviously improve the soil water regime at crops early growth stages. As compared to no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer by 5.4%-8.5%, decreased the surface runoff by 0.7-3.2 m3 x hm(-2), sediment runoff by 0.2-1.9 t x hm(-2), and soil total N loss by 42.1% -73.3%, while improved the crop water use efficiency by 6.1% -24.9% and the precipitation use efficiency by 6.3% -15.3%.

  17. Water in the physiology of plant: thermodynamics and kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cocucci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular properties of water molecule determine its role in plant physiology. At molecular level the properties of water molecules determine the behaviour of other plant molecules; in particular its physic characteristics are important in the operativeness of macromolecules and in plant thermoregulation. Plant water supply primarily dependent on thermodynamics properties in particular water chemical potential and its components, more recently there are evidences that suggest an important role in the water kinetic characteristics, depending, at cell membrane level, in particular plasmalemma, on the presence of specific water channel, the aquaporines controlled in its activity by a number of physiological and biochemical factors. Thermodynamics and kinetic factors controlled by physiological, biochemical properties and molecular effectors, control water supply and level in plants to realize their survival, growth and differentiation and the consequent plant production.

  18. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...

  19. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  20. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  1. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  2. The organization closed water battery plant Aircraft Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  The information on unrational water usage and losts is given in the article. The necessity of closed water cycle introduction is shown for the aircraft repairing plant. The principle scheme of closed cycle water usage is developed for the accumulator department of the aircraft repairing plant. Modern technological equipment is offered for implementation.

  3. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; El Banna, I.M.; Ayad, M.A.; Kotby, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  4. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular emphasis on South ... their spread results in native species loss, increased biomass and fire intensity ... areas by changing the size, distribution and plant chemistry of the biomass.

  5. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  6. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  7. Survival strategies of plants during water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, R.; Stuhlfauth, T.; Sueltemeyer, D.; Fock, H.

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence and gas exchange of bean, maize, sunflower and wooly foxglove were simultaneously measured at 250 μmol quanta/m 2 /s. Under severe water stresses conditions about 40% of the photochemical energy was converted to heat at PS II. This is interpreted as a protective mechanism against photoinhibitory damage when net CO 2 uptake is reduced by about 70%. After 14 CO 2 gas exchange, only in bean was a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity over the leaf observed. In all other plants we found a patchy distribution of regions with either an intensive or a reduced gas exchange. We conclude that CO 2 -recycling (photorespiration and reassimilation) behind closed stomata also contributed to energy dissipation under severe stress conditions

  8. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  9. Water hammer in USA nuclear power plants and it's evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuqian.

    1987-01-01

    The results of evaluations about the water hammer events in USA nuclear power plants in recent years are summarily reported. The evaluations included underlying causes and frequency of water hammer events, damages incurred and systems affected. Through the evaluations about water hammer events and on the basis of past operation experiences in nuclear power plants, the design and operational modifications to prevent or mitigate water hammer events were presented. The NRC's current opinions relating to the water hammer problems are summarized, the importance of water hammer events for nuclear power plants construction in China is indicated

  10. Overcoming technology - obsolescence: a case study in Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, O.P.; Sonde, R.R.; Wechalekar, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia based Heavy Water Plants in India are set up essentially in conjunction with fertiliser plants for the supply of feed synthesis gas. Earlier ammonia was being produced in fertiliser plants using high-pressure technology which was highly energy intensive. However with fast developments in the field of production of ammonia, fertiliser plants are switching over to low pressure technology. Ammonia based heavy water plants have to operate on pressures corresponding to that of fertiliser plants. Due to low pressures in production of ammonia, heavy water plants would also be required to operate at low pressures than the existing operating pressures. This problem was faced at Heavy Water Plant at Baroda where GSFC supplying synthesis gas switched over to low pressure technology making it imperative on the part of Heavy Water Board to carry out modification to the main plant for continued operation of Heavy Water Plant, Baroda. Anticipating similar problems due to production of ammonia at lower pressures in other fertiliser plants linked to existing Heavy Water Plants, it became necessary for HWB to develop water ammonia front end. The feed in such a case would be water instead of synthesis gas. This would enable HWB to dispense with dependence on fertiliser plants especially if grass-root ammonia based heavy water plants are to be set up. Incorporation of water ammonia front end would enable HWB to de link ammonia based heavy water plants with fertiliser plants. This paper discusses the advantage of de linking heavy water plant respective fertiliser plant by incorporating water ammonia front end and technical issues related to front end technology. A novel concept of ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) was considered for the process integration with the front end. The incorporation of AAR with water ammonia front-end configuration utilizes liquid ammonia refrigerant to generate refrigeration without additional energy input which otherwise would have been

  11. Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi input-output framework was applied to measuring direct and indirect economic benefits from water use in plantation forestry in the Crocodile river catchment of South Africa. The study accounted for indirect economic benefits generated in downstream timber processing activities and input supply sectors linked with ...

  12. Total and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Sediment, Fin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    waste discharge should be upheld by all industries near these waters in ... significant environmental risk to public health (Chen ... Study Area: Badagry Creek and Ologe Lagoon are part ... from Agbara industrial and residential area. ..... stations was 0.000 ± 0.000µg/g. ... an oil polluted mangrove wetland in the Niger Delta.

  13. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  14. Preozonation Effect on Total Organic Carbon Removal in Surface Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Torabian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water treatment, preozonation is often applied in order to control the microorganisms and taste and odor causing materials, which may influence organics removal by preoxidation and adsorption. Using commercial and natural water humic substances, the positive effect of preozonation as an aid to coagulation-flocculation of these compounds was confirmed by removal of TOC removal in Tehranpars Water Treatment Plant in Tehran. These experiments were conducted as bench-scale studies through a series of jar tests using different pH coagulant dosages and total organic carbon concentration of approximately 4, 8 and 12 mg/L. In addition to TOC removal, the existence of an optimum preozonation dose (OPZD was also confirmed. Experiments show that preozonation can improve coagulation and flocculation depending on influent TOC concentration of raw water. The results demonstrate different effects of preozonation on removal of influent TOC. Preozonation showed a positive effect on a system with low influent TOC and very low molecular weight (noncolloidal humic substances.

  15. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  16. Carbon-14 in reactor plant water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, G.K.

    1979-01-01

    The method for the analysis of 14 C in reactor plant water and various waste streams previously used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been shown to be ineffective for samples which contain organic compounds. The previous method consisted of acidification and refluxing of the sample, precipitation of the liberated CO 2 , and subsequent analysis by the liquid scintillation method. The method was simple but it did not convert all compounds containing 14 C in the sample to CO 2 . The new method, while it is based on the previous method, has been improved by employing a strong oxidant, potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, for more complete oxidation of the organics to CO 2 . The new method yields 14 C values that have typically been one to two orders of magnitude higher than the values obtained using the former method. This indicates that most of the 14 C present in the current reactor water samples being analyzed is associated with trace amounts of organics

  17. Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.

    1999-10-01

    Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

  18. Features in ammonia plant for maximising heavy water production (Paper No. 2.10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangri, N.N.; Singh, R.J.; Mukherjee, P.K.; Mishra, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Whenever an ammonia plant is linked with heavy water production, a system should be foreseen in the design stage itself for total conservation of D 2 in synthesis gas and zero D 2 loss. The process should ensure recycle of D 2 rich condensate within the front end. This alone would be the single most important factor for improving heavy water production rate. The synthesis loop pressure should be chosen keeping in view the interest of heavy water plant (HWP). With vast experience in engineering NH 3 and HWP plants, it is possible to integrate HWP requirements at the design stage itself. (author)

  19. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  20. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Kevin [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Anasti, William [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Fang, Yichuan [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Subramanyan, Karthik [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Leininger, Tom [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  1. Water Conservation Study, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  2. Water Conservation Study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  3. Potential Study of Water Extraction from Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is absorbed by the roots of a plant and transported subsequently as a liquid to all parts of the plant before being released into the atmosphere as transpiration. In this study, seven(7selected plant species collected from urban, rural and forested areas were studied and characterized. The water was collected using transparent plastic bag that being tied to the tree branches. Then, the vapouris water trapped inside the plastic bag and through the condensation process, it become water droplets. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH value, DO, turbidity, colour, magnesium, calcium, nitrate and chloride were analyzed. The analysis was compared to drinking water quality standard set by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Based on the results, it shows that banana leaf has a higher rate of water extraction compared to others. Thus, the plant can be categorised as a helpful guide for emergency use of water or as an alternative source to survival.

  4. The heavy water production plant at Arroyito, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecabert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the construction of an industrial heavy water production plant (Planta Industrial de Agua Pesada, PIAP) in Argentina. The heavy water enrichment is based on a hydrogen/ammonia isotope exchange. (Auth.)

  5. How to observe water movement in plants using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Uzuki

    2011-01-01

    Water in plants is one of the most important factors for life. Water availability, water distribution and water flow also regulate various plant physiological phenomena. However, non-destructive methods for the in-situ study of water transport are quite limited. Neutron Radiography (NR) seem to be appropriate methods to study water distribution in intact plants. Also the combination of NR with the low-contrast tracer D 2 O allows the direct visualization of water flow and the calculation of water flow rates in plants with a high resolution at the tissue level. This article gives general introduction into those two methods and report about most recent results of our experiments in this field. (author)

  6. within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measure- ments of transpiration flux and leaf water potential were used to calculate the total resistance to water flow using. Ohm's law analogy. Measurements of tranpiration flux (Q) relationship, plant resistance calculated ...

  7. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the evaporative flux method, measurements of transpiration flux and leaf water potential were used to calculate the total resistance to water flow using Ohm's law analogy. Measurements of tranpiration flux (Q) relationship, plant resistance calculated from the slope of their relationship, ranged from 6.57x10-01 to ...

  8. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  9. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  10. Water chemistry guidance in nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Naitoh, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Water chemistry plays important roles in safe and reliable plant operation which are very critical for future power rate increases as well as aging plant management. Water chemistry control is required to satisfy the need for improved integrity of target materials, and at the same time it must be optimal for all materials and systems in a plant. Optimal water chemistry can be maintained by expert engineers who are knowledgeable about plant water chemistry, who have sufficient experience with plant operation, and whose knowledge is based on fundamental technologies. One of the latest subjects in the field of water chemistry is achieving suitable technical transfers, in which the achievements and experience with plant water chemistry accumulated by experts are successfully transferred to the next generation of engineers. For this purpose, documents on experience with water chemistry are being compiled as the guidance for water chemistry control and water chemistry standards, e.g., standards for chemical analysis procedures and guidance for water chemistry control procedures. This paper introduces the latest activities in Japan in establishing water chemistry guidance involving water chemistry standards, guidance documents and their supporting documents. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of nitrogen status and total chlorophyll in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. leaves under water stress using a chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoodee, S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 was used to assess nitrogen status and total chlorophyll in longkong leaves, leaves from twelve of 10-year-old trees grown in the experimental plot at Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla province. The relationship between SPAD-502 meter reading and nitrogen status and total chlorophyll content analyzed in the laboratory was evaluated during 8 months (May-December 2003. It was found that the trend of the relationships in each month was similar. There was no significant differenceamong regression linears of all months. The data of 8 months showed that SPAD-reading and nitrogen content, and SPAD-reading and total chlorophyll content were related in a positive manner. They were Y = 0.19X+10.10, r = 0.76** (n = 240, and Y = 0.43X-7.89, r = 0.79** (n = 400, respectively. The SPAD-502 was then used to assess total nitrogen and total chlorophyll content during imposed water stress. Fifteen 4-yearold plants were grown in pots (each pot containing 50 kg soil volume. The experiment was arranged in acompletely randomized design with 3 treatments: (1 daily watering (2 once watering on day 7 (3 no watering with 5 replications during 14 days of the experimental period. Measurements showed a continuous decrease of SPAD-reading in the treatment of no watering. On day 14, a significant difference of SPAD- reading values between the treatment of daily watering and no watering was found. Then, the values of nitrogen content and total chlorophyll were assessed by using the linear regression equations. From the result, it is suggested that the measurement by chlorophyll meter is a rapid technique for the evaluation of total chlorophyll and nitrogen status in longkong leaves during water stress.

  12. Variation in total sugars and reductive sugars in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (hylocomiaceae) under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Ruiz, Luis Carlos; Melgarejo Munoz, Luz Marina.

    2012-01-01

    The structural simplicity of the bryophytes exposed them easily to water stress, forcing them to have physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable them to survive. This study evaluated the variation of total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in relation to relative water content, in Pleurozium schreberi when faced with low water content in the Paramo de Chingaza (Colombia) and under simulated conditions of water deficit in the laboratory. we found that total sugars increase when the plant is dehydrated and returned to their normal content when re-hydrated moss, this could be interpreted as a possible mechanism of osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection of the cell content and cellular structure. Reducing sugars showed no significant variation, showing that monosaccharides do not have a protective role during dehydration.

  13. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  14. MONITORING ON PLANT LEAF WATER POTENTIAL USING NIR SPECTROSCOPY FOR WATER STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diding Suhandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the calibration model with temperature compensation for on-plant leaf water potential (LWP determination in tomato plants was evaluated. During a cycle of water stress, the on-plant LWP measurement was conducted. The result showed that the LWP values under water stress and recovery from water stress could be monitored well. It showed that a real time monitoring of the LWP values using NIR spectroscopy could be possible.   Keywords: water stress, real time monitoring of leaf water potential, NIR spectroscopy, plant response-based

  15. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  16. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of plant-water relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, J.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water is one of the most important constituents of a plant. It is the medium in which many biological reactions take place and nutrients are transported throughout the plant in aqueous solutions. Because it serves as a hydrogen donor In photosynthesis water can be considered as one of the

  17. Grass plants crop water consumption model in urban parks located ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important issue is the to use of urban space to increase the number and size of green areas. As well as another important issue is to work towards maintaining these spaces. One such important effort is to meet the water needs of plants. Naturally, the amount of water needed by plants depends on the species.

  18. Multi-modal sensor system for plant water stress assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant stress critically affects plant growth and causes significant loss of productivity and quality. When the plant is under water stress, it impedes photosynthesis and transpiration, resulting in changes in leaf color and temperature. Leaf discoloration in photosynthesis can be assessed by measu...

  19. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  20. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  1. Seismic re-evaluation of Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-10-01

    This report deals with seismic re-evaluation of Heavy Water Plant, Kota. Heavy Water Plant, Kota handles considerable amount of H 2 S gas, which is very toxic. During the original design stage as per IS 1893-1966 seismic coefficient for zone-I was zero. Therefore earthquake and its effects were not considered while designing the heavy water plant structures. However as per IS 1893 (1984) the seismic coefficient for zone-I is 0.01 g. Hence seismic re-evaluation of various structures of the heavy water plant is carried out. Analysis of the heavy water plant structures was carried out for self weight, equipment load and earthquake load. Pressure loading was also considered in case of H 2 S storage tanks. Soil structure interaction effect was considered in the analysis. The combined stresses in the structures due to earthquake and dead load were checked with the allowable stresses. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  3. Tritium concentration in the heavy water upgrading plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Pop, F.; Titescu, Gh.; Dumitrescu, M.; Ciortea, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Peculea, M.; Pitigoi, Gh.; Trancota, D. . E-mail of corresponding author: croitoru@icsi.ro; Croitoru, C.)

    2005-01-01

    In the course of time heavy water used in CANDU nuclear power plants, as moderator or coolant, degrades, as a result of its impurification with light water and tritium. Concentration diminution below 99.8% mol for moderator and 99.75% mol for coolant causes an inefficient functioning of CANDU reactor. By isotopic distillation, light water is removed. Simultaneously tritium concentration takes place. The heavy water upgrading plant from Cernavoda is an isotopic separation cascade with two stages. The paper presents, for this plant, a theoretical study of the tritium concentration. (author)

  4. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  5. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  6. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  7. Optimal plant water use across temporal scales: bridging eco-hydrological theories and plant eco-physiological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through stomata, thus creating an inherent hydrologic constrain to carbon (C) gains and productivity. While such a constraint cannot be overcome, evolution has led to a number of adaptations that allow plants to thrive under highly variable and often limiting water availability. It may be hypothesized that these adaptations are optimal and allow maximum C gain for a given water availability. A corollary hypothesis is that these adaptations manifest themselves as coordination between the leaf photosynthetic machinery and the plant hydraulic system. This coordination leads to functional relations between the mean hydrologic state, plant hydraulic traits, and photosynthetic parameters that can be used as bridge across temporal scales. Here, optimality theories describing the behavior of stomata and plant morphological features in a fluctuating soil moisture environment are proposed. The overarching goal is to explain observed global patterns of plant water use and their ecological and biogeochemical consequences. The problem is initially framed as an optimal control problem of stomatal closure during drought of a given duration, where maximizing the total photosynthesis under limited and diminishing water availability is the objective function. Analytical solutions show that commonly used transpiration models (in which stomatal conductance is assumed to depend on soil moisture) are particular solutions emerging from the optimal control problem. Relations between stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit, and atmospheric CO2 are also obtained without any a priori assumptions under this framework. Second, the temporal scales of the model are expanded by explicitly considering the stochasticity of rainfall. In this context, the optimal control problem becomes a maximization problem for the mean photosynthetic rate. Results show that to achieve maximum C gains under these

  8. The total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of selected plant leaves commonly consumed in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watu, Aswani; Metussin, Nurzaidah; Yasin, Hartini M.; Usman, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of several selected plants, namely Centella asiatica, Aidia borneensis and Anacardium occidentale, which are grown and traditionally consumed in Brunei Darussalam. The total antioxidant capacities of aqueous-methanolic infusions of their leaves were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and microscopic fluorescence images were measured to identify the fluorescent substances bound in the leaves. We found that the total antioxidant capacity of their infusions is estimated to be 150, 25, 15 folds, respectively, lower compared with that of the standard gallic acid. Accordingly, we demonstrated that the relative antioxidant activity of young and matured leaves agrees with the intensity of red light emission of their fresh leaves upon UV excitation. Thus, this non-invasive spectroscopic method can be potentially utilized to indicate the antioxidants in plant leaves qualitatively.

  9. The Physical, Chemical and Microbial Quality of Treated Water in Qom s Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Yari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesWater is the basis of life and health. The health of food and water supply plays an important role in human health. One of the methods of water desalination is membrane filter reverse osmosis method. This method is used for desalination of drinking water supply in Qom.MethodsThis is a descriptive, cross-sectional study designed to determine the quality of treated water in Qom desalination plant in year 2002. Inlet and outlet water samples of this plant were examined by the standard examination methods and the collected data were compared with national and international standards. Excel software was used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe results showed that the residual chlorine concentration, total hardness and fluoride concentration were lower than the minimum standard limit set for drinking water. The pH was also lower than the minimum standard limit. Microbial contamination was detected in 6% of samples.ConclusionThe results show that the acidity of water was lower than standard in whole plant. This gives corrosive properties to the water and increases the dissolution of materials, which are in contact with this water. In order to eliminate the secondary contamination, the concentration of residual chlorine should be 1 mg/l. But, none of the measurements showed a concentration as high as this value. As fluoride is an important element for health and growth of bone and teeth, especially in growing children, fluoride should be added to the drinking water. As the relationship between hardness of water and cardiovascular diseases has been established, it can be concluded that this drinking water supply can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in long time. Dilution of this water is recommended to adjust various factors to the standard limits and keep the total dissolved solids low.Keywords: Qom ;Water; Reverse Osmosis; Desalination Plant; Water Quality

  10. The reliability evaluation of reclaimed water reused in power plant project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Jia, Ru-sheng; Gao, Yu-lan; Wang, Wan-fen; Cao, Peng-qiang

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water has become one of the important measures to solve the shortage of water resources in many cities, But there is no unified way to evaluate the engineering. Concerning this issue, it took Wanneng power plant project in Huai city as a example, analyzed the reliability of wastewater reuse from the aspects of quality in reclaimed water, water quality of sewage plant, the present sewage quantity in the city and forecast of reclaimed water yield, in particular, it was necessary to make a correction to the actual operation flow rate of the sewage plant. the results showed that on the context of the fluctuation of inlet water quality, the outlet water quality of sewage treatment plants is basically stable, and it can meet the requirement of circulating cooling water, but suspended solids(SS) and total hardness in boiler water exceed the limit, and some advanced treatment should be carried out. In addition, the total sewage discharge will reach 13.91×104m3/d and 14.21×104m3/d respectively in the two planning level years of the project. They are greater than the normal collection capacity of the sewage system which is 12.0×104 m3/d, and the reclaimed water yield can reach 10.74×104m3/d, which is greater than the actual needed quantity 8.25×104m3/d of the power plant, so the wastewater reuse of this sewage plant are feasible and reliable to the power plant in view of engineering.

  11. How Does Silicon Mediate Plant Water Uptake and Loss Under Water Deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqian Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In plants, water deficiency can result from a deficit of water from the soil, an obstacle to the uptake of water or the excess water loss; in these cases, the similar consequence is the limitation of plant growth and crop yield. Silicon (Si has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance under variant stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants, especially under drought and salt stresses. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In addition to the regulation of leaf transpiration, recently, Si application was found to be involved in the adjustment of root hydraulic conductance by up-regulating aquaporin gene expression and concentrating K in the xylem sap. Therefore, this review discusses the potential effects of Si on both leaf transpiration and root water absorption, especially focusing on how Si modulates the root hydraulic conductance. A growing number of studies support the conclusion that Si application improves plant water status by increasing root water uptake, rather than by decreasing their water loss under conditions of water deficiency. The enhancement of plant water uptake by Si is achievable through the activation of osmotic adjustment, improving aquaporin activity and increasing the root/shoot ratio. The underlying mechanisms of the Si on improving plant water uptake under water deficiency conditions are discussed.

  12. Total Data Management System for the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, J.; Coignaud, G.; Perot, J.P.; Fournier, W.; Silvain, B.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants at La Hague, France, generates considerable data processing requirements. To meet these requirements, a Total Data Management System (TDMS) has been designed and installed to operate the biggest Ethernet industrial network in Europe. This network, called Haguenet, interconnects a large number of computers and user terminals. The TDMS' main operational functions are plant operation and production data management, maintenance data management, technical documents management and computer-aided design (CAD). Extensive experience was gained through the design and operation of the TDMS at La Hague. (author)

  13. Co-regulation of water and K(+) transport in sunflower plants during water stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlloch, Manuel; Benlloch-González, María

    2016-06-01

    16-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were subjected to deficit irrigation for 12 days. Following this period, plants were rehydrated for 2 days to study plant responses to post-stress recovery. The moderate water stress treatment applied reduced growth in all plant organs and the accumulation of K(+) in the shoot. After the rehydration period, the stem recovered its growth and reached a similar length to the control, an effect which was not observed in either root or leaves. Moreover, plant rehydration after water stress favored the accumulation of K(+) in the apical zone of the stem and expanding leaves. In the roots of plants under water stress, watering to field capacity, once the plants were de- topped, rapidly favored K(+) and water transport in the excised roots. This quick and short-lived response was not observed in roots of plants recovered from water stress for 2 days. These results suggest that the recovery of plant growth after water stress is related to coordinated water and K(+) transport from the root to the apical zone of the ​​stem and expanding leaves. This stimulation of K(+) transport in the root and its accumulation in the cells of the growing zones of the ​​stem must be one of the first responses induced in the plant during water stress recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  15. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  16. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  17. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Comparison of total body water determinations in lactating women by anthropometry, water displacement, and deuterium isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Butte, N.; Lee, L.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.

    1986-01-01

    To expand the limited data on the total body water in lactating women, the authors have determined total body water contents, in eight subjects from anthropometric measurements, water displacement, and isotope dilution of deuterium oxide. On the day of the study, their skinfold thicknesses were measured over the biceps and triceps muscles and at the suprailiac and subscapular areas. Their body densities were measured by water displacement. Deuterium oxide was administered orally at 100 mg/kg of body weight. One predose milk sample was collected from each subject. The milk samples were defatted by centrifugation and the milk water was reduced to hydrogen gas for hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The results indicated that total body water in lactating women estimated from anthropometric measurements was 49.7 +/- 3.3% of body weight, by water displacement was 54.9 +/- 7.2%, and by isotope dilution was 50.8 +/- 3.7%

  19. Advanced applications of water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    By August 2007, there were 438 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation worldwide, with a total capacity of 371.7 GW(e). Further, 31 units, totaling 24.1 GW(e), were under construction. During 2006 nuclear power produced 2659.7 billion kWh of electricity, which was 15.2% of the world's total. The vast majority of these plants use water-cooled reactors. Based on information provided by its Member States, the IAEA projects that nuclear power will grow significantly, producing between 2760 and 2810 billion kWh annually by 2010, between 3120 and 3840 billion kWh annually by 2020, and between 3325 and 5040 billion kWh annually by 2030. There are several reasons for these rising expectations for nuclear power: - Nuclear power's lengthening experience and good performance: The industry now has more than 12 000 reactor years of experience, and the global average nuclear plant availability during 2006 reached 83%; - Growing energy needs: All forecasts project increases in world energy demand, especially as population and economic productivity grow. The strategies are country dependent, but usually involve a mix of energy sources; - Interest in advanced applications of nuclear energy, such as seawater desalination, steam for heavy oil recovery and heat and electricity for hydrogen production; - Environmental concerns and constraints: The Kyoto Protocol has been in force since February 2005, and for many countries (most OECD countries, the Russian Federation, the Baltics and some countries of the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) greenhouse gas emission limits are imposed; - Security of energy supply is a national priority in essentially every country; and - Nuclear power is economically competitive and provides stability of electricity price. In the near term most new nuclear plants will be evolutionary water cooled reactors (Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs that

  20. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N.; Velikhov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of ∼0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is ∼6000000 m 3 per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity

  1. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  2. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  3. The Role of Plant Water Storage on Water Fluxes within the Coupled Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. W.; Duman, T.; Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant water storage (PWS) contributes to whole-plant transpiration (up to 50%), especially in large trees and during severe drought conditions. PWS also can impact water-carbon economy as well as the degree of resistance to drought. A 1-D porous media model is employed to accommodate transient water flow through the plant hydraulic system. This model provides a mechanistic representation of biophysical processes constraining water transport, accounting for plant hydraulic architecture and the nonlinear relation between stomatal aperture and leaf water potential when limited by soil water availability. Water transport within the vascular system from the stem base to the leaf-lamina is modeled using Richards's equation, parameterized with the hydraulic properties of the plant tissues. For simplicity, the conducting flow in the radial direction is not considered here and the capacitance at the leaf-lamina is assumed to be independent of leaf water potential. The water mass balance in the leaf lamina sets the upper boundary condition for the flow system, which links the leaf-level transpiration to the leaf water potential. Thus, the leaf-level gas exchange can be impacted by soil water availability through the water potential gradient from the leaf lamina to the soil, and vice versa. The root water uptake is modeled by a multi-layered macroscopic scheme to account for possible hydraulic redistribution (HR) in certain conditions. The main findings from the model calculations are that (1) HR can be diminished by the residual water potential gradient from roots to leaves at night due to aboveground capacitance, tree height, nocturnal transpiration or the combination of the three. The degree of reduction depends on the magnitude of residual water potential gradient; (2) nocturnal refilling to PWS elevates the leaf water potential that subsequently delays the onset of drought stress at the leaf; (3) Lifting water into the PWS instead of HR can be an advantageous strategy

  4. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  5. Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegel, L.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot plant of ca 2000 l of recirculating fresh water for intensive fish production was constructed in a controlled-environment greenhouse. The feasibility was examined of using nutrients from fish wastewater, mainly oxidized nitrogenous compounds, for plant production, combined with an activated sludge system for water purification. The reduction of nitrates, formed during the extended aeration process by nitrifying bacteria, was not sufficient by higher plants and unicellular algae alone to reduce the nitrate concentration in our system significantly. An additional microbial denitrification step had to be included to effect maximal decrease in nitrogenous compounds. For fish culture in the pilot plant Tilapia mossambica and Cyprinus carpio were chosen as experimental fishes. Both fish species showed significant weight increases during the course of the experiment. Ice-lettuce and tomatoes were tested both in recirculating water and in batch culture. The unicellular algae Scenedesmus spp. were grown in a non-sterile batch culture. All plants grew well in the wastewater without additional nutrients. Determination of the physical and chemical parameters for optimum water purification, the most suitable ratio of denitrification by plants and by microorganisms, and the most favourable fish and plant species for combined culture in recirculating water are important and of current interest in view of the increasing demand for clean, fresh water, and the pressing need to find new ways of producing protein for human nutrition under prevailing conditions of an exponentially expanding world population.

  6. Sea water pumping-up power plant system combined with nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Tanaka, Masayuki.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to find a site suitable to construction for a sea water pumping-up power plant at a place relatively near the electric power consumption area. Then, a nuclear power plant is set at the sea bottom or the land portion of a sea shore near the power consumption area. A cavity is excavated underground or at the bottom of the sea in the vicinity of the power plant to form a lower pond, and the bottom of the sea, as an upper pond and the lower pond are connected by a water pressure pipe and a water discharge pipe. A pump water turbine is disposed therebetween, to which electric power generator is connected. In addition, an ordinary or emergency cooling facility in the nuclear power plant is constituted such that sea water in the cavity is supplied by a sea water pump. Accordingly, the sea water pumping-up plant system in combination with the nuclear power plant is constituted with no injuring from salts to animals and plants on land in the suburbs of a large city. The cost for facilities for supplying power from a remote power plant to large city areas and power loss are decreased and stable electric power can be supplied. (N.H.)

  7. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and carbon in fresh and burned plants and soil in Northwestern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, M.; Bodaly, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and soil contain substantial amounts of organic carbon (C) and mercury. Flooding terrestrial areas stimulates microbial methyl mercury (MeHg) production and fish obtain elevated MeHg concentrations. Our purpose was to determine the loss of C, total mercury (THg), and MeHg from boreal plants and soil after burning to assess the potential of burning before flooding to lower MeHg. Fresh plants contained 4 to 52 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) of THg and 0.1 to 1.3 ng g -1 dw of MeHg. Upland soils contained 162±132 ng g -1 dw of THg and 0.6±0.6 ng g -1 dw of MeHg. Complete burning caused plants to lose 96, 98, 97, and 94% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Upland soil lost 27, 95, 79, and 82% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a substantial loss of C, THg, and MeHg was caused by burning. - Burning terrestrial vegetation and soil causes substantial losses of organic carbon, total mercury, and methyl mercury

  8. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and carbon in fresh and burned plants and soil in Northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailman, M. [Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N6 (Canada)]. E-mail: mailmanma@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Bodaly, R.A. [Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N6 (Canada)

    2005-11-15

    Terrestrial plants and soil contain substantial amounts of organic carbon (C) and mercury. Flooding terrestrial areas stimulates microbial methyl mercury (MeHg) production and fish obtain elevated MeHg concentrations. Our purpose was to determine the loss of C, total mercury (THg), and MeHg from boreal plants and soil after burning to assess the potential of burning before flooding to lower MeHg. Fresh plants contained 4 to 52 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) of THg and 0.1 to 1.3 ng g{sup -1} dw of MeHg. Upland soils contained 162{+-}132 ng g{sup -1} dw of THg and 0.6{+-}0.6 ng g{sup -1} dw of MeHg. Complete burning caused plants to lose 96, 98, 97, and 94% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Upland soil lost 27, 95, 79, and 82% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a substantial loss of C, THg, and MeHg was caused by burning. - Burning terrestrial vegetation and soil causes substantial losses of organic carbon, total mercury, and methyl mercury.

  9. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Japanese aquaculture with thermal water from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.

    1977-01-01

    The present level of thermal aquaculture, utilizing thermal water which is waste cooling water from nuclear power plant, in Japan is reported. There are 13 major potential areas for thermal aquaculture in cooperation with conventional type thermal power plants, seven of which are actually operating. Aquaculture facilities of all these are on land, none in the sea. Of these seven centers, those that have already commercialized their nursery methods or are approaching that stage of research and development, are Tohoku Hatsuden Kogyo Ltd., Tsuruga Hama Land Ltd. and Kyushu Rinsan Ltd. Major problems faced specialists in Japanese thermal aquaculture are water temperature, water quality, radioactivity and costs. For keeping the water temperature constant all seasons, cooling or heating by natural sea water may be used. Even negligible amounts of radioactivity that nuclear power plants release into the sea will concentrate in the systems of marine life. A strict precautionary checking routine is used to detect radioactivity in marine life. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  12. Consequences of potential accidents in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Lazar, R.E.; Preda, I.A.; Dumitrescu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water plants achieve the primary isotopic concentration by H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange. In these plants are stored large quantities of hydrogen sulphide (high toxic, corrosive, flammable and explosive) maintained in process at relative high temperatures and pressures. It is required an assessment of risks associated with the potential accidents. The paper presents adopted model for quantitative consequences assessment in heavy water plants. Following five basic steps are used to identify the risks involved in plants operation: hazard identification, accident sequences development, H 2 S emissions calculus, dispersion analyses and consequences determination. A brief description of each step and some information from risk assessment for our heavy water pilot plant are provided. Accident magnitude, atmospheric conditions and population density in studied area were accounted for consequences calculus. (author)

  13. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.; PAYVANDI, S.; ZYGALAKIS, K.C.; SMETHURST, J.; FLIEGE, J.; ROOSE, T.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil

  14. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  15. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enhanced understanding of the system, thereby enabling the formulation of a quantitative model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the formulation of logical quantitative definitions for crop-ecotope specific upper and lower limits of available water; the identification of the harmful rootzone ...

  16. Sea water pipeline for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Heating coils, for example, are wound around sea water pipelines as a heater. The outer wall surface of the sea water pipelines is heated by the heating coils. The inner wall surfaces of the sea water pipelines can be warmed to higher than a predetermined temperature by heating the outer wall surfaces to die out marine organisms deposited at the inner surfaces. Further, thermocouples for the external wall and the internal wall are disposed so that the temperature at the inner wall surface of the sea water pipelines can be controlled. Further, a temperature keeping material is disposed at the external surface of the sea water system pipelines. With such a constitution, the marine organisms deposited on the internal wall surface of the sea water system pipelines are died out to suppress the deposition amount of the marine organisms. Accordingly, the maintenance and the operation reliability is improved after maintenance. (I.N.)

  17. Water management of the Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabusic, P.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial water for the Dukovany nuclear power plant is taken from a reservoir built on the Jihlava river. The volume of the reservoir is 17.1 million m 3 . The water taken serves mainly as the make-up water for the cooling circuit and is treated by clearing; it is also used for the preparation of demineralized water for making up the condensate circuit and for the preparation of soft water for making up the heat piping. The consumption of industrial water is 1 to 2 m 3 /s. Waste waters are released into rainwater drainage, sewage drainage and industrial water drainage. Waste waters are segregated according to the place of their origin and are purified, mainly on ion exchangers and on an evaporator. In normal conditions, they are returned to the operation. Concentrated liquid residues and solid wastes will be stored by using the multiple containment system. The most important radioisotopes that may be present in nuclear power plant waste waters, the water and radionuclide balance of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, and chemical and radiological data on the Dukovany waste waters (1989) are tabulated. (P.A.). 6 refs

  18. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  19. Growing under water - how plants cope with low CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Hinke, Anne Bækbo; Konnerup, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants are never short of water but instead they are challenged with low light and slow movement of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂). In the present paper, we focus on CO₂ limitation of underwater photosynthesis and the various strategies to overcome the limitation resulting from...... evolutionary adaptation to growth under water. Knowledge of such strategies helps you to select the right CO₂ environment and thereby maximize the chances that your favorite plants flourish....

  20. Valuation of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the Nuclear Power Plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valuated by means of cash-flow. The value of replacement of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is of U$S 1.593.538.000 (authors) [es

  1. Embalse nuclear power plant and heavy water valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the nuclear power plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valued by the cash-flow method. The Embalse nuclear power plant replacement value is of U$S 1.593.538.000. (author) [es

  2. Gas exchange under water. Acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little

  3. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature can affect many physiological processes during plant growth and development. Temperatures below or above optimum levels may influence plant metabolic activities positively or negatively. This may include accumulation of different metabolites such as phenolic compounds, reactive oxygen species ...

  4. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  5. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  6. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  7. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  8. Estimating plant root water uptake using a neural network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, D M; Shi, H B; Pang, H B

    2010-01-01

    but has not yet been addressed. This paper presents and tests such an approach. The method is based on a neural network model, estimating the water uptake using different types of data that are easy to measure in the field. Sunflower grown in a sandy loam subjected to water stress and salinity was taken......Water uptake by plant roots is an important process in the hydrological cycle, not only for plant growth but also for the role it plays in shaping microbial community and bringing in physical and biochemical changes to soils. The ability of roots to extract water is determined by combined soil...... and plant characteristics, and how to model it has been of interest for many years. Most macroscopic models for water uptake operate at soil profile scale under the assumption that the uptake rate depends on root density and soil moisture. Whilst proved appropriate, these models need spatio-temporal root...

  9. (238)U and total radioactivity in drinking waters in Van province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Özlem; Dağ, Beşir

    2014-06-01

    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of total radioactivity and natural uranium have been analysed in drinking water samples. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking waters was carried out in the Van province, East Turkey. Twenty-three samples of drinking water were collected in the Van province and analysed for total α, total β and (238)U activity. The total α and total β activities were counted by using the α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604), and the (238)U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2). The samples were categorised according to origin: tap, spring or mineral supply. The activity concentrations for total α were found to range from 0.002 to 0.030 Bq L(-1) and for total β from 0.023 to 1.351 Bq L(-1). Uranium concentrations ranging from 0.562 to 14.710 μg L(-1) were observed in drinking waters. Following the World Health Organisation rules, all investigated waters can be used as drinking water.

  10. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Four Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extracts of four Indonesian medicinal plants namely Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.,Phyllanthus niruri Linn., Andrographis paniculata Ness., and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. wereexamined for their antioxidant (radical scavenging activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH free radical and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT. The total phenoliccontent was used the Folin-Ciocalteu method. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activityranged from 14.5 to 178.5 μg/ml, with P. niruri having the lowest value and therefore the mostpotent, and C. aeruginosa having the highest value. LC50 values for BSLT ranged from 210.3 to593.2 μg/ml, with C. xanthorrhiza and A. paniculata having the lowest and highest values,respectively. The total phenolic content of the Indonesian plants ranged from 133.0 ±3.7 to863.3±54.7 mg tannic acid equivalent per 1 g extract, with C. aeruginosa and P. niruri having thelowest and highest values, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavengingactivity and the content of phenolic compounds was found in the four of Indonesian medicinal plants.

  11. Alternative water chemistry for the primary loop of PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzel, N [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Advanced fuel element concepts (longer cycles, higher burnup, increased rod power) call for more reactivity binding capacity and, moreover, might produce higher void fractions, particularly in the hot channel. Thus, on the one hand, more alcalizing agent is needed to maintain a high coolant pH according to the approved ``modified boron-lithium mode of operation`` in the presence of more boric acid (chemical shim); on the other hand, increasing enrichment of coolant constituents due to local boiling (higher void fraction), which must not result in accelerated corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials, imposes enhanced requirements on both, materials technology and water chemistry. At present, the use of boric acid enriched in B10 (the isotope effective in terms of reactivity control) appears to advantageously compromise in capturing more neutrons with less total boron while maintaining or even slightly reducing lithium concentrations at the same time. There is no feasible alternative for boric acid used as the chemical shim and for hydrogen gas as the reducing agent used to suppress oxygen formation by water radiolysis. Systematic screening as performed in phase 1 of a recent project proved potassium hydroxide to be the only potential candidate to favourably replace lithium 7 hydroxide as an alcalizing agent. Unfortunately, the results of pertinent comparative corrosion tests are not unambiguous, and available operational experience with potassium hydroxide in WWER plants is not readily applicable to western world-type PWR plants. Therefore, a switch-over from lithium to potassium can be envisaged only subsequent to a comprehensive qualification program which is planned to be the objective of phase 2 of the project. This program should also comprise zinc addition tests in order to confirm the alleged positive impact of this element on corrosion rates and activity buildup. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Total loss of CNA1 steam generators feed water simulated with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Edgardo J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the calculations are presented carried out by utilizing the code RELAP5/MOD3, upon the basis of the postulated initial event of total loss of feed water to the two steam generators in the nuclear power plant Atucha 1, CNA1. The evolution of the installation systems during the transient was analyzed in different conditions of availability: condenser, relief valve and safety valves in the secondary system, safety valves in the primary system and system of long-term subsequent cooling. Located in the primary and secondary systems of the installation they turn out to be prominent in this event. Upon this basis the sequences of possible evolution were calculated and those that would conduct the system toward the setting called 'damage to the core' were determined. Also those in which would arrive to a state of 'safe shutdown' were determined. These results were utilized in the verification of the tree of events utilized in the Final Report of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis for the sequence of event T9, made from calculations carried out with the code DINETZ. From this compare some differences were determined and are presented in the modified version of tree of events. (author)

  13. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  14. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  15. Water chemistry diagnosis system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Koya, Hiroshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1990-01-01

    The water quality control for the BWRs in Japan has advanced rapidly recently, and as to the dose reduction due to the decrease of radioactivity, Japan takes the position leading the world. In the background of the advanced water quality control like this and the increase of nuclear power plants in operation, the automation of arranging a large quantity of water quality control information and the heightening of its reliability have been demanded. Hitachi group developed the water quality synthetic control system which comprises the water quality data management system to process a large quantity of water quality data with a computer and the water quality diagnosis system to evaluate the state of operation of the plants by the minute change of water quality and to carry out the operational guide in the aspect of water quality control. To this water quality diagnosis system, high speed fuzzy inference is applied in order to do rapid diagnosis with fuzzy data. The trend of development of water quality control system, the construction of the water quality synthetic control system, the configuration of the water quality diagnosis system and the development of algorithm and the improvement of the reliability of maintenance are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Water relations of woody perennial plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Shackel

    2007-09-01

    Significance and impact of study: SWP as a standard method for quantifying water stress in grapevine and other crops will aid research in the development of reliable management practices to improve crop productivity and quality.

  17. Thermoeconomic analysis of a power/water cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Osman A.; Al-Washmi, Hamed A.; Al-Otaibi, Holayil A.

    2006-01-01

    Cogeneration plants for simultaneous production of water and electricity are widely used in the Arabian Gulf region. They have proven to be more thermodynamically efficient and economically feasible than single purpose power generation and water production plants. Yet, there is no standard or universally applied methodology for determining unit cost of electric power generation and desalinated water production by dual purpose plants. A comprehensive literature survey to critically assess and evaluate different methods for cost application in power/water cogeneration plants is reported in this paper. Based on this analysis, an in-depth thermoeconomic study is carried out on a selected power/water cogeneration plant that employs a regenerative Rankine cycle. The system incorporates a boiler, back pressure turbine (supplying steam to two MSF distillers), a deaerator and two feed water heaters. The turbine generation is rated at 118 MW, while MSF distiller is rated at 7.7 MIGD at a top brine temperature of 105 deg. C. An appropriate costing procedure based on the available energy accounting method which divides benefits of the cogeneration configuration equitably between electricity generation and water production is used to determine the unit costs of electricity and water. Capital charges of common equipment such as the boiler, deaerator and feed water heaters as well as boiler fuel costs are distributed between power generated and desalinated water according to available energy consumption of the major subsystems. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the impact of the variation of fuel cost, load and availability factors in addition to capital recovery factor on electricity and water production costs

  18. Comparison of dwarf bamboos (Indocalamus sp.) leaf parameters to determine relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yu-Long; Li, Hua-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between spatial density and size of plants is an important topic in plant ecology. The self-thinning rule suggests a -3/2 power between average biomass and density or a -1/2 power between stand yield and density. However, the self-thinning rule based on total leaf area per plant and density of plants has been neglected presumably because of the lack of a method that can accurately estimate the total leaf area per plant. We aimed to find the relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant. We also attempted to provide a novel model for accurately describing the leaf shape of bamboos. We proposed a simplified Gielis equation with only two parameters to describe the leaf shape of bamboos one model parameter represented the overall ratio of leaf width to leaf length. Using this method, we compared some leaf parameters (leaf shape, number of leaves per plant, ratio of total leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and total leaf area per plant) of four bamboo species of genus Indocalamus Nakai (I. pedalis (Keng) P.C. Keng, I. pumilus Q.H. Dai and C.F. Keng, I. barbatus McClure, and I. victorialis P.C. Keng). We also explored the possible correlation between spatial density and total leaf area per plant using log-linear regression. We found that the simplified Gielis equation fit the leaf shape of four bamboo species very well. Although all these four species belonged to the same genus, there were still significant differences in leaf shape. Significant differences also existed in leaf area per plant, ratio of leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and leaf length. In addition, we found that the total leaf area per plant decreased with increased spatial density. Therefore, we directly demonstrated the self-thinning rule to improve light interception.

  19. Water recovery in a concentrated solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aikifa; Higgo, Alex R.; Alobaidli, Abdulaziz; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-05-01

    For CSP plants, water consumption is undergoing increasing scrutiny particularly in dry and arid regions with water scarcity conditions. Significant amount of water has to be used for parabolic trough mirror cleaning to maintain high mirror reflectance and optical efficiency in sandy environment. For this specific purpose, solar collectors are washed once or twice every week at Shams 1, one of the largest CSP plant in the Middle East, and about 5 million gallons of demineralized water is utilized every year without further recovery. The produced waste water from a CSP plant contains the soiling i.e. accumulated dust and some amount of organic contaminants, as indicated by our analysis of waste water samples from the solar field. We thus need to develop a membrane based system to filter fine dust particulates and to degrade organic contaminant simultaneously. Membrane filtration technology is considered to be cost-effective way to address the emerging problem of a clean water shortage, and to reuse the filtered water after cleaning solar collectors. But there are some major technical barriers to improve the robustness and energy efficiency of filtration membranes especially when dealing with the removal of ultra-small particles and oil traces. Herein, we proposed a robust and scalable nanostructured inorganic microporous filtration copper mesh. The inorganic membrane surface wettability is tailored to enhance the water permeability and filtration flux by creating nanostructures. These nanostructured membranes were successfully employed to recover water collected after cleaning the reflectors of solar field of Shams 1. Another achievement was to remove the traces of heat transfer fluid (HTF) from run-off water which was collected after accidental leakage in some of the heat exchangers during the commissioning of the Shams 1 for safe disposal into the main stream. We hope, by controlling the water recovery factor and membrane reusability performance, the membrane

  20. Comparative water use of wattle thickets and indigenous plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The net difference in evapotranspiration (ET) between riparian thickets of alien trees and riparian fynbos may be quite different, due to the yearlong availability of soil water and enhanced plant growth in riparian zones. The water use of alien invasive trees in South Africa remains largely unknown, adding further uncertainty ...

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  2. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  3. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2018-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  4. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand

  5. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  6. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  7. The Physical, Chemical and Microbial Quality of Treated Water in Qom s Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Yari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Water is the basis of life and health. The health of food and water supply plays an important role in human health. One of the methods of water desalination is membrane filter reverse osmosis method. This method is used for desalination of drinking water supply in Qom.

    Methods

    This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study designed to determine the quality of treated water in Qom desalination plant in year 2002. Inlet and outlet water samples of this plant were examined by the standard examination methods and the collected data were compared with national and international standards. Excel software was used for statistical analysis.

    Results

    The results showed that the residual chlorine concentration, total hardness and fluoride concentration were lower than the minimum standard limit set for drinking water. The pH was also lower than the minimum standard limit. Microbial contamination was detected in 6% of samples.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the acidity of water was lower than standard in whole plant. This gives corrosive properties to the water and increases the dissolution of materials, which are in contact with this water. In order to eliminate the secondary contamination, the concentration of residual chlorine should be 1 mg/l. But, none of the measurements showed a concentration as high as this value. As fluoride is an important element for health and growth of bone and teeth, especially in growing children, fluoride should be added to the drinking water. As the relationship between hardness of water and cardiovascular diseases has been established, it can be concluded that this drinking water supply can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in long time. Dilution of this water is recommended to adjust various factors to the standard limits and keep the total dissolved solids low.

  8. Evaluating Methods for Isolating Total RNA and Predicting the Success of Sequencing Phylogenetically Diverse Plant Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskiewich, Richard; Burris, Jason N.; Carrigan, Charlotte T.; Chase, Mark W.; Clarke, Neil D.; Covshoff, Sarah; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Edger, Patrick P.; Goh, Falicia; Graham, Sean; Greiner, Stephan; Hibberd, Julian M.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid; Kutchan, Toni M.; Leebens-Mack, James; Melkonian, Michael; Miles, Nicholas; Myburg, Henrietta; Patterson, Jordan; Pires, J. Chris; Ralph, Paula; Rolf, Megan; Sage, Rowan F.; Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Stevenson, Dennis; Stewart, C. Neal; Surek, Barbara; Thomsen, Christina J. M.; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ≥1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers. PMID:23185583

  9. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  10. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  11. Environmental aspects for water power plants along the river Lech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiechtl, H

    1984-03-01

    During the past four decades, a number of water power plants has been put up along the river Lech between Fuessen to Augsburg; this section being under the concession of BAWAG. With the present report, the author shows how and by what means water power plants can be designed ecologically beneficial, and he furthermore demonstrates that modern technics and conservation of environment are very well compatible with each other. The use of water power as an indigenous, nonpolluting and constantly regenerating source of energy, also in the future, is pointed out.

  12. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  13. Investigating water transport through the xylem network in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Koo; Park, Joonghyuk; Hwang, Ildoo

    2014-04-01

    Our understanding of physical and physiological mechanisms depends on the development of advanced technologies and tools to prove or re-evaluate established theories, and test new hypotheses. Water flow in land plants is a fascinating phenomenon, a vital component of the water cycle, and essential for life on Earth. The cohesion-tension theory (CTT), formulated more than a century ago and based on the physical properties of water, laid the foundation for our understanding of water transport in vascular plants. Numerous experimental tools have since been developed to evaluate various aspects of the CTT, such as the existence of negative hydrostatic pressure. This review focuses on the evolution of the experimental methods used to study water transport in plants, and summarizes the different ways to investigate the diversity of the xylem network structure and sap flow dynamics in various species. As water transport is documented at different scales, from the level of single conduits to entire plants, it is critical that new results be subjected to systematic cross-validation and that findings based on different organs be integrated at the whole-plant level. We also discuss the functional trade-offs between optimizing hydraulic efficiency and maintaining the safety of the entire transport system. Furthermore, we evaluate future directions in sap flow research and highlight the importance of integrating the combined effects of various levels of hydraulic regulation.

  14. Investigating the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khozondar, Balkess; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih

    2017-11-01

    The water-energy intertwined relationship has recently gained more importance due to the high water consumption in the energy sector and to the limited availability of the water resources. The energy and electricity demand of Turkey is increasing rapidly in the last two decades. More thermal power plants are expected to be built in the near future to supply the rapidly increasing demand in Turkey which will put pressure on water availability. In this study, the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants is investigated. The main objectives of this study are to identify the amount of water consumed to generate 1 kWh of electricity for each generation technology currently used in Turkey and to investigate ways to reduce the water consumption at power plants expected to be built in the near future to supply the increasing demand. The various electricity generation technology mixture scenarios are analyzed to determine the future total and per generation water consumption, and water savings based on changes of cooling systems used for each technology. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) program is used to determine the minimum water consuming electricity generation technology mixtures using optimization approaches between 2017 and 2035.

  15. Total mercury in water, sediments, and animals along the Indian Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    Total mercury (Hg) in water, sediments and animals along the coast of India is estimated. Water samples were collected on board of R.V. Gaveshani.The zooplankton samples were collected by Indian Ocean Standard Net and Heron Tranter nets of 500 mesh...

  16. [Total drinking water intake and sources of children and adolescent in one district of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Ailing; Pan, Hui; He, Shuang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-05-01

    To describe total drinking water intake among primary and middle school students in one district of Shenzhen and to provide scientific evidence for adequate intakes of drinking water for different people in China. A total of 816 students from three primary and middle schools of Shenzhen was selected using three-stage random sampling method. The information on amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a 24 hours measurement. The amounts and types of daily drinking water among different ages and between boys and girls were analyzed. The average total drinking water of subjects was (1225+/-557) ml/d, and the consumption of total drinking water in boys ((1303+/-639) ml/d) was significantly higher than that in girls ((1134+/-478) ml/d, Pwater of secondary school students ((1389+/-541) ml/d) and high school student ((1318+/-641) ml/d) was no statistically difference, but was higher than primary school students ((1097+/-525) ml/d, Pwater and beverages of the subjects was (818+/-541) ml/d and (407+/-294) ml/d respectively. Major of fluid intake comes from drinking water in children and adolescenct of Shenzhen. The knowledge of drinking water of primary school students is need to comprehensive enough.

  17. Water releasing electric generating device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Toshihiro; Tomohara, Yasutaka; Usui, Yoshihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Warm sea water discharged after being used for cooling in an equipment of a coastal nuclear powder plant is discharged from a water discharge port to a water discharge pit, and a conduit vessel is disposed in front of the water discharge port for receiving overflown warm sea water. The warm sea water taken to the conduit vessel is converted to a fallen flow and charged to a turbine generator under water, and electric power is generated by the water head energy of the fallen flow before it is discharged to the water discharge pit. The conduit vessel incorporates a foam preventing unit having spiral flow channels therein, so that the warm sea water taken to the conduit vessel is flown into the water discharge pit after consuming the water head energy while partially branched and flown downwardly and gives lateral component to the downwarding flowing direction. Then, warm sea water is made calm when it is flown into the water discharge pit and, accordingly, generation of bubbles on the water surface of the water discharge pit is avoided. (N.H.)

  18. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This permit application has been prepared to obtain a research, development, and demonstration permit to perform pilot-scale treatability testing on the 242-A Evaporator process condensate waste water effluent stream. It provides the management framework, and controls all the testing conducted in the waste water pilot plant using dangerous waste. It also provides a waste acceptance envelope (upper limits for selected constituents) and details the safety and environmental protection requirements for waste water pilot plant testing. This permit application describes the overall approach to testing and the various components or requirements that are common to all tests. This permit application has been prepared at a sufficient level of detail to establish permit conditions for all waste water pilot plant tests to be conducted

  19. Improved method of degassing of feed water at Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G K; Agrawal, A K [Heavy Water Plant, Kota (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) processes 450 MT/hr of feed water as the source of deuterium using water/hydrogen sulphide exchange process for the production of heavy water. Plant design has limited the ingress of dissolved oxygen in feed water to 0.2 ppm. However, even this low limit on dissolved oxygen has been found unacceptable during plant operation as over an operational period of 3-4 years accumulation of sulphur due to oxidation of hydrogen sulphide on exchange tower trays poses major operational problems. This paper discusses the results of nitrogen injection used for reducing the ingress of dissolved oxygen in the feed water system of the plant. (author). 1 fig.

  20. Improved method of degassing of feed water at Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, G.K.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) processes 450 MT/hr of feed water as the source of deuterium using water/hydrogen sulphide exchange process for the production of heavy water. Plant design has limited the ingress of dissolved oxygen in feed water to 0.2 ppm. However, even this low limit on dissolved oxygen has been found unacceptable during plant operation as over an operational period of 3-4 years accumulation of sulphur due to oxidation of hydrogen sulphide on exchange tower trays poses major operational problems. This paper discusses the results of nitrogen injection used for reducing the ingress of dissolved oxygen in the feed water system of the plant. (author)

  1. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  2. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  3. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ouillon, Sylvain; Douillet, Pascal; Petrenko, Anne; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, C?cile; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Andr?fou?t, Serge; Mu?oz-Caravaca, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the C...

  4. Quality control on the accuracy of the total Beta activity index in different sample matrices water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Pablo, M. A. de; Payeras, J.

    2013-01-01

    The standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 of general requirements for the technical competence of testing and calibration laboratories, provides that a laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations ago. In this paper, the experience of Isotopic Applications Laboratory (CEDEX) in controlling the accuracy rate of total beta activity in samples of drinking water, inland waters and marine waters is presented. (Author)

  5. Water Source Utilization of Hammock and Pine Rockland Plant Communities in the Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A. K.; Sternberg, L.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2007-12-01

    South Florida has a mosaic of plant communities resulting from topographical differences, spatially varying hydroperiods and fire. The only plant communities not flooded in the wet season are hardwood hammocks and often pine rocklands. Natural fires burn off litter accumulated in pine rocklands, with the exception of organic matter in sinkholes in the limestone bedrock. This relative lack of soil is thought to constrain pineland plants in the Everglades to depend upon groundwater that is typically low in nutrients. In contrast, adjoining hardwood hammocks have accumulated an organic soil layer that traps rainwater and nutrients. Plants in hammocks may be able to utilize this water and thereby access nutrients present in the litter. Hammocks are thus viewed as localized areas of high nutrients and instances of vegetation feedback upon the oligotrophic everglades landscape enabling establishment and survival of flood-intolerant tropical hardwood species. This study examines water source use and couples it to foliar nutrient concentrations of plants found in hammocks and pinelands. We examined the δ2H and δ18O of stem waters in plants in Everglades National Park and compared those with the δ2H and δ18O of potential water sources. In the wet season hammock plants accessed both groundwater and water in the surface organic soil layer while in the dry season they relied more on groundwater. A similar seasonal shift was observed in pineland plants; however groundwater constituted a much higher proportion of total water uptake throughout the year under observation. Concomitant with differential water utilization by hammock and pineland plant communities, we observed hammock plants having a significantly higher annual mean foliar N and P concentration than pineland plants. Most hammock species are intolerant of flooded soils and are thus constrained by the high water table in the wet season, yet access the lowered groundwater table in the dry season due to drying up of

  6. Experiences on sea water reverse osmosis plant at Anuvijay township, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.R.; Selvavinayagam, P.; Singaravelan, S.; Ramdoss, R.; Sundar, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sea water reverse Osmosis plant SWRO of KKNPP is located at Anuvijay township, Chettikulam, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu. The objective of SWRO is to produce 2400 M 3 of potable quality water per day. This plant consists of four streams, each having a capacity of 25 M 3 /hr. Each stream is having 9 pressure tube in parallel and each pressure tube has 6 polyamide spiral wound membrane in series. (author)

  7. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processes in the soil, has greatly enhanced understanding of the system, ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage. ... risk clay and duplex soils and high runoff losses, in-field rainwater harvesting ...

  8. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  9. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  10. Determination of the total indicative dose in drinking and mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, K.; Schulz, H.; Knappik, R.; Koehler, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Europe and Germany administrative regulations exist for the surveillance of the total indicative dose of water supplied for human consumption. This parameter, which cannot be analyzed directly, has to be calculated using nuclide specific activity concentration and age specific dose conversion factors and consumption rates. Available calculation methods differ regarding the used radionuclides, consumption rates and whether they use age specific dose conversion factors or not. In Germany administrative guidelines for the determination of the total indicative dose are still not available. As they have analyzed a large number of waters in the past, the authors derive a praxis orientated concept for the determination of the total indicative dose which respects radiological, analytical and hydrochemical aspects as well. Finally it is suggested to handle sparkling waters in the same manner as drinking waters. (orig.)

  11. Possibilities for reorientation the activity of heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, F.; Croitoru, C.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Hodor, I.; Cuna, S. . E-mail of corresponding author: pop.floarea@icsi.ro; Pop, F.)

    2005-01-01

    In Romania heavy water is produced by H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange (GS process) and by water distillation, simultaneously working two lines. The distillation plants have high separation capacity, a distillation line being able to concentrate water from two GS lines. The paper presents data regarding possibilities to use one distillation line for oxygen 18 production, as pre-concentrates or finite products. Using a simulation program it was calculated oxygen 18 concentration in heavy water produced, maximum 18 O concentration of pre-concentrate obtained on distillation line and the separation cascade dimensions for obtain 95% 18 O, with first and second stage having same dimensions like a distillation plant from Romanian heavy water factory. Oxygen-18 separation factor is much lower than deuterium separation factor. For this reason, oxygen-18 is a very expensive product. (author)

  12. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, D.; Lowe, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: 1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; 2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and 3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present

  13. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, D; Lowe, P A

    1975-07-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: (1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; (2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and (3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present.

  14. Analysis of water hammer events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiro; Yanagi, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    A water hammer issue in nuclear power plants was one of unresolved safety issues listed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and was regarded as resolved. But later on, the water hammer events are still experienced intermittently, while the number of the events is decreasing. We collected water hammer events of PWRs in Japan and the United States and relevant documents, analyzed them, and studied corrective actions taken by Japanese plants. As a result, it is confirmed that preventive measured in design, operation etc. have been already taken and that mitigation mechanisms against water hammer have also been considered. However, it is clarified that attention should be continuously paid to operation of valves and/or pumps, as the prevention of water hammer still relies on operation. (author)

  15. Possibilities for reorientation of activity in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, F.; Croitoru, C.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Hodor, I.; Cuna, S.

    2004-01-01

    In Romania heavy water is produced by H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange (GS process) and by water distillation, in two lines working simultaneously. The distillation plants have high separation capacity, a distillation line being able to concentrate water from two GS lines. The paper presents data regarding possibilities to use one distillation line for oxygen - 18 production, as pre-concentrates or finite products. A simulation program was used to calculate the oxygen - 18 concentration in the heavy water produced, maximum 18 O concentration of pre-concentrate obtained on distillation line and the separation cascade sizes to obtain 95% 18 O, with first and second stage having the same sizes like the distillation plant from the Romanian heavy water factory. Oxygen-18 separation factor is much lower than deuterium separation factor. For this reason, oxygen-18 is a very expensive product. (authors)

  16. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  17. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  18. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  19. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  20. Lead uptake of water plants in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Chemistry Laboratory, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P. O. Box 7086, Kampala, Uganda. Received ... contain heavy metals which compromise water quality .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... discharged out of the waste water treatment plant pipes. ... with deionized water twice and separated into shoots, stems and.

  1. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  2. The low-temperature water-water reactor for district heating atomic power plant (DHPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, S.A.; Sokolov, I.N.; Krauze, L.V.; Nikiporetz, Yu.G.; Philimonov, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The district heating atomic power plant in the article is distinguished by the increased reliability and safety of operation that was provided by the use of following main principles: relatively low parameters of the coolant; the intergral arrangement of equipment and accordingly the minimum branching of the reactor circuit; the natural circulation of coolant of the primary circuit in the steady-state, transient and emergency regimes of reactor operation; the considerable reserves of cold water of the primary circuit in the reactor vessel, providing the emergency cooling; the application of two shells each of which is designed for the total working pressure, the second shell is made of prestressed reinforced concrete that eliminates its brittle failure. (M.S.)

  3. Determination of heavy metals in Damascus drinking water using total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajo, J.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical preconcentration have applied for multi-elemental analysis of Damascus drinking water. Water was taken directly from taps of several city sectors and analyzed for the following trace elements: Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb. The detection limits were found to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/l. The mean levels of trace elements in the Damascus drinking water were below the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines. (author)

  4. Water quality around proposed nuclear power plant at Gorakhpur Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V.K.; Bishnoi, Mukul; Pal, Jitender; Pulhani, Vandana; Narayanan, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The surface and ground water are being polluted by natural as well as anthropogenic activities. Natural pollutants include acid rain and salts from rocks. Pollution added by anthropogenic activities include sewage and other wastes, industrial effluent as hardly 5% of total industries have adequate measures for the treatment of effluents. Water quality was assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes around proposed Nuclear Plant Site at Dist. Hisar/Fatehabad, Haryana. The study was undertaken to established baseline levels of water parameters during pre-operational phase of the proposed nuclear power plant. A total 103 samples were have been collected from different sampling locations around of around proposed Nuclear Plant Site. Water samples were collected from the bore-wells, wells, municipal water supplies, ponds, canal and hand pumps were analyzed for the various physico-chemical parameters including pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate, Nitrate and phosphate. The samples were collected and analysed as per standard methods within 24h of sampling. The results indicate considerable variations in physic-chemical properties of the analysed water samples. The pH was neutral to alkaline at all the studied locations, ranging from 7.0-9.7 at different locations. Salinity ranged from 0.1-0.63 mg/l and Total alkalinity (as CaCO 3 ) ranged from 43.2-528 mg/l. Most of the samples were slightly to moderately hard. Total hardness content (as CaCO 3 ) ranged from 1.7-1512 mg/l. Fluoride content in the groundwater of the study area ranged from 0.4-2.1 mg/l for fluoride. Majority of the samples do not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameters measured. Mostly, surface water (canal water) is supplied to the general public by the public water supply department for

  5. An organic profile of a pressurised water reactor secondary plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeden, Nestor van; Stwayi, Mandisibuntu; Gericke, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Make-up water addition to the steam/water cycle at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station usually results in a corresponding increase of the chloride concentration in the steam generator blowdown system. During plant transients, when higher than normal make-up is required to the secondary plant, the concentration of chloride occasionally exceeds the limiting value for the station chemistry performance indicator. Irrespective of this, the demineralised water make-up supply tanks, which are routinely analysed for chloride, are within all recognised acceptable standards for secondary water make-up and therefore these tanks do not initially appear to be the source of chloride contamination. Water treatment at the plant relies essentially on ion exchange, which has been proven to be very effective in removing inorganic ionic species such as chloride. Organic compounds are less effectively removed by ion exchange and may pass through the treatment system, and these organics can reside undetected in the make-up water tanks. Historically, the elevated chloride concentration following high system make-up has been attributed to chlorinated organic compounds known as trihalomethanes being present in the make-up water tanks, but no rigorous study had been undertaken. As it has been assumed that the majority of chloride in the secondary system originates from the make-up water organic impurities, it was considered important to confirm this by compiling an organic profile of the secondary plant. The use of organic additives was also taken into account in the profile. This work has confirmed the contribution from trihalomethanes and has also found that other organochlorides contribute even more significantly to the overall chloride inventory of the secondary plant. (orig.)

  6. Animal or plant: which is the better fog water collector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae) and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae) collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking--while exposed to predators--will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface.

  7. Animal or plant: which is the better fog water collector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nørgaard

    Full Text Available Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking--while exposed to predators--will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface.

  8. Alpha-tocopherol alters endogenous oxidative defense system in mungbean plants under water-deficit condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Akram, N.A.; Javed, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Foliar spray of plant growth regulating compounds including antioxidants is an effective strategy to overcome the adverse effects of environmental constraints on different plants. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the influence of exogenously applied alpha-tocopherol (Toc) in up-regulating the oxidative defense system in two mungbean cultivars (Cyclone 7008 and Cyclone 8009) grown under normal and water deficit conditions. After 30-day of water deficit treatment, four levels of Toc (0 (non spray), 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1) were applied as a foliage application (at vegetative growth stage). A significant reduction was observed in plant height and total soluble proteins, while an increase was observed in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, malondialdehyde (MDA), total free amino acids and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, POD and CAT) antioxidants in both mungbean cultivars under drought conditions. Foliar spray of Toc was effective in improving plant height, AsA, total soluble proteins, total free amino acids, and activities of POD and CAT enzymes, but reduced MDA under water stress conditions. However, no prominent change was observed on the concentrations of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, phenolics, and SOD enzyme due to foliar-applied Toc in both mungbean cultivars under both water regimes. Both mungbean cultivars were almost similar in all attributes measured except that cv. Cyclone 7008 was higher in the levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and TSP while cv. Cyclone 8009 in phenolics. So, from the results of this study we can suggest that exogenous application of Toc is effective in improving growth and antioxidative potential of mungbean plants under dry arid environment. (author)

  9. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Cooling tower make-up water processing for nuclear power plants: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, O; Flunkert, F; Hampel, G; Schiffers, A [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    In water-cooled nuclear power plants, 1 to 2% of the total investment costs go to cooling tower make-up water processing. The crude water taken from rivers or stationary waters for cooling must be sufficiently purified regarding its content of solids, carbonate hardness and corrosive components so as to guarantee an operation free of disturbances. At the same time, the processing methods must be selected for operational-economic reasons in such a manner that waste water and waste problems are kept small regarding environmental protection. The various parameters described have a decisive influence on the processing methods of the crude water, individual processes (filtration, sedimentation, decarbonization) are described, circuit possibilities for cooling water systems are compared and the various processes are analyzed and compared with regard to profitableness and environmental compatability.

  11. Cooling water in the study of nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The location of an electric power plant has its limitations as regards the availability of apt sites. The radiosanitary risk, seismic risk and the overload capacity of the ground can be generically enumerated, being the cooling water availability for an electric power plant a basic requirement. Diverse cooling systems may be employed but the aim must always be that thermal contamination in the immediate environment be the least possible. (Author) [es

  12. New water intake systems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, T.B.; Samodel'nikov, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Problems arising during design of water intake and spillway structures for the auxiliary water supply system of thermal and nuclear power plants connected with the provision of their reliable operation and with the effect on the temperature condition of reservoirs and their ecology are investigated. Design providing for the connection of intake channel and catch drain for a through (transition) channel and supplying a water transition flow by ejecting water outputs is suggested. The variant considered is effective for seas, lakes and reservoirs with adverse conditions for natural cooling and it is suitable for regions with seismicity up to 5-6 balls

  13. Productivity, total and utilized nitrogen and water use efficiency of soybean grown in reclaimed sandy soil as affected by water regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, A.A.G.; Thabet, E.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was performed at the experimental farm, Inshas, atomic energy authority, Egypt, in tafla and sand mixture soil (1:7). The experiment was laid out using sprinkler irrigation system with a line source which allows a gradual variation of irrigation from high to low irrigation, whereas the calculated amount of irrigation water levels were 1565, 1050 and 766.5 (m 3 / feddan). Two soybean varieties (crawford and giza 35) were planted. The obtained results indicated that: a) irrigation with high (1562 m 3 /fed.) and medium (1050 m 3 /fed.) water levels increased total seed wield of the two soybean varieties. b) the highest value of water use efficiency was observed when both soybean varieties irrigated with water level of 1050 m 3 /fed. c) seed protein content in crawford variety was higher in giza 35 variety at the irrigation level of 1562 m 3 /fed. d) seeds of both two soybean varieties showed increase of its atom excess percentage at high and medium water levels, and reflecting increase of nitrogen use efficiency. e) significant increment in seed yield kg/plot. Has been indicated by irrigation with water level of 1050 m 3 /fed. As compared to higher and lower water levels

  14. An evaluation of water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.

    1983-01-01

    Water hammer can occur as a result of to steam-void collapse, steam-driven slugs of water, pump startup into voided lines, and inadverdent closures of valves; the result is large hydraulic pressure loads. Since 1968, about 150 water hammer events have been reported in U.S. nuclear power plants; damage has been confined to pipe hangers and snubbers. The increase in reported water hammer events in the 1970s led to the designation of water hammer as Unresolved Safety Issue A-1 in 1979. Since the mid-1970s reported occurrences and their underlying phenomena have been studied, and corrective design and operational measures have been implemented. This paper presents the results of generic evaluations of water hammer occurrence and reported damage and sets forth technical findings. These findings indicate that good design practices and operational procedures can minimize the occurrence of water hammer

  15. Effect of water treatment on the comparative costs of evaporative and dry cooled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, H.; Goldstein, D.J.; Yung, D.

    1976-07-01

    The report presents the results of a study on the relative cost of energy from a nominal 1000 Mwe nuclear steam electric generating plant using either dry or evaporative cooling at four sites in the United States: Rochester, New York; Sheridan, Wyoming; Gallup, New Mexico and Dallas, Texas. Previous studies have shown that because of lower efficiencies the total annual evaluated costs for dry cooling systems exceeds the total annual evaluated costs of evaporative cooling systems, not including the cost of water. The cost of water comprises the cost of supplying the makeup water, the cost of treatment of the makeup and/or the circulating water in the tower, and the cost of treatment and disposal of the blowdown in an environmentally acceptable manner. The purpose of the study is to show the effect of water costs on the comparative costs of dry and evaporative cooled towers

  16. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  18. Consequence of potential accidents in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Lazar, R.E.; Preda, I.A.; Dumitrescu, M.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy water plants realize the primary isotopic concentrations of water using H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange and they are chemical plants. As these plants are handling and spreading large quantities of hydrogen sulphide (high toxic, corrosive, flammable and explosive as) maintained in the process at relative high temperatures and pressures, it is required an assessing of risks associated with the potential accidents. The H 2 S released in atmosphere as a result of an accident will have negative consequences to property, population and environment. This paper presents a model of consequences quantitative assessment and its outcome for the most dangerous accident in heavy water plants. Several states of the art risk based methods were modified and linked together to form a proper model for this analyse. Five basic steps to identify the risks involved in operating the plants are followed: hazard identification, accident sequence development, H 2 S emissions calculus, dispersion analyses and consequences determination. A brief description of each step and some information of analysis results are provided. The accident proportions, the atmospheric conditions and the population density in the respective area were accounted for consequences calculus. The specific results of the consequences analysis allow to develop the plant's operating safety requirements so that the risk remain at an acceptable level. (authors)

  19. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  1. Uranium removal from water by five aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Nan; Ding Dexin; Li Guangyue; Wang Yongdong; Li Le; Zheng Jifang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic solution culture experiments were conducted on the growth of Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor L, Azolla imbircata, Potamogeton crispus, and Alligator alternanthera Herb in water with 0.15, 1.50 and 15.00 mg . L -1 concentrations of uranium, and on the uranium removal from the water by the aquatic plants. For the 21 days of hydroponic solution culture experiments, Azolla imbircata exhibited the strongest resistance to uranium and its growth inhibition rates induced by the water with 0.15, 1.50 and 15.00 mg · L -1 concentrations of uranium were 4.56%, 2.48%, 6.79%, respectively, and the uranium removal rates from the water by the plant amounted to 94%, 97% and 92%, respectively. Further experiments revealed that the most uranium removal could be achieved when 7.5 g Azolla imbircata was grown in 1 L of water, and the time required for the plant to reduce the uranium concentration in water with 1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg · L -l concentrations of uranium below that stipulated in the national emission standards of China were 17, 19, 23 and 25 days, respectively. The results have laid foundation for further studies of phytoremediation of uranium contaminated water. (authors)

  2. Assessment of WQI and Microbial pollution for two water treatment plants in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed AliAl-Hashimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tigris River is the main water source for all water treatment plants in Baghdad city. In current study, Water Quality Index (WQI and microbial pollution was obtained for two water treatment plants and their networks in Baghdad city Al-Karama and Al-Wathba WTP for both raw and treated water, In order to assess water suitability as a source of domestic water supply. Physical, chemical, and Microbialparameters werestudied fora period of four months (March-June, 2014. The parameters which were taken into account for the present work are pH, turbidity (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, Total Alkalinity (TA, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Calcium (Ca++, Magnesium (Mg++, Total Hardness (TH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS,Chloride (Cl-, and Most Probable Number (MPN method as microbial pollution indicator. The results indicate that WQI for untreated Tigris water was classified as "unfit for human consumption" at both WTPs intakes and along study period and after water passing through the sequence treatment units in WTPs its quality is gradually increased and finally, the treated water quality ranged from "Good" to " Moderately polluted" at both All-Karama and Al-Wathba WTPs. In networks the quality of water ranged between "Good" to "moderately polluted" in Al-Karama WTP network and between "Moderately polluted" to "severely polluted" in Al-Wathba WTP network. For Microbiological pollution, MPN throughout the period of study was between (0-150 cell/100ml at Al-Karama WTP and between (0- 240 cell/100ml at Al-Wathba WTP. The highest value obtained was (240 cell/100ml at raw water in Al- Wathba WTP intake in June, while the lowest value obtained was (0 cell/100ml at all chlorinated samples.

  3. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  4. A study on the water chemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Sung Ki; Yang, Kyung Rin; Koo Je Hyoo; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Joung Soo; Jang, Soon Shik; Park, Su Hoon; Song, Myung Ho; Jeon, Kyung Soo

    1987-12-01

    Significant corrosion-failures occurring in the important components or facilities in the secondary-side system cause various problems in safety due to the leakage of radioactive substances and consequently induce the reduction of the operational efficiency of the plants. In addition, the replacement of the failed components or facilities results in the tremendous expenses and a long term shutdown. The objective of the research was to ensure the safety and integrity of the plants, to improve the efficiency of the plant operation, and to prevent the shortening of plant life by improving the controlling technique of the water chemistry and minimizing the corrosion-failures in the important components and/or facilities of the plants

  5. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant...

  6. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  7. Uranium-236 in light water reactor spent fuel recycled to an enriching plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Garza, A.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of 236 U to an enriching plant by recycling spent fuel uranium results in enriched products containing 236 U, a parasitic neutron absorber in reactor fuel. Convenient approximate methodology determines 235 236 U, and total uranium flowsheets with associated separative work requirements in enriching plant operations for use by investigators of the light water reactor fuel cycle not having recourse to specialized multicomponent cascade technology. Application of the methodology has been made to compensation of an enriching plant product for 236 U content and to the value at an enriching plant of spent fuel uranium. The approximate methodology was also confirmed with more exact calculations and with some experience with 236 U in an enriching plant

  8. The shift from plant-plant facilitation to competition under severe water deficit is spatially explicit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Armas, Cristina; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Schöb, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The stress-gradient hypothesis predicts a higher frequency of facilitative interactions as resource limitation increases. Under severe resource limitation, it has been suggested that facilitation may revert to competition, and identifying the presence as well as determining the magnitude of this shift is important for predicting the effect of climate change on biodiversity and plant community dynamics. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to compare temporal differences of species diversity and productivity under a nurse plant ( Retama sphaerocarpa ) with varying annual rainfall quantity to test the effect of water limitation on facilitation. Furthermore, we assess spatial differences in the herbaceous community under nurse plants in situ during a year with below-average rainfall. We found evidence that severe rainfall deficit reduced species diversity and plant productivity under nurse plants relative to open areas. Our results indicate that the switch from facilitation to competition in response to rainfall quantity is nonlinear. The magnitude of this switch depended on the aspect around the nurse plant. Hotter south aspects under nurse plants resulted in negative effects on beneficiary species, while the north aspect still showed facilitation. Combined, these results emphasize the importance of spatial heterogeneity under nurse plants for mediating species loss under reduced precipitation, as predicted by future climate change scenarios. However, the decreased water availability expected under climate change will likely reduce overall facilitation and limit the role of nurse plants as refugia, amplifying biodiversity loss.

  9. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on plants during mild water stress, 4: The insensitivity of soybean internal water relations to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Forseth, I.N.; Lydon, J.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) radiation and water stress were investigated on the water relations of greenhouse grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Essex]. On a weighted (Caldwell 1971), total daily dose basis, plants received either 0 or 3 000 effective J m 2 UV-B BE supplied by filtered FS-40 sunlamps. The latter dose simulated the solar UV-B radiation anticipated at College Park, Maryland, U.S.A. (39°N latitude) in the event that the global stratospheric ozone column is reduced by 25%. Plants were either well-watered or preconditioned by drought stress cycles. Diurnal measurements of water potential and stomatal conductance were made on the youngest fully expanded leaf. Various internal water relations parameters were determined for detached leaves. Plants were monitored before, during and after water stress. There were no significant differences in leaf water potential or stomatal conductance between treatments before plants were preconditioned to water stress. However, drought stress resulted in significantly lower midday and afternoon leaf water potentials and lower leaf conductances as compared to well-watered plants. UV-B radiation had no additional effect on leaf water potential; however, UV did result in lower leaf conductances in plants preconditioned to water stress. Turgid weight:dry weight ratio, elastic modulus, bound water and relative water content were unaffected by UV-B radiation. Osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly lower in the drought stressed treatments as compared to well-watered plants. (author)

  10. PRIMING OF A LOW CAPACITY WASTE WATER TREATEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants, secondary biologic treatment is generally compulsory for the localities having less than 10,000 equivalent inhabitants, with a supplementary removal of nutrients if the area is a sensitive one. For the areas which are not suitable for centralized household used water collecting network individual treatment devices or collective low capacity devices are recommended. For certain settlements, for instance for the mountainous dispersed villages, or for detached individual households or farms the collective devices can not be an economic solution as involves high maintenance costs and exploiting problems due to long pipes for low flow rates. Priming is one of the starting up processes of a waste water treatment plant. This is not a very difficult process and requires no specialized staff. However, for helping the owners of a low capacity treatment plant, priming of ORM 5 type mechanical - biological equipment consisting in a tank with four compartments, designed for five equivalent inhabitants was studied inside the plant of Timisoara municipality. For the experimental tests waste water from the Timisoara city sewage network was used. This is mixed waste water resulted from faecal/domestic, industrial and rain water. The study comprised tests in unfavorable technological conditions. The conclusions of the monitoring process underline the need of control of the aeration process and the negative technological and consequently the negative economic effect of the less effective process control.

  11. Danube quality water assessment from the microbiological point of view in Cernavoda nuclear plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundri, Mirela Iuliana

    2003-01-01

    Herein are analysed the following microbiological parameters: total viable count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, which represent a standard indicator for water quality. The study has been done during 1998-2002 upon the water in the Danube River and in the channels for cooling water used by Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant condensers. In this area, based on these values of evaluated parameters, the water feature is placed in the quality classes II and III (moderate and critical pollution), in conformity with European Community Directives. Bacterial communities, component part of aquatic biocenoses, are very important for matter and energy flux. Their contribution to self-purification processes of rivers is of great interest related to the water quality assessment. Microorganisms are ideal sensors, because they respond fast to the fluctuation of environmental conditions by specific changes, detectable physiologically and metabolically. The temperature is a major factor, which directly affects the intensity of all microbial processes. Because the microorganisms are interconnected with the other living organisms, the qualitative or quantitative changes of their activity will affect the functions of the whole ecosystem. Bacterial indicators such as total viable count (colony count), total coliforms or faecal coliforms (thermo-tolerant coliforms) are widely applied to the assessment of water quality. Because of their mostly allochthonus origin, these are used as indicators of changes in the natural water conditions; they point out an organic matter or faecal water pollution. Although the water quality can be considered acceptable from the chemical or biological point of view, the bacteriological parameters might be detected in critical concentration. The objectives of this microbiological assessment are analysis of the variation of bacteriological indicators in some sampling points of Cernavoda aquatic ecosystems area, and monitoring the manner of using the water by

  12. Potential of light water reactors for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption worldwide is going to increase further in the next few decades. Reliable supplies of electricity can be achieved only by centralized power plant structures. In this scenario, nuclear power plants are going to play a leading role as reliable and competitive plants, also under deregulated market conditions. Today, light water reactors have achieved a leading position, both technically and economically, contributing 85% to worldwide electricity generation in nuclear plants. They will continue to be a proven technology in power generation. In many countries, activities therefore are concentrated on extending the service life of plants beyond a period of forty years. New nuclear generating capacities are expected to be created and added from the end of this decade onward. Most of this capacity will be in light water reactors. The concepts of third-generation reactors will meet all economic and technical safety requirements of the 21st century and will offer considerable potential for further development. Probably some thirty years from now, fourth-generation nuclear power plants will be ready for commercial application. These plants will penetrate especially new sectors of the energy markets. Public acceptance of new nuclear power plants is not a matter of reactor lines, provided that safety requirements are met. The important issue is the management of radioactive waste. The construction of new nuclear power plants in Western Europe and North America mainly hinges on the ability to explain to the public that there is a need for new plants and that nuclear power is fundamental to assuring sustainable development. (orig.)

  13. The latest make-up water treatment plant for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Yuichi

    1997-01-01

    As the change of the outside environment surrounding power stations, the strengthening of the environmental standard of water quality and the upgrading of required water quality standard are described. The reduction of colloidal silica in thermal power plant water and the reduction of iron and organic chlorine in PWR water are necessary. Recently it became difficult to secure water for power stations, and in dry season, the water for power stations is sometimes cut for securing livelihood and agricultural water. For the means of securing stable water source, the installation of seawater desalting plants increased. The types, the constitution of the plants and the operation performance are reported. Recently the water treatment technology using MF, UF and RO membranes has become to be adopted. The relation of the substances to be removed to the range of filtration of respective membranes is shown. The conventional method is the combination of coagulative sedimentation, filtration and ion exchange resin, but the membrane technology uses UF and RO membranes. The technical features of UF (ultrafiltration) and RO (reverse osmosis) membrane facilities and deaerating membrane are explained. (K.I.)

  14. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient water resource management in relation to water use and crop yields is premised on the knowledge of plant resistance to water flow. However, such studies are limited and for most crops, the within plant resistance to water flow remains largely unknown. In this study, within plant resistance to water transport ...

  15. Trends of total water vapor column above the Arctic from satellites observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddawi, Dunya; Sarkissian, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bock, Olivier; Claud, Chantal; Irbah, Abdenour

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapor (H2O) is the most important natural (as opposed to man-made) greenhouse gas, accounting for about two-thirds of the natural greenhouse effect. Despite this importance, its role in climate and its reaction to climate change are still difficult to assess. Many details of the hydrological cycle are poorly understood, such as the process of cloud formation and the transport and release of latent heat contained in the water vapor. In contrast to other important greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, water vapor has a much higher temporal and spatial variability. Total precipitable water (TPW) or the total column of water vapor (TCWV) is the amount of liquid water that would result if all the water vapor in the atmospheric column of unit area were condensed. TCWV distribution contains valuable information on the vigor of the hydrological processes and moisture transport in the atmosphere. Measurement of TPW can be obtained based on atmospheric water vapor absorption or emission of radiation in the spectral range from UV to MW. TRENDS were found over the terrestrial Arctic by means of TCWV retrievals (using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) near-infrared (2001-2015) records). More detailed approach was made for comparisons with ground based instruments over Sodankyla - Finland (TCWV from: SCIAMACHY 2003-2011, GOME-2A 2007-2011, SAOZ 2003-2011, GPS 2003-2011, MODIS 2003-2011)

  16. Nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kiyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    In a nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant, a reversible pump for pumping-up power generation connected to a steam turbine is connected to an upper water reservoir and a lower water reservoir. A pumping-up steam turbine for driving the turbine power generator, a hydraulic pump for driving water power generator by water flowing from the upper water reservoir and a steam turbine for driving the pumping-up pump by steams from a nuclear reactor are disposed. When power demand is small during night, the steam turbine is rotated by steams of the reactor, to pump up the water in the lower water reservoir to the upper water reservoir by the reversible pump. Upon peak of power demand during day time, power is generated by the steams of the reactor, as well as the reversible pump is rotated by the flowing water from the upper water reservoir to conduct hydraulic power generation. Alternatively, hydraulic power generation is conducted by flowing water from the upper reservoir. Since the number of energy conversion steps in the combination of nuclear power generation and pumping-up power generation is reduced, energy loss is reduced and utilization efficiency can be improved. (N.H.)

  17. Effect of different soil water available levels on the development of young plants of “erva-mate”

    OpenAIRE

    Pintro, Jose Carlos; UEM; Flores, Feliciano Edi Vieira; UFRGS

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different levels of soil water availability on the development of young plants of “erva-mate” (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) was studied under controlled conditions. The plants were cultivated during the period from January to November, a total of 45 weeks. The foreseen treatments corresponded to 3 water available levels for plants: treatment 1 (T-1): soil moisture at 0.3 atm of tension, treatment 2 (T-2): soil moisture at 80% of water quantity used in T-1, and treatment 3 (T...

  18. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  19. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  20. Bioassays for Evaluating Water Quality: Screening for total bioactivity to assess water safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassays are a potential solution for assessing complex samples since they screen for total bioactivity for a given pathway or mode of action (MOA), such as estrogen receptor activation, in the samples. Overall, they can account for the three challenges listed above, and can sim...

  1. Total mercury concentrations in surface water and sediments from Danube Delta lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOROF Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The samples were collected from surface water and sediments of Danube Delta lakes, during april and may 2006. The sediments were digested with nitric acid, and the surface water with real aqua, at Microwave Oven Anton Paar and analised at FIMS 400 Perkin Elmer. The results show that the total mercury is compared with the maximum allowed limits according with Normative 161/2006.

  2. The total release of xenon-133 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohl, Andreas; Seibert, Petra; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) on 11 March 2011 released large amounts of radioactivity into the atmosphere. We determine the total emission of the noble gas xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) using global atmospheric concentration measurements. For estimating the emissions, we used three different methods: (i) using a purely observation-based multi-box model, (ii) comparisons of dispersion model results driven with GFS meteorological data with the observation data, and (iii) such comparisons with the dispersion model driven by ECMWF data. From these three methods, we have obtained total 133 Xe releases from FD-NPP of (i) 16.7 ± 1.9 EBq, (ii) 14.2 ± 0.8 EBq, and (iii) 19.0 ± 3.4 EBq, respectively. These values are substantially larger than the entire 133 Xe inventory of FD-NPP of about 12.2 EBq derived from calculations of nuclear fuel burn-up. Complete release of the entire 133 Xe inventory of FD-NPP and additional release of 133 Xe due to the decay of iodine-133 ( 133 I), which can add another 2 EBq to the 133 Xe FD-NPP inventory, is required to explain the atmospheric observations. Two of our three methods indicate even higher emissions, but this may not be a robust finding given the differences between our estimates. - Highlights: ► We determine the total release of xenon-133 from the Fukushima nuclear accident. ► We used global measurements and a box model, as well as dispersion model estimates. ► Total 133 Xe release is about 14.2-19 EBq, more than Fukushima 133 Xe inventory. ► Additional release of iodine-133 and decay into 133 Xe needed to explain results.

  3. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1980 in Sunshine Project. Development of a total flow electric power plant(Two-phase rotation inflator); 1980 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Out of the development of a total flow power plant in the Sunshine Project, this paper describes a two-phase rotatry inflator. It reports the achievements in fiscal 1980. It is intended to utilize effectively the energy of gas-liquid two-phase fluid (containing a great amount of hot water) often seen in geothermal resources in Japan. Therefore, development is considered on a two-phase rotary inflator as a total flow power generation technology to inflate the gas-liquid fluid as it is without performing separation thereof, and convert it to an external work to draw out output. The inflator is a volume type rotary engine, which has the highest efficiency theoretically, but has not been put into practical use worldwide. Based on the result obtained in the previous fiscal year, development is made on a most suitable seal to be applied to circumferential seal of an external rotor, apex seal, and intake port seal. A rotary inflation performance testing machine is fabricated to study inflation of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid. Setting the engine efficiency of 60% or higher as the target, detailed design, fabrication and assembly shall be completed on two-phase rotation inflators of volume type and self-rotation type of 300 kW class. (NEDO)

  4. Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Gallic Acid: Application in Estimation of Total Polyphenols in Plant Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikh-Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified electrode was prepared by modification of the carbon paste electrode (CPE with graphene nano-sheets. The fabricated modified electrode exhibited an electrocatalytic activity toward gallic acid (GA oxidation because of good conductivity, low electron transfer resistance and catalytic effect. The graphene modified CPE had a lower overvoltage and enhanced electrical current respect to the bare CPE for the oxidation of GA. The oxidation potential of GA decreased more than 210 mV by the modified electrode. The modified electrode responded to the GA in the concentration range of 3.0 × 10-5-1.5 × 10-4 M with high sensitivity by the technique of differential pulse voltammetry. Also, detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 M was obtained by this modified electrode for GA. This electrode was used for the successful determination of GA in plant samples. Therefore, the content of total polyphenols in plant samples can be determined by the proposed modified electrode based on the concentration of GA in the sample.

  5. Variability of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Densities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Water and Oysters▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. M.; DePaola, A.; Bowers, J. C.; Krantz, J. A.; Nordstrom, J. L.; Johnson, C. N.; Grimes, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression analyses indicated significant associations (P turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively. In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized. PMID:17921270

  6. Variability of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in northern Gulf of Mexico water and oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A M; DePaola, A; Bowers, J C; Krantz, J A; Nordstrom, J L; Johnson, C N; Grimes, D J

    2007-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression analyses indicated significant associations (P turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively. In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized.

  7. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  8. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.

    2014-06-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  9. A Water Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; Włostowska, Ewa; Stanisławska, Iwona; Szypuła, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2016-07-25

    BACKGROUND Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03±10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before and after total hip replacement (THR). The clinical study covered measurements of hip active ranges of motion (HAROM) and the forces generated by pelvis stabilizer muscles. Pain intensity was assessed according to analogue-visual scale of pain (VAS) and according to the Modified Laitinen Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 6 groups (4 treatment and 2 control). We compared 2 rehabilitation programs using kinesitherapy and low-frequency magnetic field. One of them also had specially designed exercises in the water. Statistical analysis was carried out at the significance level α=0.05. This was a cross-sectional study. RESULTS A positive effect of water exercises on a number of parameters was found in patients with OA both before and after total hip replacement surgery. We noted a significant reduction of pain (pwater exercises most significantly reduced pain in patients with OA before and after total hip replacement surgery. 2. Inclusion of water exercises in a rehabilitation program can reduce the use of medicines in patient with OA and after THR.

  10. Condensing and water supplying systems in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce heat loss and eliminate accumulation of drain in water supplying and heating units in an atomic power plant by providing a direct contact type drain cooler between a gland-exhauster vapor condenser and a condensing and de-salting means, the drain from each water supplying and heating unit being collected in said cooler for heating the condensed water. Structure: Condensed water from a condenser is fed by a low pressure condensing pump through an air ejector and gland-exhauster vapor condenser to the direct-contact type drain cooler and is condensed in each water supply heater. Next, it is heated by drain fed through a drain level adjuster valve and an orifice and then forced by a medium pressure condenser pump into the condensing and de-salting means. It is then supplied by a high pressure condensing pump into the successive water supply heater. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Estimated radiological effects of the normal discharge of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 3500 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugt, G. van der; Wijker, H.; Kema, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands discussions are going on about the installation of three nuclear power plants, leading with the two existing plants to a total capacity of 3500 MWe. To have an impression of the radiological impact of this program, calculations were carried out concerning the population doses due to the discharge of radioactivity from the plants during normal operation. The discharge via the ventilation stack gives doses due to noble gases, halogens and particulate material. The population dose due to the halogens in the grass-milk-man chain is estimated using the real distribution of grass-land around the reactor sites. It could be concluded that the population dose due to the contamination of crops and fruit is negligeable. A conservative estimation is made for the dose due to the discharge of tritium. The population dose due to the discharge in the cooling water is calculated using the following pathways: drinking water; consumption of fish; consumption of meat from animals fed with fish products. The individual doses caused by the normal discharge of a 1000 MWe plant appeared to be very low, mostly below 1 mrem/year. The population dose is in the order of some tens manrems. The total dose of the 5 nuclear power plants to the dutch population is not more than 70 manrem. Using a linear dose-effect relationship the health effects to the population are estimated and compared with the normal frequency

  12. A Water Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Hip Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    ?yp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; W?ostowska, Ewa; Stanis?awska, Iwona; Szypu?a, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wies?aw

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. Material/Methods A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03?10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before an...

  13. Tropical intercontinental optical measurement network of aerosol, precipitable water and total column ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Reagan, J. A.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Vermote, E.; Vassiliou, G. D.; Lavenu, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.

  14. Water chemistry at RBMK plants: Problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamet, V.; Yurmanov, V.

    2002-01-01

    After around 15 years of operation RBMK-1000 units undergo a major refit, which includes safety system upgrading, fuel tube replacement, etc. The above upgrading has created problems for water chemistry. In particular, in late 80's in-core insertion time of the portion of control rods was reduced 10-fold thanks to a transfer from water to filming cooling of scram channels. Scram channels are cooled with inner surface water film cooling and nitrogen is injected into heads via special pipelines. Such cooling system modernization ensures fast insertion of absorber rods. The above upgrade intensified nitric acid radiolytic generation in water coolant and pH 25 value shift to acid conditions (up to 4.5). The results of corrosion tests in such conditions proved the necessity to improve water chemistry to ensure corrosion protection of scram/control rod and circuit components, especially those made out of aluminium alloy. Since 1990 the new revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard specified the new normal operational limit and action levels for possible temporary deviations of pH 25 value. RBMK plant specific measures were implemented at RBMK plants to meet the above requirements of the 1990 revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard. Clean-up systems of the above circuit were upgraded to ensure intensive absorption of nitric acid from water and pH 25 maintenance in a slightly acid area. (authors)

  15. Two-loop feed water control system in BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    In the process of the start-up and shutdown of BWR plants, the operation of changing over feed pumps corresponding to plant output is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the automatic changeover system for feed pumps, which minimizes the variation of water level in reactors and is easy to operate. The three-element control system with the water level in reactors, the flow rate of main steam and the flow rate of feed water as the input is mainly applied, but long time is required for the changeover of feed pumps. The two-loop feed control system can control simultaneously two pumps being changed over, therefore it is suitable to the automatic changeover control system for feed pumps. Also it is excellent for the control of the recirculating valves of feed pumps. The control characteristics of the two-loop feed water control system against the external disturbance which causes the variation of water level in reactors were examined. The results of analysis by simulation are reported. The features of the two-loop feed water control system, the method of simulation and the evaluation of the two-loop feed water control system are described. Its connection with a digital feed water recirculation control system is expected. (Kako, I.)

  16. Water chemistry at RBMK plants: Problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamet, V.; Yurmanov, V. [VNIIAES (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    After around 15 years of operation RBMK-1000 units undergo a major refit, which includes safety system upgrading, fuel tube replacement, etc. The above upgrading has created problems for water chemistry. In particular, in late 80's in-core insertion time of the portion of control rods was reduced 10-fold thanks to a transfer from water to filming cooling of scram channels. Scram channels are cooled with inner surface water film cooling and nitrogen is injected into heads via special pipelines. Such cooling system modernization ensures fast insertion of absorber rods. The above upgrade intensified nitric acid radiolytic generation in water coolant and pH{sub 25} value shift to acid conditions (up to 4.5). The results of corrosion tests in such conditions proved the necessity to improve water chemistry to ensure corrosion protection of scram/control rod and circuit components, especially those made out of aluminium alloy. Since 1990 the new revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard specified the new normal operational limit and action levels for possible temporary deviations of pH{sub 25} value. RBMK plant specific measures were implemented at RBMK plants to meet the above requirements of the 1990 revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard. Clean-up systems of the above circuit were upgraded to ensure intensive absorption of nitric acid from water and pH{sub 25} maintenance in a slightly acid area. (authors)

  17. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  18. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  20. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gómez Álvarez-Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70% corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively, These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained.

  1. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  2. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  3. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  4. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  5. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  6. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  7. Chilled water optimization at Beek INEOS PVC Plant : ammonia cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami Alaghinloo, B.

    2012-01-01

    In BEEK INEOS PVC plant, polymerization takes place in a suspension process in twenty reactors in five lines. As the reaction is exothermic, a 17MW chilled water unit (CWU) removing heat from reactors which are producing different grades in batch processes. The objective of the project was to

  8. Performance of Canadian commercial nuclear units and heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, L.W.; Ingolfsrud, L.J.

    The operating history of Canadian commercial CANDU type reactors, i.e. Pickering generating station-A, is described. Capacity factors and unit energy costs are analyzed in detail. Equipment performance highlights are given. The performance of the two Canadian heavy water plants is described and five more are under construction or planned. (E.C.B.)

  9. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  10. Japanese aquaculture: use of thermal water from power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Takeya

    1983-01-01

    There is some merit of thermal water from power plants in the effect to marine life. Since 1963, the research and development on the aquaculture using this warm water have been carried out at some twenty power plants, seven nuclear and thirteen thermal, some of which are now in the commercial stage. These fish farming projects are operated variously from seed to adult fish production. They can also be classified as land and sea facilities, conforming to the characteristics of the respective sea areas. The current situation in this field and the future prospect are described: thermal aquaculture including seed production and adult fish farming; the projects in nuclear and thermal power plants, respectively; future problems in the facilities, breeding environment and marine life for cultivation. (Mori, K.)

  11. Spermidine sprays alleviate the water deficit-induced oxidative stress in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Lakkakula; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2018-01-01

    Severe drought stress (water deficit) in finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) plants significantly reduced total leaf chlorophyll and relative water content in shoots and roots, whereas electrolyte leakage, concentrations of proline and hydrogen peroxide, as well as caspase-like activity were significantly increased. The role of spermidine in plant defence to water-stress was investigated after subjected to various drought treatments. Three weeks of daily spermidine sprays (0.2 mM) at early flowering stage significantly changed shoot and root growth, in both fresh and dry weights terms. At 75% of water deficit stress, leaves accumulated twice as much proline as unstressed plants, and roots accumulated thrice. Plants treated with spermidine under water stress showed lower electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide and caspase-like activity than unstressed and untreated control.

  12. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  13. Water quality control method and device for nuclear power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Uetake, Naoto; Sawa, Toshio; Uchida, Shunsuke; Takeda, Renzo; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1993-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant, water quality of coolants is controlled so as to lower deposition rate of Co ions in reactor water on a fuel cladding tube. The water quality control method includes (1) decreasing an iron concentration in feedwater to less than 0.1ppb, (2) adjusting coolants weakly acidic and (3) controlling dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water to 20ppb. This can decrease 60 Co ion concentration even if 60 Co ion concentration is increased by the change of environment for the operation in future, such as an operation with hydrogen injection and extention of fuel burnup degree. (T.M.)

  14. Impact on Water Quality of Nandoni Water Reservoir Downstream of Municipal Sewage Plants in Vhembe District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Ray Gumbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of water quality in our freshwater sources is on the increase worldwide and, in South Africa, mostly due to the discharge of municipal sewage effluent. Here we report on the use of principal component analysis, coupled with factor and cluster analysis, to study the similarities and differences between upstream and downstream sampling sites that are downstream of municipal sewage plants. The contribution of climatic variables, air temperature, humidity, and rainfall were also evaluated with respect to variations in water quality at the sampling sites. The physicochemical and microbial values were higher than the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. The cluster analysis showed the presence of two clusters for each of the Mvudi, Dzindi, and Luvuvhu Rivers and Nandoni reservoir sampling sites. The principal component analysis (PCA accounted for 40% of the water quality variation and was associated strongly with pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and total coliform, and negatively with rainfall, which represented Mvudi downstream and was attributed to the Thohoyandou sewage plant. The PCA accounted for 54% of the variation and was associated strongly with electrical conductivity, sulfate; total dissolved solids, fluoride, turbidity, nitrate, manganese, alkalinity, magnesium, and total coliform represented Dzindi downstream, with inflows from the Vuwani sewage plant and agriculture. The PCA accounted for 30% of the variation and was associated strongly with total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, magnesium, fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, total coliform average air temperature, and total rainfall, and negatively associated with manganese and bromide represented Luvuvhu upstream and was associated with commercial agriculture. The PCA accounted for 21% of the variation and was associated strongly with turbidity, alkalinity, magnesium

  15. Experimental and theoretical total neutron scattering cross-section of water confined in silica microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhrer, G., E-mail: muhrer@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 87545 NM (United States); Hartl, M.; Mocko, M.; Tovesson, F.; Daemen, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 87545 NM (United States)

    2012-07-21

    In the search for moderator materials encapsulated materials have been discussed, but very little is known regarding the effect of encapsulation on neutron moderation properties. As a first step toward a better understanding, we present the measured total neutron cross-section of water confined in silica microspheres and compare the measured data to the predicted theoretical cross-section.

  16. Water chemistry control of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yuichi; Makino, Ichiro; Yamauchi, Sumio; Fukuda, Fumihito.

    1992-01-01

    In PWR power plants, the primary system taking heat out of nuclear reactors and the secondary system generating steam and driving turbines are completely separated by steam generators, accordingly, by mutually independent water treatment, both systems are to be maintained in the optimal conditions. Namely, primary system is the closed water circulation circuit of simple liquid phase though under high temperature, high pressure condition, therefore, water shows the stable physical and chemical properties, and the minute water treatment for restraining the corrosion of structural materials and reducing radioactivity can be done. Secondary system is similar to the condensate and feedwater system of thermal power plants, and is the circuit for liquid-vapor two-phase transformation, but due to the local concentration of impurities by evaporation, the strict requirement is set for secondary water quality. However, secondary system can be treated in the state without radioactivity, and this is a great merit. The outline, basic concept and execution of primary water quality control, and the outline, concept, control criteria, facilities and execution of secondary water quality control are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  18. Two-phase water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water hammer events keep recurring in nuclear power plants. In the mid-1970s, water hammer was designated to be an unresolved safety issue (USI A-1) due to its high frequency of occurrence and the severity of the attendant damages. Between 1969 and 1981, a significant number of water hammer incidents (more than 12 events per year) involving BWRs and PWRs have been reported and evaluated. After intensive evaluations of the events, in late 1983, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff concluded that water hammer was not a serious contributor to the degradation of plant safety and it has been taken off the list of the unresolved safety issues. The frequency decreased to around 11 events per year between 1981 and 1985. Nevertheless, 11 events per year are still unacceptable high, especially in light of the financial losses caused by most events. Some events are not required to be reported. The number of the unreported events are estimated to be five to ten times as many as the reported events. The implication is that water hammer in nuclear power plants still needs attention and is a problem that has not been fundamentally resolved

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  20. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favas, Paulo J.C.; Pratas, João; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-01-01

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water–soil–plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557 mg kg"− "1 for soil and 0.4 to 113 μg L"− "1 for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450 mg kg"− "1 DW), Carlina corymbosa (181 mg kg"− "1 DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9 mg kg"− "1 DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6 mg kg"− "1 DW) Lemna minor (53.0 mg kg"− "1 DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6 mg kg"− "1 DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root > leaves > stem > flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈ 1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • The uranium (U) accumulation efficiency of terrestrial and aquatic

  1. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, School of Life Sciences and the Environment, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Earth Sciences, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto de Geologia e Petróleo de Timor Leste, Timor-Leste (Country Unknown); Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar [University of Calcutta, Department of Marine Science, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700019, West Bengal (India); Venkatachalam, Perumal [Periyar University, Department of Biotechnology, Salem 636 011, TN (India)

    2016-10-15

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water–soil–plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for soil and 0.4 to 113 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), Carlina corymbosa (181 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) Lemna minor (53.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root > leaves > stem > flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈ 1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production

  2. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  3. TOTAL AND HOT-WATER EXTRACTABLE CARBON RELATIONSHIP IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS AND LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Šeremešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the hot water extractable organic carbon (HWOC in 9 arable and 3 non arable soil samples on Haplic Chernozem. The hot water extractable carbon represents assimilative component of the total organic matter (OM that could contain readily available nutrients for plant growth. The obtained fraction of organic carbon (C makes up only a small percentage of the soil OM and directly reflects the changes in the rhizosphere. This labile fraction of the organic matter was separated by hot water extraction at 80°C. In our study the HWOC content in different samples ranged from 125 mg g-1 to 226 mg g-1. On the plots that are under native vegetation, higher values were determined (316 mg g-1 to 388 mg g-1. Whereas samples from arable soils were lower in HWOC. It was found that this extraction method can be successfully used to explain the dynamics of the soil OM. Soil samples with lower content of the total OM had lower HWOC content, indicating that the preservation of the OM depends on the renewal of its labile fractions.

  4. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  5. Use of stable isotopes for estimating water and nitrogen transport in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygoryuk, I.P.; Petrenko, N.I.; Shvedova, O.Yu.; Tkachev, V.I.; Yaroshenko, O.A.

    1998-01-01

    Peculiarities in the response of various wheat cultivars and maize hybrids to water deficiency were studied in laboratory and vegetation experiments. Their resistance to extemal environmental factors was estimated by changes in nitrogen ( 15 N) and water (HDO) accumulation, transport and distribution in plant organs. The water supply was maintained at 60% FWC (control) and was reduced to 30% FWC (experiment) in the absence of plant watering during different stages or with use of polyethylene glycol. Decrease in water potential of medium from -0.05 (control) to -0.5, -0.9 and -1.6 MPa resulted in inhibition of water absorption, transport and distribution in spring wheat organs. After 24-hour stress, root absorption of water of drought-resistant varieties as compared to non-drought resistant ones was more sensitive, during 5, 10 and 15 min intervals after HDO introduction in nutrition medium. Strong depression of water exchange was observed at weaker stress in non-resistant variety. HDO absorption of the low part of the stem at short exposure resembled that of roots. The 24-hour stress revealed the tendency to sharper inhibition of absorption of labelled water in leaves of resistant variety. At a more durable stress the intensity of leaf water-exchange resistant variety was stabilized, while in the non-resistant variety it was reduced considerably. The intensity of HDO and 15 N exchange under stress conditions depended on the lability of regulator mechanism of water transport. Genotypic specificity of N use by wheat and maize plants depending on water supply and inclusion of 15 N in total and protein N was found. The 15 N content in total N in spring wheat cultivars under optimum water supply and under drought made 3.65 to 6.20 and 1.69 to 3.47, respectively. The 15 N content in protein N under the above conditions was 3.03 to 5.96 and 2.36 to 2.93, respectively. At water stress the main mass of labelled N in plant roots and stems was localized, while its intake into

  6. Statistical and Biophysical Models for Predicting Total and Outdoor Water Use in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling water demand is a complex exercise in the choice of the functional form, techniques and variables to integrate in the model. The goal of the current research is to identify the determinants that control total and outdoor residential water use in semi-arid cities and to utilize that information in the development of statistical and biophysical models that can forecast spatial and temporal urban water use. The City of Los Angeles is unique in its highly diverse socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics across neighborhoods, which introduces significant challenges in modeling water use. Increasing climate variability also contributes to uncertainties in water use predictions in urban areas. Monthly individual water use records were acquired from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) for the 2000 to 2010 period. Study predictors of residential water use include socio-demographic, economic, climate and landscaping variables at the zip code level collected from US Census database. Climate variables are estimated from ground-based observations and calculated at the centroid of each zip code by inverse-distance weighting method. Remotely-sensed products of vegetation biomass and landscape land cover are also utilized. Two linear regression models were developed based on the panel data and variables described: a pooled-OLS regression model and a linear mixed effects model. Both models show income per capita and the percentage of landscape areas in each zip code as being statistically significant predictors. The pooled-OLS model tends to over-estimate higher water use zip codes and both models provide similar RMSE values.Outdoor water use was estimated at the census tract level as the residual between total water use and indoor use. This residual is being compared with the output from a biophysical model including tree and grass cover areas, climate variables and estimates of evapotranspiration at very high spatial resolution. A

  7. Impacts of fresh and aged biochars on plant available water and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of soils to hold sufficient plant available water (PAW) between rainfall events is critical to crop productivity. Most studies indicate that biochar amendments decrease soil bulk density and increase soil water retention. However, limited knowledge exists regarding biochars ability to in...

  8. Radioecological investigations of phytocommunities higher water plant in upper Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Volkova, E.N.; Shirokaya, Z.O.; Karapish, V.A.; Dremlyuga, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The dose loads of the highest water plants it determined and ecological role of phytocommunities in radionuclides distribution and migration in water reservoir is shown. The ' critical zones ' for characteristic types of phytocommunities are determined. It is marked that radionuclides accumulation by macrophits depends on species and ecological group

  9. Recent computer applications in boiling water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Shoji; Joge, Toshio; Kiyokawa, Kazuhiro; Kato, Kanji; Nigawara, Seiitsu

    1976-01-01

    Process computers in boiling water reactor power plants have won the position of important equipments for the calculation of the core and plant performances and for data logging. Their application technique is growing larger and larger every year. Here, two systems are introduced; plant diagnostic system and computerized control panel. The plant diagnostic system consists of the part processing the signals from a plant, the operation part mainly composed of a computer to diagnose the operating conditions of each system component using input signal, and the result display (CRT or typewriter). The concept on the indications on control panels in nuclear power plants is changing from ''Plant parameters and to be indicated on panel meters as much as possible'' to ''Only the data required for operation are to be indicated.'' Thus the computerized control panel is attracting attention, in which the process computer for processing the operating information and CRT display are introduced. The experimental model of that panel comprises and operator's console and a chief watchmen's console. Its functions are dialogic data access and the automatic selection of preferential information. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Simulating the Water Use of Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States: Model Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, G.; Yan, E.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use the highest amount of freshwater second to the agriculture sector. However, there is scarcity of information that characterizes the freshwater use of these plants in the United States. This could be attributed to the lack of model and data that are required to conduct analysis and gain insights. The competition for freshwater among sectors will increase in the future as the amount of freshwater gets limited due climate change and population growth. A model that makes use of less data is urgently needed to conduct analysis and identify adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study are to develop a model and simulate the water use of thermoelectric power plants in the United States. The developed model has heat-balance, climate, cooling system, and optimization modules. It computes the amount of heat rejected to the environment, estimates the quantity of heat exchanged through latent and sensible heat to the environment, and computes the amount of water required per unit generation of electricity. To verify the model, we simulated a total of 876 fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems (CS) using 2010-2014 data obtained from Energy Information Administration. The CS includes once-through with cooling pond, once-through without cooling ponds, recirculating with induced draft and recirculating with induced draft natural draft. The results show that the model reproduced the observed water use per unit generation of electricity for the most of the power plants. It is also noticed that the model slightly overestimates the water use during the summer period when the input water temperatures are higher. We are investigating the possible reasons for the overestimation and address it in the future work. The model could be used individually or coupled to regional models to analyze various adaptation strategies and improve the water use efficiency of thermoelectric power plants.

  11. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon.

  12. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung

    2013-01-01

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon

  13. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  14. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process in the Removal of Total Coliform and Hetrotrophic Bacteria from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Derayat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method for the treatment of water and wastewater. The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the removal efficiency of total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria from surface water using the process. For this purpose, water samples were taken from the drinking water intake at Suleiman-Shahsonghur Dam. The electrocoagulation process was carried out in a Plexiglas reactor in the batch mode with Al and Fe used electrodes. The experiment design was carried out using the Design Expert Software (Stat-Ease Inc., Ver. 6.0.6. After each run, the values of metals dissolved due to anode electrode dissolution were measured using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP and the results were analyzed using the RSM model. Results revealed maximum removal efficiencies of 100% and 89.1% for total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the Al electrode, respectively. Also, maximum removal efficiencies using the Fe electrode for the same pollutants were 100% and 76.1%. The measurements clearly indicate that the quantities of Al and Fe released in water were higher than the recommended values. While the electrocoagulation process showed to be effective in removing microbial agents from surface waters, the high concentrations of dissolved metals due to the dissolution of the anode electrode seem to remain a health problem that requires optimal conditions to be determined for acheiving standard concentrations of the dissolved metals.

  15. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisz, Monika [Department of Environmental Microbiology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 1, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-03-15

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX{sup R}) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX{sup R} isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress.

  16. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisz, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX R ) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX R isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress

  17. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein.

  18. Isolation of viruses from drinking water at the Point-Viau water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payment, P.

    1981-04-01

    Viruses were isolated from every sample of raw (100 L) and treated (1000 L) water collected at a water treatment plant drawing sewage-contaminated river water. Few plaque-forming isolates were formed but cytopathogenic viruses were isolated as frequently in drinking water as in raw water. In drinking water some samples contained more than 1 cytopathogenic unit per litre, but most contained 1-10/100 L. These viruses had not been inactivated or removed by prechlorination, flocculation, filtration, ozonation, and postchlorination. There were no coliforms present and a residual chlorine level had been maintained. Poliovirus type 1 was a frequent isolate but many isolates were nonpoliovirus. The presence of these viruses in drinking water raises questions about the efficacy of some water treatment processes to remove viruses from polluted water.

  19. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  20. Steam turbine chemistry in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Robert; Haertel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants of various manufacturers have been affected by corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Steam chemistry has not been a prime focus for related research because the water in nuclear steam generating systems is considered to be of high purity. Steam turbine chemistry however addresses more the problems encountered in fossil fired power plants on all volatile treatment, where corrosive environments can be formed in zones where wet steam is re-evaporated and dries out, or in the phase transition zone, where superheated steam starts to condense in the low-pressure (LP) turbine. In BWR plants the situation is aggravated by the fact that no alkalizing agents are used in the cycle, thus making any anionic impurity immediately acidic. This is illustrated by case studies of pitting corrosion of a 12 % Cr steel gland seal and of flow-oriented corrosion attack on LP turbine blades in the phase transition zone. In PWR plants, volatile alkalizing agents are used that provide some buffering of acidic impurities, but they also produce anionic decomposition products. (orig.)

  1. Carbon dioxide and water transport through plant aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Osborn, Hannah L; Evans, John R

    2017-06-01

    Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins is of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability. There are a growing number of PIPs shown to act as water channels, but those altering membrane permeability to CO 2 are more limited. The structural basis for selective substrate specificities has not yet been resolved, although a few key amino acid positions have been identified. Several regions important for dimerization, gating and trafficking are also known. PIP aquaporins assemble as tetramers and their properties depend on the monomeric composition. PIPs control water flux into and out of veins and stomatal guard cells and also increase membrane permeability to CO 2 in mesophyll and stomatal guard cells. The latter increases the effectiveness of Rubisco and can potentially influence transpiration efficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Recent experience in water chemistry control at PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWRs are under operation in all of Japan, among which 11 units are operated by the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEP). Plant availability in KEP's PWRs has been improved for the past several years, through their successive stable operation. Recently, a focus is given not only to maintenance of plant integrity, but also to preventive maintenance and water chemistry control. Various measures have been carried out to enhance exposure reduction of the primary water chemistry control in the Japanese PWRs. As a result, environmental dose equivalent rate is decreasing. A secondary system is now under excellent condition because of application of diversified measures for prevention of the SG tube corrosion. At present, the water chemistry control measures which take into account of efficient chemistry control and plant aging deterioration prevention, are being examined to use for both primary and secondary systems in Japanese PWRs, to further enhance their plant integrity and availability. And, some of them are currently being actually applied. (G.K.)

  3. Problems of pricing fresh water obtained from a sea water desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1967-01-01

    Integrating a double-purpose desalination and electricity generating plant into a water supply system alters the conditions in which the other water and electricity sources are used, as the peak and the base load water and electricity demands have to be met at the least cost. This paper attempts to show how the problem of determining optimal water supply structures can be approached, in definite cases, but against a global economic back-ground. It becomes necessary to define the competition between classical resources and desalination plants, as these plants introduce into optimum studies new factors due to the peculiar shape of their production functions. These new factors (fixed and proportional costs structures, flow availabilities) are studied in relation to the production functions in various management cases (private monopoly, public monopoly). (author) [fr

  4. Fluoride content in water in and around heavy water plant Manuguru colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Dubey, S.K.; Reddy, A.R.; Ravi Kumar, T.S.P.; Selvaraj, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fluoride concentration in water used for human consumption has significant importance with respect to its toxic effects. Hence there was a need for analysing fluoride concentration in drinking water primarily used at Heavy water Plant, Manuguru (HWP (M)) colony and its nearby villages. We found that at HWP (M) colony there is not much variation in the fluoride concentration. However, nearby villages are having wide variation from 0.79 to 5.1 ppm. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  6. Effect of Hartha and Najibia power plants on water quality indices of Shatt Al-Arab River, south of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aboodi, Ali H.; Abbas, Sarmad A.; Ibrahim, Husham T.

    2018-05-01

    The main object of this research is to assess the water quality of Shatt Al-Arab River and its suitability for various purposes near power plants (Hartha and Najibia) through physical and chemical analysis [temperature, pH, EC, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3 -, NO3 -, SO 4 -2 , Fe+, total alkalinity, total hardness, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4 +, and NO2 -] using water quality index (WQI), organic pollution index (OPI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and percentage of sodium ion (Na%) during the dry season (August, 2016) and the wet season (January, 2017). WQI of Shatt Al-Arab falls under very poor quality during summer season, while it ranges from very poor quality to unsuitable for drinking purposes during winter season. There is a clear effect of power plants on water quality. Hartha and Najibia power plants contribute to the deterioration of water quality by increasing the percentage ratio of WQI near these plants by 13.22 and 9.69%, respectively, compared to the north sites of these plants during summer season. The percentage ratios of increased WQI near Hartha and Najibia power plants compared to the north sites of these plants are 17.93 and 15.92%, respectively, during winter season. Water quality of Shatt Al-Arab falls under a high level of organic pollution during the summer and winter seasons. There is a slight effect by the power plants on the OPI. Hartha and Najibia power plants contributed to the change of the OPI by 10% compared to the north site of Hartha power plant. According to the comparison between the SAR values which represent the suitability of water for serve irrigation purposes and SAR values of Shatt Al-Arab, all sites lie in the first class (excellent). According to Na+%, the type of surface water in the studied area lies in good class during winter season and permissible class during summer season.

  7. Design and Implementation of Remotely Monitoring System for Total Dissolved Solid in Baghdad Drinking Water Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdul-Ridha Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available he pollution of drinking water is a dangerous problem for the whole world, it can threaten the health of people and as people in developed society attaches more importance to environmental protection, it is of great research significance to intelligently and remotely monitoring the environment. Therefore in this paper, a remote water monitoring system for Baghdad drinking water system is suggested. The proposed system consists of data sensing and monitoring nodes at different locations in Baghdad to sensing and analyzes the data. These nodes are periodically measured Total Dissolved Solids (TDS. In case of measured value above TDS threshold which is 500 ppm, then an automated warning message will be sent to authorize persons in the maintenance center via Global Position System to take the correct action. This suggested structure has several advantages over traditional monitoring systems in terms of price, portability, reliability, applicability and takes a sample from a water tap in easy and real-time approach.

  8. Research on axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinzhuang; Li Wenjun; Yan Junjie

    2012-01-01

    The axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water were experimentally investigated for three different nozzle diameters (6.0 mm, 8.0 mm and 10.0 mm). The inlet steam pressure, and pool subcooling subcooled water temperature were in the range of 0.2-0.6 MPa and 420-860 ℃, respectively. The effect of steam pressure, subcooling water temperature and nozzle size on the axial pressure distributions were obtained, and also the characteristics of the maximum pressure and its position were studied. The results indicated that the characteristics of the maximum pressure were influenced by the nozzle size for low steam pressure, but the influence could be ignored for high steam pressure. Moreover, a correlation was given to correlate the position of the maximum pressure based on steam pressure and subcooling water temperature, and the discrepancies of predictions and experiments are within ±15%. (authors)

  9. A differential absorption technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Robert; Middleton, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Vertically integrated water-vapor amounts can be remotely determined by measuring the solar radiance reflected by the earth's surface with satellites or aircraft-based instruments. The technique is based on the method by Fowle (1912, 1913) and utilizes the 0.940-micron water-vapor band to retrieve total-water-vapor data that is independent of surface reflectance properties and other atmospheric constituents. A channel combination is proposed to provide more accurate results, the SE-590 spectrometer is used to verify the data, and the effects of atmospheric photon backscattering is examined. The spectrometer and radiosonde data confirm the accuracy of using a narrow and a wide channel centered on the same wavelength to determine water vapor amounts. The technique is suitable for cloudless conditions and can contribute to atmospheric corrections of land-surface parameters.

  10. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  11. Chlorophyll and carbohydrates in Arachis pintoi plants under influence of water regimes and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Manuele Porto Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of Arachis pintoi were evaluated to verify if the presence of nitrogen in the soil could contribute to the effectiveness of the establishment of this legume. The design was completely randomized, in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, with four N rates (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and four irrigation levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of field capacity, with four replications. The biochemical evaluations of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll and total soluble sugars, sucrose and starch were performed. The highest contents of chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll in leaves were found at the dose of 120 kg ha-1. The water regime of 25% of field capacity was responsible for the lowest content of reducing sugars and total soluble sugars in leaves, stolons and roots. In the roots, the sucrose contents were higher in these conditions, which can be associated with a slight tolerance of the plant to water stress. The water deficiency was responsible for the decrease of reducing sugars and total N in the whole plant and positively influenced the levels of chlorophyll and sugars in the stolon, promoting growth, especially of shoots, at the beginning of establishment.

  12. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa--Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water-lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C(4)-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm · y(-1) and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change.

  13. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  14. Water chemistry related problems in captive power plant of Heavy Water Plant [Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasada Rao, G.; Mohapatra, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is intended to improve the power generating capacity of Turbo Generator-3 in CPP. It was observed that steam flow through TG-3 was not as per rated; however there were no abnormal vibrations. After stopping and opening the turbine, deposits were found on turbine blade. Turbine blade scales were analysed for all the stages, HP, middle, LP, casings. Boiler drum water, feed water, DM water, filter water chemistry were studied. LP blade scale mainly consists of silica, whereas HP blade scale consists of iron oxide, sodium phosphate, silica etc. It was concluded that less generating capacity of power was because of scaling on turbine blade. (author)

  15. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  16. Water chemistry experience of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, Kenkichi; Abe, Kenji; Nakajima, Nobuo; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    Japanese LWRs have experienced several troubles caused by corrosions of structural materials in the past ca. 20 years of their operational history, among which are increase in the occupational radiation exposures, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of stainless steel piping in BWR, and steam generator corrosion problems in PWR. These problems arised partly from the improper operation of water chemistry control of reactor coolant systems. Consequently, it has been realized that water chemistry control is one of the most important factors to attain high availability and reliability of LWR, and extensive researches and developments have been conducted in Japan to achieve the optimum water chemistry control, which include the basic laboratory experiments, analyses of plant operational data, loop tests in operating plants and computer code developments. As a result of the continuing efforts, the Japanese LWR plants have currently attained a very high performance in their operation with high availability and low occupational radiation exposures. A brief review is given here on the R and D of water chemistry in Japan. (author)

  17. Total dissolved gas, barometric pressure, and water temperature data, lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Harrison, Howard E.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1996-01-01

    Increased levels of total dissolved gas pressure can cause gas-bubble trauma in fish downstream from dams on the Columbia River. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen pressure at 11 stations on the lower Columbia River from the John Day forebay (river mile 215.6) to Wauna Mill (river mile 41.9) from March to September 1996. Methods of data collection, review, and processing are described in this report. Summaries of daily minimum, maximum, and mean hourly values are presented for total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, and water temperature. Hourly values for these parameters are presented graphically. Dissolved oxygen data are not presented in this report because the quality-control data show that the data have poor precision and high bias. Suggested changes to monitoring procedures for future studies include (1) improved calibration procedures for total dissolved gas and dissolved oxygen to better define accuracy at elevated levels of supersaturation and (2) equipping dissolved oxygen sensors with stirrers because river velocities at the shoreline monitoring stations probably cannot maintain an adequate flow of water across the membrane surface of the dissolved oxygen sensor.

  18. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  19. Plant genetic and molecular responses to water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Salvi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is severely affected by unfavourable environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses. Among others, water deficit is the plant stress condition which mostly limits the quality and the quantity of plant products. Tolerance to water deficit is a polygenic trait strictly dependent on the coordinated expression of a large set of genes coding for proteins directly involved in stress-induced protection/repair mechanisms (dehydrins, chaperonins, enzymes for the synthesis of osmoprotectants and detoxifying compounds, and others as well as genes involved in transducing the stress signal and regulating gene expression (transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases. Recently, research activities in the field evolved from the study of single genes directly involved in cellular stress tolerance (functional genes to the identification and characterization of key regulatory genes involved in stress perception and transduction and able to rapidly and efficiently activate the complex gene network involved in the response to stress. The complexity of the events occurring in response to stress have been recently approached by genomics tools; in fact the analysis of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of a plant tissue/cell in response to stress already allowed to have a global view of the cellular and molecular events occurring in response to water deficit, by the identification of genes activated and co-regulated by the stress conditions and the characterization of new signalling pathways. Moreover the recent application of forward and reverse genetic approaches, trough mutant collection development, screening and characterization, is giving a tremendous impulse to the identification of gene functions with key role in stress tolerance. The integration of data obtained by high-throughput genomic approaches, by means of powerful informatic tools, is allowing nowadays to rapidly identify of major genes/QTLs involved in stress tolerance

  20. Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2012-07-01

    Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2).

  1. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  2. Integration into plant biology and soil science has provided insights into the total environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongbo; Lu, Haiying; Xu, Gang; Marian, Brestic

    2017-02-01

    The total environment includes 5 closely-linking circles, in which biosphere and lithosphere are the active core. As global population increases and urbanization process accelerates, arable land is gradually decreasing under global climate change and the pressure of various types of environmental pollution. This case is especially for China. Land is the most important resources for human beings' survival. How to increase and manage arable land is the key for sustainable agriculture development. China has extensive marshy land that can be reclamated for the better potential land resources under the pre- condition of protecting the environment, which will be a good way for enlarging globally and managing arable land. Related studies have been conducted in China for the past 30years and now many results with obvious practical efficiency have been obtained. For summarizing these results, salt-soil will be the main target and related contents such as nutrient transport, use types, biodiversity and interactions with plants from molecular biology to ecology will be covered, in which the interactions among biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and anthroposphere will be focused on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Water treatment for the ISER [intrinsically safe and economical reactor] plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Ichiro.

    1985-01-01

    The ISER reactor assures inherent safety by causing the core, which is submerged in pool water containing a high boric acid concentration, to quickly shut down the nuclear reaction when overheating, pump trip or other problems occur. However, large quantities of pool water may cause difficulties in water quality control and waste management, resulting in higher costs. Therefore, the ISER as a total plant would not be publicly acceptable unless the water treatment and waste management system offer both safety balanced with reactor inherent safety, and economy counterbalanced by large quantities of pool water. This report clarifies the passive safety concept of possible waste treatment and management systems, and the ways to economically construct such facilities

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of plants: plant water status and drought stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd-Meulenkamp, van der L.

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis presents an approach for the study of plant water balance during drought stress, using a combination of in vivo NMR experiments and computer simulations. The ultimate aim is the interpretation of the NMR parameters in terms of physiologically relevant characteristics, such as

  5. Near-real-time Estimation and Forecast of Total Precipitable Water in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholy, J.; Kern, A.; Barcza, Z.; Pongracz, R.; Ihasz, I.; Kovacs, R.; Ferencz, C.

    2013-12-01

    Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor (or total precipitable water) is essential for understanding weather and the environment including the greenhouse effect, the climate system with its feedbacks and the hydrological cycle. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models need accurate estimations of water vapor content to provide realistic forecasts including representation of clouds and precipitation. In the present study we introduce our research activity for the estimation and forecast of atmospheric water vapor in Central Europe using both observations and models. The Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) operates a polar orbiting satellite receiving station in Budapest since 2002. This station receives Earth observation data from polar orbiting satellites including MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Direct Broadcast (DB) data stream from satellites Terra and Aqua. The received DB MODIS data are automatically processed using freely distributed software packages. Using the IMAPP Level2 software total precipitable water is calculated operationally using two different methods. Quality of the TPW estimations is a crucial question for further application of the results, thus validation of the remotely sensed total precipitable water fields is presented using radiosonde data. In a current research project in Hungary we aim to compare different estimations of atmospheric water vapor content. Within the frame of the project we use a NWP model (DBCRAS; Direct Broadcast CIMSS Regional Assimilation System numerical weather prediction software developed by the University of Wisconsin, Madison) to forecast TPW. DBCRAS uses near real time Level2 products from the MODIS data processing chain. From the wide range of the derived Level2 products the MODIS TPW parameter found within the so-called mod07 results (Atmospheric Profiles Product) and the cloud top pressure and cloud effective emissivity parameters from the so

  6. Mathematical Modeling – The Impact of Cooling Water Temperature Upsurge on Combined Cycle Power Plant Performance and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra Siswantara, Ahmad; Pujowidodo, Hariyotejo; Darius, Asyari; Ramdlan Gunadi, Gun Gun

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the mathematical modeling analysis on cooling system in a combined cycle power plant. The objective of this study is to get the impact of cooling water upsurge on plant performance and operation, using Engineering Equation Solver (EES™) tools. Power plant installed with total power capacity of block#1 is 505.95 MWe and block#2 is 720.8 MWe, where sea water consumed as cooling media at two unit condensers. Basic principle of analysis is heat balance calculation from steam turbine and condenser, concern to vacuum condition and heat rate values. Based on the result shown graphically, there were impact the upsurge of cooling water to increase plant heat rate and vacuum pressure in condenser so ensued decreasing plant efficiency and causing possibility steam turbine trip as back pressure raised from condenser.

  7. Stochastic estimation of plant-available soil water under fluctuating water table depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Dani; Groeneveld, David P.

    1994-12-01

    Preservation of native valley-floor phreatophytes while pumping groundwater for export from Owens Valley, California, requires reliable predictions of plant water use. These predictions are compared with stored soil water within well field regions and serve as a basis for managing groundwater resources. Soil water measurement errors, variable recharge, unpredictable climatic conditions affecting plant water use, and modeling errors make soil water predictions uncertain and error-prone. We developed and tested a scheme based on soil water balance coupled with implementation of Kalman filtering (KF) for (1) providing physically based soil water storage predictions with prediction errors projected from the statistics of the various inputs, and (2) reducing the overall uncertainty in both estimates and predictions. The proposed KF-based scheme was tested using experimental data collected at a location on the Owens Valley floor where the water table was artificially lowered by groundwater pumping and later allowed to recover. Vegetation composition and per cent cover, climatic data, and soil water information were collected and used for developing a soil water balance. Predictions and updates of soil water storage under different types of vegetation were obtained for a period of 5 years. The main results show that: (1) the proposed predictive model provides reliable and resilient soil water estimates under a wide range of external conditions; (2) the predicted soil water storage and the error bounds provided by the model offer a realistic and rational basis for decisions such as when to curtail well field operation to ensure plant survival. The predictive model offers a practical means for accommodating simple aspects of spatial variability by considering the additional source of uncertainty as part of modeling or measurement uncertainty.

  8. Study on REE bound water-soluble polysaccharides in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuqi; Guo Fanqing; Xu Lei; Chen Hongmin; Sun Jingxin; Cao Guoyin

    1999-01-01

    The binding of REE with water-soluble polysaccharides (PSs) in leaves of fern Dicranopteris Dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis. The cold-water-soluble and hot-water-soluble PSs in leaves of DD were obtained by using biochemical separation techniques. The PSs of non-deproteinization and deproteinization, were separated on Sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography. The absorption curves of elution for the PSs were obtained by colorimetry, and the proteins were detected using Coomassic brilliant G-250. Eight REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in these PSs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained show that the REEs are bound firmly with the water-soluble PSs in the plant. A measurement demonstrates that the PSs bound with REEs are mainly of smaller molecular weight (10,000 to 20,000 Dalton)

  9. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    at the right time is key to both lower plant electricity costs and actively help to balance the energy system. Predictions of the WWTP and sewer system operation could help a model based controller to adapt power consumption and production according to the energy system flexibility needs; incentivized through......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...... of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy...

  10. Water quality monitoring device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsushi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention measures quality of feedwater after heated in a regenerative heat exchanger device of a coolant cleanup system in a BWR type reactor, to detect ions generated from organic materials decomposed at high temperature and specify the position where impurities are formed. Namely, in a power plant having a reactor coolant cleanup pipeline connected to a feedwater pipeline, a water quality measuring portion is disposed to the feedwater system at the downstream of the junction to the feedwater system pipeline. A water quality sample is taken to measure the water quality in a state where the feedwater heated by a feedwater heater and flowing to the reactor, and the cleanup coolants heated by the regenerative heat exchanger are mixed. Thus, the impurities formed at the down stream of the feedwater system pipeline, as well as the water quality including impurities decomposed in a high temperature state can be measured. (I.S.)

  11. Use of crop water stress index for monitoring water stress in some sinanthropic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Roxana ROŞESCU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The water stress indicator (crop water stress index, CWSI is a measure of the transpiration rate of a plant, influenced by the leaf and air temperature difference from the plant’s vicinity and the air pressure deficit of the water vapors from the atmosphere. The experiments were realized in July-August 2008 and 2009 for six species in the cities Pitesti, Mioveni and Maracineni: Cichorium intybus L., Conyza canadensis (L. Cronq., Erigeron annuus L. (Pers., Lactuca serriola Torn., Polygonum aviculare L. and Echinochloa crus-galli (L. Beauv. For those species we calculated the CWSI to estimate the water stress on the selected plants in the urban environment conditions. The analyzed species were exposed to a less accentuated water stress while vegetating in the soil and to a more intense one they were grown in the asphalt cracks. Cichorium intybus had the smallest CWSI value (0.26 while Lactuca serriola the highest one (0.44.

  12. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  13. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  14. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and assessment of water treatment plant reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the publication is the analysis and assessment of the reliability of the surface water treatment plant (WTP. In the study the one parameter method of reliability assessment was used. Based on the flow sheet derived from the water company the reliability scheme of the analysed WTP was prepared. On the basis of the daily WTP work report the availability index Kg for the individual elements included in the WTP, was determined. Then, based on the developed reliability scheme showing the interrelationships between elements, the availability index Kg for the whole WTP was determined. The obtained value of the availability index Kg was compared with the criteria values.

  16. Nuclear power plants and the environment. Water samplings and releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Philippe; Bordet, Francois; Chevalier, Christian; Colin, Jean-Luc; Khalanski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This voluminous and illustrated guide aims at giving detailed information on the nature of waters used by nuclear power plants and of releases, on how these samplings and controls are performed, on the associated risks for the environment and public health, and on how public is informed. After a general overview of these issues, a chapter addresses the protection of nature and biodiversity and the actions performed by EDF in this respect. The next chapter deals with public information. The next chapters discuss the water needs of a nuclear power plant, effluent releases and their impacts. Two chapters are dedicated to the monitoring and control of the environment, and to the various techniques of environmental metrology. Legal and regulatory aspects are then presented

  17. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  18. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  19. Study of the total uranium in underground water in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria V, M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of water of wells in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua were analyzed, and its were determined the content of total uranium. It was used the technique of extraction of uranium from water adding Bis ( 2- ethylexyl) phosphate and scintillating Beta plate Hi safe, and the measures of the activities were carried out in the portable scintillation detector Thiathler- O Y HIDEX. The obtained interval of concentrations was 0.12 to 0.26 Bq/l that it is finds below the maximum permissible limits that it manages the Mexican regulation. It was found a significant correlation among the concentration of uranium and those total solid dissolved present in the samples. (Author)

  20. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  1. Coatings used in light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The guide is intended to provide a common basis in the selection of test methods which may be required to evaluate and qualify protective coatings (paints) to be used in a light-water nuclear power plant. Standard test methods for the determination of fire resistance, chemical resistance, physical properties, effects of radiation, decontaminability, thermal conductivity, repairability, and for evaluation under accident conditions are included

  2. Integrated inspection programs at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Quality pressure boundary maintenance and an excellent loss prevention record at Bruce Heavy Water Plant are the results of the Material and Inspection Unit's five inspection programs. Experienced inspectors are responsible for the integrity of the pressure boundary in their own operating area. Inspectors are part of the Technical Section, and along with unit engineering staff, they provide technical input before, during, and after the job. How these programs are completed, and the results achieved, are discussed. 5 figs., 1 appendix

  3. Integrated inspection programs at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K C [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Quality pressure boundary maintenance and an excellent loss prevention record at Bruce Heavy Water Plant are the results of the Material and Inspection Unit`s five inspection programs. Experienced inspectors are responsible for the integrity of the pressure boundary in their own operating area. Inspectors are part of the Technical Section, and along with unit engineering staff, they provide technical input before, during, and after the job. How these programs are completed, and the results achieved, are discussed. 5 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. Simulation of steam-water and binary geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized scheme of the geothermal power plant (GeoPP), assuming the possibility of the electric power production in the steam-water turbine or in the turbine on the low-boiling working body, is considered. The GeoPP mathematical model, making it possible to carry out the comparison of the power indices of various GeoPP schemes and analysis of the calculational indices sensitivity of these schemes to the mode parameters change, is presented [ru

  5. Environmental health scoping study at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, M.; Mostrom, M.; Coppock, R.; Florence, Z.

    1995-10-01

    There are concerns that hydrogen sulfide released from the Heavy Water Plant near Kincardine, Ontario may be the cause of the mortalities and morbidities observed in a nearby flock of sheep. The Philosopher's Wool sheep farm is about four kilometres south-southeast of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant. Ontario Hydro, the owner and operator of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant, claims that hydrogen sulphide emissions from the Bruce Heavy Water Plant are within regulatory limits and well below levels that cause harm. Accordingly, the Atomic Energy Control Board commissioned the Alberta Environmental Centre, Alberta Department of Environmental Protection, to develop a scoping study for this environmental health issue. The first objective was to describe a field investigation model to define clearly the environmental health and operation of the sheep farm. The second objective was to describe possible exposure patterns and develop a holistic environmental pathway model. If appropriate, the third study objective was to describe animal models of the actual situation to elucidate specific aspects of the environmental health concerns. It was not the objective of this report to provide a definitive answer to the present environmental health issue. Ontario Hydro provided data to the Alberta Environmental Centre, as di the sheep farmer, the attending veterinarian, the University of Guelph study team, and the Atomic Energy Control Board. A six-tiered strategy of sequential evaluations of the ovine health problem is based on the multiple-response paradigm. It assumes the observed ovine health results are the result of multiple effector events. Each tier constitutes a separate, but inter-related, study. Sequential evaluation and feedback of each tier allow sound scientific judgements and efficient use of resources. (author). 59 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs

  6. Association of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in drinking water and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademikia, Samaneh; Rafiee, Zahra; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mansourian, Marjan; Modaberi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the amounts of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in two drinking water sources and their relationship with some gastrointestinal diseases. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. Two wells located in residential areas were selected for sampling and measuring the TOC, nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)). This water is used for drinking as well as for industrial and agricultural consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations of water samples were analyzed using DR 5000 spectrophotometer. The information of patients was collected from the records of the main referral hospital of the region for gastrointestinal diseases. In both areas under study, the mean water nitrate and nitrite concentrations were higher in July than in other months. The mean TOC concentrations in areas 1 and 2 were 2.29 ± 0.012 and 2.03 ± 0.309, respectively. Pollutant concentration and gastrointestinal disease did not show any significant relationship (P > 0.05). Although we did not document significant association of nitrite, nitrate, and TOC content of water with gastrointestinal diseases, it should be considered that such health hazards may develop over time, and the quality of water content should be controlled to prevent different diseases.

  7. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-09-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO(2) and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO(2)] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C (day/night) and 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. Photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. When measured under a PAR >or=600 micromol m(-2) s(-1), elevated RZ [CO(2)] resulted in significantly higher A, lower g(s), and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO(2)], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO(2)] was greater at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C although the total biomass was higher at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO(2)] than under ambient RZ [CO(2)] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO(2)], NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO(2)], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO(2)] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO(2)] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between

  8. Purification of power plant waters with high gradient magnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1993-04-01

    This is a report of a literature survey. Magnetic high gradient filtration is suitable for separations in difficult surroundings because it can be used in high pressure and temperature, the filtration can be automated and the filter does not contain components which have to be replaced. Magnetic separators for purification of power plant waters have been manufactured commercially for a long time, but they have not always worked satisfactorily especially when separating small particles. The corrosion products in power plant waters are usually ferrimagnetic or paramagnetic and are well suited for magnetic separation. The particle sizes varies considerable but at least in nuclear power plants they are mostly in the range 0.1-30 μ, some even smaller. According to different publications most 60 Co is in particles, while other publications indicate that more than 70 % is in solution. Similarly the data on the purification efficiency of 60 Co varies significantly. Even small magnetic fields are sufficient to separate large ferrimagnetic particles, but the separation of small and paramagnetic particles requires a field more than 20 kT and the high gradient. Presently available commercial separators are so efficient that its seems not to be economically worthwhile to develop them further to improve the filtration efficiency for small particles. Instead it might be worthwhile to investigate methods to increase the particle size by water chemistry methods. (Au). (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  9. Assessment of Trace Metal Ions on Raw and Treated Water in Dakahlia Drinking water Purification Stations .Behaviour of aluminium in water purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Defrawy, M.M.; El-Fadaly, H.; El-Zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    The technology of improvement of water quality at water purification plants can be characterised by a large diversity of method and processes employed and by substantial differences in the design and process structure and equipment. The effect of operational parameters as ph, pre-, post- chlorination, coagulant index and mixing intensities on the level of some metal ions concentration in different sources of drinking water plants were studied. Results of the chemical analysis indicated that the dissolved and total AI 3+ concentration in treated water was much higher than raw water and sometimes with values over the international maximum limit. Much of the overall variation in aqua aluminium ion in treated water could be explained on the basis of ph, solubility, and filtration models efficiency, while ions as Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ were found within the acceptable limits. The data obtained indicated that relation between watershed inputs (CI 2 , H CI, alum dose) and output of soluble aluminium was not necessary simple and straightforward. The investigated water samples were collected from main stations and compact units in Dakahlia Governorate

  10. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  11. Coolant circuit water chemistry of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilky, Peter; Doma, Arpad

    1985-01-01

    The numerous advantages of the proper selection of water chemistry parameters including low corrosion rate of the structural materials, hence the low-level activity build-up, depositions, radiation doses were emphasized. Major characteristics of water chemistry applied to the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors including neutral, slightly basic and strong basic ones are discussed. Boric acid is widely used to control reactivity. Primary coolant water chemistry of WWER type reactors which is based on the addition of ammonia and potassium hydroxide to boric acid is compared with that of other reactors. The demineralization of the total condensate of the steam turbines became a general trend in the water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuits. (V.N.)

  12. Adaptive ultrasonic imaging with the total focusing method for inspection of complex components immersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, L.; Robert, S.; Dumas, P.; Membre, A.; Prada, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an ultrasonic adaptive imaging method based on the phased-array technology and the synthetic focusing algorithm Total Focusing Method (TFM). The general principle is to image the surface by applying the TFM algorithm in a semi-infinite water medium. Then, the reconstructed surface is taken into account to make a second TFM image inside the component. In the surface reconstruction step, the TFM algorithm has been optimized to decrease computation time and to limit noise in water. In the second step, the ultrasonic paths through the reconstructed surface are calculated by the Fermat's principle and an iterative algorithm, and the classical TFM is applied to obtain an image inside the component. This paper presents several results of TFM imaging in components of different geometries, and a result obtained with a new technology of probes equipped with a flexible wedge filled with water (manufactured by Imasonic).

  13. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  14. Water chemistry and corrosion in water-steam circuits of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardent, R.; Menet, O.

    1981-01-01

    The water and steam circuits of steam generators in pressurized-water nuclear power plants are described together with the mechanism of denting, and the corrosion of spacer plates that leads to cracks in tubes by constriction. The different chemical specifications applicable to the water of the secondary circuit of the generators in normal operation and on first commissioning are listed. The results obtained and the measurements of chemical values taken in operation on the water in the secondary circuits of steam generators at Fessenheim and Bugey are presented [fr

  15. Three cycles of water deficit from seed to young plants of Moringa oleifera woody species improves stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mauro G

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess whether recurring water stress occurring from seed germination to young plants of Moringa oleifera Lam. are able to mitigate the drought stress effects. Germination, gas exchange and biochemical parameters were analysed after three cycles of water deficit. Young plants were used 50 days after germination under three osmotic potentials (0.0, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa). For each germination treatment, control (irrigated) and stressed (10% of water control) plants were compared for a total of six treatments. There were two cycles of drought interspersed with 10 days of rehydration. The young plants of M. oleifera showed increased tolerance to repeated cycles of drought, maintaining high relative water content (RWC), high water use efficiency (WUE), increased photosynthetic pigments and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. There was rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate during the rehydration period. The stressed plants from the -0.3 and -0.4 MPa treatments showed higher tolerance compared to the control plants. The results suggest that seeds of M. oleifera subjected to mild water deficit have had increased the ability for drought tolerance when young plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on water chemistry in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Sung Ki; Yang, Kyung Rin; Kang, Hi Dong; Koo, Je Hyoo; Hwang, Churl Kew; Lee, Eun Hee; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Uh Chul; Kim, Joung Soo; Song, Myung Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Jeong, Jong Hwan

    1986-12-01

    To prevent the corrosion problems on important components of nuclear power plants, the computerization methods of water chemistry and the analyses of corrosion failures were studied. A preliminary study on the computerization of water chemistry log-sheet data was performed using a personal computer with dBASE-III and LOTUS packages. Recent technical informations on a computerized online chemistry data management system which provides an efficient and thorough method of system-wide monitoring of utility's secondary side chemistry were evaluated for the application to KEPCO's nuclear power plants. According to the evaluation of water chemistry data and eddy current test results, it was likely that S/G tube defect type was pitting. Pitting is believed to result from excess oxygen in make-up and air ingress, sea-water ingress bycondenser leak, and copper in sludge. A design of a corrosion tests apparatus for the tests under simulated operational conditions, such as water chemistry, water flow, high temperature and pressure, etc., of the plant has been completed. The completion of these apparatus will make it possible to do corrosion tests under the conditions mentioned above to find out the cause of corrosion failures, and to device a counter measure to these. The result of corrosion tests with alloy-600 showed that the initiation of pits occurred most severely around 175 deg C which is lower than plant-operation temperature(300 deg C) while their propagation rate had trend to be maximum around 90 deg C. It was conformed that the use of Cu-base alloys in a secondary cooling system accelerates the formation of pits by the leaking of sea-water and expected that the replacement of them can reduce the failures of S/G tubes by pitting. Preliminary works on the examination of pit-formed specimens with bare eyes, a metallurgical microscope and a SEM including EDAX analysis were done for the future use of these techniques to investigate S/G tubes. Most of corrosion products

  17. Drinking water as a proportion of total human exposure to volatile N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Bull, Richard J; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Paoli, Greg; Wilson, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    Some volatile N-nitrosamines, primarily N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), are recognized as products of drinking water treatment at ng/L levels and as known carcinogens. The U.S. EPA has identified the N-nitrosamines as contaminants being considered for regulation as a group under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Nitrosamines are common dietary components, and a major database (over 18,000 drinking water samples) has recently been created under the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. A Monte Carlo modeling analysis in 2007 found that drinking water contributed less than 2.8% of ingested NDMA and less than 0.02% of total NDMA exposure when estimated endogenous formation was considered. Our analysis, based upon human blood concentrations, indicates that endogenous NDMA production is larger than expected. The blood-based estimates are within the range that would be calculated from estimates based on daily urinary NDMA excretion and an estimate based on methylated guanine in DNA of lymphocytes from human volunteers. Our analysis of ingested NDMA from food and water based on Monte Carlo modeling with more complete data input shows that drinking water contributes a mean proportion of the lifetime average daily NDMA dose ranging from between 0.0002% and 0.001% for surface water systems using free chlorine or between 0.001% and 0.01% for surface water systems using chloramines. The proportions of average daily dose are higher for infants (zero to six months) than other age cohorts, with the highest mean up to 0.09% (upper 95th percentile of 0.3%). © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Plants in water-controlled ecosystems: active role in hydrologic processes and response to water stress. III. Vegetation water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    The reduction of soil moisture content during droughts lowers the plant water potential and decreases transpiration; this in turn causes a reduction of cell turgor and relative water content which brings about a sequence of damages of increasing seriousness. A review of the literature on plant physiology and water stress shows that vegetation water stress can be assumed to start at the soil moisture level corresponding to incipient stomatal closure and reach a maximum intensity at the wilting point. The mean crossing properties of these soil moisture levels crucial for water stress are derived analytically for the stochastic model of soil moisture dynamics described in Part II (F. Laio, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 707-723). These properties are then used to propose a measure of vegetation water stress which combines the mean intensity, duration, and frequency of periods of soil water deficit. The characteristics of vegetation water stress are then studied under different climatic conditions, showing how the interplay between plant, soil, and environment can lead to optimal conditions for vegetation.

  19. Modeling and simulation of pressurized water reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Two kinds of balance of plant (BOP) models of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system are developed in this work - the detailed BOP model and the simple BOP model. The detailed model is used to simulate the normal operational performance of a whole BOP system. The simple model is used to combine with the NSSS model for a whole plant simulation. The trends of the steady state values of the detailed model are correct and the dynamic responses are reasonable. The simple BOP model approach starts the modelling work from the overall point of view. The response of the normalized turbine power and the feedwater inlet temperature to the steam generator of the simple model are compared with those of the detailed model. Both the steady state values and the dynamic responses are close to those of the detailed model. The simple BOP model is found adequate to represent the main performance of the BOP system. The simple balance of plant model was coupled with a NSSS model for a whole plant simulation. The NSSS model consists of the reactor core model, the steam generator model, and the coolant temperature control system. A closed loop whole plant simulation for an electric load perturbation was performed. The results are plausible. The coupling effect between the NSSS system and the BOP system was analyzed. The feedback of the BOP system has little effect on the steam generator performance, while the performance of the BOP system is strongly affected by the steam flow rate from the NSSS

  20. Effects Total Solar Eclipse to Nasty Behaviour of the Several Legume Plants as a Result Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, S.; Diana, S.; Supriatno, B.

    2017-09-01

    Some group students of plant Physiology course have given task to do free inquiry. They investigated of the nasty behaviour of several legume plants in response to changes in light during the partial solar eclipse that occurred at March 9, 2016. The investigation carried out in UPI Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, which is in the penumbra region of a total solar eclipse with the location coordinates of latitude: -6.86105, longitude: 07.59071, S 6057’ 37.53553 “and E 107035’ 24.29141”. They were measuring the movement of opening leaves every ten minutes at the beginning of the start until the end of the eclipse compared with the behaviour without eclipsing. Influence is expressed by comparing the leaf opening movement (measured in the form of leaf angular) at the time of the eclipse with a normal day. Each group was observed for one plant of the legume, there are: Mimosa pudica, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi. The results showed that the changes in leaf angular in plants Mimosa pudica, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi differently significant, except for Bauhinia purpurea. In conclusion, the total solar eclipse in the penumbra area affects the movement of some nasty legume plants. It is recommended to conduct a study of the nasty behaviour of legume plants in the area umbra in the path of a total solar eclipse.

  1. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  2. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms in power-plant cooling waters. Report for October 1, 1979-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Cooling waters from eleven geographically disparate power plants were tested for the presence of Naegleria fowleri and Legionella pneumophila (LDB). Control source waters for each plant were also tested for these pathogens. Water from two of the eleven plants contained pathogenic Naegleria, and infectious Legionella were found in seven of the test sites. Pathogenic Naegleria were not found in control waters, but infectious Legionella were found in five of the eleven control source water sites. Concentrations of nitrite, sulfate, and total organic carbon correlated with the concentrations of LDB. A new species of Legionella was isolated from one of the test sites. In laboratory tests, both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria were capable of supporting the growth of Legionella pneumophila.

  3. Evaluation of total phenol pollution in water of San Martin Canal from Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, C A; Pasquali, C E López; Paniagua, G; Garcinuño, R M; Hernando, P Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Santiago del Estero is a province located in northwestern Argentina. The Dulce River is used for irrigation through a vast network of channels and ditches, including the San Martin Canal (SMC), which crosses the capital city of Santiago del Estero. This canal's water is used for drinking, as well as recreational use for the general population. However, this river has been seriously polluted for several decades. The present study focuses on the identification and the quantification of the water pollution levels of total phenols in the SMC according to the seasonal periods. Water samples from various areas of the canal in different months of the year, extending from December to September, were collected for analysis. Additionally, the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS), chlorides, sulphates, nitrites and organic matter, as well as water hardness and alkalinity, were analysed in order to conduct a more complete study of the contamination of this area. The results showed a worrying total phenol concentration that exceeded the limit set by Argentine legislation for drinking water, as well as water for recreational use (5 μg/L). The total phenol (TP) concentration was directly determined by a molecular absorption spectroscopy method based on a new flow injection analysis system (FIA). Under the selected experimental conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 0.0490 and 0.1633 μg/mL, respectively. The developed method provides a number of improvements related to the speed of analysis, the restricted consumption of the reagents and sample volumes and the unnecessary sample treatment that contribute to environmentally friendly analytical chemistry. The results showed that TP make a significant contribution in the SMC pollution, especially during the months of April (400 ± 110 μg/L) and September (240 ± 20 μg/L). A high sulphate concentration that was higher than the limit allowed by the legislation was also found. Copyright

  4. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2010-09-17

    , reservoir characteristics, and local climate have various effects on elements such as drilling rate, the number of production wells, and production flow rates. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, plant operations is where the vast majority of water consumption occurs. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or non-geothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. For the EGS scenarios, plant operations consume between 0.29 and 0.72 gal/kWh. The binary plant experiences similar operational consumption, at 0.27 gal/kWh. Far less water, just 0.01 gal/kWh, is consumed during operations of the flash plant because geofluid is used for cooling and is not replaced. While the makeup water requirements are far less for a hydrothermal flash plant, the long-term sustainability of the reservoir is less certain due to estimated evaporative losses of 14.5-33% of produced geofluid at operating flash plants. For the hydrothermal flash scenario, the average loss of geofluid due to evaporation, drift, and blowdown is 2.7 gal/kWh. The construction stage requires considerably less water: 0.001 gal/kWh for both the binary and flash plant scenarios and 0.01 gal/kWh for the EGS scenarios. The additional water requirements for the EGS scenarios are caused by a combination of factors, including lower flow rates per well, which increases the total number of wells needed per plant, the assumed well depths, and the hydraulic stimulation required to engineer the reservoir. Water quality results are presented in Chapter 5. The chemical composition of geofluid has important implications for plant operations and the potential environmental impacts of geothermal energy production. An extensive dataset containing more than 53,000 geothermal geochemical data points was compiled and analyzed for general trends and statistics for typical geofluids. Geofluid composition was found to vary

  5. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...

  7. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Cleveland, J.; Clark, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    In general, heavy water reactor (HWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. Their decisions are depending on essentially business model. They involve the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. Continued plant operation, including operation beyond design life, called 'long term operation, depends, among other things, on the material condition of the plant. This is influenced significantly by the effectiveness of ageing management. Key attributes of an effective plant life management program include a focus on important systems, structure and components (SSCs) which are susceptible to ageing degradation, a balance of proactive and reactive ageing management programmes, and a team approach that ensures the co-ordination of and communication between all relevant nuclear power plant and external programmes. Most HWR NPP owners/operators use a mix of maintenance, surveillance and inspection (MSI) programs as the primary means of managing ageing. Often these programs are experienced-based and/or time-based and may not be optimised for detecting and/or managing ageing effects. From time-to-time, operational history has shown that this practice can be too reactive, as it leads to dealing with ageing effects (degradation of SSCs) after they have been detected. In many cases premature and/or undetected ageing cannot be traced back to one specific reason or an explicit error. The root cause is often a lack of communication, documentation and/or co-ordination between design, commissioning, operation or maintenance organizations. This lack of effective communication and interfacing frequently arises because, with the exception of major SSCs, such as the fuel channels or steam generators, there is a lack of explicit

  8. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1 min and the energy consumption was 32.6 mA/cm 2 . However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20 L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30 min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. - Highlights: • The hybrid electrolytic biological cell was used for degradation of oilfield produced water. • Decomposition of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon with or without the biofilter. • High saline water with the high chloride and sulfate ions content treatment. • The removal of electrochemical by-products is a phase change technique that requires the maintenance the biofilm on the filter media, which is sensitive and a complex operation. • Biofilter is efficient for the degradation of PW bye products, the critical drawback to their utility in full-scale operations is high TDS water content and detention time of treatment.

  9. Environmental effects of large discharges of cooling water. Experiences from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlin, Ulf; Lindahl, Sture; Neuman, Erik; Sandstroem, Olof; Svensson, Jonny

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the environmental effects of cooling water intake and discharge from Swedish nuclear power stations started at the beginning of the 1960s and continues to this day. In parallel with long-term monitoring, research has provided new knowledge and methods to optimise possible discharge locations and design, and given the ability to forecast their environmental effects. Investigations into the environmental effects of cooling-water are a prerequisite for the issuing of power station operating permits by the environmental authorities. Research projects have been carried out by scientists at universities, while the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Board of Fisheries, and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, are responsible for the greater part of the investigations as well as of the research work. The four nuclear power plants dealt with in this report are Oskarshamn, Ringhals, Barsebaeck and Forsmark. They were taken into operation in 1972, 1975, 1975 and 1980 resp. - a total of 12 reactors. After the closure of the Barsebaeck plants in 2005, ten reactors remain in service. The maximum cooling water discharge from the respective stations was 115, 165, 50 and 135 m 3 /s, which is comparable to the mean flow of an average Swedish river - c:a 150 m 3 /s. The report summarizes studies into the consequences of cooling water intake and discharge. Radiological investigations made at the plants are not covered by this review. The strategy for the investigations was elaborated already at the beginning of the 1960s. The investigations were divided into pre-studies, baseline investigations and monitoring of effects. Pre-studies were partly to gather information for the technical planning and design of cooling water intake and outlet constructions, and partly to survey the hydrographic and ecological situation in the area. Baseline investigations were to carefully map the hydrography and ecology in the area and their natural

  10. Results from four Pinus patula water planting trials in the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planting with water is used by some forestry companies in South Africa to reduce post-planting water stress. Four trials were implemented to test the response in survival of Pinus patula to water applied at planting. Two trials each were situated in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands and Mpumalanga escarpment. The first trial at ...

  11. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P; Klatt, Arthur R

    2010-07-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r(2) >0.6-0.8) with leaf water potential (psi(leaf)) across a broad range of values (-2.0 to -4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (psi(soil)) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision

  12. Plant-available soil water capacity: estimation methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant-available water capacity of the soil is defined as the water content between field capacity and wilting point, and has wide practical application in planning the land use. In a representative profile of the Cerrado Oxisol, methods for estimating the wilting point were studied and compared, using a WP4-T psychrometer and Richards chamber for undisturbed and disturbed samples. In addition, the field capacity was estimated by the water content at 6, 10, 33 kPa and by the inflection point of the water retention curve, calculated by the van Genuchten and cubic polynomial models. We found that the field capacity moisture determined at the inflection point was higher than by the other methods, and that even at the inflection point the estimates differed, according to the model used. By the WP4-T psychrometer, the water content was significantly lower found the estimate of the permanent wilting point. We concluded that the estimation of the available water holding capacity is markedly influenced by the estimation methods, which has to be taken into consideration because of the practical importance of this parameter.

  13. Safety system in a heavy water detritiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.; Retevoi, C.

    2003-01-01

    In a CANDU 6 type reactor a quantity of 55·10 15 Bq/year of tritium is generated, 95% being in the D 2 O moderator which can achieve a radioactivity of 2.5-3.5·10 12 Bq/kg. Tritium in heavy water contributes with 30-50% to the doses received by operation personnel and up to 20% to the radioactivity released in the environment. The large quantity of heavy water used in this type of reactors (500 tones) make storage very difficult, especially for environment. The extraction of tritium from tritiated heavy water of CANDU reactors solve the following problems: the radiation level in the operation area, the costs of maintenance and repair reduction due to reduction of personnel protection measures, the increase of NPP utilisation factor by shutdown time reduction for maintenance and repair, use the extracted tritium for fusion reactors and not for the last, lower costs and risk for storage heavy water waste. Heavy water detritiation methods, which currently are used in the industrial or experimental plant, are based on catalytic isotope exchange or electrolysis followed cryogenic distillation or permeation. The technology developed at Institute of Cryogenics and Isotope Separation is based upon catalytic exchange between tritiated water and deuterium, followed by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes. The nature of the fluids that are processed in detritiation requires the operation of the plant in safety conditions. The paper presents the safety system solution chose in order to solve this task, as well as a simulation of an incident and safety system response. The application software is using LabView platform that is specialised on control and factory automation applications. (author)

  14. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03

    cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emerging pollutants of concern to cause health or environmental problems. Mitigating solutions range from proactive communications with the local communities (which can be implemented by the power plants) to technical solutions, such as developing means to reduce the concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants in cooling water to maintain plant efficiency and while meeting discharge limits. These kinds of solutions may be appropriate for DOE research and development (R&D) funding.

  15. Nuclear plant service water system aging degradation assessment: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, D.B.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, P.W.; Gore, M.L.

    1989-06-01

    The initial phase of an aging assessment of nuclear power plant service water systems (SWSs) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The SWS was selected for study because of its essential role in the mitigation of and recovery from accident scenarios involving the potential for core-melt. The objectives of the SWS task under the NPAR program are to identify and characterize the principal aging degradation mechanisms relevant to this system and assess their impact on operational readiness, and to provide a methodology for the mitigation of aging on the service water aspect of nuclear plant safety. The first two of these objectives have been met and are covered in this Phase 1 report. A review of available literature and data-base information indicated that motor operated valve torque switches (an electro-mechanical device) were the prime suspect in component service water systems failures. More extensive and detailed data obtained from cooperating utility maintenance records and personnel accounts contradicted this conclusion indicating that biologic and inorganic accumulation and corrosive attack of service water on component surfaces were, in fact, the primary degradation mechanisms. A review of the development of time dependent risk assessment (aging) models shows that, as yet, this methodology has not been developed to a degree where implementation is reliable. Improvements in the accuracy of failure data documentation and time dependent risk analysis methodology should yield significant gains in relating aging phenomena to probabilistic risk assessment. 23 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Coal consumption minimizing by increasing thermal energy efficiency at ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Marius Cristian

    2006-01-01

    ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant is a large thermal energy consumer using almost all the steam output from ROMAG-TERMO Power Plant - the steam cost weight in the total heavy water price is about 40%. The steam consumption minimizing by modernization of isotopic exchange facilities and engineering development in ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant results in an corresponding decrease of coal amount burned at ROMAG-TERMO boilers. This decrease could be achieved mainly by the followings ways: - Facility wrappings integrity; - High performance heat exchangers; - Refurbished heat insulations; - Modified condenser-collecting pipeline routes; - High performance steam traps; - Heat electric wire. When coal is burned in Power Plant burners to obtain thermal energy, toxic emissions results in flue gases, such as: - CO 2 and NO x with impact on climate warming; - SO 2 which results in ozone layer thinning effect and in acid rain falls. From the value of steam output per burned coal: 1 GCal steam = 1.41 tone steam = 0.86 thermal MW = 1.1911 tones burned coal (lignite), it is obvious that by decreasing the thermal energy consumption provided for ROMAG PROD, a coal amount decrease is estimated at about 45 t/h, or about 394,200 t/year coal, which means about 10% of the current coal consumption at ROMAG-TERMO PP. At the same time, by reducing the burned coal amount, an yearly decrease in emissions into air to about 400,000 tones CO 2 is expected

  17. Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saykally, Richard J; Cappa, Chris D.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure of the liquid water surface. However, our new results indicate that the previously obtained spectrum may have suffered from as yet unidentified experimental artifacts. Although computational results indicate that the liquid water surface should exhibit a TIY-XAS that is fundamentally distinguishable from the bulk liquid XAS, the new experimental results suggest that the observable TIY-XAS is actually nearly identical in appearance to the total electron yield (TEY-)XAS, which is a bulk probe. This surprising similarity between the observed TIY-XAS and TEY-XAS likely results from large contributions from x-ray induced electron stimulated desorption of ions, and does not necessarily indicate that the electronic structure of the bulk liquid and liquid surface are identical

  18. An evaluation of a water treatment plant with improved overall effectiveness as an objective

    OpenAIRE

    Homsi, Ibrahim J.

    1995-01-01

    The XYZ water Authority (Authority) supplies a population of approximately one million people with drinking water. This water is being produced by three water treatment plants and several independent well sites. The River water Treatment Plant (WTP), the Authority's largest and most modern of all three plants has been experiencing, over a period of ten years, severe and premature equipment failures which are causing process interruptions, production losses and high maintenance cost. These fai...

  19. Removal of Metal Nanoparticles Colloidal Solutions by Water Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Svietlova, Nataliia; Konotop, Yevheniia; Karaushu, Olena; Hrechishkina, Svitlana

    2016-11-01

    The ability of seven species of aquatic plants ( Elodea canadensis, Najas guadelupensis, Vallisneria spiralis L., Riccia fluitans L., Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes L., and Salvinia natans L.) to absorb metal nanoparticles from colloidal solutions was studied. It was established that investigated aquatic plants have a high capacity for removal of metal nanoparticles from aqueous solution (30-100%) which indicates their high phytoremediation potential. Analysis of the water samples content for elements including the mixture of colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ag + Ag2O) before and after exposure to plants showed no significant differences when using submerged or free-floating hydrophytes so-called pleuston. However, it was found that the presence of submerged hydrophytes in aqueous medium ( E. canadensis, N. guadelupensis, V. spiralis L., and R. fluitans L.) and significant changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, unlike free-floating hydrophytes ( L. laevigatum, P. stratiotes L., S. natans L.), had occur. Pleuston possesses higher potential for phytoremediation of contaminated water basins polluted by metal nanoparticles. In terms of removal of nanoparticles among studied free-floating hydrophytes, P. stratiotes L. and S. natans L. deserve on special attention.

  20. Light water ultra-safe plant concept: First annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1987-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During the last year, the Department of Energy funded the study of a plant reconfiguration originally proposed by M.A. Shultz. This report presents the status of the project at the end of the first year. A broad set of specifications to improve safety and public perception were set forth and the realization of these goals is achieved in a plant design named, ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept.'' The most significant goals of the concept address the station black-out problem and simplification of required operator actions during abnormal situations. These goals are achieved in the Ultra-Safe Concept by addition of an in-containment atmospheric tank containing a large quantity of cool water, replacement of the conventional PWR pressurizer system with a pressurizing pump, internal emergency power generation, and arrangement of components to utilize natural circulation at shut-down. The first year effort included an evaluation of the normal operation characteristics of the primary system pressurizing concept, evaluating parameters and modeling for analysis of the shutdown scenario, design of a low power density core, design of a low-pressure waste handling system, arrangement of a drainage system for pipe break considerations, and failure modes and effects analysis

  1. Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yver Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebègue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. These methods, chamber measurements and tracer release, rely on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. We show that the tracer release method is suitable for quantifying facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the chamber measurements provide insight into individual process emissions. Uncertainties for the two methods are described and discussed. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions of the WWTP, we confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP (about 10 % of the total emissions), but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters. Overall, the waste water treatment plant is representative of an average French WWTP.

  2. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  3. The Assessment of Water Treatment Plant Sludge Properties and the Feasibility of Its Re-use according to Environmental Standards: Shahid Beheshti Water Treatment Plant Case Study, Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pourmand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Water treatment leads to produce large volumes of sludges in water treatment plants which are considered as solid waste, and should be managed appropriately and logically to avoid bioenvironmental effects. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the required samples were taken from the sludge of Shahid Beheshti water treatment plant to assay physical and chemical characteristics during one year from summer, autumn and winter 93 until spring 94. Sampling and testing procedures were full fit according to standard methods. Results: The average concentration of total solids parameters (TSS, total suspended solids (TSS, and total dissolved solids (TDS were 22346, 21350 and 1005 mg/L, respectively. Among the heavy metals, aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc have the highest concentrations with the values of 1400, 956, 588 and 100 mg per kg of dry solids, respectively. The measured concentrations for cadmium were also higher than the permissible limits for agricultural purposes and discharges into the environment. The average concentrations of nickel were more than the recommended standard for industrial, agricultural and parkland application purposes. The concentrations were also slurry higher than the dry sludge. Conclusion: According to the past studies and results of this study, it could be concluded that contamination of heavy metals in sludge and slurry samples are more than dried sludge, .Therefore, if they are discharged into the environment, it is better to be disposed as dry sludges. Furthermore, because these types of waste sludges are routinely disposed in the environment, it is recommended to take the routine samples in order to measure the heavy metals and other relevant parameters contents of sludge before discharging it. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:57-64

  4. Impact of fertilizer plant effluent on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obire, O.; Ogan, A.; Okigbo, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent on the physico chemistry and bacteriology of Okrika creek was investigated during the sampling period from May to December, 1998. The National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent, the Okrika creek water and the lkpukulubie creek (control) water samples were collected. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed for all the samples included temperature, p H, total chloride, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, free ammonia, total phosphate, urea, zinc and iron, while the bacteriological determinations were total culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria count and identification of representative isolates. The Okrika creek recorded higher concentrations for all the physicochemical parameters and bacteria load than the control creek. The higher values of p H, Free NH 3 , urea, TDS and the conductivity of the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent above the FEPA standards reflect the poor effluent quality generated by National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria. The bacteria species isolated from the samples include Aerococcus viridans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus. In general, the investigation revealed that there was an extremely adverse impact on the physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality characteristics of the Okrika creek as a result of the discharge of poor quality effluent from National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria operations

  5. Aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir, the source of cooling water for Kaiga nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.; Zargar, S.; Dhopte, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Kaul, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    The study is being conducted since July 2000 to evaluate impact of cooling water discharges from Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant on physicochemical and biological characteristics of Kadra reservoir. Besides marginal decrease of DO, sulfate, nitrate and potassium near discharge point at surface water, abiotic features of the water samples collected from three layers, viz. surface, 3-m depth and bottom at nine locations of the reservoir, did not show remarkable differences with reference to pH, phosphate, conductivity, suspended solids, sodium, hardness, chloride, alkalinity and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn). The DT varied between 5 and 8.5 degC at surface water during the study. The abiotic characteristics of the reservoir water meet the specification of drinking water standard of Bureau of Indian Standards. While the counts of phytoplankton and zooplankton were reduced near discharge point, their population at 500 m off the discharge point was comparable to those near dam site at about 11 km down stream from plant site. Plamer's index (0-15) and Shannon's diversity index values (1.39-2.44) of the plankton at different sampling points indicate oligotrophic and semi productive nature of the water body. The total coliform (TC), staphylococcus and heterotrophic counts were, in general, less near discharge point. Based on TC count, the reservoir water, during most of the period, is categorized as 'B' following CPCB classification of surface waters. Generation of data needs to be continued till 2-3 years for statistical interpretation and drawing conclusions pertaining to extent of impact of cooling water discharges on Kadra reservoir ecology. (author)

  6. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  7. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  8. Accumulation of Cs-137 by vegetative and reproductive parts of superior water plants in Kanev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Prityka, T.P.; Ivanova, I.Yu.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The generative part of superior water plants of some ecological groups cumulates Cs-137 in such quantity than considerably exceeds its contain in others parts of the plant, that leads to the dose increase in the reproductive organs

  9. Influence of high doses gamma radiation on group of meadow plants and water organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodek, St.; Wasilewski, A.; Indeka, L.; Kobuszewska, B.; Krzysztofik, B.; Ossowska-Cypryk, K.; Slomczynski, T.

    1979-01-01

    The plot of 100 square meters area has been irradiated for 526 days by gamma radiation which simulated the external radiation of the local fall-out. This field experiment has been performed in specially preserved conditions. The organisms of land and water complexes present in this area have received the total of 50 000 R in the center and 600 R on periphery. It has been shown that: changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of bacteria and soil and water fungi were generally little: among the physiological groups the greatest disfunctions have been observed for the bacteria of the nitric cycle; Lemna minor appeared to be the most radiosensitive water plant which perished completely in the zone around the center of the plot what in turn resulted in secondary changes in the composition of water microflora and micro- and macrofauna; the growth of 14 species of meadow plants present around the center of the plot has been reduced about 25% of biomass in comparison with the control plots; on the other hand, the stimulation of growth of meadow plants, mostly weeds, has been observed on the periphery of the plot. (author)

  10. Influence of high doses gamma radiation on group of meadow plants and water organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodek, St; Wasilewski, A; Indeka, L; Kobuszewska, B; Krzysztofik, B; Ossowska-Cypryk, K; Slomczynski, T

    1979-01-01

    The plot of 100 square meters area has been irradiated for 526 days by gamma radiation which simulated the external radiation of the local fall-out. This field experiment has been performed in specially preserved conditions. The organisms of land and water complexes present in this area have received the total of 50 000 R in the center and 600 R on periphery. It has been shown that: changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of bacteria and soil and water fungi were generally little: among the physiological groups the greatest disfunctions have been observed for the bacteria of the nitric cycle; Lemna minor appeared to be the most radiosensitive water plant which perished completely in the zone around the center of the plot what in turn resulted in secondary changes in the composition of water microflora and micro- and macrofauna; the growth of 14 species of meadow plants present around the center of the plot has been reduced about 25% of biomass in comparison with the control plots; on the other hand, the stimulation of growth of meadow plants, mostly weeds, has been observed on the periphery of the plot.

  11. IAEA programme on water chemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews the past future efforts of the IAEA, directed to ensure optimal water chemistry regimes in nuclear power plants. Corrosion of structural materials resulting from the interaction of the coolant with the internal surfaces comprising the primary heat transfer and auxiliary circuits of water reactors, creates two main problems. The first is an operational problem resulting in an increase in the core pressure drop or overheating of the fuel elements induced by crud buildup on the fuel cladding. The second problem is related to occupational radiation exposures arising from contamination of out-of-flux surfaces by corrosion products activated in the reactor core. These are the problems of reliability and safety which together with economics could be considered as the 'three whales' of nuclear power. The main goals of international cooperation in reactor water chemistry are: (1) to create a balanced and well-grounded methodological basis for corresponding regulatory and engineering solutions on a national level and (2) to improve 'the models and predictive capability of specialists for conditions that are different from or perhaps just beyond the realm of experience'. Continuing efforts are required to guarantee the highest reliability and safety standards under favorable economic indices of nuclear power plants, and to obtain understanding of such significant potential for solving the remaining problems. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudlik, A.; Schoenfeld, S.B.H.; Hagemann, O.; Fahlenkamp, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fast acting valves are often applied for quick safety shut-down of pipelines for liquids and gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry as well as in power plants and state water supplies. The fast deceleration of the liquid leads to water hammer upstream the valve and to cavitational hammer downstream the fast closing valve. The valve characteristics given by manufacturers are usually measured at steady state flow conditions of the liquid. In comparison, the dynamic characteristics depend on the initial liquid velocity, valve closing velocity, the absolute pipe pressure and the pipe geometry. Fraunhofer UMSICHT conducts various test series examining valve dynamic characteristics in order of the dynamic analysis of pressure surges in fast closing processes. Therefore a test rig is used which consists of two pipelines of DN 50 and DN 100 with an approximate length of 230 m each. In this paper the results of performed pressure surge experiments with fast closing and opening valves will be compared to calculations of commercial software programs such as MONA, FLOWMASTER 2. Thus the calculation software for water supply, power plants oil and gas and chemical industry can be permanently improved. (orig.)

  13. Field assessment of bacterial communities and total trihalomethanes: Implications for drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Pachongo, Carolina; Douterelo, Isabel; Noakes, Catherine; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Sleigh, Andrew; Escobar-Rivera, Juan-Carlos; Torres-Lozada, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene revealed significant differences in the composition of biofilm and planktonic communities. The highly diverse biofilm communities showed the presence of methylotrophic bacteria, which suggest the presence of methyl radicals such as THMs within this habitat. Microbiological parameters correlated with water age, pH, temperature and free residual chlorine. The results from this study are necessary to increase the awareness of O&M practices in DWDNs required to reduce biofilm formation and maintain appropriate microbiological and chemical water quality, in relation to biofilm detachment and DBP formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hazard and operability study of Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S K; Khilnaney, V K [Heavy Water Board, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical process industry faces the tough challenge of achieving design productivity while maintaining high standards of safety. This task is particularly difficult than handling hazardous chemicals. Hazard and operability study (HazOp) is a technique which involves systematic and thorough study by a multidisciplinary team. This technique provides a means to analyse the design and modes of operations of a plant systematically so as to identify the potential occurrence of hazardous events and operational problems. HazOp is based on the premise that a hazard is not realised if the process is operated within its design intent. This paper gives an overall view of the HazOp study carried out at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. Some selected recommendations from this study are highlighted. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Operational margin monitoring system for boiling water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, S.; Takigawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-line operational margin monitoring system which has been developed for boiling water reactor power plants to improve safety, reliability, and quality of reactor operation. The system consists of a steady-state core status prediction module, a transient analysis module, a stability analysis module, and an evaluation and guidance module. This system quantitatively evaluates the thermal margin during abnormal transients as well as the stability margin, which cannot be evaluated by direct monitoring of the plant parameters, either for the current operational state or for a predicted operating state that may be brought about by the intended operation. This system also gives operator guidance as to appropriate or alternate operations when the operating state has or will become marginless

  16. Seismic qualification for water chillers of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Water chillers are important components of the electric building chilled water system of Nuclear Power Plant. In this article, we describe the seismic qualification methodology. A united method of seismic analysis and experiment testing were applied. Since the seismic classification of the evaporator, condenser and oil separator is 1F, the chillers must satisfy the function criteria. The functional and performance of the control panel were qualified by seismic test. In order to get the seismic time histories of the base of the motor, compressor and control panel, we did time histories analysis for the whole chillers using the seismic acceleration time history of the building floor on which the water chillers was located. Then, these curves were translated into required response spectrum (RRS), which were used by the seismic test of water chillers compressor sets. All passive components, such as evaporator, condenser, oil separator and support, were qualified by seismic stress analysis method. These components were verified to satisfy the standard when they were subjected to the seismic, gravitational, operational pressure and nozzle loads. The Chillers' components were qualified to the specification and the standard. The motor-compressor set and control panel were qualified to the functional and performance criteria. The applied of this methodology qualified the function of the water chillers compressor sets effectively, especially after the aging test. (author)

  17. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Restoration of body composition indicates successful management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Bioimpedance (BI) index (height(2)/resistance) is used to predict total body water (TBW) but its performance in SAM, especially with oedema, requires further investigation....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference ...Hzs. Pre- and post-deuterium dose saliva samples were analysed using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. TBW was regressed on H(2)/Z. Xc and R were height (H)-indexed, and Xc/H plotted against R/H. RESULTS: Thirty five children (16 non-oedematous and 19 oedematous) with median (interquartile range) age of 42...

  19. Total internal reflection second-harmonic generation: probing the alkane water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conboy, J.C.; Daschbach, J.L.; Richmond, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Total internal reflection Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been used to study a series of neat n-alkane/water interfaces. Polarization and incident angular-dependent measurements of the SH response show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Analysis of the incident and polarization angular-dependent SH response allows for determination of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules comprising the interfacial region. Based on Kleinman symmetry, the measured surface nonlinear susceptibilities suggest a high degree of interfacial order for octane and decane with less order indicated by the odd carbon n-alkanes examined, heptane and nonane. The SH response in reflection and transmission has been measured under a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) of the fundamental. The measured nonlinear susceptibilities in each case are found to be identical. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear plant service water system aging degradation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, D.B.; Larson, L.L.; Stratton, R.C.; Bohn, S.J.; Gore, M.L.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the second phase of the aging assessment of nuclear plant service water systems (SWSs) which was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The SWS was selected for study because of its essential role in the mitigation of and recovery from accident scenarios involving the potential for core-melt, and because it is subject to a variety of aging mechanisms. The objectives of the SWS task under the NPAR program are to identify and characterize the principal age-related degradation mechanisms relevant to this system, to assess the impact of aging degradation on operational readiness, and to provide a methodology for the management of aging on the service water aspect of nuclear plant safety. The primary degradation mechanism in the SWSs as stated in the Phase I assessment and confirmed by the analysis in Phase II, is corrosion compounded by biologic and inorganic accumulation. It then follows that the most effective means for mitigating degradation in these systems is to pursue appropriate programs to effectively control the water chemistry properties when possible and to use biocidal agents where necessary. A methodology for producing a complete root-cause analysis was developed as a result of needs identified in the Phase I assessment for a more formal procedure that would lend itself to a generic, standardized approach. It is recommended that this, or a similar methodology, be required as a part of the documentation for corrective maintenance performed on the safety-related portions of SWSs to provide an accurate focus for effective management of aging

  1. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    KAUST Repository

    Belila, Abdelaziz

    2016-02-18

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m3/d of drinking water. Water samples were taken over the full treatment train consisting of chlorination, spruce media and cartridge filters, de-chlorination, first and second pass reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and final chlorine dosage for drinking water distribution. The water samples were analyzed for water quality parameters (total bacterial cell number, total organic carbon, conductivity, pH, etc.) and microbial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The planktonic microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria (48.6%) followed by Bacteroidetes (15%), Firmicutes (9.3%) and Cyanobacteria (4.9%). During the pretreatment step, the spruce media filter did not impact the bacterial community composition dominated by Proteobacteria. In contrast, the RO and final chlorination treatment steps reduced the Proteobacterial relative abundance in the produced water where Firmicutes constituted the most dominant bacterial group. Shannon and Chao1 diversity indices showed that bacterial species richness and diversity decreased during the seawater desalination process. The two-stage RO filtration strongly reduced the water conductivity (>99%), TOC concentration (98.5%) and total bacterial cell number (>99%), albeit some bacterial DNA was found in the water after RO filtration. About 0.25% of the total bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in all stages of the desalination plant: the seawater, the RO permeates and the chlorinated drinking water, suggesting that these bacterial strains can survive in different environments such as high/low salt concentration and with/without residual disinfectant. These bacterial strains were not caused by contamination during

  2. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  3. Liquid metal reactor/Pressurized water reactor plant comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The selection between alternative electric power generating technologies is mainly based on their overall economics. Capital costs account for over 60% of the total busbar cost of nuclear plants. Estimates reported in the literature have shown capital cost ratios of LMRs to PWRs ranging from less than 1 to as high as 1.8. To reduce this range of uncertainty, the study selected a method for cataloging plant hardware and then performed comparisons using engineering judgment as to the anticipated and reasonable cost differences. The paper summarizes the resulting one-on-one comparisons of components, systems, and buildings and identifies the LMR-PWR similarities and differences which influence costs. The study leads to the conclusion that the capital cost of the most up-to-date large LMR design would be very close to that of the latest PWRs

  4. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES OF WORKING BODY OF WATER PREPARATION AT THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Rymasheuskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the main directions of water desalination technologies improving have been analyzed. Possible techniques of high-quality treatment of water that enable the reduction of amounts of environmentally hazardous substances to be discharged into the hydrosphere are indicated. The purpose of the work was to improve the ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of water treatment equipment at heat power plants when designing new and the modernizing existing water treatment schemes. In order to achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the one of analyzing the main directions of the improvement of technologies of working body of water preparation at thermal and nuclear power plants; of analyzing the main directions of reduction of total volume of highly mineralized power plant wastewaters; of developing the technological scheme of recycling of concentrate of membrane installations and regenerants of ionite filters in acid and alkali; of developing the technological scheme of transformation of the sludge in pre-processing waste into valuable commodity products. The results of research can be applied for the design of new and the modernization of existing water treatment installations of thermal and nuclear power plants. It will enable to reduce considerably the use of natural water and the amount of chemicals added as well as the volume of wastewater and the concentration of dissolved solids in it. As a consequence, the negative impact of thermal and nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere will be reduced. 

  5. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  6. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions.

  7. Determination of water fluoride levels in the vicinities of the nuclear fuel plant in Resende, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, L.A.; Castro Faria, M.V. de

    1983-01-01

    The water fluoride levels in rivers and lakes, in a total of 26 different collection points placed within a circle of 10 km in diameter having the Nuclear Fuel Plant of Resende, Rio de Janeiro, as the center, were determined. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouillon, Sylvain; Douillet, Pascal; Petrenko, Anne; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, Cécile; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Andréfouët, Serge; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba), and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji). In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations). The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU). This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach. PMID:27879929

  9. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba, and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji. In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations. The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU. This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  10. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouillon, Sylvain; Douillet, Pascal; Petrenko, Anne; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, Cécile; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Andréfouët, Serge; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain

    2008-07-10

    Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba), and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji). In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations). The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU). This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  11. Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint EPA and Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board NPDES Permit and Waiver from Secondary Treatment for the West Basin Municipal Water District Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

  12. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  13. Comparison of trace metals in intake and discharge waters of power plants using clean techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvito, D.T.; Allen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the impact to receiving waters of trace metals potentially discharged from a once-through, non-contact cooling water system from a power plant, a study was conducted utilizing clean sampling and analytical techniques for a series of metals. Once-through, non-contact cooling water at power plants is frequently discharged back to the fresh or saline waterbody utilized for its intake water. This water is used to cool plant condensers. Intake and discharge data were collected and evaluated using paired t-tests. Study results indicate that there is no measurable contribution of metals from non-contact cooling water from this power plant

  14. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water electronuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1977-01-01

    In light-water reactors, the tritium balance should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. In light-water electronuclear stations with pressurized reactors using boric acid in solution for reactivity control, the amounts of tritium formed in the primary circuit are worthy of note. The estimations concerning the tritium production in a hypothetical 1000 MWe reactor are discussed. In the tritium build-up, the part which takes the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding, is still difficult to estimate. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations are consequently of interest. But the tritium produced by ternary fission in the fuel is always much more abundant, and remains almost entirely confined in the uranium oxide if the fuel is clad with zircaloy. The annual quantity stored in the fuel elements is more than 20 times larger than that of the built up free tritium in the primary circuit water of a reactor. It reaches about 12,400 Ci in the hypothetical reactor. In the presently operated reprocessing plants, tritium is all going over in the effluents, and is almost entirely released in the environment. Taking into account the increasing quantities of high irradiated fuel to be reprocessed, it seems necessary to develop separation processes. Development work and tests have been achieved jointly by CEA and SAINT-GOBAIN TECHNIQUES NOUVELLES in order to: contain the tritium in the high activity part of the plant; and keep small the tritiated effluent volume, about 300 liters per ton of reprocessed uranium. It is then possible to envisage a storage for decay of isotopic separation processes. Such separation processes have been estimated by CEA assuming a daily output of 1500 liters of water containing 2,3 Ci.1 -1 of tritium, the desired decontamination factor being 100 [fr

  15. Boiling water system of nuclear power plants (BWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martias Nurdin

    1975-01-01

    About 85% of the world electric generators are light water reactors. It shows that LWR is technologically and economically competitive with other generators. The Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is one of the two systems in the LWR group. The techniques of BWR operation in several countries, especially low and moderate power BWR, are presented. The discussion is made in relation with the interconnection problems of electric installation in developing countries, including Indonesia, where the total electric energy installation is low. The high reliability and great flexibility of the operation of a boiling water reactor for a sufficiently long period are also presented. Component standardization for BWR system is discussed to get a better technological and economical performance for further development. (author)

  16. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  17. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  18. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  19. Empirical Estimation of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentration of Urban Water Bodies in China Using High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measuring total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP is important in managing heavy polluted urban waters in China. This study uses high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery with four multispectral bands, which roughly correspond to Landsat/TM bands 1–4, to determine TN and TP in small urban rivers and lakes in China. By using Lake Cihu and the lower reaches of Wen-Rui Tang (WRT River as examples, this paper develops both multiple linear regressions (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN models to estimate TN and TP concentrations from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and in situ water samples collected concurrently with overpassing satellite. The measured and estimated values of both MLR and ANN models are in good agreement (R2 > 0.85 and RMSE < 2.50. The empirical equations selected by MLR are more straightforward, whereas the estimated accuracy using ANN model is better (R2 > 0.86 and RMSE < 0.89. Results validate the potential of using high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery to study the chemical states of small-sized urban water bodies. The spatial distribution maps of TN and TP concentrations generated by the ANN model can inform the decision makers of variations in water quality in Lake Cihu and lower reaches of WRT River. The approaches and equations developed in this study could be applied to other urban water bodies for water quality monitoring.

  20. Examples of Savannah River water dilution between the Savannah River Plant and the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water-treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A substantial dilution of the river water occurs between the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the two treatment plants. This dilution results from inflow of surface and groundwater and from direct rainfall. The amount of dilution was estimated to be approximately 20% and 54% down to the Port Wentworth and Beaufort-Jasper plants, respectively

  1. Correlation between conductivity and total dissolved solid in various type of water: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusydi, Anna F.

    2018-02-01

    Conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) are water quality parameters, which are used to describe salinity level. These two parameters are correlated and usually expressed by a simple equation: TDS = k EC (in 25 °C). The process of obtaining TDS from water sample is more complex than that of EC. Meanwhile, TDS analysis is very important because it can illustrate groundwater quality, particularly in understanding the effect of seawater intrusion better than EC analysis. These conditions make research in revealing TDS/EC ratios interesting to do. By finding the ratio value, TDS concentration can be measured easily from EC value. However, the ratio cannot be defined easily. Previous research results have found that the correlation between TDS and EC are not always linear. The ratio is not only strongly influenced by salinity contents, but also by materials contents. Furthermore, the analysis of TDS concentration from EC value can be used to give an overview of water quality. For more precision, TDS concentrations need to be analyzed using the gravimetric method in the laboratory.

  2. High-Accuracy Measurements of Total Column Water Vapor From the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert R.; Crisp, David; Ott, Lesley E.; O'Dell, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the distribution of water vapor in Earth's atmosphere is of critical importance to both weather and climate studies. Here we report on measurements of total column water vapor (TCWV) from hyperspectral observations of near-infrared reflected sunlight over land and ocean surfaces from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). These measurements are an ancillary product of the retrieval algorithm used to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, with information coming from three highly resolved spectral bands. Comparisons to high-accuracy validation data, including ground-based GPS and microwave radiometer data, demonstrate that OCO-2 TCWV measurements have maximum root-mean-square deviations of 0.9-1.3mm. Our results indicate that OCO-2 is the first space-based sensor to accurately and precisely measure the two most important greenhouse gases, water vapor and carbon dioxide, at high spatial resolution [1.3 x 2.3 km(exp. 2)] and that OCO-2 TCWV measurements may be useful in improving numerical weather predictions and reanalysis products.

  3. Retrieval of total water vapour in the Arctic using microwave humidity sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Scarlat, Raul; Melsheimer, Christian; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative retrievals of atmospheric water vapour in the Arctic present numerous challenges because of the particular climate characteristics of this area. Here, we attempt to build upon the work of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008) to retrieve total atmospheric water vapour (TWV) in the Arctic from satellite microwave radiometers. While the above-mentioned algorithm deals primarily with the ice-covered central Arctic, with this work we aim to extend the coverage to partially ice-covered and ice-free areas. By using modelled values for the microwave emissivity of the ice-free sea surface, we develop two sub-algorithms using different sets of channels that deal solely with open-ocean areas. The new algorithm extends the spatial coverage of the retrieval throughout the year but especially in the warmer months when higher TWV values are frequent. The high TWV measurements over both sea-ice and open-water surfaces are, however, connected to larger uncertainties as the retrieval values are close to the instrument saturation limits.This approach allows us to apply the algorithm to regions where previously no data were available and ensures a more consistent physical analysis of the satellite measurements by taking into account the contribution of the surface emissivity to the measured signal.

  4. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  5. Transport structures and water reservoir for the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Klacansky, T.

    1986-01-01

    The projects are described which were implemented by Doprastav Bratislava within the preparation of the site for the Mochovce nuclear power plant. This includes a railway siding in a length of 11.2 kilometres which includes a railway bridge, two other bridges and the reconstruction of the Kalna nad Vahom railway terminal. Also reconstructed or newly built were road communications in a total length of 23.3 km. The said project included the construction of a road flyover over the railway track and the construction of five other smaller bridges. In order to provide the utility water supply to the Mochovce nuclear power plant, a large reservoir is being built at Velke Kozmalovce. The reservoir will have a total capacity of 2.6 mill. m 3 of water, of this the effective capacity will be 2.1 mill. m 3 on a flooded area of some 90 ha. Part of the reservoir will be a small hydro-power plant, the reservoir will also be used for irrigation on the fields of the neighbouring farms. (Z.M.)

  6. Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J V; Lobato, A K S

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is considered the main abiotic stress that limits agricultural production worldwide. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural substances that play roles in plant tolerance against abiotic stresses, including water deficit. This research aims to determine whether BRs can mitigate the negative effects caused by water deficiency, revealing how BRs act and their possible contribution to increased tolerance of cowpea plants to water deficit. The experiment was a factorial design with the factors completely randomised, with two water conditions (control and water deficit) and three levels of brassinosteroids (0, 50 and 100 nM 24-epibrassinolide; EBR is an active BRs). Plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR under the water deficit presented significant increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR compared with plants subjected to the water deficit without EBR. With respect to gas exchange, P N , E and g s exhibited significant reductions after water deficit, but application of 100 nM EBR caused increases in these variables of 96, 24 and 33%, respectively, compared to the water deficit + 0 nM EBR treatment. To antioxidant enzymes, EBR resulted in increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX, indicating that EBR acts on the antioxidant system, reducing cell damage. The water deficit caused significant reductions in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, while plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR showed significant increases of 26, 58 and 33% in Chl a , Chl b and total Chl, respectively. This study revealed that EBR improves photosystem II efficiency, inducing increases in Φ PSII , q P and ETR. This substance also mitigated the negative effects on gas exchange and growth induced by the water deficit. Increases in SOD, CAT, APX and POX of plants treated with EBR indicate that this steroid clearly increased the tolerance to the water deficit, reducing reactive oxygen species, cell damage, and maintaining the photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, 100 nM EBR resulted in a better dose-response of cowpea

  7. Quantification of protein and total nitrogen in some plant foods of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are consumed as fruits and vegetables. The study involved the comparison of these plant protein values by selecting them and subjecting them to heat processing and to preparation of canned vegetables. The estimated protein values estimated are 57.0% for Arum, 44.86% for Portulaca, 28.47% for Chlorophytum, 22.69% ...

  8. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium, burdock (Arctium lappa, comfrey (Symphytum officinale, plantain (Pantago lanceolata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, sage (Salvia officinalis, marigold (Calendula officinalis, small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis, echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia and black popular (Populus nigra were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyphenols and flavones were extracted from Populus nigra, with an average of both extractions 23.14 mg GAE/g and 78.07 mg QE/g flavones. Among the studied plants, Arctium lappa registered the highest antioxidant activity (0.129 mmol Trolox/mL in alcoholic extract and Echinaceea angustifolia with a value of 0.122 mmol Trolox/mL in aqueous extract. The lowest values were recorded for the antioxidant activity of Althaea officinalis (alcoholic extract and Arctium lappa (aqueous extract. The results show that Arctium lappa, Echinaceea angustifolia and Populus nigra can be considered melliferous plants for their high biologically active compounds potential and bee products (honey and pollen that having the composition of these plants will have high antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  9. Total-system expertise in economically efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH can look back on well over 40 years of experience in developing and constructing nuclear power plants. 23 Power plant units of Siemens design are in operation in five countries, and in autumn this year, another one will start commercial operation, while yet another one is under construction. In comparative international power plant surveys, the Siemens-design systems usually rank in top positions when it comes to comparing systems availability and electric power generation, and Siemens have build a reputation in manufacturing power plants up to the highest safety standards worldwide. Our experience as a manufacturer of turnkey PWR and BWR type reactors, as well as our profound knowledge of international nuclear standardisation, engineering codes and safety guides, has been used and processed to the benefit of the services offered by Siemens, resulting in well-devised service packages, and enhancements and optimisation of our machinery and equipment. Siemens has of course obtained the relevant licenses and certification for all its services and products according to DIN ISO 9001, KTA and ASME standards [de

  10. SWR 1000: The new boiling water reactor power plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettschuh, W.

    1999-01-01

    Siemens' Power Generation Group (KWU) is currently developing - on behalf of and in close co-operation with the German nuclear utilities and with support from various European partners - the boiling water reactor SWR 1000. This advanced design concept marks a new era in the successful tradition of boiling water reactor technology in Germany and is aimed, with an electric output of 1000 MW, at assuring competitive power generating costs compared to large-capacity nuclear power plants as well as coal-fired stations, while at the same time meeting the highest of safety standards, including control of a core melt accident. This objective is met by replacing active safety systems with passive safety equipment of diverse design for accident detection and control and by simplifying systems needed for normal plant operation on the basis of past operating experience. A short construction period, flexible fuel cycle lengths of between 12 and 24 months and a high fuel discharge burnup all contribute towards meeting this goal. The design concept fulfils international nuclear regulatory requirements and will reach commercial maturity by the year 2000. (author)

  11. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  12. Design aspects of water usage in the Windscale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wharton, J.; Bullock, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The safeguard requirements of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant place unique constraints on a designer which, in turn, affect the scope for the exercise of water economy. These constraints are examined within the context of the British Nuclear Fuels Limited reprocessing plants at Windscale and indicate the scope for water conservation. The plants and their design principles are described with particular reference to water services and usage. Progressive design development is discussed to illustrate the increasing importance of water economy. (author)

  13. Asymmetric Modeling of the Industrial Heavy Water Plant (PIAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, Federico; Aprea, J; Guido Lavalle, German

    2000-01-01

    Software of asymmetric stationary simulation for the Industrial Heavy Water Plant (PIAP) was developed, based on an existing symmetric simulator (Brigitte 2.0).This software allows to turn off some of the isotopic enrichment twin units present in the plant and to simulate them asymmetrically, in other words, with different selection of parameters between twins.Other incorporations were done, such as passing flows between units and entering flows in strategic points of the plant.The iterative system in which the symmetric simulator is based was insufficient to develop the asymmetric simulator, so the system was modeled according to an implicit scheme for the units that form the simulator.This type of resolution resulted in a simulator that supports a big range of boundary conditions and internal parameters.Moreover, the time of calculus is short (∼3 minutes), making it actually useful.The asymmetric simulator is at the PIAP now, for its study and validation. It shows expected tendencies and results according to the symmetric simulator already validated

  14. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  15. Effect of water chemistry on deposition for PWR plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Calvar, Marc; Bretelle, J. L.; Cailleaux, J. P.; Lacroix, R.; Guivarch, M.; Gay, N.; Taunier, S.; Gressier, F.; Varry, P.; Corredera, G.; Alos-Ramos, O.; Dijoux, M.

    2012-09-01

    For Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) operation, water chemistry guidelines, specifications and associated surveillance programs are key to avoid deposition of oxides. Deposition of oxides can be detrimental by disrupting results of flow measurements, decreasing the thermal exchange capacity, or even by impairing safety. This paper describes the most important cases of deposition, their consequences for operation, and the implemented improvements to avoid their reoccurrence. Deposition that led to a Crud Induced Power Shift (CIPS) is also described. In the primary and in the secondary sides, orifice plates are typically used for measuring feedwater flow rate in nuclear power plants. Feedwater flow rates are used for control purposes and are important safety parameters as they are used to determine the plant's operating power level. Fouling of orifice plates in the primary side has been found during surveillance testing. For reactor coolant pumps, the formation of deposits on the seal No.1 can cause abnormally high or low leak rates through the seal. The leak rate through this seal must be carefully maintained within a prescribed range during plant operation. In the secondary side, orifice plate fouling has been the cause of feedwater flow/reference thermal power drift. For the steam generators (SG), magnetite deposition has led to fouling of the tube bundle, clogging of the quadri-foiled support plate holes and hard sludge formation on the base plate. For the generators, copper hollow conductors are widely used. Buildup of copper oxides on the interior walls of copper conductors has caused insufficient heat transfer. All these deposition cases have received adequate attention, understanding and response via improvement of our surveillance programs. (authors)

  16. Water chemistry - one of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Otoha, K.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry, a) better reliability of reactor structures and fuels, b) lower occupational exposure, and c) fewer radwaste sources, should be simultaneously satisfied. The research committee related to water chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has played important roles to enhance improvement in water chemistry control, to share knowledge and experience with water chemistry among plant operators and manufacturers, to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation related to water chemistry. Furthermore, the committee has tried to contribute to arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through road map planning

  17. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  18. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Bhatia, Hitasha Kaur; Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  19. Integrated system of phytodepuration and water reclamation: A comparative evaluation of four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Marras, Tatiana; Allegrini, Elena

    2017-06-03

    In dry regions, water resources have become increasingly limited, and the use of alternative sources is considered one of the main strategies in sustainable water management. A highly viable alternative to commonly used water resources is treated municipal wastewater, which could strongly benefit from advanced and low-cost techniques for depuration, such as the integrated system of phytodepuration (ISP). The current manuscript investigates four Italian case studies with different sizes and characteristics. The raw wastewaters and final effluents were sampled on a monthly basis over a period of up to five years, allowing the quantification of the ISP performances. The results obtained show that the investigated plants are characterized by an average efficiency value of approximately 83% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 89% for total nitrogen, 91% for total phosphorus, and 85% for total suspended solids. Moreover, for three of the case studies, the ISP final effluent is suitable for irrigation, and in the fourth case study, the final effluent can be released in surface water.

  20. Occurrence of antibiotics in water, sediments, aquatic plants, and animals from Baiyangdian Lake in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the presence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, in the water, sediments, and biota samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 132 samples were collected in 2008 and 2010, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the lake. Sulfonamides were the dominant antibiotics in the water (0.86-1563 ng L(-1)), while quinolones were prominent in sediments (65.5-1166 μg kg(-1)) and aquatic plants (8.37-6532 μg kg(-1)). Quinolones (17.8-167 μg kg(-1)) and macrolides [from below detection limit (BDL) to 182 μg kg(-1)] were often found in aquatic animals and birds. Salvinia natans exhibited the highest bioaccumulation capability for quinolones among three species of aquatic plants. Geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were greatly due to anthropogenic activities. Sewage discharged from Baoding City was likely the main source of antibiotics in the lake. Risk assessment of antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that algae and aquatic plants might be at risk in surface water, while animals were likely not at risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.