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Sample records for total plant tissue

  1. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  2. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  3. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  4. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  5. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  6. The effects of total mass of seed on distribution of lead in different tissues of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Experimentally treated by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish distribution of lead in different tissues of bean seed (seed coat, endo­sperm, embryo depending on seed mass, treated samples (seed by different concentration of Pb-acetate: 1O-5 M, 10-3M i 2x 10-2M. Depending on seed weight the samples derived in three groups: large (715g, middle (465g and small (280g. Each sample contained the same number of seeds. Concentration was determined by atomic absorber (Unicam 929. At highest Pb-acetate concentration (2x10-2M in seed with small total mass content of Pb was 1139μg/g, white in seed of 1052μg/g; in endosperm 580,6μg/g, middle 290,2μg/g and in second group 79,4μg/g. Similar pattern shows embryo but at die lower level of accumulation. On die basis of above presented results it could be concluded that concentration of Pb-acetate solution. Largest mass seed accumulate respectively less content of Pb in endosperm and embryo. Seed coat accumulated significant die larger amount of land probably embryo, in that way protects embryo. Therefore, larger bean seed are more convenient for planting in cases of potentially contamination by 1, but probably by other metals. .

  7. Soft-tissue tension total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Akiho; Wilton, Tim J

    2004-08-01

    It is far from clear how best to define the proper strength of soft-tissue tensioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We attached a torque driver to the Monogram balancer/tensor device and measured soft-tissue tension in full extension and 90 degrees flexion during TKA. In our surgical procedure, when we felt proper soft-tissue tension was being applied, the mean distraction force was noted to be 126N in extension and 121N in flexion. There was no significant correlation between soft-tissue tension and the postoperative flexion angle finally achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the actual distraction forces in relation to soft-tissue tension in TKA. Further study may reveal the most appropriate forces to achieve proper soft-tissue tension in the wide variety of circumstances presenting at knee arthroplasty.

  8. Epigenetics in plant tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants produced vegetatively in tissue culture may differ from the plants from which they have been derived. Two major classes of off-types occur: genetic ones and epigenetic ones. This review is about epigenetic aberrations. We discuss recent studies that have uncovered epigenetic modifications at

  9. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  10. Methods to Quantify Nickel in Soils and Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Wurr Rodak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other micronutrients, the levels of nickel (Ni available in soils and plant tissues are very low, making quantification very difficult. The objective of this paper is to present optimized determination methods of Ni availability in soils by extractants and total content in plant tissues for routine commercial laboratory analyses. Samples of natural and agricultural soils were processed and analyzed by Mehlich-1 extraction and by DTPA. To quantify Ni in the plant tissues, samples were digested with nitric acid in a closed system in a microwave oven. The measurement was performed by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. There was a positive and significant correlation between the levels of available Ni in the soils subjected to Mehlich-1 and DTPA extraction, while for plant tissue samples the Ni levels recovered were high and similar to the reference materials. The availability of Ni in some of the natural soil and plant tissue samples were lower than the limits of quantification. Concentrations of this micronutrient were higher in the soil samples in which Ni had been applied. Nickel concentration differed in the plant parts analyzed, with highest levels in the grains of soybean. The grain, in comparison with the shoot and leaf concentrations, were better correlated with the soil available levels for both extractants. The methods described in this article were efficient in quantifying Ni and can be used for routine laboratory analysis of soils and plant tissues.

  11. Biotransformations with plant tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T

    1976-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue.

  12. Total generating costs: coal and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal- and nuclear-fueled electric-generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200-MWe PWRs; 1200-MWe BWRs; 800-and 1200-MWe High-Sulfur Coal units, and 800- and 1200-MWe Low-Sulfur Coal units. The total generating cost estimates were developed for commercial operation dates of 1985 and 1990; for 5 and 8% escalation rates, for 10 and 12% discount rates; and, for capacity factors of 50, 60, 70, and 80%. The report describes the methodology for obtaining annualized capital costs, levelized coal and nuclear fuel costs, levelized operation and maintenance costs, and the resulting total generating costs for each type of station. The costs are applicable to a hypothetical Middletwon site in the Northeastern United States. Plant descriptions with general design parameters are included. The report also reprints for convenience, summaries of capital cost by account type developed in the previous commercial electric-power cost studies. Appropriate references are given for additional detailed information. Sufficient detail is given to allow the reader to develop total generating costs for other cases or conditions

  13. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  14. Total quality drives nuclear plant improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Total quality (TQ) at Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) is fulfilling a 1985 vision of Sherwood H. Smith, Jr., CP and L's chairman, president, and chief executive officer. The TQ concept has provided a way for employees to align their creative energies toward meeting the business needs of the company. Throughout CP and L, TQ has been recognized as the vehicle for reducing operating costs and improving customer satisfaction. Within the nuclear organization, application of the TQ process has helped to improve communications, resolve challenges, and provide more consistent work practices among CP and L's three nuclear plants. Total quality was introduced from the top down, with initial benefits coming from team interactions. Senior management at CP and L defined the corporate expectations and outlined the training requirements for implementing TQ. Management staffs at each organizational level became steering committees for TQ team activities within their departments. Teams of employees most knowledgeable about a given work area were empowered to solve problems or overcome obstacles related to that work area. Employees learned to become better team players and to appreciate the quality of decisions reached through group consensus. Now, formalized methods that started TQ are becoming part of the day-to-day work ethic

  15. Localization of inorganic ions in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iren, F. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author has been unable to devise a generally applicable technique of ion localization in cells and tissues. He concludes that ion localization in living organisms remains difficult. From this study, a rough outline of how ions are transported into, through, and out of plant roots is drawn. (Auth.)

  16. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 100 years ago, Haberlandt envisioned the concept of plant tissue culture and provided the groundwork for the cultivation of plant cells, tissues and organs in culture. Initially plant tissue cultures arose as a research tool and focused on attempts to culture and study the development of small, isolated cells and segments ...

  17. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Body of a Vascular Plant Is Composed of Three Tissue Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structurally Stem, Leaf, and Root Differ Primarily...

  18. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  19. Crossing kingdoms: Using decellularized plants as perfusable tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershlak, Joshua R; Hernandez, Sarah; Fontana, Gianluca; Perreault, Luke R; Hansen, Katrina J; Larson, Sara A; Binder, Bernard Y K; Dolivo, David M; Yang, Tianhong; Dominko, Tanja; Rolle, Marsha W; Weathers, Pamela J; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Cramer, Carole L; Murphy, William L; Gaudette, Glenn R

    2017-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the fabrication of bioengineered scaffolds for tissue engineering, delivery of nutrients in complex engineered human tissues remains a challenge. By taking advantage of the similarities in the vascular structure of plant and animal tissues, we developed decellularized plant tissue as a prevascularized scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Perfusion-based decellularization was modified for different plant species, providing different geometries of scaffolding. After decellularization, plant scaffolds remained patent and able to transport microparticles. Plant scaffolds were recellularized with human endothelial cells that colonized the inner surfaces of plant vasculature. Human mesenchymal stem cells and human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes adhered to the outer surfaces of plant scaffolds. Cardiomyocytes demonstrated contractile function and calcium handling capabilities over the course of 21 days. These data demonstrate the potential of decellularized plants as scaffolds for tissue engineering, which could ultimately provide a cost-efficient, "green" technology for regenerating large volume vascularized tissue mass. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on plant tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    A short review is done of the biological effects of ionizing radiations on plant tissues kept in culture, from the work of Gladys King, in 1949, with X-ray irradiated tobacco. The role of plant hormones is discussed in the processes of growth inhibition and growth restoration of irradiated tissues, as well as morphogenesis. Radioresistance of cells kept in culture and the use of ionizing radiations as mutagens are also commented. Some aspects of the biological effects of ionizing radiations that need to be investigated are discussed, and the problem of genome instability of plant tissues kept in culture is pointed out. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic .... While working in the laminar flow cabinet, sterile filter papers were placed in ..... University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Niere, B., 2001.

  2. Oxygen radical microscopy in living plant tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Møller, Ian Max; Schulz, Alexander

    the ROS production stems from the mitochondria and peroxisomes as is seen in animal cells. At the Bioimaging Center at KVL we employ different techniques to induce, detect and monitor ROS production, distribution and in and among living plant cells. Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and 2-photon......Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in a wide variety of processes. Initiation of many different cellular pathways, crosstalk between cells, developmental signalling in planta, programmed cell death and hypersensitive response in connection with plant-pathogen interactions are among...... the different roles ROS play. On the other hand ROS also cause damage to cellular components at sub-lethal to lethal levels. In photosynthesizing plants the major production of ROS origin from the chloroplast. ROS is a by product from the Photosystem I/II handling of light energy. In nonphotosynthesizing plants...

  3. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  4. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  5. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M.; Cuenca, A.; Richardson, J.E.; Ginkel, R.V.; Petersen, G.; Seberg, O.; Bakker, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of

  6. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and/or that their cuticle is

  7. PLANT REGENERATION THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE OF PEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Pennisetum Glaucum (L) R.) K.TIECOURA 1, L. LEDOUX.2 AND M. DINANT.2. 1 Laboratoire de Génétique et amélioration des plantes, UFR de Biosciences, Université de Cocody,. B.P.582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire. 2 Laboratoire de Génétique ...

  8. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  9. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  10. Carbon isotope ratios of epidermal and mesophyll tissues from leaves of C3 and CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Roksandic, Z.; Osmond, B.

    1981-01-01

    The δ 13 C values for epidermal and mesophyll tissues of two C 3 plants, Commelina communis and Tulipa gesneriana, and a CAM plant, Kalanchoē daigremontiana, were measured. The values for the tissues of both C 3 plants were similar. In young leaves of Kalanchoē, the epidermis and the mesophyll showed S 13 C values which were nearly identical, and similar to those found in C 3 plants. However, markedly more negative values for epidermal compared to mesophyll tissue, were obtained in the mature Kalanchoē leaf. This is consistent with the facts that the epidermis in a CAM leaf is formed when leaves engage in C 3 photosynthesis and that subsequent dark CO 2 fixation in guard cells or mesophyll cells makes only a small contribution to total epidermal carbon

  11. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Cuenca, Argelia; Richardson, James E; Vrielink-van Ginkel, Ria; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Bakker, Freek T

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA post-mortem damage is essential to determine the accuracy of molecular data from herbarium specimens. In this study we present an assessment of DNA damage as miscoding lesions in herbarium specimens using 454-sequencing of amplicons derived from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA. In addition, we assess DNA degradation as a result of strand breaks and other types of polymerase non-bypassable damage by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing four pairs of fresh and herbarium specimens of the same individuals we quantitatively assess post-mortem DNA damage, directly after specimen preparation, as well as after long-term herbarium storage. After specimen preparation we estimate the proportion of gene copy numbers of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA to be 2.4-3.8% of fresh control DNA and 1.0-1.3% after long-term herbarium storage, indicating that nearly all DNA damage occurs on specimen preparation. In addition, there is no evidence of preferential degradation of organelle versus nuclear genomes. Increased levels of C→T/G→A transitions were observed in old herbarium plastid DNA, representing 21.8% of observed miscoding lesions. We interpret this type of post-mortem DNA damage-derived modification to have arisen from the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine during long-term herbarium storage. Our results suggest that reliable sequence data can be obtained from herbarium specimens.

  12. Plant Fructokinases: Evolutionary, Developmental, and Metabolic Aspects in Sink Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Stein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, a glucose–fructose disaccharide, is the main sugar transported in the phloem of most plants and is the origin of most of the organic matter. Upon arrival in sink tissues, the sucrose must be cleaved by invertase or sucrose synthase. Both sucrose-cleaving enzymes yield free fructose, which must be phosphorylated by either fructokinase (FRK or hexokinase (HXK. The affinity of FRK to fructose is much higher than that of HXK, making FRKs central for fructose metabolism. An FRK gene family seems to exist in most, if not all plants and usually consists of several cytosolic FRKs and a single plastidic FRK. These genes are expressed mainly in sink tissues such as roots, stems, flowers, fruits, and seeds, with lower levels of expression often seen in leaves. Plant FRK enzymes vary in their biochemical properties such as affinity for fructose, inhibition by their substrate (i.e., fructose, and expression level in different tissues. This review describes recently revealed roles of plant FRKs in plant development, including the combined roles of the plastidic and cytosolic FRKs in vascular tissues and seed development.

  13. Plant cell tissue culture: A potential source of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Dougall, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Higher plants produce many industrially important products. Among these are drugs and medicinal chemicals, essential oils and flavors, vegetable oils and fats, fine and specialty chemicals, and even some commodity chemicals. Although, currently, whole-plant extraction is the primary means of harvesting these materials, the advent of plant cell tissue culture could be a much more effective method of producing many types of phytochemicals. The use of immobilized plant cells in an advanced bioreactor configuration with excretion of the product into the reactor medium may represent the most straightforward way of commercializing such techniques for lower-value chemicals. Important research and development opportunities in this area include screening for plant cultures for nonmedical, lower-value chemicals; understanding and controlling plant cell physiology and biochemistry; optimizing effective immobilization methods; developing more efficient bioreactor concepts; and perfecting product extraction and purification techniques. 62 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  15. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH TISSUES USING PYROLYSIS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY WITH GOLD AMALGAMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and rapid procedure for measuring total mercury in fish tissues is evaluated and compared with conventional techniques. Using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), mill...

  16. Determination of Arsenical Herbicide Residues in Plant Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; J.L. Michael; F.B. Anastasia; W.A. Wells

    1971-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separation of hydroxydimethylarsine oxide (cacodylic acid), monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), sodium arsenate, and sodium arsenite was achieved with the aid of four solvent systems. Aqueous extracts of plant tissues removed essentially all the arscnicals applied, but mechanoiic fractionation was required before the extracts could be analyzed by...

  17. Total data management in the La Hague reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthion, Y.; Perot, J.P.; Silie, P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the complexity of a spent fuel reprocessing plant and its nuclear characteristics, the operators must have real-time access to updated information on many subjects. To meet these requirements effectively, Cogema has installed a number of diversified data processing systems linked by a communications network called Haguenet. The whole system forms the La Hague Total Data Management System (TDMS) which performs a full range of functions, namely production data management, maintenance data management, technical documentation and miscellaneous. Some examples of the main process data management applications implemented within the La Hague TDMS are briefly described (nuclear materials and waste follow-up, analytical data management, operating procedures management and site inspection management). Also presented are some examples of the maintenance-related systems implemented within the La Hague TDMS (diagnostic assistance system, software maintenance center, maintenance interventions demand and spare parts data management). (Z.S.)

  18. Total quality management to improve gas plant profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Wood, G.; Thompson, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of total quality management (TQM) techniques to the gas processing industry. It also assesses the profit potential for applying TQM in a typical plant situation. Companies utilizing TQM techniques will enjoy a competitive advantage. It represents a new way of doing business for the gas processing industry and incorporates many of Dr. W. Edwards Deming's methods which are often cited as one of the competitive advantages used by the Japanese. TQM can be described as a collection of systems or techniques that work toward two major objectives: To continuously improve the process or operation; and To view meeting the customer's needs as an important criterion for success. As applied to a typical U.S. gas processing operation, it involves several different techniques which are outlined in the paper. The benefits of TQM are detailed in this paper. All of these benefits go directly to a plant's bottom line profitability. The paper also describes ho to establish a program and identifies the factors necessary for successful implementation

  19. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  20. Evaluating Methods for Isolating Total RNA and Predicting the Success of Sequencing Phylogenetically Diverse Plant Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskiewich, Richard; Burris, Jason N.; Carrigan, Charlotte T.; Chase, Mark W.; Clarke, Neil D.; Covshoff, Sarah; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Edger, Patrick P.; Goh, Falicia; Graham, Sean; Greiner, Stephan; Hibberd, Julian M.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid; Kutchan, Toni M.; Leebens-Mack, James; Melkonian, Michael; Miles, Nicholas; Myburg, Henrietta; Patterson, Jordan; Pires, J. Chris; Ralph, Paula; Rolf, Megan; Sage, Rowan F.; Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Stevenson, Dennis; Stewart, C. Neal; Surek, Barbara; Thomsen, Christina J. M.; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ≥1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers. PMID:23185583

  1. Virtual Plant Tissue: Building Blocks for Next-Generation Plant Growth Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk De Vos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Computational modeling of plant developmental processes is becoming increasingly important. Cellular resolution plant tissue simulators have been developed, yet they are typically describing physiological processes in an isolated way, strongly delimited in space and time.Results: With plant systems biology moving toward an integrative perspective on development we have built the Virtual Plant Tissue (VPTissue package to couple functional modules or models in the same framework and across different frameworks. Multiple levels of model integration and coordination enable combining existing and new models from different sources, with diverse options in terms of input/output. Besides the core simulator the toolset also comprises a tissue editor for manipulating tissue geometry and cell, wall, and node attributes in an interactive manner. A parameter exploration tool is available to study parameter dependence of simulation results by distributing calculations over multiple systems.Availability: Virtual Plant Tissue is available as open source (EUPL license on Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/vptissue/vptissue. The project has a website https://vptissue.bitbucket.io.

  2. Form of Dietary Methylmercury does not Affect Total Mercury Accumulation in the Tissues of Zebra Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Whitney, Margaret; Rice, Gary W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to mercury in humans, other mammals, and birds is primarily dietary, with mercury in the methylated form and bound to cysteine in the tissues of prey items. Yet dosing studies are generally carried out using methylmercury chloride. Here we tested whether the accumulation of total mercury in zebra finch blood, egg, muscle, liver, kidney or brain differed depending on whether dietary mercury was complexed with chloride or cysteine. We found no effect of form of mercury on tissue accumulation. Some previous studies have found lower accumulation of mercury in tissues of animals fed complexed mercury. Much remains to be understood about what happens to ingested mercury once it enters the intestines, but our results suggest that dietary studies using methylmercury chloride in birds will produce similar tissue accumulation levels to those using methylmercury cysteine.

  3. Five to 10 years follow-up after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L; Brandi, L; Daugaard, H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term function of autotransplanted parathyroid tissue in patients with chronic renal disease. We examined the medical records of a consecutive series of 21 patients with chronic renal failure, who had undergone total parathyroidectomy with autotr...

  4. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement by colour tissue doppler imaging as an assessment of diastolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Søgaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current method for a non-invasive assessment of diastolic dysfunction is complex with the use of algorithms of many different echocardiographic parameters. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement (LD), determined by colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) via the measurement...

  5. [Effective productions of plant secondary metabolites having antitumor activity by plant cell and tissue cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shoko

    2005-06-01

    Methods for the effective production of plant secondary metabolites with antitumor activity using plant cell and tissue cultures were developed. The factors in tannin productivity were investigated using culture strains producing different types of hydrolyzable tannins, i.e., gallotannins (mixture of galloylglucoses), ellagi-, and dehydroellagitannins. Production of ellagi- and dehydroellagitannins was affected by the concentrations and ratio of nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of oligomeric ellagitannins in shoots of Oenothera tetraptera was correlated with the differentiation of tissues. Cultured cells of Eriobotrya japonica producing ursane- and oleanane-type triterpenes with antitumor activities were also established.

  6. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  7. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators increased the total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... the exogenous application of flavonoids reports plant growth regulation ... method used for extraction and quantification of endogenous gibberellins was ... 365 nm) while separation was done on a C18 reverse-phase HPLC.

  8. Lactococcus lactis Metabolism and Gene Expression during Growth on Plant Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from living, harvested, and fermented plant materials; however, the adaptations these bacteria possess for growth on plant tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated plant habitat-specific traits of Lactococcus lactis during growth in an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue lysate (ATL). L. lactis KF147, a strain originally isolated from plants, exhibited a higher growth rate and reached 7.9-fold-greater cell densities during growth in ATL than the dairy-associated strain L. lactis IL1403. Transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of KF147 identified 853 induced and 264 repressed genes during growth in ATL compared to that in GM17 laboratory culture medium. Genes induced in ATL included those involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and a total of 140 carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes, many of which are involved in xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, and hemicellulose metabolism. The induction of those genes corresponded with L. lactis KF147 nutrient consumption and production of metabolic end products in ATL as measured by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) untargeted metabolomic profiling. To assess the importance of specific plant-inducible genes for L. lactis growth in ATL, xylose metabolism was targeted for gene knockout mutagenesis. Wild-type L. lactis strain KF147 but not an xylA deletion mutant was able to grow using xylose as the sole carbon source. However, both strains grew to similarly high levels in ATL, indicating redundancy in L. lactis carbohydrate metabolism on plant tissues. These findings show that certain strains of L. lactis are well adapted for growth on plants and possess specific traits relevant for plant-based food, fuel, and feed fermentations. PMID:25384484

  9. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi infect a wide range of plant species making them of particular interest to plant pathologists. In order to study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants it is useful to be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplish...

  10. Robust microwave-assisted extraction protocol for determination of total mercury and methylmercury in fish tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, L. Hinojosa; Rahman, G.M. Mizanur [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Kingston, H.M. Skip [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: kingston@duq.edu

    2009-01-12

    A rapid and efficient closed vessel microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method based on acidic leaching was developed and optimized for the extraction of total mercury (Hg), inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) from fish tissues. The quantitative extraction of total Hg and mercury species from biological samples was achieved by using 5 mol L{sup -1} HCl and 0.25 mol L{sup -1} NaCl during 10 min at 60 deg. C. Total Hg content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mercury species were measured by liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). The method was validated using biological certified reference materials ERM-CE464, DOLT-3, and NIST SRM-1946. The analytical results were in good agreement with the certified reference values of total Hg and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} at a 95% confidence level. Further, accuracy validation using speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS, as described in the EPA Method 6800) was carried out. SIDMS was also applied to study and correct for unwanted species transformation reactions during and/or after sample preparation steps. For the studied reference materials, no statistically significant transformation between mercury species was observed during the extraction and determination procedures. The proposed method was successfully applied to fish tissues with good agreement between SIDMS results and external calibration (EC) results. Interspecies transformations in fish tissues were slightly higher than certified reference materials due to differences in matrix composition. Depending on the type of fish tissue, up to 10.24% of Hg{sup 2+} was methylated and up to 1.75% of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was demethylated to Hg{sup 2+}.

  11. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  12. Instrumental and laboratory assessment of stressful remodelling processes in bone tissue at total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Karjakina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to estimate stressful remodelling features of bone tissue according to the densitometry data and to the level of biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation in total hip replacement (THR. Bone tissue mineral density (BTMD, condition of calcium-phosphoric metabolism and biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase and resorption (С-terminal bodypeptide of the I type collagen have been determined in 52 patients with coxarthrosis of ll-lll stages with marked joint dysfunction before and after THR. The control group included 24 donors. The data were considered to be reliable when the probability index was р<0,05. The reliable (р<0,05 change of BTMD was determined only in 3-6 months after the operation, whereas the change of biochemical markers of remodeling had already been done after 1,5-3 months, allowing to define the group of patients with obvious negative bone balance: strong predominance of resorption processes without compensation of the subsequent adequate osteogenesis, that subsequently could lead to significant bone tissue deficiency in the area adjacent to the endoprosthesis. Changes of indices of calcium-phosphoric metabolism were not certain during the investigation term. ln conclusion it is to state that biochemical markers of remodeling in comparison with BTMD allow to estimate objectively features of adaptive bone tissue remodeling after THR in earlier periods and to define group of patients with sharp intensification of metabolism and obvious negative bone balance

  13. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, R.G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Pereira, G.R.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann–Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied. - Highlights: ► Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in men. ► Intracellular Zn is correlated with proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. ► The prostate gland accumulate high concentration of Zn. ► SR-TXRF is a technique widely used in the analysis of low concentration in samples

  14. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  15. Electrophoretic Detection and Confocal Microscopic Imaging of Tyrosine Nitrated Proteins in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dhara; Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2018-01-01

    Tyrosine nitrated proteins can be detected in plant cells electrophoretically and their distribution can be monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. One-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D PAGE) followed by Western blotting using polyclonal antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues enables detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant cells. Here we describe detection of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the homogenates derived from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling cotyledons. Total soluble proteins obtained from tissue homogenates are resolved using vertical gel electrophoresis followed by their electrophoretic transfer on to a microporous membrane support for immunodetection. Spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins can be visualized using an antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine residues. Immunofluorescent localization is performed by cutting 7 μm thick wax sections of tissue followed by incubation in primary anti-nitrotyrosine antibody (dilution 1:200) and secondary Cy-3 labeled anti-rabbit IgG antibody (dilution 1:1500). Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis is undertaken using argon lasers (ex: 530-550 nm and em: 570 nm) at pinhole 1. Modulation in the abundance and spatial localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in plant tissues can be monitored using these techniques.

  16. Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xinhua; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology – specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition – water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content. -- Highlights: •There is no correlation between phenanthrene uptake and total root length, and water. •Specific surface area and lipid are the most crucial factors for phenanthrene uptake. •The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid. -- The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid in the two most important root morphological and compositional factors affecting phenanthrene uptake

  17. Introduction of total productive maintenance in steelworks plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of TPM - Total Productive Maintenance and its basic method 5S (sort, systematize, sweep, sanitize, self-discipline. The new management concept is realized in Japanese and USA companies. On the Polish market the methods was adopted in the first years of 21st century by car manufacturers and household equipment producers. Nowadays the concept is tested by steelworks in Polish steel industry. The process of introduction of these methods is long, difficult and requires organizational and technical changes. The companies which realize Awareness Management Project of workers in Health and Safety System use other methods whose primary goal is to ensure objectivity and comparability of results and skill assessment of particular employees (the Current and Periodic Assessment System for worker and supervision positions.

  18. Tissue breathing and topology of rats thymocytes surface under acute total γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, I A; Gritsuk, A I

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of the effect of single total γ irradiation to the parameters of mitochondrial oxidation and the topology of the thymocyte surface. The study was performed in sexually mature white outbreeding male rats divided into three groups: two experimental and one control. The states of energy metabolism were determined by the rate of oxygen consumption by the thymus tissues on endogenous substrates at the presence of 2,4 dinitrophenol, uncoupler of a tissue breathing (TB) and oxidative phosphorylation (OP) after a single total γ irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy at 3, 10, 40 and 60 days. The topology of thymus cells was assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the 3rd and 10th days after total gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy, a significant decrease in respira tory activity was determined in thymus tissues on endogenous substrates. Simultaneously, on the 3rd day, pro nounced changes in the morphological parameters of thymocytes (height, volume, area of contact with the sub strate) and the topology of their surface were also observed. On the 10th day after irradiation, most of the morpho logical parameters of thymocytes, except for their volume, were characterized by restoration to normal. In the long term (on the 30th and 60th days after exposure), a gradual but not complete recovery of the respiratory activity of thymocytes was observed, accompanied by an increase in the degree of dissociation of TD and OP. The obtained data reflect and refine mechanisms of post radiation repair of lymphopoiesis, showing the presence of conjugated changes in the parameters of aerobic energy metabolism of thymocytes, morphology and topology of their surface. The synchronism of changes in the parameters under study is a reflection of the state of the cytoskeleton, the functional activity of which largely depends on the level and efficiency of mitochondrial oxidation. І. A. Nikitina, A. I. Gritsuk.

  19. Research progress in plant mutation by combining ion beam irradiations and tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Linbin; Li Wenjian; Qu Ying; Li Ping

    2007-01-01

    About a new mutation breeding method which combines plant tissue culture technique with heavy ion beam irradiations were discussed in this paper with the principles, operation steps, molecular mechanisms, etc. The mutation method developed a few advantages coming from plant tissue culture, which can produce offspring by asexual ways. Meanwhile, using this method, the study of biological effects of high energy particles with different linear energy transfer values on plant tissues or cells can be explored and optimized in theory or practice. (authors)

  20. Glucosinolate profile and distribution among plant tissues and phenological stages of field-grown horseradish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneta, Rosa; Lelario, Filomena; De Maria, Susanna; Möllers, Christian; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio; Rivelli, Anna Rita

    2014-10-01

    Profile and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS) were detected in plant tissues of horseradish at different developmental stages: beginning of vegetative re-growth, flowering and silique formation. The GLS profile varied widely in the different tissues: we identified 17 GLS in roots and sprouts, one of which was not previously characterized in horseradish, i.e. the 2(S)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (glucobarbarin) and/or 2(R)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (epiglucobarbarin), 11 already found in the roots, including the putative 2-methylsulfonyl-oxo-ethyl-GLS, and 5 previously recognized only in the sprouts. Fifteen of those GLS were also identified in young and cauline leaves, 12 in the mature leaves and 13 in the inflorescences. No difference in GLS profile was observed in plant among the phenological stages. Differences in concentrations of GLS, quantified as desulfated, were found in plant. At the beginning of vegetative re-growth, sprouts while showing the same profile of the roots were much richer in GLS having the highest total GLS concentrations (117.5 and 7.7μmolg(-1) dry weight in sprouts and roots, respectively). During flowering and silique forming stages, the roots still maintained lower amount of total GLS (7.4μmolg(-1) of dry weight, on average) with respect to the epigeous tissues, in which mature and young leaves showed the highest total concentrations (70.5 and 73.8μmolg(-1) of dry weight on average, respectively). Regardless of the phenological stages, the aliphatic GLS were always predominant in all tissues (95%) followed by indolic (2.6%) and benzenic (2.4%) GLS. Sinigrin contributed more than 90% of the total GLS concentration. Aliphatic GLS concentrations were much higher in the epigeous tissues, particularly in the mature and young leaves, while benzenic and indolic GLS concentrations were higher in the roots. Through the phenological stages, GLS concentration increased in young and mature leaves and decreased in cauline leaves and inflorescences

  1. How-To-Do-It: Using Cauliflower to Demonstrate Plant Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Ellis, Jane P.

    1988-01-01

    Presents techniques used for disinfestation of plant material, preparation of equipment and media, and laboratory procedures for tissue culture using cauliflower. Details methods for preparing solutions and plant propagation by cloning. (CW)

  2. MR imaging of soft tissue alterations after total hip arthroplasty: comparison of classic surgical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Balgrist University Hospital, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Dora, Claudio [Balgrist University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    To compare soft-tissue changes after total hip arthroplasty with posterior, direct-lateral, anterolateral, or anterior surgical approaches. MRI of 120 patients after primary total hip arthroplasty (30 per approach) were included. Each MRI was assessed by two readers regarding identification of surgical access, fatty muscle atrophy (Goutallier classification), tendon quality (0 = normal, 1 = tendinopathy, 2 = partial tear, 3 = avulsion), and fluid collections. Readers were blinded to the surgical approach. Surgical access was correctly identified in all cases. The direct lateral approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for gluteus minimus muscle (2.07-2.67 and 2.00-2.77; p = 0.017 and p = 0.001 for readers 1 and 2, respectively) and tendon (2.30/1.67; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2), and the lateral portion of the gluteus medius tendon (2.77/2.20; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The posterior approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for external rotator muscles (1.97-2.67 and 1.57-2.40; p < 0.0005-0.006 for reader 1/2) and tendons (1.41-2.45 and 1.93-2.76; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The anterolateral and anterior approach showed less soft tissue damage. Fluid collections showed no differences between the approaches. MRI is well suited to identify surgical approaches after THA. The anterior and anterolateral approach showed less soft tissue damage compared to the posterior and direct lateral approach. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging of soft tissue alterations after total hip arthroplasty: comparison of classic surgical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Dora, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    To compare soft-tissue changes after total hip arthroplasty with posterior, direct-lateral, anterolateral, or anterior surgical approaches. MRI of 120 patients after primary total hip arthroplasty (30 per approach) were included. Each MRI was assessed by two readers regarding identification of surgical access, fatty muscle atrophy (Goutallier classification), tendon quality (0 = normal, 1 = tendinopathy, 2 = partial tear, 3 = avulsion), and fluid collections. Readers were blinded to the surgical approach. Surgical access was correctly identified in all cases. The direct lateral approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for gluteus minimus muscle (2.07-2.67 and 2.00-2.77; p = 0.017 and p = 0.001 for readers 1 and 2, respectively) and tendon (2.30/1.67; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2), and the lateral portion of the gluteus medius tendon (2.77/2.20; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The posterior approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for external rotator muscles (1.97-2.67 and 1.57-2.40; p < 0.0005-0.006 for reader 1/2) and tendons (1.41-2.45 and 1.93-2.76; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The anterolateral and anterior approach showed less soft tissue damage. Fluid collections showed no differences between the approaches. MRI is well suited to identify surgical approaches after THA. The anterior and anterolateral approach showed less soft tissue damage compared to the posterior and direct lateral approach. (orig.)

  4. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare; Doolan, Anne; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Sheridan-Pereiraet, Margaret; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue as surrogate markers of fetal nutritional status and correlate them with neonatal total body composition. This prospective longitudinal study of 62 singleton pregnancies obtained serial biometry and subcutaneous tissue measurements at 28, 33 and 38 weeks gestation. These measurements were then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA). At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002). We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Anatomical Alterations in Plant Tissues Induced by Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Palomares-Rius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology. This issue has already been reviewed extensively for major PPNs (i.e., root-knot or cyst nematodes, but not for other genera (viz. Nacobbus aberrans, Rotylenchulus spp.. PPNs have evolved with plants and this co-evolution process has allowed the induction of new types of plant cells necessary for their parasitism. There are four basic types of feeding cells: (i non-hypertrophied nurse cells; (ii single giant cells; (iii syncytia; and (iv coenocytes. Variations in the structure of these cells within each group are also present between some genera depending on the nematode species viz. Meloidogyne or Rotylenchulus. This variability of feeding sites may be related in some way to PPN life style (migratory ectoparasites, sedentary ectoparasites, migratory ecto-endoparasites, migratory endoparasites, or sedentary endoparasites. Apart from their co-evolution with plants, the response of plant cells and roots are closely related to feeding behavior, the anatomy of the nematode (mainly stylet size, which could reach different types of cells in the plant, and the secretory fluids produced in the pharyngeal glands. These secretory fluids are injected through the stylet into perforated cells where they modify plant cytoplasm prior to food removal

  6. Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraei, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

  7. Determination of total As in onion plants growing in contaminated substrates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue-Meru Marco Parra

    2011-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important cultivars in the world and its production level occupies the second place in Venezuela. It becomes important to develop analytical procedures for arsenic determination and to study the effect of this element on the cultures, as well the absorption, transport and translocation processes. A TXRF method for As determination in onions was developed. Two treatments were applied to the onion plants, As contaminated and control. The contaminant was added to the plants to an amount of 100 μg, in a single time 3 weeks after the transplant of plantlets. The green leaves bulbs, and roots together with the stems were separated 45 days after transplant and analyzed by TXRF and HG-AAS for total Arsenic determination. A good agreement was found between these two techniques, demonstrating the accuracy of the TXRF procedure. It was found that the highest concentration corresponded to the root and stems (37 ± 31 μg g -1 ), followed by the bulbs (11 ± 7 μg g -1 ), being the smallest level found in the green leaves (4 ± 3 μg g -1 ). At low As contamination levels of 0.25 μg g -1 , a risk for translocation of the toxic element to the edible parts of the onion plants exists. At this level the normal development of the plant is not affected, being the only exception the root length, which is significantly higher in the contaminated treatment. (author)

  8. Effect of vanadium on plant growth and its accumulation in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Vachirapatama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate vanadium uptake by Chinese green mustard and tomato plantsand its effect on their growth. Twenty-eight (Chinese green mustard and 79 days (tomato after germination, the plants wereexposed for a further seven days to a solution containing six different concentrations of ammonium metavanadate (0-80 mg/lNH4VO3. The vanadium accumulated in the plant tissues were determined by ion-interaction high performance liquid chromatography,with confirmation by magnetic sector ICP-MS.The results indicated that nutrient solution containing more than 40 mg/l NH4VO3 affected plant growth for bothChinese green mustard and tomato plant. Chinese green mustard grown in the solution containing NH4VO3 at the concentrationsof 40 and 80 mg/l had stem length, number of leaves, dry weight of leaf, stem and root significantly lower than those ofplants grown in the solution containing 0-20 mg/l NH4VO3. Tomato plants were observed to wilt after four days in contactwith the nutrient solutions containing 40 and 80 mg/l NH4VO3. As the vanadium concentrations increased, a resultantdecrease in the stem length, root fresh weight, and fruit fresh weight were noted. The accumulation of vanadium was higher inthe root compared with leaf, stem, or fruit. Measured levels of vanadium, from a nutrient solution containing 40 mg/l NH4VO3,were 328, 340, and 9.66x103 g/g in the leaf, stem and root for Chinese green mustard, and 4.04 and 4.01x103 g/g in the fruitand roots for tomato plants, respectively.

  9. Seismomorphogenesis: a novel approach to acclimatization of tissue culture regenerated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Plantlets under in vitro conditions transferred to ex vivo conditions are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, in vitro regenerated plants are typically frail and sometimes difficult to handle subsequently increasing their risk to damage and disease; hence acclimatization of these plantlets is the most important step in tissue culture techniques. An experiment was conducted under in vitro conditions to study the effects of shaking duration (twice daily at 6:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. for 2, 4, 8, and 16 min at 250 rpm for 14 days) on Sansevieria trifasciata L. as a model plant. Results showed that shaking improved handling, total plant height, and leaf characteristics of the model plant. Forty-eight hours after 14 days of shaking treatments with increasing shaking time, leaf length decreased but proline content of leaf increased. However, 6 months after starting the experiment different results were observed. In explants that received 16 min of shaking treatment, leaf length and area and photosynthesis rate were increased compared with control plantlets. Six months after starting the experiment, control plantlets had 12.5 % mortality; however, no mortality was observed in other treated explants. The results demonstrated that shaking improved the explants' root length and number and as a simple, cost-effective, and non-chemical novel approach may be substituted for other prevalent acclimatization techniques used for tissue culture regenerated plantlets. Further studies with sensitive plants are needed to establish this hypothesis.

  10. Effect of x-ray irradiation on maize inbred line B73 tissue cultures and regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.S.; Cheng, D.S.K.; Milcic, J.B.; Yang, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    In order to enhance variation induced by the tissue culture process and to obtain agronomically desirable mutants, friable embryogenic tissue cultures of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73 were x-ray irradiated with 11 doses [0-8.4 kilorads (kR)]. Reductions in callus growth rate and embryogenic callus formation occurred with increasing x-ray doses 20 d and 3 months after irradiation. Callus irradiated with 0.8 kR showed a significant increase in growth rate and a 20% increase in embryogenic callus 9 months after irradiation. A total of 230 R 0 plants were regenerated for evaluation. Pollen fertility and seed set of R 0 plants decreased with increasing x-ray dosage. Days to anthesis and plant height of R 0 plants varied among x-ray treatments but were generally reduced with higher dosages. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with x-ray dosage. The R 1 seeds taken from R 0 plants were also grown and tested for mutant segregation. Plants regenerated from irradiated calli had a two- to 10-fold increase in mutations over plants regenerated from unirradiated control callus. Germination frequency of seeds from R 0 plants decreased with increasing x-ray dosage. Although chlorophyll mutants were most frequently observed, a number of vigorous plants with earlier anthesis date were also recovered

  11. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both 134 Cs and 137 Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40–50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues.

  12. Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, Svetlana; Gubin, Stanislav; Maksimovich, Stanislav; Yashina, Alexandra; Gakhova, Edith; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-03-06

    Whole, fertile plants of Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (Caryophyllaceae) have been uniquely regenerated from maternal, immature fruit tissue of Late Pleistocene age using in vitro tissue culture and clonal micropropagation. The fruits were excavated in northeastern Siberia from fossil squirrel burrows buried at a depth of 38 m in undisturbed and never thawed Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments with a temperature of -7 °C. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating showed fruits to be 31,800 ± 300 y old. The total γ-radiation dose accumulated by the fruits during this time was calculated as 0.07 kGy; this is the maximal reported dose after which tissues remain viable and seeds still germinate. Regenerated plants were brought to flowering and fruiting and they set viable seeds. At present, plants of S. stenophylla are the most ancient, viable, multicellular, living organisms. Morphophysiological studies comparing regenerated and extant plants obtained from modern seeds of the same species in the same region revealed that they were distinct phenotypes of S. stenophylla. The first generation cultivated from seeds obtained from regenerated plants progressed through all developmental stages and had the same morphological features as parent plants. The investigation showed high cryoresistance of plant placental tissue in permafrost. This natural cryopreservation of plant tissue over many thousands of years demonstrates a role for permafrost as a depository for an ancient gene pool, i.e., preexisting life, which hypothetically has long since vanished from the earth's surface, a potential source of ancient germplasm, and a laboratory for the study of rates of microevolution.

  13. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Mitchell A; McMahon, Michael B; Bonde, Morris R; Palmer, Cristi L; Luster, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate pathogens with multiple life stages often including different spore types and multiple plant hosts. While individual rust pathogens are often associated with specific plants, a wide range of plant species are infected with rust fungi. To study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants, one must be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplished using the In situ hybridization (ISH) protocol described here. To validate reproducibility using the ISH protocol, samples of Chrysanthemum × morifolium infected with Puccinia horiana, Gladiolus × hortulanus infected with Uromyces transversalis and Glycine max infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi were tested alongside uninfected leaf tissue samples. The results of these tests show that this technique clearly distinguishes between rust pathogens and their respective host plant tissues. This ISH protocol is applicable to rust fungi and potentially other plant pathogenic fungi as well. It has been shown here that this protocol can be applied to pathogens from different genera of rust fungi with no background staining of plant tissue. We encourage the use of this protocol for the study of plant pathogenic fungi in paraffin embedded sections of host plant tissue.

  14. Custom-tailored tissue engineered polycaprolactone scaffolds for total disc replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uden, S; Silva-Correia, J; Correlo, V M; Oliveira, J M; Reis, R L

    2015-01-01

    fibroblast’s cell line. This study proposed a simple, rapid, and low-cost strategy to fabricate custom-tailored annulus fibrosus scaffolds. In the future, this strategy might be used in association with nucleus pulposus regeneration strategies to facilitate the development of tissue-engineered total disc replacement implants specific to each patient, with a goal of full IVD regeneration. (paper)

  15. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  16. Comparative analysis among the small RNA populations of source, sink and conductive tissues in two different plant-virus pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Navarro, Jose Antonio; Sommen, Evelien; Pallas, Vicente

    2015-02-22

    In plants, RNA silencing plays a fundamental role as defence mechanism against viruses. During last years deep-sequencing technology has allowed to analyze the sRNA profile of a large variety of virus-infected tissues. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies have been restricted to a unique tissue and no comparative analysis between phloem and source/sink tissues has been conducted. In the present work, we compared the sRNA populations of source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues in two different plant virus pathosystems. We chose two cucurbit species infected with two viruses very different in genome organization and replication strategy; Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Our findings showed, in both systems, an increase of the 21-nt total sRNAs together with a decrease of those with a size of 24-nt in all the infected tissues, except for the phloem where the ratio of 21/24-nt sRNA species remained constant. Comparing the vsRNAs, both PNRSV- and MNSV-infected plants share the same vsRNA size distribution in all the analyzed tissues. Similar accumulation levels of sense and antisense vsRNAs were observed in both systems except for roots that showed a prevalence of (+) vsRNAs in both pathosystems. Additionally, the presence of overrepresented discrete sites along the viral genome, hot spots, were identified and validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Despite that in PNRSV-infected plants the presence of vsRNAs was scarce both viruses modulated the host sRNA profile. We compare for the first time the sRNA profile of four different tissues, including source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues, in two plant-virus pathosystems. Our results indicate that antiviral silencing machinery in melon and cucumber acts mainly through DCL4. Upon infection, the total sRNA pattern in phloem remains unchanged in contrast to the rest of the analyzed tissues indicating a certain tissue-tropism to this polulation. Independently of the

  17. A high-resolution method for the localization of proanthocyanidins in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Stephen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histochemical staining of plant tissues with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA or vanillin-HCl is widely used to characterize spatial patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in plant tissues. These methods are limited in their ability to allow high-resolution imaging of proanthocyanidin deposits. Results Tissue embedding techniques were used in combination with DMACA staining to analyze the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus corniculatus (L. and Trifolium repens (L. tissues. Embedding of plant tissues in LR White or paraffin matrices, with or without DMACA staining, preserved the physical integrity of the plant tissues, allowing high-resolution imaging that facilitated cell-specific localization of proanthocyanidins. A brown coloration was seen in proanthocyanidin-producing cells when plant tissues were embedded without DMACA staining and this was likely to have been due to non-enzymatic oxidation of proanthocyanidins and the formation of colored semiquinones and quinones. Conclusions This paper presents a simple, high-resolution method for analysis of proanthocyanidin accumulation in organs, tissues and cells of two plant species with different patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation, namely Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and Trifolium repens (white clover. This technique was used to characterize cell type-specific patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in white clover flowers at different stages of development.

  18. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  19. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Misenheimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As and lead (Pb are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions. Total and bioaccessible As levels in study soils ranged from 2 to 55 mg/kg and 1 to 18 mg/kg, respectively. Total and bioaccessible Pb levels ranged from 19 to 172 mg/kg and 17 to 97 mg/kg, respectively. Measured bioaccessibility values corresponded to 19% to 42% bioaccessible As and 61% to 100% bioaccessible Pb when expressed as a percent of total As and Pb respectively. Predicted relative percent bioavailability of soil As and Pb based on measured bioaccessibility values ranged from 18% to 36% and 51% to 85% for As and Pb respectively. Transfer factors (TFs measuring uptake of As in plants from soil ranged from 0 to 0.073 in the edible flesh (fruit or vegetable of plant tissues analyzed and 0.073 to 0.444 in edible leaves. Pb TFs ranged from 0.002 to 0.012 in flesh and 0.023 to 0.204 in leaves. Consistent with TF values, leaves accumulated higher concentrations of As and Pb than the flesh, with the highest tissue concentrations observed in the culantro leaf (3.2 mg/kg dw of As and 8.9 mg/kg dw of Pb. Leaves showed a general but not statistically-significant (α = 0.05 trend of increased As and Pb concentration with increased soil levels, while no trend was observed for flesh tissues. These findings provide critical data that can improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty when conducting site-specific risk determination of

  20. Total β-activity and the content of most important artificial radionuclides in tissues of fishes from the Jihlava river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, E.; Penaz, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactivity of body tissues of fishes that inhabit some typical waterbodies situated in the vicinity of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely the Jihlava river, Dalesice water reservoir and Olesna creek, was investigated during 1982-1983. The total β-activity and the content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs isotopes were studied. The values found were very low and comparable to those existing in most non-contaminated waters. The results obtained characterize the period prior to the start of operation of the first reactor of the Dukovany nuclear power plant and thus concern the initial state of the radioactive background of those aquatic ecosystems that may be influenced by the nuclear power plant operation and liquid wastes in the near future. (author). 2 tabs., 45 refs

  1. Plant Regeneration Through Tissue Culture Of Pear Millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. 1. 2,5), MS(5) and N6(1.100.25) culture media, calli embryogenic potential and fertile plants regeneration were conserved for more than 12 months. Characteristics of regenerated plants were similar to control. It appears that dissected shoot ...

  2. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Kevin [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Anasti, William [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Fang, Yichuan [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Subramanyan, Karthik [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Leininger, Tom [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  3. Effect of transplantation of muscle tissue in rats from the same litter on total number of flavins and FAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kobylnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin is a member of redox enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy generation. Important role of this vitamin is in reproductive function. Exchange of transformation of riboflavin in animal tissues and cells of microorganisms include reactions that lead to synthesis and subsequent collapse of FMN and FAD. It is involved in enhancing antitumor activity of many anticancer drugs, as well as activation of the immune system to kill tumor cells. Issues of transport of riboflavin and its derivatives in animals have been studied enough. Investigations of changes of the balance of riboflavin and its metabolites in muscular tissues before transplantation in rats from one litter and at operation without replanting were conducted, based on the Udenfriend method of flavin determination. Transplantation in the experiment was carried out on white non-linear male rats weighing 180–300 g. Animals were taken out of the experiment by passing electric current through the medulla. Belly muscular tissue was taken from donor rats of the same litter, and that tissue was sewn to homological muscular tissue of the recipient. The same procedure was carried out with femoral muscular tissue. In the course of operation without replanting the same manipulations have been made except for transplantation stage (for determination of the effect of surgical intervention. Tissue not subject to any surgical intervention served as a control. Parameters of the study were measured on the first, third and seventh days after transplantation. Transplantation of muscular tissue caused no changes in total flavin amount. Content of RF + FMN after transplantation of muscular tissue in rats of the same litter decreased in femoral muscular tissue of the recipient. Transplantation of muscular tissues in rats from the same litter lead to increase in FAD amount in femoral muscular tissue of the donor and recipient on the third day of the experiment. Transplantation of femoral

  4. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body- An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Internal Organization of the Plant Body...

  5. Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafidah Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  6. Plant tissue culture study on two different races of purslane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    -mail: Safdari_14@yahoo.com. Abbreviations: BAP, 6-Benzylaminopurine; NAA, naphthalene acetic acid; IBA, indole-3 butyric acid. plant is largely deficit. Therefore, we decided to determi- nate the best hormonal treatment for callus induction.

  7. Towards the Development of Proteomics Workflows for the Analysis of Samples Derived from Refractory Plant Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Thannhauser, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carrying out proteomic analyses in plant tissues involves dealing with a number of specialized challenges that can make protein extraction and quantification significantly more difficult than in other organisms. In addition to having relatively low protein concentrations, plant tissues are often rich in proteases, protease inhibitors and other materials that impede protein analysis. These compounds include lipids, tannins, polysaccharides, and a large variety of secondary metabolites. The ext...

  8. Yield improvement strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissue culture: silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, S

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell culture can be a potential source for the production of important secondary metabolites. This technology bears many advantages over conventional agricultural methods. The main problem to arrive at a cost-effective process is the low productivity. This is mainly due to lack of differentiation in the cultured cells. Many approaches have been used to maximise the yield of secondary metabolites produced by cultured plant cells. Among these approaches: choosing a plant with a high biosynthetic capacity, obtaining efficient cell line for growth and production of metabolite of interest, manipulating culture conditions, elicitation, metabolic engineering and organ culture. This article gives an overview of the various approaches used to maximise the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. Examples of using these different approaches are shown for the production of silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

  9. Recovery of Phytophthora ramorum in plant tissue with mixed infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was performed to investigate the frequency with which P. ramorum would be isolated from host tissue co-infected with P. ramorum as well as an indigenous Phytophthora species or P. kernoviae. Three separate experiments were tested in a similar manner using different combinations of pathog...

  10. In vitro neoplastic transformation of plant callus tissue by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.N.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tumours have been induced by γ-radiation in callus tissue derived from a monocotyledonous flowering plant, Haworthia mirabilis Haw. The transformed tissue exhibited compact texture, excessive cell proliferation and loss of capacity for organogenesis. Tumors were characterized by their ability to undergo continuous autonomous growth on minimal media in the subsequent 4 generations of subculture. In contrast, the nonirradiated control tissue grew with friable texture, required inositol or growth hormones and showed prolific differentiation of vegetative buds. (Auth.)

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF REGENERATIVE FEATURES IN BONE TISSUES AROUND IMPLANTS AFTER ONE-STAGE BILATERAL TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mashkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to research the specific features of regenerative processes of bone tissue around implants after one-stage bilateral total hip replacement in experiment. Material and methods: 27 total hip replacement operations have been performed in 18 rabbits of breed "chinchilla" to which bipolar femoral endoprosthesis made of titanic alloy PT-38, one type-size, with friction pair metal-on-metal and neck-shaft angle 165 degrees have been implanted: total unilateral hip replacement operations have been performed in 9 animals (control group, one-stage bilateral total hip replacement operations have been performed in 9 animals (experimental group. During research they have been on radiological and clinical checking-up. After the experiment the animals had histological tests of the tissues around endoprosthesis components. Results and conclusions: After one-stage bilateral total hip replacement in early terms of research more expressed changes of bone tissue in the form of its thinning and decompaction were found around implants. One-stage bilateral total hip replacement did not essentially influence on the speed of osteogenesis around endoprothesis components in comparison with unilateral total hip replacement, so in late terms of observation in both groups the fixing of endoprothesis components did not differ.

  12. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites.

  13. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites. PMID:26904042

  14. RDX in Plant Tissue: Leading to Humification in Surface Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    distribution, and transfor- mation of TNT in higher plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64(2): 136–145. Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig, and K.-H...Schleifer. 1995. Phyolgenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation . Microbiol. Rev. 59: 143–169

  15. Total mercury distribution in different tissues of six species of freshwater fish from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Alhassan; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Agorku, Eric Selorm

    2012-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in seven tissues of 38 fish samples comprising six species from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Mercury concentration in all the tissues ranged from 0.005 to 0.022 μg/g wet weight. In general, the concentration of mercury in all the tissues were decreasing in the order; liver > muscle > intestine > stomach > gonad > gill > swim bladder. Mercury concentration was generally greater in the tissues of high-trophic-level fish such as Clarotes laticeps, Mormyrops anguilloides and Chrysichthys aurutus whereas low-trophic-level fish such as Oreochromis niloticus recorded low mercury concentration in their tissues. The results obtained for total mercury concentration in the muscle tissues analysed in this study are below the WHO/FAO threshold limit of 0.5 μg/g. This suggests that the exposure of the general public to Hg through fish consumption can be considered negligible.

  16. The total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of selected plant leaves commonly consumed in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watu, Aswani; Metussin, Nurzaidah; Yasin, Hartini M.; Usman, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of several selected plants, namely Centella asiatica, Aidia borneensis and Anacardium occidentale, which are grown and traditionally consumed in Brunei Darussalam. The total antioxidant capacities of aqueous-methanolic infusions of their leaves were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and microscopic fluorescence images were measured to identify the fluorescent substances bound in the leaves. We found that the total antioxidant capacity of their infusions is estimated to be 150, 25, 15 folds, respectively, lower compared with that of the standard gallic acid. Accordingly, we demonstrated that the relative antioxidant activity of young and matured leaves agrees with the intensity of red light emission of their fresh leaves upon UV excitation. Thus, this non-invasive spectroscopic method can be potentially utilized to indicate the antioxidants in plant leaves qualitatively.

  17. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  18. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  20. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  1. Total Data Management System for the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, J.; Coignaud, G.; Perot, J.P.; Fournier, W.; Silvain, B.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants at La Hague, France, generates considerable data processing requirements. To meet these requirements, a Total Data Management System (TDMS) has been designed and installed to operate the biggest Ethernet industrial network in Europe. This network, called Haguenet, interconnects a large number of computers and user terminals. The TDMS' main operational functions are plant operation and production data management, maintenance data management, technical documents management and computer-aided design (CAD). Extensive experience was gained through the design and operation of the TDMS at La Hague. (author)

  2. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  3. REGULATION OF CHLOROPHY LL DEGRADATION IN PLANT TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvash O. O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was to analyze the basic biochemical processes leading to the chlorophyll degradation and ways to control this process in plant product storage. First of all, this is a complex of enzymatic reactions starting with the hydrolysis of chlorophyll with the formation of acyclic diterpene phytol and water-soluble chlorophyllide. An alternative primary reaction is the removal of magnesium from the chlorophyll tetrapyrrole ring to form pheophytin with the participation of Mg2+-dechelatase and/or low-molecular Mg2+-dechelating substances. The chlorophyll breakdown can also be caused by free radicals formed in the peroxidase-catalyzed reaction of Н2О2 with phenolic compounds or fatty acids. The unstable product of chlorophyll peroxidation, C132 –hydroxychlorophyll a decomposes to colorless low-molecular compounds. Expression of the genes of chlorophyll catabolism enzymes is controlled by phytohormones. Methods for controlling the pigment decomposition during storage of plant products are associated with the use of activators and inhibitors of chlorophyll decomposition. The best known inductor of the synthesis of catabolic enzymes is ethylene, widely used to accelerate fruit ripening. Gibberellins, cytokinins and nitric oxide, on the contrary, slow down the loss of chlorophyll.

  4. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  5. Contributions of human tissue analysis to understanding the mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Jiri; Vaculova, Jana; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    /osteolysis development. Only studies analysing periprosthetic tissues retrieved from failed implants in humans were included. Data from 101 studies (5532 patients with failure of THA implants) published in English or German between 1974 and 2013 were included. "Control" samples were reported in 45 of the 101 studies...... of pathophysiological events that lead to prosthetic loosening and osteolysis. One possible solution is to examine tissues harvested from stable total hip arthroplasties that have been revised at various time periods due to dislocation or periprosthetic fracture in multicenter studies....

  6. An Algorithmic Approach to Total Breast Reconstruction with Free Tissue Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Cheol Yu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As microvascular techniques continue to improve, perforator flap free tissue transfer is now the gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction. Various options are available for breast reconstruction with autologous tissue. These include the free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap, superficial inferior epigastric artery flap, superior gluteal artery perforator flap, and transverse/vertical upper gracilis flap. In addition, pedicled flaps can be very successful in the right hands and the right patient, such as the pedicled TRAM flap, latissimus dorsi flap, and thoracodorsal artery perforator. Each flap comes with its own advantages and disadvantages related to tissue properties and donor-site morbidity. Currently, the problem is how to determine the most appropriate flap for a particular patient among those potential candidates. Based on a thorough review of the literature and accumulated experiences in the author’s institution, this article provides a logical approach to autologous breast reconstruction. The algorithms presented here can be helpful to customize breast reconstruction to individual patient needs.

  7. Seasonal variation in nitrogen pools and 15N/13C natural abundances in different tissues of grassland plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Schjoerring

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in nitrogen (N pools, carbon (C content and natural abundance of 13C and 15N in different tissues of ryegrass plants were investigated in two intensively managed grassland fields in order to address their ammonia (NH3 exchange potential. Green leaves generally had the largest total N concentration followed by stems and inflorescences. Senescent leaves had the lowest N concentration, indicating N re-allocation. The seasonal pattern of the Γ value, i.e. the ratio between NH4+ and H+ concentrations, was similar for the various tissues of the ryegrass plants but the magnitude of Γ differed considerably among the different tissues. Green leaves and stems generally had substantially lower Γ values than senescent leaves and litter. Substantial peaks in Γ were observed during spring and summer in response to fertilization and grazing. These peaks were associated with high NH4+ rather than with low H+ concentrations. Peaks in Γ also appeared during the winter, coinciding with increasing δ15N values, indicating absorption of N derived from mineralization of soil organic matter. At the same time, δ13C values were declining, suggesting reduced photosynthesis and capacity for N assimilation. δ15N and δ13C values were more influenced by mean monthly temperature than by the accumulated monthly precipitation. In conclusion, ryegrass plants showed a clear seasonal pattern in N pools. Green leaves and stems of ryegrass plants generally seem to constitute a sink for NH3, while senescent leaves have a large potential for NH3 emission. However, management events such as fertilisation and grazing may create a high NH3 emission potential even in green plant parts. The obtained results provide input for future modelling of plant-atmosphere NH3 exchange.

  8. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and carbon in fresh and burned plants and soil in Northwestern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, M.; Bodaly, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and soil contain substantial amounts of organic carbon (C) and mercury. Flooding terrestrial areas stimulates microbial methyl mercury (MeHg) production and fish obtain elevated MeHg concentrations. Our purpose was to determine the loss of C, total mercury (THg), and MeHg from boreal plants and soil after burning to assess the potential of burning before flooding to lower MeHg. Fresh plants contained 4 to 52 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) of THg and 0.1 to 1.3 ng g -1 dw of MeHg. Upland soils contained 162±132 ng g -1 dw of THg and 0.6±0.6 ng g -1 dw of MeHg. Complete burning caused plants to lose 96, 98, 97, and 94% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Upland soil lost 27, 95, 79, and 82% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a substantial loss of C, THg, and MeHg was caused by burning. - Burning terrestrial vegetation and soil causes substantial losses of organic carbon, total mercury, and methyl mercury

  9. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and carbon in fresh and burned plants and soil in Northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailman, M. [Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N6 (Canada)]. E-mail: mailmanma@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Bodaly, R.A. [Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N6 (Canada)

    2005-11-15

    Terrestrial plants and soil contain substantial amounts of organic carbon (C) and mercury. Flooding terrestrial areas stimulates microbial methyl mercury (MeHg) production and fish obtain elevated MeHg concentrations. Our purpose was to determine the loss of C, total mercury (THg), and MeHg from boreal plants and soil after burning to assess the potential of burning before flooding to lower MeHg. Fresh plants contained 4 to 52 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) of THg and 0.1 to 1.3 ng g{sup -1} dw of MeHg. Upland soils contained 162{+-}132 ng g{sup -1} dw of THg and 0.6{+-}0.6 ng g{sup -1} dw of MeHg. Complete burning caused plants to lose 96, 98, 97, and 94% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Upland soil lost 27, 95, 79, and 82% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a substantial loss of C, THg, and MeHg was caused by burning. - Burning terrestrial vegetation and soil causes substantial losses of organic carbon, total mercury, and methyl mercury.

  10. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  11. TOTAL POLYPHENOLS ANALYSIS OF MATURE SEEDS AND TISSUE CULTURES OF SOME COLOMBIAN COCOA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    ROJAS, LUISA F.; LONDOÑO, JULIÁN; GALLEGO, ADRIANA M.; HERRERA, ANDREA L.; AGUILERA, CAROLINA; ATEHORTÚA, LUCÍA

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cell suspensions culture to analyze the total polyphenols content for two Colombian cocoa varieties and to compare the results with the total polyphenols content from the same field varieties. The final results showed that it is possible to produce big amount of cocoa cell biomass able to synthesize the metabolites without loosing its organoleptic properties (smell, color, and flavor), and to produce an acceptable content of to...

  12. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  13. An assay for secologanin in plant tissues based on enzymatic conversion into strictosidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallard, Didier; van der Heijden, Robert; Contin, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    strictosidine, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme strictosidine synthase (STR; E.C. 4.3.3.2). Subsequently, the formation of strictosidine is quantified by HPLC. STR was isolated from transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cells expressing a cDNA-derived gene coding for STR from Catharanthus roseus. The high specificity......The secoiridoid glucoside secologanin is the terpenoid building block in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. A method for its determination in plant tissues and cell suspension cultures has been developed. This assay is based on the condensation of secologanin with tryptamine, yielding...... of STR for secologanin, in combination with a sensitive and selective HPLC system, allows a simple extraction of secologanin from plant tissue. The detection limit of this methos is 15 ng secologanin. Using this assay, secologanin contents were determined in tissues of various plant species; Lonicera...

  14. The basic design and requirement for plant tissue culture laboratory in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Rosli Darmawan; Rusli Ibrahim; Mohd Nazir Basiran; Azhar Mohamad; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2005-01-01

    The production of multiple species plantlets involves a relatively complex process and it is a highly specialized operation. Tissue culture technology is rapidly becoming a commercialized method for propagating new cultivars, rare species and difficult-to-propagate plant. Not only are skills and knowledge essential but the laboratory itself also plays an important role to ensure the successful growth of the plantlets. To produce quality plantlets, plant tissue culture laboratories should fulfill the basic requirements. The laboratory should have proper building and layout which comprise of media preparation and washing room, sterilization or autoclave room, transfer room and culture or growth room. The scope of this paper is to compare these fundamental requirements with the plant tissue culture laboratory in MINT. All the basic needs and differences will be discussed and the proposal for corrective actions will be presented. (Author)

  15. Exploring plant tissue culture in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: in vitro propagation and secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasmita; Rai, Manoj K; Naik, Soumendra K

    2017-12-26

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves. Owing to low seed viability and poor germination, the conventional propagation of W. somnifera falls short to cater its commercial demands particularly for secondary metabolite production. Therefore, there is a great need to develop different biotechnological approaches through tissue and organ culture for seasonal independent production of plants in large scale which will provide sufficient raw materials of uniform quality for pharmaceutical purposes. During past years, a number of in vitro plant regeneration protocols via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis and in vitro conservation through synthetic seed based encapsulation technology have been developed for W. somnifera. Several attempts have also been made to standardize the protocol of secondary metabolite production via tissue/organ cultures, cell suspension cultures, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformed hairy root cultures. Employment of plant tissue culture based techniques would provide means for rapid propagation and conservation of this plant species and also provide scope for enhanced production of different bioactive secondary metabolites. The present review provides a comprehensive report on research activities conducted in the area of tissue culture and secondary metabolite production in W. somnifera during the past years. It also discusses the unexplored areas which might be taken into consideration for future research so that the medicinal properties and

  16. Enhanced triacylglycerol accumulation in vegetative tissues of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-03-14

    In the tgd1-1 mutant that displays substantially enhanced TAG synthesis and turnover, disruption of SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) TAG lipase or PEROXISOMAL TRANSPORTER1 (PXA1) severely decreases FA turnover, leading to an increase in leaf TAG content up to 9% of dry weight and total leaf lipid by three-fold. The membrane lipid content and composition of tgd1-1 sdp1-4 and tgd1-1 pxa1-2 double mutants are altered and they are compromised in growth and development and fertility.

  17. Development of a vinasse culture medium for plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.L.D.; Gollo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product. (author)

  18. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  19. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Hansen, Natascha Kristine Krahl

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study we...... demonstrate that Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon can be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific ß......-glucosidases upon cell disruption. This fast and simple sample preparation resulted in no substantial differences in the distribution and ratios of all hydroxynitrile glucosides between leaves from wildtype Lotus japonicus and a ß-glucosidase mutant plant lacking the ability to hydrolyze certain hydroxynitrile...

  20. [Comparative study on alkaloids of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant of Dendrobium huoshanense ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-dong; Gao, Feng; Lin, Xin; Jin, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To compare the composition and content of alkaloid of Dendrobium huoshanense tissue-culture seedling and wild plant. A comparative evaluation on the quality was carried out by HPLC and TLC methods including the composition and the content of alkaloids. Remarkable variation existed in the two kinds of Dendrobium huoshanense. For the tissue-culture plant, only two alkaloids were checked out by both HPLC and TLC while four alkaloids were observed in the wild plant. The alkaloid content of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant was(0. 29 ± 0. 11)%o and(0. 43 ± 0. 15) %o,respectively. Distinguished difference is observed in both composition and content of alkaloids from the annual shoots of different provenances of Dendrobium huoshanense. It suggested that the quality of tissue-culture seedling of Dendrobium huoshanense might be inconsistent with the wild plant. Furthermore, the established alkaloids-knock-out HPLC method would provide a new research tool on quality control of Chinese medicinal materials which contain unknown alkaloids.

  1. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    OpenAIRE

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic bla...

  2. Total disc replacement using tissue-engineered intervertebral discs in the canine cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Moriguchi

    Full Text Available The most common reason that adults in the United States see their physician is lower back or neck pain secondary to degenerative disc disease. To date, approaches to treat degenerative disc disease are confined to purely mechanical devices designed to either eliminate or enable flexibility of the diseased motion segment. Tissue engineered intervertebral discs (TE-IVDs have been proposed as an alternative approach and have shown promise in replacing native IVD in the rodent tail spine. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of our TE-IVDs in the canine cervical spine. TE-IVD components were constructed using adult canine annulus fibrosis and nucleus pulposus cells seeded into collagen and alginate hydrogels, respectively. Seeded gels were formed into a single disc unit using molds designed from the geometry of the canine spine. Skeletally mature beagles underwent discectomy with whole IVD resection at levels between C3/4 and C6/7, and were then divided into two groups that received only discectomy or discectomy followed by implantation of TE-IVD. Stably implanted TE-IVDs demonstrated significant retention of disc height and physiological hydration compared to discectomy control. Both 4-week and 16-week histological assessments demonstrated chondrocytic cells surrounded by proteoglycan-rich matrices in the NP and by fibrocartilaginous matrices in the AF portions of implanted TE-IVDs. Integration into host tissue was confirmed over 16 weeks without any signs of immune reaction. Despite the significant biomechanical demands of the beagle cervical spine, our stably implanted TE-IVDs maintained their position, structure and hydration as well as disc height over 16 weeks in vivo.

  3. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Four Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extracts of four Indonesian medicinal plants namely Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.,Phyllanthus niruri Linn., Andrographis paniculata Ness., and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. wereexamined for their antioxidant (radical scavenging activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH free radical and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT. The total phenoliccontent was used the Folin-Ciocalteu method. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activityranged from 14.5 to 178.5 μg/ml, with P. niruri having the lowest value and therefore the mostpotent, and C. aeruginosa having the highest value. LC50 values for BSLT ranged from 210.3 to593.2 μg/ml, with C. xanthorrhiza and A. paniculata having the lowest and highest values,respectively. The total phenolic content of the Indonesian plants ranged from 133.0 ±3.7 to863.3±54.7 mg tannic acid equivalent per 1 g extract, with C. aeruginosa and P. niruri having thelowest and highest values, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavengingactivity and the content of phenolic compounds was found in the four of Indonesian medicinal plants.

  4. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  5. Distribution of polyethylene wear debris and bone particles in granuloma tissue around total hip joint replacements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zolotarevova, E.; Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Entlicher, G.; Pokorný, D.; Veselý, F.; Sosna, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 173-174 ISSN 1120-7000. [Domestic Meeting of the European Hip Society /8./. 11.06.2008-13.06.2008, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : wear debris * bone particles * total hip joint replacement Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry www. hip -int.com

  6. Biomechanical comparison of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems in soft tissue-constrained shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; King, Frank K; Tashjian, Robert Z; Burks, Robert T

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined the biomechanics of isolated variables in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This study directly compared the composite performance of two reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems; each system was designed around either a medialized or a lateralized glenohumeral center of rotation. Seven pairs of shoulders were tested on a biomechanical simulator. Center of rotation, position of the humerus, passive and active range of motion, and force to abduct the arm were quantified. Native arms were tested, implanted with a Tornier Aequalis or DJO Surgical Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis (RSP), and then retested. Differences from the native state were then documented. Both systems shifted the center of rotation medially and inferiorly relative to native. Medial shifts were greater in the Aequalis implant (P .05). Both reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems exhibited adduction deficits, but the RSP implant deficit was smaller (P = .046 between implants). Both systems reduced forces to abduct the arm compared with native, although the Aequalis required more force to initiate motion from the resting position (P = .022). Given the differences in system designs and configurations, outcome variables were generally comparable. The RSP implant allowed slightly more adduction, had a more lateralized humeral position, and required less force to initiate elevation. These factors may play roles in limiting scapular notching, improving active external rotation by normalizing the residual rotator cuff length, and limiting excessive stress on the deltoid. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the genetic control of planar growth during tissue morphogenesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enugutti, Balaji; Kirchhelle, Charlotte; Schneitz, Kay

    2013-06-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires extensive intercellular communication. Plant organs are composites of distinct radial cell layers. A typical layer, such as the epidermis, is propagated by stereotypic anticlinal cell divisions. It is presently unclear what mechanisms coordinate cell divisions relative to the plane of a layer, resulting in planar growth and maintenance of the layer structure. Failure in the regulation of coordinated growth across a tissue may result in spatially restricted abnormal growth and the formation of a tumor-like protrusion. Therefore, one way to approach planar growth control is to look for genetic mutants that exhibit localized tumor-like outgrowths. Interestingly, plants appear to have evolved quite robust genetic mechanisms that govern these aspects of tissue morphogenesis. Here we provide a short summary of the current knowledge about the genetics of tumor formation in plants and relate it to the known control of coordinated cell behavior within a tissue layer. We further portray the integuments of Arabidopsis thaliana as an excellent model system to study the regulation of planar growth. The value of examining this process in integuments was established by the recent identification of the Arabidopsis AGC VIII kinase UNICORN as a novel growth suppressor involved in the regulation of planar growth and the inhibition of localized ectopic growth in integuments and other floral organs. An emerging insight is that misregulation of central determinants of adaxial-abaxial tissue polarity can lead to the formation of spatially restricted multicellular outgrowths in several tissues. Thus, there may exist a link between the mechanisms regulating adaxial-abaxial tissue polarity and planar growth in plants.

  8. Comparison of dwarf bamboos (Indocalamus sp.) leaf parameters to determine relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yu-Long; Li, Hua-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between spatial density and size of plants is an important topic in plant ecology. The self-thinning rule suggests a -3/2 power between average biomass and density or a -1/2 power between stand yield and density. However, the self-thinning rule based on total leaf area per plant and density of plants has been neglected presumably because of the lack of a method that can accurately estimate the total leaf area per plant. We aimed to find the relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant. We also attempted to provide a novel model for accurately describing the leaf shape of bamboos. We proposed a simplified Gielis equation with only two parameters to describe the leaf shape of bamboos one model parameter represented the overall ratio of leaf width to leaf length. Using this method, we compared some leaf parameters (leaf shape, number of leaves per plant, ratio of total leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and total leaf area per plant) of four bamboo species of genus Indocalamus Nakai (I. pedalis (Keng) P.C. Keng, I. pumilus Q.H. Dai and C.F. Keng, I. barbatus McClure, and I. victorialis P.C. Keng). We also explored the possible correlation between spatial density and total leaf area per plant using log-linear regression. We found that the simplified Gielis equation fit the leaf shape of four bamboo species very well. Although all these four species belonged to the same genus, there were still significant differences in leaf shape. Significant differences also existed in leaf area per plant, ratio of leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and leaf length. In addition, we found that the total leaf area per plant decreased with increased spatial density. Therefore, we directly demonstrated the self-thinning rule to improve light interception.

  9. Carbon Fluxes between Primary Metabolism and Phenolic Pathway in Plant Tissues under Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Caretto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants synthesize an amazing diversity of phenolic secondary metabolites. Phenolics are defined secondary metabolites or natural products because, originally, they were considered not essential for plant growth and development. Plant phenolics, like other natural compounds, provide the plant with specific adaptations to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, they are essential for plant defense mechanisms. Plant defensive traits are costly for plants due to the energy drain from growth toward defensive metabolite production. Being limited with environmental resources, plants have to decide how allocate these resources to various competing functions. This decision brings about trade-offs, i.e., promoting some functions by neglecting others as an inverse relationship. Many studies have been carried out in order to link an evaluation of plant performance (in terms of growth rate with levels of defense-related metabolites. Available results suggest that environmental stresses and stress-induced phenolics could be linked by a transduction pathway that involves: (i the proline redox cycle; (ii the stimulated oxidative pentose phosphate pathway; and, in turn, (iii the reduced growth of plant tissues.

  10. Waterlogging tolerance, tissue nitrogen and oxygen transport in the forage legume Melilotus siculus: a comparison of nodulated and nitrate-fed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Toro, Guillermo; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2018-03-14

    Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse. Nodulation, shoot and root growth and tissue N were determined. Porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) and respiration rates of root tissues and nodules, and O2 microelectrode profiling across nodules, were measured in a second experiment. Plants inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia, Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) medicae, formed nodules. Nodulated plants grew as well as plants fed NO3-, both in drained and waterlogged conditions. The growth and total N content of nodulated plants (without any NO3- supplied) indicated N2 fixation. Respiration rates (mass basis) were highest in nodules and root tips and lowest in basal root tissues. Secondary aerenchyma (phellem) formed along basal root parts and a thin layer of this porous tissue also covered nodules, which together enhanced gas-phase diffusion of O2 to the nodules; O2 was below detection within the infected zone of the nodule interior. Melilotus siculus reliant on N2 fixation grew well both in drained and waterlogged conditions, and had similar tissue N concentrations. In waterlogged conditions the relatively high respiration rates of nodules must rely on O2 movement via the aerenchymatous phellem in hypocotyl, roots and the outer tissue layers of nodules.

  11. Maternal tissue is involved in stimulant reception by seeds of the parasitic plant Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Tadmor, Yaakov; Ziadne, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental element in the evolution of obligate root-parasitic angiosperms is their ability to germinate only in response to chemical stimulation by roots, to ensure contact with a nearby nourishing host. The aim of this study was to explore inheritance of the unique germination control in this group of plants. Analysis was made of the segregation of spontaneous (non-induced) germination that appeared in hybrid progenies derived from crosses between Orobanche cernua and O. cumana, which, like all other Orobanche species, are totally dependent on chemical stimulation for the onset of germination, and show negligible spontaneous germination in their natural seed populations. F(1) and F(2) seeds did not germinate in the absence of chemical stimulation, but significant spontaneous germination was found in some F(3) seed families. This indicates that the prevention of non-induced germination in Orobanche seeds, i.e. dependence on an external chemical stimulation for seed germination, is genetically controlled, that this genetic control is expressed in a seed tissue with maternal origin (presumably the perisperm that originates from the nucellus) and that genetic variation for this trait exists in Orobanche species. Similar segregation results were obtained in reciprocal crosses, suggesting that stimulated germination is controlled by nuclear genes.

  12. Free flow and capillary isoelectric focusing of bacteria from the tomatoes plant tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Horký, J.; Matoušková, H.; Šlais, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1216, č. 6 (2009), s. 1019-1024 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : free flow and capillary IEF * isoelectric point of microbes * tomatoes plant tissue suspension Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2009

  13. Comparative distributions of alkaline earths and Pb among tissues of marine plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, M.W.; Settle, D.M.; Patterson, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Lead, barium, strontium and calcium were studied by isotope dilution, clean-lab techniques in both a marine and a terrestrial ecosystem. Analyses for Pb and Ba are difficult since their concentrations range down to the ng g -1 level in plant and animal tissue. Experimental details are given. Results are presented and discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for phytoplasma and endophytic bacteria localization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Faoro, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we developed a rapid and efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization assay (FISH) in non-embedded tissues of the model plant Catharanthus roseus for co-localizing phytoplasmas and endophytic bacteria, opening new perspectives for studying the interaction between these microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria (Methylohacterium mesophilicum) contamination of plant tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprame, S; Todd, J J; Widholm, J M

    1996-12-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) have been found on the surfaces of leaves of most plants tested. We found PPFMs on the leaf surfaces of all 40 plants (38 species) tested and on soybean pods by pressing onto AMS medium with methanol as the sole carbon source. The abundance ranged from 0.5 colony forming unit (cfu) /cm(2) to 69.4 cfu/cm(2) on the leaf surfaces. PPFMs were found in homogenized leaf tissues of only 4 of the species after surface disinfestation with 1.05% sodium hypochlorite and were rarely found in cultures initiated from surface disinfested Datura innoxia leaves or inside surface disinfested soybean pods. Of 20 antibiotics tested for PPFM growth inhibition, rifampicin was the most effective and of seven others which also inhibited PPFM growth, cefotaxime should be the most useful due to the expected low plant cell toxicity. These antibiotics could be used in concert with common surface sterilization procedures to prevent the introduction or to eliminate PPFM bacteria in tissue cultures. Thus, while PPFMs are present on the surfaces of most plant tissues, surface disinfestation alone can effectively remove them so that uncontaminated tissue cultures can be initiated in most cases.

  16. RNA Isolation from Plant Tissues: A Hands-On Laboratory Experimental Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianhui; Yu, Dong; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    The practice of RNA isolation in undergraduate experimental courses is rare because of the existence of robust, ubiquitous and stable ribonucleases. We reported here modifications to our original protocol for RNA isolation from plant tissues, including the recovery of nucleic acids by ethanol precipitation at 0 degrees C for 10 min and the…

  17. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  18. Total Mercury in Squalid Callista Megapitaria squalida from the SW Gulf of California, Mexico: Tissue Distribution and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Piñera, Abril K; Escobar-Sánchez, Ofelia; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the total Hg concentration in different tissues of squalid callista Megapitaria squalida in order to measure Hg distribution in tissue and to estimate human health risk. Samples were obtained by free diving in the SW Gulf of California, Mexico. Concentrations are given on a wet weight basis. A total of 89 squalid callista specimens were obtained, presenting an average Hg concentration of 0.07 ± 0.04 µg g -1 . There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in Hg concentration between tissues (visceral mass = 0.09 ± 0.08 µg g -1 ; mantle = 0.06 ± 0.07 µg g -1 ; muscle = 0.06 ± 0.04 µg g -1 ). The low Hg values found in squalid callista and its low risk quotient (HQ = 0.03) suggest that the consumption of squalid callista does not represent a human health risk. However, HQ calculated using MeHg was > 1, it which could indicate a potential risk related to consumption of clams.

  19. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement by colour tissue doppler imaging as an assessment of diastolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Søgaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of LD during early diastole and atrial contraction, can potentially be used as a simple and reliable alternative. METHODS: In 206 patients, using GE Healthcare Vivid E7 and 9 and Echopac BT11 software, we determined both diastolic LD, measured in the septal and lateral walls in the apical 4-chamber view...... by TDI, and the degree of diastolic dysfunction, based on current guidelines. Of these 206 patients, 157 had cardiac anomalies that could potentially affect diastolic LD such as severe systolic heart failure (n = 45), LV hypertrophy (n = 49), left ventricular (LV) dilation (n = 30), and mitral...... for the general discrimination of patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Using linear regression, total average diastolic LD was estimated to fall by 2.4 mm for every increase in graded severity of diastolic dysfunction (β = -0.61, p-value

  20. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  1. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of N-15 and total N using an automated nitrogen analyser interfaced to a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (ANA-MS method) was evaluated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated analyses of homogeneous standards and samples at natural abundance...... was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  2. Fast method for the detection of transport process in plant tissues by radiotracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, K.; Joo, P.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of nutrients, microelements and plant protective agents and additives applied on foliar and various aeriel parts of plants depends on the adsorption of their spray drops and the penetration of agents into tissues, cells and inner caves. The permeability of the cuticular membrane and the mode of entry of above substances through the cuticle and their mobility in other tissues are poorly understood but have been the subject of intensive research. The traditional methods in biological systems are the automicroradiography and sample taking methods. The radioactive tracer method developed by us is suitable for determining the effective diffusion coefficients characterizing the migration process and concentration distributions off these materials in plants by consumption of minimal amount of β-labelled radioactive isotopes in very short time. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative tissue of Petunia plants requires anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Naing, Aung Htay; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-11-01

    The effects of three different sucrose concentrations on plant growth and anthocyanin accumulation were examined in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T 2 ) specimens of the Petunia hybrida cultivar 'Mirage rose' that carried the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1. Anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in NT plants in any treatments, whereas a range of anthocyanin accumulation was observed in transgenic plants. The anthocyanin content detected in transgenic plants expressing the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors (B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1) was higher than that in NT plants. In addition, increasing sucrose concentration strongly enhanced anthocyanin content as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, wherein increased concentrations of sucrose enhanced transcript levels of the transcription factors that are responsible for the induction of biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis; this pattern was not observed in NT plants. In addition, sucrose affected plant growth, although the effects were different between NT and transgenic plants. Taken together, the application of sucrose could enhance anthocyanin production in vegetative tissue of transgenic Petunia carrying anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors, and this study provides insights about interactive effects of sucrose and transcription factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Total quality control: the deming management philosophy applied to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Wetherell, D.L.; Melhem, S.A.; Sato, M.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, a call has come for the development of inherently safe nuclear reactor systems that cannot have large-scale accidents. In the search for the perfect inherently safe reactor system, some are calling for the institution of computerized automated control of reactors eliminating most human operators from the control room. A different approach to the problem of the control of inherently safe reactors is that both future and present nuclear power plants need to institute total quality control (TQC) to plant operations and management. The Deming management philosophy of TQC has been implemented in a wide range of industries - particularly in Japan and the US. Specific attention is given, however, to TQC implementation in the electric power industry as applied to nuclear plants. The Kansai Electric Power Company and Florida Power and Light Company have recently implemented TQC. Statistical quality control methods have been applied to monitor and control reactor variables (for example, to the steam generator water level important to start-up operations of pressurized water reactors)

  5. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zakir A; Desilva, Classy; Badesab, Shahin

    2012-11-01

    The present study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed significant differences in the TPH concentration in different species. Of all fish, Carangoides malabaricus showed the maximum TPH level (av. 13.70 μg g(-1)). In cephalopods, Loligo recorded the maximum TPH (av. 14.87 μg g(-1)) while Metapenaeus dobsoni recorded the maximum TPH (av. 13.18 μg g(-1)) among crustaceans. The concentration of TPH recorded in the present study were higher than the reported values from other studies in Bay of Bengal but were comparable with those of other Indian coast and Gulf water. The species recording maximum concentration and giving significant correlation coefficient may be of interest in oil pollution monitoring and can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of water storage tissue in the stem of cowpea plant (Vigna unguliculata Walp) by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Don-Jin, K.; Ishii, R.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) is considered one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops. It was suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. However, such tissue has not been identified yet. In order to identify the water storing tissue in the stem of cowpea plant, the authors performed neutron radiography, which provides a non-destructive image of water distribution pattern in a plant. Common bean plant and soybean plant were used as references. Comparing the neutron radiograph for the stems of the plants, i.e., cowpea, common bean and soybean plants, the parenchymatous tissue with water storing function was distinguished in the intermode between primary leaf and the first trifoliate leaf specifically in cowpea plant. (author)

  7. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  8. Environmental processes leading to the presence of organically bound plutonium in plant tissues consumed by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a proposed model for Pu behaviour to integrate current knowledge, information is presented on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. Regardless of the source term, Pu behaviour in the soil will be governed by the chemistry of Pu(IV), which predominates over Pu(VI) due to reductive reactions in the soil and at the plant root surface. The soil behaviour of Pu(IV) is governed by (1) hydrolysis, which results in insolubilization and sorption on solid phases, and (2) complexation with inorganic and organic ligands, which stabilize Pu(IV) against hydrolysis and increase solubility. These competing processes likely represent the rate-limiting step in the ingestion pathway because plants do not effectively discriminate against the soluble Pu(IV) ion. Following dissociation of soil Pu(IV) complexes at the outer root surface, Pu is transported across the plant root membrane as the Pu(IV) ion and translocated as Pu(IV) complexes with plant organic ligands. Redistribution of Pu occurs as the plant grows, with initial increases in stem tissues followed by accumulation in roots as the plant matures. The Pu concentration decreases up the plant and seeds contain the lowest Pu concentrations. The gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu requires the presence of soluble Pu forms and hydrolysis/complexation reactions in the gut likely govern solubility. The acidity of the gut is not sufficient to retard hydrolysis of Pu(IV). Therefore, the gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu organically bound in plant tissues is increased relative to Pu administered in hydrolysable solutions. (author)

  9. Total and interatrial epicardial adipose tissues are independently associated with left atrial remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Yong; Yong, Hwan Seok; Lim, Hong Euy; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Sang Weon; Rha, Seung-Woon; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2011-06-01

    As epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active visceral fat, potential interaction between EAT and myocardium is strongly suggested. The aims of this study were to determine whether the amount and regional distribution of EAT are related to the chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and left atrial (LA) remodeling. This study consisted of 40 subjects with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and 40 with persistent AF (PeAF). Eighty subjects with no history of AF were enrolled as controls. Total volume of EAT (EAT(total)), regional thickness of EAT, and LA volume (LAV) were measured by multislice computed tomography. In the AF group, blood samples were drawn from coronary sinus for analysis of inflammatory cytokines including adiponectin. Compared with controls, AF subjects had larger LAV, EAT(total), and the thicknesses of periatrial EAT including interatrial septum (IAS). However, the thicknesses of periventricular EAT were not different between the groups. The PeAF subjects had larger LAV, EAT(total), and periatrial EAT thicknesses, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, and lower level of adiponectin than did the PAF subjects. Adiponection level was significantly associated with EAT(total) and IAS thickness. Multivariate analysis revealed that EAT(total) (P = 0.004) and IAS thickness (P = 0.016) were independently associated with LAV. EAT(total) and thickness of periatrial EAT were significantly larger in AF subjects compared to those of the matched controls and were closely related to the chronicity of AF. Moreover, EAT(total) and IAS thickness were independently associated with LAV in subjects with AF. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preferential campesterol incorporation into various tissues in apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden mice consuming plant sterols or stanols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, J.; Jong, A.de; Volger, O.L.; Princen, H.M.G.; Mensink, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of plant sterols and stanols is much lower as compared with that of cholesterol; and therefore, serum concentrations are low. Circulating plant sterols and stanols are incorporated into tissues. However, hardly any data are available about tissue distributions of individual

  11. Separation and Quantitation of Polyamines in Plant Tissue by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Their Dansyl Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary A.; Davies, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectrophotometry can be used to separate and quantitate polyamines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine), prepared as their dansyl derivatives, from plant tissue. The procedure gives sensitive and consistent results for polyamine determinations in plant tissue. In a standard mixture, the minimal detection level was less than 1 picomole of polyamines. PMID:16664216

  12. Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valentin Savatin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are continuously exposed to agents such as herbivores and environmental mechanical stresses that cause wounding and open the way to the invasion by microbial pathogens. Wounding provides nutrients to pathogens and facilitates their entry into the tissue and subsequent infection. Plants have evolved constitutive and induced defense mechanisms to properly respond to wounding and prevent infection. The constitutive defenses are represented by physical barriers, i.e. the presence of cuticle or lignin, or by metabolites that act as toxins or deterrents for herbivores. Plants are also able to sense the injured tissue as an altered self and induce responses similar to those activated by pathogen infection. Endogenous molecules released from wounded tissue may act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs that activate the plant innate immunity. Wound-induced responses are both rapid, such as the oxidative burst and the expression of defense-related genes, and late, such as the callose deposition, the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and of hydrolytic enzymes (i.e. chitinases and gluganases. Typical examples of DAMPs involved in the response to wounding are the peptide systemin and the oligogalacturonides, which are oligosaccharides released from the pectic component of the cell wall. Responses to wounding take place both at the site of damage (local response and systemically (systemic response and are mediated by hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid and abscisic acid.

  13. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  14. A novel approach for studying programmed cell death in living plant tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina

    to traditional approaches. Future applications of this type of setup could be used for other types of plant tissues such as leaves or germinating embryos for studying the effects of e.g. biotic and abiotic stresses or for screening of compounds for biological effects. Due to the ease of use and many......Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are killed as part of developmental programmes or as defence mechanisms against pathogens, but the process is less well understood in plant cells compared to animal cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD...... in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCDhas not yet been fully elucidated due to the involvement of complex signalling networks. Elucidation of these mechanisms and signalling pathways will allow manipulation of cell death in plants, which could help to improve yield...

  15. Influence of chronic internal and acute external irradiations on the critical tissues of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.P.; Ryasnenko, N.A.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Peculiarities of chronic internal and acute external irradiations of the critical (as for irradiation influence) plants part, meristem, are studied. In particular, the investigation has aimed to evaluate the level of doses, accumulated by plant tissues, of the chronic internal irradiation from radiocaesium incorporated by them, and to compare its possible effect to one caused by the acute external irradiation. It is shown that the effects of both chronic and acute irradiations have similar features, and it is assumed that they have the very same mechanisms. We think that such a parameter of the plant ability to accumulate radiocaesium as the ratio of its content in a root tip and in the whole root system is a very sensible and useful criterion to estimate the irradiation influence on plants

  16. Multi-instrumental Analysis of Tissues of Sunflower Plants Treated with Silver(I Ions – Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate sunflower plants response on stressinduced by silver(I ions. The sunflower plants were exposed to silver(I ions (0, 0.1, 0.5,and 1 mM for 96 h. Primarily we aimed our attention to observation of basic physiologicalparameters. We found that the treated plants embodied growth depression, coloured changes and lack root hairs. Using of autofluorescence of anatomical structures, such aslignified cell walls, it was possible to determine the changes of important shoot and rootstructures, mainly vascular bungles and development of secondary thickening. Thedifferences in vascular bundles organisation, parenchymatic pith development in the rootcentre and the reduction of phloem part of vascular bundles were well observable.Moreover with increasing silver(I ions concentration the vitality of rhizodermal cellsdeclined; rhizodermal cells early necrosed and were replaced by the cells of exodermis.Further we employed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of spatialdistribution of silver(I ions in tissues of the treated plants. The Ag is accumulated mainlyin near-root part of the sample. Moreover basic biochemical indicators of environmentalstress were investigated. The total content of proteins expressively decreased withincreasing silver(I ions dose and the time of the treatment. As we compare the resultsobtained by protein analysis – the total protein contents in shoot as well as root parts – wecan assume on the transport of the proteins from the roots to shoots. This phenomenon canbe related with the cascade of processes connecting with photosynthesis. The secondbiochemical parameter, which we investigated, was urease activity. If we compared theactivity in treated plants with control, we found out that presence of silver(I ions markedlyenhanced the activity of urease at all applied doses of this toxic metal. Finally we studiedthe effect of silver(I ions on activity of urease

  17. Down-regulation of tissue N:P ratios in terrestrial plants by elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Luo, Yiqi; Elser, James; Wang, Ying-ping; Loladze, Irakli; Zhang, Quanfa; Dennis, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations generally alter element stoichiometry in plants. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the elevated CO2 impact on plant nitrogen: phosphorus (N:P) ratios and the underlying mechanism has not been conducted. We synthesized the results from 112 previously published studies using meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of elevated CO2 on the N:P ratio of terrestrial plants and to explore the underlying mechanism based on plant growth and soil P dynamics. Our results show that terrestrial plants grown under elevated CO2 had lower N:P ratios in both above- and belowground biomass across different ecosystem types. The response ratio for plant N:P was negatively correlated with the response ratio for plant growth in croplands and grasslands, and showed a stronger relationship for P than for N. In addition, the CO2-induced down-regulation of plant N:P was accompanied by 19.3% and 4.2% increases in soil phosphatase activity and labile P, respectively, and a 10.1% decrease in total soil P. Our results show that down-regulation of plant N:P under elevated CO2 corresponds with accelerated soil P cycling. These findings should be useful for better understanding of terrestrial plant stoichiometry in response to elevated CO2 and of the underlying mechanisms affecting nutrient dynamics under climate change.

  18. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  19. Tissue Clearance of {sup 131}I and Total Peripheral Resistance in Myocardial Infarction and Hypertension, and During Angiotensin Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F. K.; Bors, K. J.; Long, T. E.; Lestina, J. [University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1971-02-15

    Tissue clearance of {sup 131}I from the thigh, cardiac output and peripheral resistance was determined in 25 patients: 13 normotensive with recent myocardial infarction but not in congestive heart failure, 7 with hypertension and 5 normotensive control subjects. The effect of the synthesized pressor agent Angiotensin II on the same three measurements was also studied. The present investigation continues a previous one of ours, where a tracer dose of {sup 131}I was injected into the thigh of patients with recent myocardial infarction without signs of heart failure, and its clearance was found to be longer than that of normal subjects. This was thought to be due to increased peripheral resistance or to reduced perfusion of the capillary bed secondary to lowered cardiac output, With the 25 subjects, injection into the thigh of tracer amounts of radioactive iodine was done by Hypospray, a method with distinct advantages over needle injection. After measuring tissue clearance of the tracer, cardiac output was determined by a method which records the transit of the injected radioactive bolus through the heart. The Angiotensin was administered by intravenous infusion to four of the normotensive and one of the hypertensive patients. Calculations of cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, mean blood pressure and blood volume were made by means of standard formulae. Results of the study confirmed expectations. Those patients with myocardial infarction who had delayed tissue clearance of {sup 131}I also had reduced cardiac output. The patients with hypertension had normal tissue clearance of {sup 131}I and normal cardiac output in the presence of increased peripheral resistance. Equivalent hypertension and increased peripheral resistance induced in normotensive subjects by Angiotensin resulted in lowered cardiac output and delayed tissue clearance of {sup 131}I. An increased sensitivity to Angiotensin was noted in hypertensive patients. The tissue clearance of {sup 131}I

  20. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  1. An in vitro analysis of medial structures and a medial soft tissue reconstruction in a constrained condylar total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, Kiron K; El Daou, Hadi; Inderhaug, Eivind; Manning, William; Davies, Andrew J; Deehan, David J; Amis, Andrew A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the medial soft tissue contributions to stability following constrained condylar (CC) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and determine whether a medial reconstruction could restore stability to a soft tissue-deficient, CC-TKA knee. Eight cadaveric knees were mounted in a robotic system and tested at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion with ±50 N anterior-posterior force, ±8 Nm varus-valgus, and ±5 Nm internal-external torque. The deep and superficial medial collateral ligaments (dMCL, sMCL) and posteromedial capsule (PMC) were transected and their relative contributions to stabilising the applied loads were quantified. After complete medial soft tissue transection, a reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon graft was performed, and the effect on kinematic behaviour under equivocal conditions was measured. In the CC-TKA knee, the sMCL was the major medial restraint in anterior drawer, internal-external, and valgus rotation. No significant differences were found between the rotational laxities of the reconstructed knee to the pre-deficient state for the arc of motion examined. The relative contribution of the reconstruction was higher in valgus rotation at 60° than the sMCL; otherwise, the contribution of the reconstruction was similar to that of the sMCL. There is contention whether a CC-TKA can function with medial deficiency or more constraint is required. This work has shown that a CC-TKA may not provide enough stability with an absent sMCL. However, in such cases, combining the CC-TKA with a medial soft tissue reconstruction may be considered as an alternative to a hinged implant.

  2. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  3. The total release of xenon-133 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohl, Andreas; Seibert, Petra; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) on 11 March 2011 released large amounts of radioactivity into the atmosphere. We determine the total emission of the noble gas xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) using global atmospheric concentration measurements. For estimating the emissions, we used three different methods: (i) using a purely observation-based multi-box model, (ii) comparisons of dispersion model results driven with GFS meteorological data with the observation data, and (iii) such comparisons with the dispersion model driven by ECMWF data. From these three methods, we have obtained total 133 Xe releases from FD-NPP of (i) 16.7 ± 1.9 EBq, (ii) 14.2 ± 0.8 EBq, and (iii) 19.0 ± 3.4 EBq, respectively. These values are substantially larger than the entire 133 Xe inventory of FD-NPP of about 12.2 EBq derived from calculations of nuclear fuel burn-up. Complete release of the entire 133 Xe inventory of FD-NPP and additional release of 133 Xe due to the decay of iodine-133 ( 133 I), which can add another 2 EBq to the 133 Xe FD-NPP inventory, is required to explain the atmospheric observations. Two of our three methods indicate even higher emissions, but this may not be a robust finding given the differences between our estimates. - Highlights: ► We determine the total release of xenon-133 from the Fukushima nuclear accident. ► We used global measurements and a box model, as well as dispersion model estimates. ► Total 133 Xe release is about 14.2-19 EBq, more than Fukushima 133 Xe inventory. ► Additional release of iodine-133 and decay into 133 Xe needed to explain results.

  4. Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Gallic Acid: Application in Estimation of Total Polyphenols in Plant Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikh-Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified electrode was prepared by modification of the carbon paste electrode (CPE with graphene nano-sheets. The fabricated modified electrode exhibited an electrocatalytic activity toward gallic acid (GA oxidation because of good conductivity, low electron transfer resistance and catalytic effect. The graphene modified CPE had a lower overvoltage and enhanced electrical current respect to the bare CPE for the oxidation of GA. The oxidation potential of GA decreased more than 210 mV by the modified electrode. The modified electrode responded to the GA in the concentration range of 3.0 × 10-5-1.5 × 10-4 M with high sensitivity by the technique of differential pulse voltammetry. Also, detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 M was obtained by this modified electrode for GA. This electrode was used for the successful determination of GA in plant samples. Therefore, the content of total polyphenols in plant samples can be determined by the proposed modified electrode based on the concentration of GA in the sample.

  5. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eFalter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to laser microdissection and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  6. Plasmid-dependent attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant tissue culture cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthysse, A G; Wyman, P M; Holmes, K V

    1978-11-01

    Kinetic, microscopic, and biochemical studies show that virulent Ti (tumor inducing)-plasmid-containing strains of Agrobacterium attach to normal tobacco and carrot tissue culture cells. Kinetic studies showed that virulent strains of A. tumefaciens attach to the plant tissue culture cells in increasing numbers during the first 1 to 2 h of incubation of the bacteria with the plant cells. Five Ti-plasmid-containing virulent Agrobacterium strains showed greater attachment to tobacco cells than did five avirulent strains. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations confirmed that virulent strains showed little attachment. Bacterial attachment was blocked by prior incubation of the plant cells with lipopolysaccharide extracted from A. tumefaciens, but not from A. radiobacter, suggesting that bacterial lipopolysaccharide is one of the components involved in the attachment process. At least one other bacterial product may be required for attachment in tissue culture because the virulent A. tumefaciens NT1, which lacks the Ti plasmid, does not itself attach to tobacco cells, but its lipopolysaccharide does inhibit the attachment of virulent strains.

  7. Quantitative images of metals in plant tissues measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietrich, R.C.; Matusch, A.; Pozebon, D.; Dressler, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of toxic and essential elements in thin sections (thickness of 30 or 40 μm) of tobacco plant tissues. Two-dimensional images of Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Rh, Pt and Pb in leaves, shoots and roots of tobacco were produced. Sections of the plant tissues (fixed onto glass slides) were scanned by a focused beam of a Nd:YAG laser in a laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to the ICP ion source at a quadrupole ICP-MS instrument. Ion intensities of the investigated elements were measured together with 13 C + , 33 S + and 34 S + within the entire plant tissue section. Matrix matching standards (prepared using powder of dried tobacco leaves) were used to constitute calibration curves, whereas the regression coefficient of the attained calibration curves was typically 0.99. The variability of LA-ICP-MS process, sample heterogeneity and water content in the sample were corrected by using 13 C + as internal standard. Quantitative imaging of the selected elements revealed their inhomogeneous distribution in leaves, shoots and roots

  8. Mechanisms and prevention of plant tissue collapse during dehydration: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothon, Frédéric; Ahrné, Lilia; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2003-01-01

    The appearance and functional properties are primordial in the quality assessment of semifinished fruit and vegetable products. These properties are often associated with shrunken, shriveled, darkened materials of poor rehydration ability after been subjected to air-drying--the most used drying method in the food industry. Fruits and vegetables are cellular tissues containing gas-filled pores that tend to collapse when subjected to dehydration. Collapse is an overall term that has different meanings and scale-settings in the literature depending on whether the author is a plant physiologist, a food technologist, a chemical engineer, or a material scientist. Some clarifications are given in this particular but wide field. The purpose of this work was to make a state-of-the-art contribution to the structural and textural effects of different types of dehydration on edible plant products and give a basis for preventing this phenomenon. The plant tissue is described, and the primordial role of the cell wall in keeping the structural integrity is emphasized. Water and its functionality at macro and micro levels of the cellular tissue are reviewed as well as its transport during dehydration. The effects of both dehydration and rehydration are described in detail, and the term "textural collapse" is proposed as an alternative to structural collapse.

  9. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W., E-mail: dawen.sun@ucd.ie [School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland); Drakakis, K. [Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-02-14

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  10. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W.; Drakakis, K.

    2014-01-01

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena

  11. Comparison of Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion Methods for ICP-MS Determination of Total Arsenic in Fish Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanthimathi, S.; Aminah Abdullah; Salmijah, S.; Ujang, T.; Nurul, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Fish is one of the most important sources of arsenic exposure in human diet and the Food Safety and Quality Division, Ministry of Health since 2007 has required routine monitoring of total arsenic in sea foods such as fish. This study describes an improved extraction method of total arsenic in fish using microwave assisted acid digestion procedure before being analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The parameters studied were pre-treatment of sample, digestion temperature, time programme and the chemicals (HNO 3 / H 2 O 2 ) used. Arsenic contents in fish samples under these conditions were compared using the standards additions technique. Microwave assisted acid digestion method with a combination of ultrapure concentrated nitric acid (HNO 3 ) to concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at a ratio of 7 mL: 1 mL, run time of 25 min and digestion temperature of 200 degree Celsius with no pre-treatment was found to have recovery of 100.7 % as compared to other digestion procedure where the recovery were 115.5, 111.6 and 101.8 %. Validation using certified reference material (CRM) of fish tissue (DORM-3) showed a recovery of 101.4 ± 2.5 % for total arsenic from the CRM. (author)

  12. Factors affecting callus and protoplast production and regeneration of plants from garlic tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Nabulsi, I.

    2001-08-01

    Five cultivars of garlic, two explants, six callusing media, six regeneration media, two kinds of light and several doses of gamma irradiation were used to determine the best conditions for callus induction and plant regeneration from garlic tissue cultures. Also, some experiments were conducted to study the possibility to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The experiment showed that medium MS9 was good for regenerating plant directly from basal plate without going through callus phase. ANOVA exhibited significant differences among used cultivars in their ability to form callus. No significant difference was observed between 16 hr light and complete darkness in callus growth. However, appearance of callus was generally better on darkness. Cultivar varied in their ability to regenerate and interaction between cultivars and media was observed. Cultivar kisswany was the best in regeneration (38%) and medium MS47 was the best among used media (35%). Light type played a significant role in regeneration of plants where red light was much better than white light in inducing regeneration (68% vs 36%). ANOVA revealed significant effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on stimulation regeneration of plant whereas high doses prevented regeneration. Many experiments were conducted to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The best method for culturing was the droplet and the best conditions for incubation were complete darkness at 25 Degreed centigrade. This lead to formation of cell wall but no cell division was observed (author)

  13. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  14. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  15. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  16. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  17. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  18. Amelioration of iron mine soils with biosolids: Effects on plant tissue metal content and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The achievement of environmentally sound and economically feasible disposal strategies for biosolids is a major issue in the wastewater treatment industry around the world, including Swaziland. Currently, an iron ore mine site, which is located within a wildlife sanctuary, is being considered as a suitable place where controlled disposal of biosolids may be practiced. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of urban biosolids on iron mine soils with regard to plant metal content and ecotoxicological effects on earthworms. This was done through chemical analysis of plants grown in biosolid-amended mine soil. Earthworm behaviour, reproduction and bioaccumulation tests were also conducted on biosolid-amended mine soil. According to the results obtained, the use of biosolids led to creation of soil conditions that were generally favourable to earthworms. However, plants were found to have accumulated Zn up to 346 mg kg -1 (in shoots) and 462 mg kg -1 (in roots). This was more than double the normal Zn content of plants. It was concluded that while biosolids can be beneficial to mine soils and earthworms, they can also lead to elevated metal content in plant tissues, which might be a concern to plant-dependant wildlife species. Nonetheless, it was not possible to satisfactorily estimate risks to forage quality since animal feeding tests with hyperaccumulator plants have not been reported. Quite possibly, there may be no cause for alarm since the uptake of metals from soil is greater in plants grown in pots in the greenhouse than from the same soil in the field since pot studies fail to mimic field conditions where the soil is heterogeneous and where the root system possesses a complex topology. It was thought that further field trials might assist in arriving at more satisfactory conclusions.

  19. Application of GC-MS for the detection of lipophilic compounds in diverse plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmann Hanjo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of metabolite profiling has been around for decades and technical innovations are now enabling it to be carried out on a large scale with respect to the number of both metabolites measured and experiments carried out. However, studies are generally confined to polar compounds alone. Here we describe a simple method for lipophilic compounds analysis in various plant tissues. Results We choose the same preparative and instrumental platform for lipophilic profiling as that we routinely use for polar metabolites measurements. The method was validated in terms of linearity, carryover, reproducibility and recovery rates, as well as using various plant tissues. As a first case study we present metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis root and shoot tissue of wild type (C24 and mutant (rsr4-1 plants deficient on vitamin B6. We found significant alterations in lipid constituent contents, especially in the roots, which were characterised by dramatic increases in several fatty acids, thus providing further hint for the role of pyridoxine in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The second example is the lipophilic profiling of red and green tomato fruit cuticles of wild type (Alisa Craig and the DFD (delayed fruit deterioration mutant, which we compared and contrasted with the more focused wax analysis of these plants reported before. Conclusion We can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify over 40 lipophilic metabolites including fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, sterols and tocopherols. The method presented here affords a simple and rapid, yet robust complement to previously validated methods of polar metabolite profiling by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry.

  20. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  1. Integration into plant biology and soil science has provided insights into the total environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongbo; Lu, Haiying; Xu, Gang; Marian, Brestic

    2017-02-01

    The total environment includes 5 closely-linking circles, in which biosphere and lithosphere are the active core. As global population increases and urbanization process accelerates, arable land is gradually decreasing under global climate change and the pressure of various types of environmental pollution. This case is especially for China. Land is the most important resources for human beings' survival. How to increase and manage arable land is the key for sustainable agriculture development. China has extensive marshy land that can be reclamated for the better potential land resources under the pre- condition of protecting the environment, which will be a good way for enlarging globally and managing arable land. Related studies have been conducted in China for the past 30years and now many results with obvious practical efficiency have been obtained. For summarizing these results, salt-soil will be the main target and related contents such as nutrient transport, use types, biodiversity and interactions with plants from molecular biology to ecology will be covered, in which the interactions among biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and anthroposphere will be focused on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  3. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  4. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-12-26

    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  5. Cellular Force Microscopy for in Vivo Measurements of Plant Tissue Mechanics1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Weber, Alain; Kochova, Petra; Felekis, Dimitris; Nelson, Bradley J.; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Smith, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Although growth and morphogenesis are controlled by genetics, physical shape change in plant tissue results from a balance between cell wall loosening and intracellular pressure. Despite recent work demonstrating a role for mechanical signals in morphogenesis, precise measurement of mechanical properties at the individual cell level remains a technical challenge. To address this challenge, we have developed cellular force microscopy (CFM), which combines the versatility of classical microindentation techniques with the high automation and resolution approaching that of atomic force microscopy. CFM’s large range of forces provides the possibility to map the apparent stiffness of both plasmolyzed and turgid tissue as well as to perform micropuncture of cells using very high stresses. CFM experiments reveal that, within a tissue, local stiffness measurements can vary with the level of turgor pressure in an unexpected way. Altogether, our results highlight the importance of detailed physically based simulations for the interpretation of microindentation results. CFM’s ability to be used both to assess and manipulate tissue mechanics makes it a method of choice to unravel the feedbacks between mechanics, genetics, and morphogenesis. PMID:22353572

  6. Morphological, biochemical and genetic influence of mutagen treatments on medicinal plant tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisei, T.; Toth, E.; Tesio, B.; Floria, F.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma rays and/or alkylant agents have been applied on callus tissue, young regenerants and cell suspension in order to establish their effect on morphogenesis, regeneration ability and biosynthetic potential. Growth dynamics, morpho-anatomic variables, secondary metabolite production, cell cytogenetics, enzyme specific activities, isoperoxidase and isoesterase patterns were analyzed in relation to the morphogenetic response of Atropa belladonna, Datura innoxia, Lavandula angustifolia, Chamomilla recutita, Digitalis lanata and Vinca minor tissue cultures. The effects of gamma-ray doses varied from one species to another; 10 to 20 Gy were generally able to stimulate growth and plant regeneration (via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis), while 10 to 50 Gy enhanced secondary metabolite biosynthesis both in callus and cell suspension culture. Semnificative increase of secondary metabolite production was obtained when treatments with EMS (0.1-0.2%) have been applied to young regenerants. Many differences in biological features and biochemical behaviour were registered 20 days and one year, respectively, after treatment. (author)

  7. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, pH, cell viability and release of target enzymes such as α-amylase. We have optimised an intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay[3] that detects changes in redox activity in barley aleurone layer during PCD. The assay uses a double mediator......This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage......-system to electrochemically measure redox activity via changes in the NADP:NADPH ratio. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We have also successfully detected PCD induced by phytohormones in barley aleurone layer using...

  8. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively.

  9. Examination of radioactive contamination in the soil-plant system and their transfer to selected animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, S.; Gladysz, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates gamma emitter radioactivity in a system consisting of soil and plants. Some selected sample of tissues of animals fed with the plants from these sites were also measured. In soil and plant samples artificial ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and natural (thorium and uranium series) isotopes were detected. Despite the relatively high content of the natural isotopes in plants and their seeds, their accumulation in animal tissues was not detected.The 40 K isotope was transferred in the chain soil-plant-animal in the highest degree. From the group of the natural isotopes, only 212 Pb was detected in examined animal tissue samples. Other natural isotopes were below detection level. In the samples heavy metal content was also examined. In any sample no element concentration was noticed above trade acceptable limit. (author)

  10. Effects Total Solar Eclipse to Nasty Behaviour of the Several Legume Plants as a Result Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, S.; Diana, S.; Supriatno, B.

    2017-09-01

    Some group students of plant Physiology course have given task to do free inquiry. They investigated of the nasty behaviour of several legume plants in response to changes in light during the partial solar eclipse that occurred at March 9, 2016. The investigation carried out in UPI Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, which is in the penumbra region of a total solar eclipse with the location coordinates of latitude: -6.86105, longitude: 07.59071, S 6057’ 37.53553 “and E 107035’ 24.29141”. They were measuring the movement of opening leaves every ten minutes at the beginning of the start until the end of the eclipse compared with the behaviour without eclipsing. Influence is expressed by comparing the leaf opening movement (measured in the form of leaf angular) at the time of the eclipse with a normal day. Each group was observed for one plant of the legume, there are: Mimosa pudica, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi. The results showed that the changes in leaf angular in plants Mimosa pudica, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi differently significant, except for Bauhinia purpurea. In conclusion, the total solar eclipse in the penumbra area affects the movement of some nasty legume plants. It is recommended to conduct a study of the nasty behaviour of legume plants in the area umbra in the path of a total solar eclipse.

  11. Acute Toxicity of Captan on Blood Factors Total Immunoglobulin, Liver, and Gill Tissues of Fingerling Grass Carps: Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammadalikhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of fungicides, including captan, used in gardens and farms are washed into the aquatic environments. These compounds can lead to extensive side effects on the inhabitants living in that exposed area. In this research, toxicity of captan on fingerling grass carps (3-5 g was studied. Based on the results, captan was categorized as an acute toxin with LC5096h and MAC values of 0.9 and 0.09 mg/ml, respectively. This toxin damaged severely the gills and liver of fishes and the toxic severity increased in higher doses of the toxin. Furthermore, hematochemical studies showed significant drops in all red blood cell criteria, except for MCH (mean corpuscular haemoglobin and MCV (mean corpuscular volume. Besides, captan decreased significantly the total immunoglobulin and white blood cell counts, except for monocytes and neutrophils. As a conclusion, captan causes detrimental effects on several tissues of Ctenopharyngodon idella, and therefore limited utilisation of this fungicide is recommended strongly.

  12. 3D Reconstruction of Frozen Plant Tissue: a unique histological analysis to image post-freeze responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter hardiness in plants is the result of a complex interaction between genes, the tissue where those genes are expressed and the environment. The light microscope is a valuable tool to understand this complexity which will ultimately help researchers improve the tolerance of plants to freezing st...

  13. How to store plant tissues in the absence of liquid nitrogen? Ethanol preserves the RNA integrity of Cannabis sativa stem tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauralie Mangeot-Peter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of intact RNA is a limiting step when gene expression profiling is performed using field-collected plant material. The use of liquid nitrogen ensures the optimal preservation of RNA, however it is not always practical, especially if the plant material has to be sampled in remote locations. Ethanol is known to preserve DNA in plant tissues even after a long storage period and here its suitability to preserve the RNA of textile hemp cortical tissues was tested. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is an economically important fibre crop because it supplies cellulosic bast fibres used in different industrial sectors. In this study we demonstrate the suitability of ethanol for RNA preservation by analyzing tissues stored at 4 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. We show that in all the cases the extracted RNA is intact. We finally analyze hemp stem tissues stored in ethanol for 1 month and demonstrate the preservation of the tissue structure, particularly of bast fibres.

  14. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  15. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +}. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} at 55 C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96{+-}7% recovery of CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +} from oyster tissue and 93{+-}7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. (orig.)

  16. An electrochemical approach to monitor pH change in agar media during plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ha, Yang

    2007-05-15

    In this work, metal oxide microelectrodes were developed to monitor pH change in agar media during plant tissue culture. An antimony wire was produced by a new approach "capillary melt method". The surface of the obtained antimony wire was oxidized in a potassium nitrate melt to fabricate an antimony oxide film for pH sensing. Characterization results show that the oxide layer grown on the wire surface consists of Sb(2)O(3) crystal phase. The sensing response, open-circuit potential, of the electrode has a good linear relationship (R(2)=1.00) with pH value of the test solution. Adding organic compounds into the test media would not affect the linear relationship, although the slope of the lines varied with different ingredients added. The antimony oxide electrodes were employed to continuously monitor pH change of agar culture media during a 2-week plant tissue culture of Dendrobium candidum. The antimony oxide electrode fabricated this way has the advantages of low cost, easy fabrication, fast response, and almost no contamination introduced into the system. It would be suitable for in situ and continuous pH measurement in many bio applications.

  17. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  18. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  19. A workflow to preserve genome-quality tissue samples from plants in botanical gardens and arboreta1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostel, Morgan R.; Kelloff, Carol; Wallick, Kyle; Funk, Vicki A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Internationally, gardens hold diverse living collections that can be preserved for genomic research. Workflows have been developed for genomic tissue sampling in other taxa (e.g., vertebrates), but are inadequate for plants. We outline a workflow for tissue sampling intended for two audiences: botanists interested in genomics research and garden staff who plan to voucher living collections. Methods and Results: Standard herbarium methods are used to collect vouchers, label information and images are entered into a publicly accessible database, and leaf tissue is preserved in silica and liquid nitrogen. A five-step approach for genomic tissue sampling is presented for sampling from living collections according to current best practices. Conclusions: Collecting genome-quality samples from gardens is an economical and rapid way to make available for scientific research tissue from the diversity of plants on Earth. The Global Genome Initiative will facilitate and lead this endeavor through international partnerships. PMID:27672517

  20. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  1. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makambila, C.

    1997-01-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab

  2. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makambila, C [Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Sciences, Univ. of Brazzaville, Brazzaville (Congo)

    1997-12-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab.

  3. The prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT following I131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, T.W.; Cherk, M.H.; Yap, K.S.K.; Kalff, V.; Topliss, D.J.; Serpell, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the aims of this study are first to determine the prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT and secondly to assess the contribution of this tissue to total neck I-131 activity in patients treated with I-131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Materials and methods: a total of 63 consecutive patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer treated with total thyroidectomy underwent whole body planar imaging and SPECT/CT of the neck 48 hours following ablative I-131 therapy. On SPECT/CT, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as radioiodine activity in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid bed in close proximity to the midline without evidence of localisation to lymph nodes. On planar imaging, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as linear radioiodine activity in the midline of the neck superior to the thyroid bed. SPECT/CT and planar images were classified by two independent reviewers as positive, negative or equivocal with interobserver agreement quantified using a Kappa score. Disagreement was resolved using a third reviewer. Quantitation of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue and total neck I-131 activity was performed using region of interest analysis on planar imaging following localisation on SPECT/CT. Results: thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was present in 31/63 (49%; 95% CI: 37-61%) patients on SPECT/CT. In these 31 patients, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue contributed to an average of 49% of total neck activity. Interobserver agreement was substantial on SPECT/CT (Kappa = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) and fair on planar imaging (Kappa = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract was present in one half of patients in our study population and can contribute to a significant amount of total neck I-131 activity. Given the high prevalence of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue, our results suggest that total neck

  4. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  5. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  6. Application of SEM and EDX in studying biomineralization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Kirilak, Yaowanuj

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols using formalin-acetic acid-alcohol (FAA) to fix plant tissues for studying biomineralization by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Specimen preparation protocols for SEM and EDX mainly include fixation, dehydration, critical point drying (CPD), mounting, and coating. Gold-coated specimens are used for SEM imaging, while gold- and carbon-coated specimens are prepared for qualitative X-ray microanalyses separately to obtain complementary information on the elemental compositions of biominerals. During the specimen preparation procedure for SEM, some biominerals may be dislodged or scattered, making it difficult to determine their accurate locations, and light microscopy is used to complement SEM studies. Specimen preparation protocols for light microscopy generally include fixation, dehydration, infiltration and embedding with resin, microtome sectioning, and staining. In addition, microwave processing methods are adopted here to speed up the specimen preparation process for both SEM and light microscopy.

  7. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Huang, C. L.; Vonk, L. A.; Lu, Z. F.; Bank, R. A.; Helder, M. N.; Doulabi, B. Zandieh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend

  8. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend

  9. Quantification of protein and total nitrogen in some plant foods of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are consumed as fruits and vegetables. The study involved the comparison of these plant protein values by selecting them and subjecting them to heat processing and to preparation of canned vegetables. The estimated protein values estimated are 57.0% for Arum, 44.86% for Portulaca, 28.47% for Chlorophytum, 22.69% ...

  10. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium, burdock (Arctium lappa, comfrey (Symphytum officinale, plantain (Pantago lanceolata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, sage (Salvia officinalis, marigold (Calendula officinalis, small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis, echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia and black popular (Populus nigra were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyphenols and flavones were extracted from Populus nigra, with an average of both extractions 23.14 mg GAE/g and 78.07 mg QE/g flavones. Among the studied plants, Arctium lappa registered the highest antioxidant activity (0.129 mmol Trolox/mL in alcoholic extract and Echinaceea angustifolia with a value of 0.122 mmol Trolox/mL in aqueous extract. The lowest values were recorded for the antioxidant activity of Althaea officinalis (alcoholic extract and Arctium lappa (aqueous extract. The results show that Arctium lappa, Echinaceea angustifolia and Populus nigra can be considered melliferous plants for their high biologically active compounds potential and bee products (honey and pollen that having the composition of these plants will have high antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  11. Total-system expertise in economically efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH can look back on well over 40 years of experience in developing and constructing nuclear power plants. 23 Power plant units of Siemens design are in operation in five countries, and in autumn this year, another one will start commercial operation, while yet another one is under construction. In comparative international power plant surveys, the Siemens-design systems usually rank in top positions when it comes to comparing systems availability and electric power generation, and Siemens have build a reputation in manufacturing power plants up to the highest safety standards worldwide. Our experience as a manufacturer of turnkey PWR and BWR type reactors, as well as our profound knowledge of international nuclear standardisation, engineering codes and safety guides, has been used and processed to the benefit of the services offered by Siemens, resulting in well-devised service packages, and enhancements and optimisation of our machinery and equipment. Siemens has of course obtained the relevant licenses and certification for all its services and products according to DIN ISO 9001, KTA and ASME standards [de

  12. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  13. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  14. In vivo monitoring of seeds and plant-tissue water absorption using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Veronika V.; Kutis, Irina S.; Kutis, Sergey D.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.

    2004-07-01

    First experimental results on OCT imaging of internal structure of plant tissues and in situ OCT monitoring of plant tissue regeneration at different water supply are reported. Experiments for evaluating OCT capabilities were performed on Tradescantia. The investigation of seeds swelling was performed on wheat seeds (Triticum L.), barley seeds (Hordeum L.), long-fibred flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L.). These OCT images correlate with standard microscopy data from the same tissue regions. Seeds were exposed to a low-intensity physical factor-the pulsed gradient magnetic field (GMF) with pulse duration 0.1 s and maximum amplitude 5 mT (4 successive pulses during 0.4 s). OCT and OCM enable effective monitoring of fast reactions in plants and seeds at different water supply.

  15. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Kady B.; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill; O'Shea, Stephen K.

    2011-01-01

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: ► Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. ► Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. ► Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. ► Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  16. [Methanotrophs and methylobacteria are found in woody plant tissues within a winter period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Suzina, N F; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2004-01-01

    Samples of tree seeds, buds, and needles collected within a winter period at ambient temperatures from -11 to -17 degrees C were analyzed for the presence of methylotrophic microflora. Thin sections of blue spruce needles were found to contain bacteria morphologically close to pink-pigmented methylobacteria. The methylobacteria that were isolated in pure cultures from samples of linden seeds and buds, pine and blue spruce needles, as well as of lilac, maple, and apple buds, were classified into the genera Methylobacterium and Paracoccus based on the data of morphological studies, enzyme assay, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. The methanotrophs that were isolated in pure cultures from samples of linden buds and blue spruce needles were identified into the genus Methylocystis based on the data of morphological studies, enzyme assay, DNA-DNA hybridization, and the phylogenetic analysis of the particulate methane monooxygenase gene pmoA sequences. The inference is made that aerobic methylotrophic bacteria are permanently associated with plants. At the beginning of the vegetative period in spring, the phyllosphere of coniferous and deciduous trees is colonized by the methylotrophic bacteria that have wintered inside plant tissues.

  17. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  18. Genetic programming based models in plant tissue culture: An addendum to traditional statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, Meenu R; Nair, Ashalatha S; Kumar, K Satheesh

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we compared the efficacy of observation based modeling approach using a genetic algorithm with the regular statistical analysis as an alternative methodology in plant research. Preliminary experimental data on in vitro rooting was taken for this study with an aim to understand the effect of charcoal and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on successful rooting and also to optimize the two variables for maximum result. Observation-based modelling, as well as traditional approach, could identify NAA as a critical factor in rooting of the plantlets under the experimental conditions employed. Symbolic regression analysis using the software deployed here optimised the treatments studied and was successful in identifying the complex non-linear interaction among the variables, with minimalistic preliminary data. The presence of charcoal in the culture medium has a significant impact on root generation by reducing basal callus mass formation. Such an approach is advantageous for establishing in vitro culture protocols as these models will have significant potential for saving time and expenditure in plant tissue culture laboratories, and it further reduces the need for specialised background.

  19. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-03

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Specification for a total quality assurance programme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This British Standard specifies principles for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes during all phases of design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants. These principles apply to activities affecting the quality of items, such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, testing, commissioning, operating, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, refuelling, modifying and, eventually decommissioning. (author)

  1. A computerized total-radiation management system for Shikoku Electric Power's Ikata nuclear-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshiyuki; Sakakihara, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shozo; Kano, Mamoru; Hoshi, Jun-ichi.

    1985-01-01

    This system allows on-line, real-time radiation management at nuclear-power plants. It increases management precision, decreases management workloads, and saves labor in operations that previously required specialized technicians to expend great amounts of time and effort on radiation management at facilities and their environments, environmental radiation evaluation, and control of radioactive waste. The article outlines the already installed system. (author)

  2. THE CHANGE OF TOTAL PROTEIN FRACTION OF MUSCLE TISSUE OF PORK WITH BIO- AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL SPECIFIC IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shalimova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The character of changes in total protein fraction of muscle tissue of pork with PSE defects in the process of cooking at temperatures ranging from 40 to 72 g.C in steps of 2 g.C is investigated. Our studies have revealed differences in the change of state the total fraction of muscle proteins with defects PSE pork during cooking.

  3. Power plant allocation in East Kalimantan considering total cost and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin; Utomo, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    The fulfillment of electricity need in East Kalimantan is the responsibility of State Electricity Company/Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). But PLN faces constraints in the lack of generating capacity it has. So the allocation of power loads in East Kalimantan has its own challenges. Additional power supplies from other parties are required. In this study, there are four scenarios tested to meet the electricity needs in East Kalimantan with the goal of minimizing costs and emissions. The first scenario is only by using PLN power plant. The second scenario is by combining PLN + Independent Power Producer (IPP) power plants. The third scenario is by using PLN + Rented power plants. The fourth scenario is by using PLN + Excess capacity generation. Numerical experiment using nonlinear programming is conducted with the help of the solver. The result shows that in the peak load condition, the best combination is scenario 2 (PLN + IPP). While at the lowest load condition, the cheapest scenario is PLN + IPP while the lowest emission is PLN + Rent.

  4. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Godinho, R.; Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P.; Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism

  5. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Godinho, R.; Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  8. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  9. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CULTURED PLANT TISSUES UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgikh Yu.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability induced by in vitro conditions known as somaclonal variation is of practical interest due to its potential uses in plant breeding but, on the other hand, if clonal propagation or transformation is main goal, it becomes an unwelcome phenomenon. Thus, it is important to know frequency, the genomic distribution, the mechanisms and factors influencing somaclonal variation. We studied variability of PCR-based DNA markers of cultured tissues and regenerated plants of maize and bread wheat. The original A188 line of maize and the somaclones obtained were tested using 38 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers. None of the A188 plants showed variation in the RAPD and ISSR spectra for any of the primers used. However, the PCR spectra obtained from the somaclones demonstrated some variations, i.e., 22 RAPD primers and 6 ISSR primers differentiated at least one somaclonal variant from the progenitor line. Six SCAR markers were developed based on several RAPD and ISSR fragments. The inheritance of these SCAR markers was verified in the selfing progeny of each somaclone in the R1–R4 generations and in the hybrids, with A188 as the parental line in the F1 and F2 generations. These markers were sequenced and bioinformatic searches were performed to understand the molecular events that may underlie the variability observed in the somaclones. All changes were found in noncoding sequences and were induced by different molecular events, such as the insertion of long terminal repeat transposon, precise miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE excision, microdeletion, recombination, and a change in the pool of mitochondrial DNA. In two groups of independently produced somaclones, the same features (morphological, molecular were variable, which confirms the theory of ‘hot spots’ occurring in the genome. The presence of the same molecular markers in the somaclones and in different non-somaclonal maize variants suggests that in some cases

  10. Compositional features of cotton plant biomass fractions characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is one of the most important and widely grown crops in the world. In addition to natural textile fiber production as a primary purpose, it yields a high grade vegetable oil for human consumption and also carbohydrate fiber and protein byproducts for animal feed. In this work, attenuated total...

  11. Plant growth and metal distribution in tissues of Prosopis juliflora-velutina grown on chromium contaminated soil in the presence of Glomus deserticola

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Jack A.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Viveros, Marian N.; Ren, Minghua; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S.; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been known to increase metal uptake in plants. In this study, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina) inoculated with Glomus deserticola or amended with EDTA were grown for 30 days in soil containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at 0, 40, 80, and 160 mg kg−1. Total amylase activity (TAA) was monitored as a stress indicator. Element concentrations and distribution in tissue were determined using ICP-OES, electron scanning microprobe, and TEM. Inoculated Cr(VI) treated pla...

  12. Total flavonoids content and biochemical screening of the leaves of tropical endemic medicinal plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The developing and under developed countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. This herbal or traditional medicine involves the use of different types of organic extracts or the bioactive chemical constituents. This type of biochemical investigation provides health care at an affordable cost. This survey such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicines. Keeping this view in mind, the present study is carried out in Merremia borneensis leaves of University Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia. The plant has several beneficial properties, such as antioxidant activity. The dry powder of the leaves of M. borneensis was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol. The flavonoids content of the extracts was determined by Willet method. The flavonoids content of the extracts as quercetin equivalents was found to be highest in aqueous ethanol (53.28% followed by chloroform (38.83%, ethyl acetate (24.51%, butanol (12.54% and hexane extract (3.44%. The results suggest the presence of phytochemical properties in the leaves, which are used in curing the ailments.

  13. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Generalized Geometry Holdup Calculations and Total Measurement Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keele, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    A collimated portable gamma-ray detector will be used to quantify the plutonium content of items that can be approximated as a point, line, or area geometry with respect to the detector. These items can include ducts, piping, glove boxes, isolated equipment inside of gloveboxes, and HEPA filters. The Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model is used for the reduction of counting data. This document specifies the calculations to reduce counting data into contained plutonium and the associated total measurement uncertainty.

  15. Contribution to the microchemistry of smoke damage by fluoride. The migration of fluorides in plant tissue. 2. The visible damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P

    1953-01-01

    In continuation of former investigations, a theory of damage caused by fluorine compounds on green plants was developed. It is possible to differentiate between acute and chronic damages by use of microanalytical estimation of total fluorine and inorganic and organic fluorine compounds in the plants.

  16. Total recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from three wetland plants by fast pyrolysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Zeng, Fan-Xin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Fast pyrolysis of three wetland plants (Alligator weed, Oenanthe javanica and Typha angustifolia) in a vertical drop fixed bed reactor was investigated in this study. The experiments were carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures, and the maximum bio-oil yields achieved were 42.3%, 40.2% and 43.6% for Alligator weed, Oenanthe javanica and Typha angustifolia, respectively. The elemental composition of the bio-oil and char were analyzed, and the results show that a low temperature was appropriate for the nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment in char. GC-MS analysis shows that nitrogenous compounds, phenols and oxygenates were the main categories in the bio-oil. A series of leaching tests were carried out to examine the recovery of the nitrogen and phosphorus in the char, and the results indicate that significant fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus could be recovered by leaching process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  18. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husted Søren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight. A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds, the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at

  19. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA for detection of Phytophthora ramorum directly from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Kong; Patricia A. Richardson; Chuanxue Hong; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2006-01-01

    At the first Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium, we reported on the use of a single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis for rapid identification of Phytophthora ramorum in culture. We have since assessed and improved the fingerprinting technique for detecting this pathogen directly from plant tissues. The improved SSCP protocol uses a...

  20. The contrasting effects of nutrient enrichment on growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissue in coastal wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Matthew A.; Jesse, Amber; Tabet, Basam; Reef, Ruth; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters can have consequences for the growth, function and soil processes of coastal wetlands. Our aims were to assess how nutrient enrichment affects growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissues of a common and widespread mangrove, Avicennia marina, and how

  1. Frost resistance of reproductive tissues during various stages of development in high mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert; Erler, Agnes; Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Frost resistance of reproductive vs aboveground vegetative structures was determined for six common European high alpine plant species that can be exposed to frosts throughout their whole reproductive cycle. Freezing tests were carried out in the bud, anthesis and fruit stage. Stigma and style, ovary, placenta, ovule, flower stalk/peduncle and, in Ranunculus glacialis, the receptacle were separately investigated. In all species, the vegetative organs tolerated on an average 2-5 K lower freezing temperatures than the most frost-susceptible reproductive structures that differed in their frost resistance. In almost all species, stigma, style and the flower stalk/peduncle were the most frost-susceptible reproductive structures. Initial frost damage (LT₁₀) to the most susceptible reproductive structure usually occurred between -2 and -4°C independent of the reproductive stage. The median LT₅₀ across species for stigma and style ranged between -3.4 and -3.7°C and matched the mean ice nucleation temperature (-3.7 ± 1.4°C). In R. glacialis, the flower stalk was the most frost-susceptible structure (-5.4°C), and was in contrast to the other species ice-tolerant. The ovule and the placenta were usually the most frost-resistant structures. During reproductive development, frost resistance (LT₅₀) of single reproductive structures mostly showed no significant change. However, significant increases or decreases were also observed (2.1 ± 1.2 K). Reproductive tissues of nival species generally tolerated lower temperatures than species occurring in the alpine zone. The low frost resistance of reproductive structures before, during and shortly after anthesis increases the probability of frost damage and thus, may restrict successful sexual plant reproduction with increasing altitude. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  2. An optical imaging chamber for viewing living plant cells and tissues at high resolution for extended periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Grant; Hindle, Chris; Chan, Jordi; Shaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in both microscopy and fluorescent protein technologies have made live imaging a powerful tool for the study of plant cells. However, the complications of keeping plant material alive during a long duration experiment while maintaining maximum resolution has limited the use of these methods. Here, we describe an imaging chamber designed to overcome these limitations, which is flexible enough to support a range of sizes of plant materials. We were able use confocal microscopy to follow growth and development of plant cells and tissues over several days. The chamber design is based on a perfusion system, so that the addition of drugs and other experimental treatments are also possible. In this article we present a design of imaging chamber that makes it possible to image plant material with high resolution for extended periods of time.

  3. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  4. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  5. Direct DNA extraction method of an obligate parasitic fungus from infected plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wang, C L; Peng, W Y; Yang, J; Lan, M Q; Zhang, B; Li, J B; Zhu, Y Y; Li, C Y

    2015-12-28

    Powdery mildew and rust fungi are obligate parasites that cannot live without host organisms. They are difficult to culture in synthetic medium in the laboratory. Genomic DNA extraction is one of the basic molecular techniques used to study the genetic structure of populations. In this study, 2 different DNA extraction methods, Chelex-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), were used to extract DNA from euonymus powdery mildew and Puccinia striiformis f. sp Tritici. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a race-specific-marker rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequence. Both DNA extraction methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that both Chelex-100 and CTAB were effective for extracting genomic DNA from infected plant tissue. However, less DNA was required for the Chelex-100 method than for the CTAB method, and the Chelex-100 method involved fewer steps, was simpler and safer, and did not require organic solvents compared to the CTAB method. DNA quality was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and the results showed that genomic DNA extracted using the Chelex-100 method was better than that using CTAB method, and was sufficient for studying the genetic structure of population.

  6. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  7. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [For Bleyle Knitwear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-06-01

    The site was described in terms of location, suitably, accessibility, and other factors. Detailed descriptions of the Solar Total Energy-Large Scale Experiment Application (STE-LSE) (Bleyle of America, Inc., Knitwear Plant), the DOE owned Meteorology Station operating at the site, and the instrumentation provided by the Georgia Power Company to measure energy usage within the knitwear plant are included. A detailed report of progress is given at the Shenandoah Site, introduced by the STE-LSE schedule and the Cooperative Agreement work tasks. Progress is described in terms of the following major task areas: site/application; instrumentation/data acquisition; meteorology station; site to STES interface; information dissemination. A brief overview of milestones to be accomplished is given, followed by these appendices: solar easement agreement, interface drawing set, and additional site background data. (MHR)

  8. Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Hafiza; Semmar, Nabil; Farman, Muhammad; McCullagh, James S O

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC 50 values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC 50 values of (7.80 × 10 2 ) and (4.32 × 10 2 ) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC 50 of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC 50 values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16 038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et) > acetone extract (CDA ACE) > phenolic extract (CDA MW) > n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL) > dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et

  9. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  10. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-10

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  11. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  12. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  13. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balcke Gerd Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding. These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  14. Bacterial mediated alleviation of heavy metal stress and decreased accumulation of metals in plant tissues: Mechanisms and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of main concerns causing some of the different ecological and environmental problems. Excess accumulation of these metals in soil has changed microbial community (e.g., structure, function, and diversity), deteriorated soil, decreased the growth and yield of plant, and entered into the food chain. Plants' tolerance to heavy metal stress needs to be improved in order to allow growth of crops with minimum or no accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of plant that satisfy safe food demands for the world's rapidly increasing population. It is well known that PGPRs (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) enhance crop productivity and plant resistance to heavy metal stress. Many recent reports describe the application of heavy metal resistant-PGPRs to enhance agricultural yields without accumulation of metal in plant tissues. This review provides information about the mechanisms possessed by heavy metal resistant-PGPRs that ameliorate heavy metal stress to plants and decrease the accumulation of these metals in plant, and finally gives some perspectives for research on these bacteria in agriculture in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gilly-Heuze, C.; Nizia, J.

    1962-01-01

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors) [fr

  16. Effect of urdbean leaf crinkle virus infection on total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes in blackgram plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Mughal, S.M.; Khan, A.; Javed, N.; Sahi, S.T.; Shahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a common, wide spread, destructive and economically important disease causing systemic infection in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), resulting in extreme crinkling, curling, puckering and rugosity of leaves, and yield reductions. Effect of viral infection was investigated on total soluble proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity in two genotypes viz., Mash-88-susceptible and CM-2002-resistant, at different growth stages under both the inoculated and un-inoculated conditions. ULCV infection resulted in significant increase in total soluble protein contents of the leaves in both genotypes. In healthy plant, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PO) showed similar activity levels. In inoculated plants of Mash-88, SOD and PO activities decreased and increased non-significantly at all growth stages, respectively. The activities of PO and SOD increased and decreased significantly after 15 and 30 days of inoculation in resistant genotype, respectively. No significant changes in catalase (CAT) activity were detected in ULCV-infected leaves over the control. It was concluded that the super oxide dismutase and peroxidases might be associated with resistance/susceptibility to ULCV infection. (author)

  17. Contrasting Effects of Aqueous Tissue Extracts from an Invasive Plant, Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata, on the Performance of Its Sympatric Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip., a common weed in lowland Taiwan, is listed as one of the twenty most noxious invasive plants in Taiwan. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of the invasive plant on germination and growth of seedlings (estimated by measuring the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of the same species and two other sympatric species, B. bipinnata and Ageraturem conyzoides. The objective of this study was to understand whether the aqueous tissue extracts affected the performance of the target species and whether these effects varied among tissue types and among target species. We found that the germination percentage of seeds of B. bipinnata was significantly reduced by root and leaf extracts, that of B. pilosa var. radiata was also significantly reduced by the application of root extract, while that of A. conyzoides was not affected by any of the three tissue extracts. The application of stem and leaf extracts inhibited the elongation of radicals of B. pilosa var. radiata, consequently, the growth of seedlings of this species was decreased in these two treatments. Though the elongation of hypocotyls was stimulated by leaf extract, the overall growth of seedlings of B. bipinnata was not affected by any tissue extract. In contrast, all three extracts stimulated the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of A. conyzoides, consequently, the overall growth of seedlings of this plant was promoted by all three extracts. These results revealed that aqueous extracts from tissue of B. pilosa var. radiata had differential effect on the emergence and seedling growth of the three target species. The inhibition effect of its root and leaf extracts on the germination of B. bipinnata may partially explain the overwhelming dominance of B. pilosa var. radiata over B. bipinnata when they are sympatric.

  18. Plant DNA Detection from Grasshopper Guts: A Step-by-Step Protocol, from Tissue Preparation to Obtaining Plant DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Avanesyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions.

  19. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li; Branford-White, Christopher J.; Wang Zhengtao; Bligh, S.W. Annie

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL -1 and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL -1 . The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported

  20. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); Branford-White, Christopher J. [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom); Wang Zhengtao [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038 (China)], E-mail: wangzt@shutcm.edu.cn; Bligh, S.W. Annie [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.bligh@londonmet.ac.uk

    2007-12-12

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL{sup -1} and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL{sup -1}. The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported.

  1. Plant growth and metal distribution in tissues of Prosopis juliflora-velutina grown on chromium contaminated soil in the presence of Glomus deserticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jack A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Ellzey, Joanne T; Viveros, Marian N; Ren, Minghua; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2010-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been known to increase metal uptake in plants. In this study, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina) inoculated with Glomus deserticola or amended with EDTA were grown for 30 days in soil containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at 0, 40, 80, and 160 mg kg(-1). Total amylase activity (TAA) was monitored as a stress indicator. Element concentrations and distribution in tissue were determined using ICP-OES, electron scanning microprobe, and TEM. Inoculated Cr(VI) treated plants had 21% and 30% more Cr than uninoculated and EDTA treated roots, respectively, at 80 mg Cr kg(-1) treatment. In the case of Cr(III), EDTA produced the highest Cr accumulation in roots. TAA was higher in inoculated plants grown with Cr(III) at 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) and Cr(VI) at 40 and 160 mg kg(-1). The X-ray mapping showed higher metal concentrations in the vascular system of inoculated plants and the TEM micrographs demonstrated the presence of G. deserticola in roots.

  2. Phenolic compounds in cultures of tissues of tea plants and the effect of light on their synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koretskaya, T.F.; Zaprometov, M.N.

    1975-01-01

    Stem and leaf calluses of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) retain the capacity for synthesis of phenolic compounds. The content of phenolic compounds comprises 2 to 5 percent of dry weight, the main share (80 to 95 percent) belonging to catechins and leucoanthocyans, including their polymeric forms. The following compounds were detected in callus tissue: (--)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, two leucoanthocyans, and several unidentified phenolic compounds that fluoresce in UV. (--)-Epicatechin is predominant. In contrast to tissues of an intact plant, the callus does not contain gallocatechins or free gallic acid under the given cultivation conditions. The content of phenolic compounds changes in proportion to callus growth, their greatest amount being formed during the phase of intensive growth. Light stimulates synthesis of phenolic compounds, including the most reduced group of flavonoids, viz., leucoanthocyans and catechins.

  3. Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    : Total TIMP-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA in blood samples from two different blood donor populations from IBD patients, and preoperative samples from patients with primary colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or breast cancer. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma TIMP-1......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) by ELISA in plasma from blood donors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and patients with cancer and to correlate the results to patient diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN...... levels between healthy donors and IBD or breast cancer patients, whereas patients with CC or RC had significantly elevated TIMP-1 levels. Total TIMP-1 levels identified patients with CC with a sensitivity of 63% at 98% specificity, patients with early CC (Dukes' A+B) with a sensitivity of 56% at 98...

  4. Total iodine quantification in fluids and tissues from iodine- or iodide-supplemented rats by ion chromatography following microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guadalupe; Muñoz-Torres, Carolina; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, and several reports have shown that iodine per se is implicated in the physiopathology of other organs. Innovative ion chromatography detection following a four-step temperature ramp microwave digestion in 25-50 mM nitric acid was developed to measure total iodine in biological fluids and tissue samples from female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with 0.05% molecular iodine (I2) or 0.05% potassium iodide (I(-)) in drinking water. The reported method allows the measurement of total iodine with a limit of quantification of 13.7 μg L(-1), recoveries of 96.3-100.3%, and intra- and inter-assay variations, of 3.5% and 7.4% respectively. Analysis of biological fluids showed that after 48 hours, iodine-supplemented animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total iodine in both serum and urine compared with those supplemented with iodide. The half-life of iodine in serum and urine measured over the first 48 h showed similar patterns for both the I2 (7.89 and 7.76 hours) and I(-) (8.27 and 8.90 hours) supplements. Differential uptake patterns were observed in tissues after 6 days of supplements, with I(-) preferentially retained by thyroid, lactating mammary gland, and milk, and a slightly but significantly higher capture of I2 in pituitary, ovary, and virgin mammary gland. We developed a rapid, selective, and accurate digestion method to process fluid and tissue samples that permits reproducible measurements of total iodine by ion chromatography; iodine or iodide supplement show a similar serum and urine half-life, but organ-specific uptake depends on the chemical form of the iodine supplement.

  5. Fast probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues via plasmonic affinity sandwich assay with molecularly-imprinted extraction microprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Pir; Liu, Jia; Xing, Rongrong; Wen, Yanrong; Wang, Yijia; Liu, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Determination of specific target compounds in agriculture food and natural plant products is essential for many purposes; however, it is often challenging due to the complexity of the sample matrices. Herein we present a new approach called plasmonic affinity sandwich assay for the facile and rapid probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues. The approach mainly relies on molecularly imprinted plasmonic extraction microprobes, which were prepared on gold-coated acupuncture needles via boronate affinity controllable oriented surface imprinting with the target monosaccharide as the template molecules. An extraction microprobe was inserted into plant tissues under investigation, which allowed for the specific extraction of glucose or fructose from the tissues. The glucose or fructose molecules extracted on the microprobe were labeled with boronic acid-functionalized Raman-active silver nanoparticles, and thus affinity sandwich complexes were formed on the microprobes. After excess Raman nanotags were washed away, the microprobe was subjected to Raman detection. Upon being irradiated with a laser beam, surface plasmon on the gold-coated microprobes was generated, which further produced plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering of the silver-based nanotags and thereby provided sensitive detection. Apple fruits, which contain abundant glucose and fructose, were used as a model of plant tissues. The approach exhibited high specificity, good sensitivity (limit of detection, 1 μg mL -1 ), and fast speed (the whole procedure required only 20 min). The spatial distribution profiles of glucose and fructose within an apple were investigated by the developed approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acquisition and evolution of plant pathogenesis-associated gene clusters and candidate determinants of tissue-specificity in xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lu

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas is a large genus of plant-associated and plant-pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, members cause diseases on over 392 plant species. Individually, they exhibit marked host- and tissue-specificity. The determinants of this specificity are unknown.To assess potential contributions to host- and tissue-specificity, pathogenesis-associated gene clusters were compared across genomes of eight Xanthomonas strains representing vascular or non-vascular pathogens of rice, brassicas, pepper and tomato, and citrus. The gum cluster for extracellular polysaccharide is conserved except for gumN and sequences downstream. The xcs and xps clusters for type II secretion are conserved, except in the rice pathogens, in which xcs is missing. In the otherwise conserved hrp cluster, sequences flanking the core genes for type III secretion vary with respect to insertion sequence element and putative effector gene content. Variation at the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors cluster is more pronounced, though genes with established functional relevance are conserved. A cluster for synthesis of lipopolysaccharide varies highly, suggesting multiple horizontal gene transfers and reassortments, but this variation does not correlate with host- or tissue-specificity. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid alignments of gum, xps, xcs, hrp, and rpf cluster products generally reflect strain phylogeny. However, amino acid residues at four positions correlate with tissue specificity, revealing hpaA and xpsD as candidate determinants. Examination of genome sequences of xanthomonads Xylella fastidiosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia revealed that the hrp, gum, and xcs clusters are recent acquisitions in the Xanthomonas lineage.Our results provide insight into the ancestral Xanthomonas genome and indicate that differentiation with respect to host- and tissue-specificity involved not major modifications or wholesale exchange of clusters, but subtle changes in a small

  7. Investigation of ratio 'strontium-calcium' in the plants and in the corresponding soil solution for 90Sr and for natural total strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prorok, V.V.; Makarenko, T.Yi.; Mel'nichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, K.F.V.; Ganushevich, A.P.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Ratios Sr/Ca for natural total strontium and 90 Sr/Ca in the plants and in the corresponding soil solutions for three experimental lands with 'fuel' type of pollution for several plants at natural conditions are determined. The lands with tree different types of soil are at the Exclusive Zone of the Chernobyl Power Station. The obtained experimental results shown that ratio Sr/Ca in plant is equal to this ratio in the corresponding soil solution for all investigated lands and plants. Ratio 90 Sr/Ca in plant exceeds this ratio at the corresponding soil solution

  8. Prediction of atmospheric δ13CO2 using fossil plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahren, A. Hope [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Arens, Nan Crystal [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY (United States); Harbeson, Stephanie A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-06-30

    To summarize the content: we presented the results of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the relationship between plant tissue δ13C and δ13CO2 values under varying environmental conditions, including differential pCO2 ranging from 1 to 3 times today’s levels. As predicted, plants grown under elevated pCO2 showed increased average biomass compared to controls grown at the same temperature. Across a very large range in δ13Ca (≈ 24 ‰) and pCO2 (≈ 740 ppmv) we observed a consistent correlation between δ13Ca and δ13Cp (p<0.001). We show an average isotopic depletion of -25.4 ‰ for above-ground tissue and -23.2 ‰ for below-ground tissue of Raphanus sativus L. relative to the composition of the atmosphere under which it formed. For both above- and below-ground tissue, grown at both ~23 °C and ~29 °C, correlation was strong and significant (r2 ≥ 0.98, p<0.001); variation in pCO2 level had little or no effect on this relationship.

  9. Use of high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues prior to multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Calle, Inmaculada; Costas, Marta; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two ultrasound-based procedures are developed for sample preparation prior to determination of P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Sr in biological tissues by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Ultrasound-assisted extraction by means of a cup-horn sonoreactor and ultrasonic-probe slurry sampling were compared with a well-established procedure such as magnetic agitation slurry sampling. For that purpose, seven certified reference materials and different real samples of animal tissue were used. Similar accuracy and precision is obtained with the three sample preparation approaches tried. Limits of detection were dependent on both the sample matrix and the sample pre-treatment used, best values being achieved with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction include reduced sample handling, decreased contamination risks (neither addition of surfactants nor use of foreign objects inside the extraction vial), simpler background (no solid particles onto the sample carrier) and improved recovery for some elements such as P. A mixture of 10% v/v HNO 3 + 20–40% v/v HCl was suitable for extraction from biological tissues. - Highlights: ► We implement high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues. ► Multielemental analysis is performed by total reflection X-ray spectrometry. ► Ultrasound-based procedures are developed and compared to conventional slurry preparation. ► Features such as background, recovery and sample handling are favored by using ultrasonic extraction.

  10. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1980 in Sunshine Project. Development of a total flow electric power plant(Two-phase rotation inflator); 1980 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Out of the development of a total flow power plant in the Sunshine Project, this paper describes a two-phase rotatry inflator. It reports the achievements in fiscal 1980. It is intended to utilize effectively the energy of gas-liquid two-phase fluid (containing a great amount of hot water) often seen in geothermal resources in Japan. Therefore, development is considered on a two-phase rotary inflator as a total flow power generation technology to inflate the gas-liquid fluid as it is without performing separation thereof, and convert it to an external work to draw out output. The inflator is a volume type rotary engine, which has the highest efficiency theoretically, but has not been put into practical use worldwide. Based on the result obtained in the previous fiscal year, development is made on a most suitable seal to be applied to circumferential seal of an external rotor, apex seal, and intake port seal. A rotary inflation performance testing machine is fabricated to study inflation of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid. Setting the engine efficiency of 60% or higher as the target, detailed design, fabrication and assembly shall be completed on two-phase rotation inflators of volume type and self-rotation type of 300 kW class. (NEDO)

  11. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  12. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  13. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  14. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  15. Microfluidic monitoring of programmed cell death in living plant seed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    highly specific responses to the phytohormones gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Combined with the increasing usage as a model for studying plant protein secretion, these properties make the aleurone layer ideal for maintenance in a microfluidics system (Fath, Angelika, et al., (2001), Plant Physiol...

  16. The effect of plant growth regulators on optimization of tissue culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature seeds of four upland rice cultivars namely Kusan, Lamsan, Selasi and Siam were assessed for callus induction and plant regeneration on different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into MS (Murashige and Skoog) basal medium. Callus induction frequency was significantly ...

  17. The effect of plant growth regulators on optimization of tissue culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals ... tissue culture system in Malaysian upland rice ... Scientists believe that using new cultivars which have potential ..... providing the financial support and to Firouzeh Ashjazadeh ...

  18. Measurements of free and total PSA, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), and CYFRA 21-1 in prostate cancer patients under intermittent androgen suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyer, G; Dürer, A; Theyer, U; Haberl, I; Ulsperger, E; Baumgartner, G; Hamilton, G

    1999-10-01

    The present study evaluated monthly measurements of free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and the tumor proliferation markers tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving intermittent androgen suppression therapy (IAS). Thirty-four men received alternating cycles of 8 month androgen suppression and treatment cessation (mean duration, 10.3 months) until PSA increased to >20 microg/l. Measurements of testosterone, percentage of free PSA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1 were performed using ELISA and RIA assays. Periods of androgen suppression resulted in reversible reductions of testosterone (from 6 +/- 0.8 to IAS cycle. TPS showed a decrease of 50% after 3 months, and CYFRA 21-1 a 25% decrease after 7 months of androgen suppression treatment. During treatment cessation, TPS exceeded the normal cutoff value of 90 U/l late in tumor regrowth (9-11 months), whereas CYFRA 21-1 remained below the normal cutoff value of 3.3 ng/ml. PSA is the best and most sensitive marker of prostate cancer regression and regrowth during IAS cycles of the markers tested in this study. Free PSA constitutes approximately 15% of total PSA (range, 5-32%), and its percentage showed no significant change during IAS cycles. The TPS and CYFRA 21-1 proliferation marker changes in IAS seem to be related mainly to effects on normal androgen-dependent tissues. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically......, since it is known that reactive oxygen species, which are affected by changes in the redox activity of the cells3, are involved in PCD in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCD is only poorly understood in plant cells4. Recently, it has been shown, using optical detection...

  20. Application of total quality tools in the operational process modernization and optimization of large hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao de ferramentas da qualidade total na modernizacao e otimizacao de processos operacionais de grandes usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Luiz Frederico; Kassem, Faisal Ali; Medlo, Gerson Ricardo; Santos, Valdemir Chalito dos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Capitao Leonidas Marques, PR (Brazil). Superintendencia de Gerencia da Manutencao. Area de Operacao e Manutencao Salto Caxias]. E-mail: potenza@mail.copel.br

    1998-07-01

    This work highlights a practical example of Total Quality tools application, and as the institutional changes advances, the necessity of being better and more competitive becomes evident. By using Total Quality Control tools in the modernization and optimization of operational processes for large hydroelectric power plants of the COPEL-Brazil this work contributes for the continuous increasing of the customers satisfaction and the profitability of the company.

  1. hMSCs Cultured on Plant-Derived Tissue Engineering Extracellular Matrix in a Microgravity Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to fabricate an all plant-derived renewable, biodegradable complete mimic of the bone extracellular matrix (ECM). For the first...

  2. Analysis of S-methylmethionine and S-adenosylmethionine in plant tissue by a dansylation, Dual-isotope method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macnicol, P.K.

    1986-10-01

    A method is presented for determining the levels of S-methylmethionine (MeMet) and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the same plant tissue sample, utilizing readily available equipment. The bottom limit of sensitivity, ca. 100 pmol, can be lowered if required. A trichloracetic acid homogenate of the tissue is supplemented with (carboxyl-/sup 14/C)MeMet and (carboxyl-/sup 14/C)AdoMet. After separation of MeMet and AdoMet from each other and from endogenous homoserine on a phosphocellulose column, the two fractions are heat treated at appropriate pH values to liberate (/sup 14/C)homoserine. Quantitation is via the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio of (/sup 3/H)dansyl-(/sup 14/C)homoserine isolated by thin-layer chromatography. The method is validated with pea cotyledon, corn root, and cauliflower leaf.

  3. Analysis of S-methylmethionine and S-adenosylmethionine in plant tissue by a dansylation, Dual-isotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnicol, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the levels of S-methylmethionine (MeMet) and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the same plant tissue sample, utilizing readily available equipment. The bottom limit of sensitivity, ca. 100 pmol, can be lowered if required. A trichloracetic acid homogenate of the tissue is supplemented with [carboxyl- 14 C]MeMet and [carboxyl- 14 C]AdoMet. After separation of MeMet and AdoMet from each other and from endogenous homoserine on a phosphocellulose column, the two fractions are heat treated at appropriate pH values to liberate [ 14 C]homoserine. Quantitation is via the 3 H/ 14 C ratio of [ 3 H]dansyl-[ 14 C]homoserine isolated by thin-layer chromatography. The method is validated with pea cotyledon, corn root, and cauliflower leaf

  4. The regeneration of epidermal cells of Saintpaulia leaves as a new plant-tissue system for cellular radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, F.M.; Laan, F.M. van der; Leenhouts, H.P.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    investigation of the nucleus of epidermal cells of the petioles of Saintpaulia leaves by cytofluorimetry revealed that all cells are in a non-cycling pre DNA synthesis phase. Cultivation of dissected leaves results in a synchronous regeneration process of a defined number of cells. Five days after onset of cultivation the cells reach the first mitosis. The nuclear development during the regeneration process is described. Irradiation of the leaves results in a directly visible inhibition of this regenerating capability which is used to quantify cell survival in a tissue. The data show that the radiation response has a similar shape to that of the survival of single cells in culture. This response can be observed before the first mitosis of the cells and its application as a new plant tissue system for cellular radiation research is discussed. (author)

  5. Aplicações da cultura de tecidos em plantas medicinais Applications of tissue culture in medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Morais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão tem por objetivo levantar dados de literatura sobre o histórico e a situação atual das técnicas de cultura de tecidos em plantas medicinais. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão de publicações do período de 1976 a 2009. A cultura de tecidos é muito utilizada em pesquisas envolvendo plantas medicinais, com destaque para a técnica de micropropagação. A aplicação das técnicas de cultura de tecidos em plantas medicinais tem como perspectivas a obtenção de germoplasma competitivo e adaptado a diversos métodos de cultivo, escolha de novas espécies que servirão como fonte de compostos biologicamente ativos e aprimoramento da produção de fitofármacos, a fim de assegurar exploração sustentável destas espécies.The aim of this literature review is to conduct a survey concerning the history and current situation of tissue culture techniques in medicinal plants. Therefore, a review was done considering the period from 1976 to 2009. Tissue culture is widely applied in medicinal plants researches, especially micropropagation. The perspectives of tissue culture techniques in medicinal plants are related to the development of competitive germoplasm adapted to diverse methods of cultivation, the election of new species that will serve as source of biological active composts, and the improvement of phytochemicals production, in order to assure sustainable exploration of these species.

  6. Neuroprotection and enhanced neurogenesis by extract from the tropical plant Knema laurina after inflammatory damage in living brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häke, Ines; Schönenberger, Silvia; Neumann, Jens; Franke, Katrin; Paulsen-Merker, Katrin; Reymann, Klaus; Ismail, Ghazally; Bin Din, Laily; Said, Ikram M; Latiff, A; Wessjohann, Ludger; Zipp, Frauke; Ullrich, Oliver

    2009-01-03

    Inflammatory reactions in the CNS, resulting from a loss of control and involving a network of non-neuronal and neuronal cells, are major contributors to the onset and progress of several major neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic strategies should therefore keep or restore the well-controlled and finely-tuned balance of immune reactions, and protect neurons from inflammatory damage. In our study, we selected plants of the Malaysian rain forest by an ethnobotanic survey, and investigated them in cell-based-assay-systems and in living brain tissue cultures in order to identify anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. We found that alcoholic extracts from the tropical plant Knema laurina (Black wild nutmeg) exhibited highly anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in cell culture experiments, reduced NO- and IL-6-release from activated microglia cells dose-dependently, and protected living brain tissue from microglia-mediated inflammatory damage at a concentration of 30 microg/ml. On the intracellular level, the extract inhibited ERK-1/2-phosphorylation, IkB-phosphorylation and subsequently NF-kB-translocation in microglia cells. K. laurina belongs to the family of Myristicaceae, which have been used for centuries for treatment of digestive and inflammatory diseases and is also a major food plant of the Giant Hornbill. Moreover, extract from K. laurina promotes also neurogenesis in living brain tissue after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In conclusion, extract from K. laurina not only controls and limits inflammatory reaction after primary neuronal damage, it promotes moreover neurogenesis if given hours until days after stroke-like injury.

  7. Micro-PIXE on thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state: A novel addition to JSI nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavpetič, P.; Pelicon, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Grlj, N.; Pongrac, P.; Jeromel, L.; Ogrinc, N.; Regvar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently we completed a construction of a cryostat at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe enabling us to analyze various types of biological samples in frozen hydrated state using micro-PIXE/STIM/RBS. Sample load-lock system was added to our existing setup to enable us to quickly insert a sample holder with frozen hydrated tissue samples onto a cold goniometer head cooled with liquid nitrogen inside the measuring chamber. Cryotome-cut slices of frozen hydrated plant samples were mounted between two thin silicon nitride foils and then attached to the sample holder. Sufficient thermal contact between silicon nitride foils and sample holder must be achieved, as well as between the sample holder and the cold goniometer head inside the measuring chamber to prevent melting of the samples. Matrix composition of frozen hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Thinning of the sample as well as water evaporation during high vacuum and proton beam exposure was inspected by the measurements with RBS and STIM method simultaneously with micro-PIXE. For first measuring attempts a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping was used with proton beam cross section of 1.2 × 1.2 μm 2 and a beam current of 100 pA. The temperature of the cold goniometer head was kept below 130 K throughout the entire proton beam exposure. First measurements of thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state show minute sample degradation during the 10 h period of micro-PIXE measurements

  8. Assay of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Tissues under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2018-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, which generates the proton gradient across the outer membrane of plant cells, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many physiological processes fundamental for growth and development of plants. It is involved in the uptake of nutrients from external solutions, their loading into phloem and long-distance transport, stomata aperture and gas exchange, pH homeostasis in cytosol, cell wall loosening, and cell expansion. The crucial role of the enzyme in resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors has also been well documented. Such great diversity of physiological functions linked to the activity of one enzyme requires a suitable and complex regulation of H + -ATPase. This regulation comprises the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Herein, we describe the techniques that can be useful for the analysis of the plasma membrane proton pump modifications at genetic and protein levels under environmental factors.

  9. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Marcos J.; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Hattori, Gustavo Y.

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  10. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erukainure, O.L.; Ajiboye, J.A.; Davis, F.F.; Obabire, K.; Okoro, E.E.; Adenekan, S.O.; Adegbola, M.V.; Awogbemi, B.J.; Odjobo, B.O.; Zaruwa, M.Z.

    2016-07-01

    Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis) oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA), total phospholipid (TP) content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the TP of the mouse chow group. The TP was highest (p < 0.05) in those fed the soy and orange peel oil blend as compared to those fed these oils separately. Feeding soy oil led to decreased MDA in brain tissues and influenced the TP content. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH and SOD activities were observed in the groups fed soy oil+orange peel oil, and soy oil diets respectively. Higher significant (p < 0.05) activities were observed in the orange oil fed group. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) catalase activity was observed in the lipid free diet fed group, which was followed by orange peel oil, and soy oil+orange peel oil diets, respectively. A combination of both oils may be useful in the management of certain neurological diseases or illnesses and protect against other oxidative stress complications. (Author)

  11. Analysis in crab tissues and in sediment of estuary from Iguape (Sao Paulo, Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Marcos J. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mjsalvador1531@yahoo.com.br; Sawazaki, David T.A.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], E-mail: david_tatsuo@hotmail.com, E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Hattori, Gustavo Y. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Benjamin Constant (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias], E-mail: hattori@ufam.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) as a technique for macro, micro and trace elements determination in the tissues of the crab Ulcides cordatus and in the sediments from the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil) for environmental pollution control and toxicological evaluation. The analyses were performed on the U. cordatus (muscles and hepatopancreas) and on sediments from 24 sites of the Iguape estuary (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Tissues and sediments samples were analyzed by SRTXRF after digestion in an open system, using Ga as internal standard. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, and Ba were the elements detected in crab hepatopancreas at concentration ranging from 0.516 (Mn) to 2061 (K) mug/g. Muscles samples presented the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr at concentrations ranging from 0.043 (Ni) to 1917 (K) mug/g. Potassium (K), Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn, Ce, and Pb were the elements detected in the sediment samples with concentration between 3.8 (Cu) and 14628 (Fe)mug/g. (author)

  12. Quantitative assessment of hemodynamic and structural characteristics of in vivo brain tissue using total diffuse reflectance spectrum measured in a non-contact fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Garcia, Sarahy; Frometa, Yisel; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Soltani, Mohammad; Almadi, Mohamed; Riera, Jorge J; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (R TD (λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to R TD (λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target. Estimation errors of the proposed methodology were computationally evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model for photon migration under various conditions. It was discovered that this new methodology could handle moderate noise and achieve very high accuracy, but only if the refractive index of the target is known. The accuracy of the technique was also validated using a series of tissue phantom studies, and consistent and accurate estimates of μ s '(λ)/μ a (λ) were obtained from all the phantoms tested. Finally, a small-scale animal study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical utility of the reported method, wherein a forepaw stimulation model was utilized to induce transient hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortices. With this approach, significant stimulation-related changes (p < 0.001) in cortical hemodynamic and structural characteristics were successfully measured.

  13. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  14. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  15. Detection and identification of multiple adulterants in plant food supplements using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Aouadi, C; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2018-04-15

    Due to the rising popularity of dietary supplements, especially plant food supplements, and alternative herbal medicines, a whole market developed and these products became freely available through internet. Though several searches revealed that at least a part of these products, especially the ones obtained from websites disclosing their physical identity, are aldulterated with pharmaceutical compounds. This causes a threat for public health, since these compounds are not declared and therefore adverse effects will not immediately be related to the product. The more the adulterants can interfere with other medicinal treatments. Since the present active pharmaceutical ingredients are not declared on the package and the products are sold as 100% natural or herbal in nature, it is very difficult for custom personnel to discriminate between products to be confiscated or not. Therefore easy to apply analytical approaches to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated products are necessary. This paper presents an approach based on infrared spectroscopy combined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and partial least squares- discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to easily differentiate between adulterated and non- adulterated plant food supplements and to get a first idea of the nature of the adulterant present. The performance of PLS-DA models based on Mid-IR and NIR data were compared as well as models based on the combined data. Further three preprocessing strategies were compared. The best performance was obtained for a PLS-DA model using Mid-IR data with the second derivative as preprocessing method. This model showed a correct classification rate of 98.3% for an external test set. Also eight real samples were screened using the model and for seven of these samples a correct classification was obtained. Generally it could be concluded that the obtained model and the presented approach could be used at customs to discriminate between adulterated and non

  16. Tissue mineral nutrient content in turions of aquatic plants: does it represent a storage function?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2010), s. 145-151 ISSN 1863-9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carnivorous and non-carnivorous plants * turion N, P, K, Ca and Mg content * water chemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.108, year: 2010

  17. Zooming In on Plant Hormone Analysis: Tissue- and Cell-Specific Approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Napier, R.; Ljung, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2017 (2017), s. 323-348 ISSN 1543-5008 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Biosensor * Cell biology * Mass spectrometry * Phytohormone * Resolution * Sensitivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 22.808, year: 2016

  18. Mercury Concentrations in Plant Tissues as Affected by FGDG Application to Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from themo-electric coal-fired power plants. The most common practice of FGDG production may trap some of the Mercury (Hg) present in the coal that normally would escape as vapor in the stack gases. Concern for t...

  19. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  20. Detecting plant silica fibres in animal tissue by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, M J; Smith, R J; van Blaaderen, A; Crafton, T; O'Neill, C H

    1994-04-01

    Silica fibres from the inflorescence bracts of the grass Phalaris canariensis L. cause dermatitis, and have been implicated in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer in northeastern Iran. Here we describe a method for labelling these fibres so that they can be located in mammalian tissue. Fluorescein was covalently linked to isolated, purified fibres with the silane coupling agent 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The labelled hairs were then rubbed into the backs of mice. These were later killed and their skin fixed, stained and sliced at a thickness of 250 microns. A confocal laser scanning microscope gave brilliant images of the fibres at any depth up to 100 microns or more beneath the surface of the slice. Fibres penetrated deeply into the dermis. Several cubic millimetres of tissue could be surveyed in 1 h. The number of fibres present was approximately 2 mm-3 initially, falling to 0.1 mm-3 after 7 days.

  1. Disease Development and Symptom Expression of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in Various Citrus Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernière, C J; Gottwald, T R; Pruvost, O

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions on Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease expression and 184 different factor combinations were investigated to determine the parameters needed to explain Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) disease expression. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), inoculation date (Id), fruit and leaf age ratings (FAR and LAR), and number of days during the first 2 weeks postinoculation for which the temperature was less than 14 degrees C (T(min)) or more than 28 degrees C (T(max)) were retained by principal component analysis and canonical correlation analysis as the most meaningful epidemic and environmental variables, respectively. AUDPC as the strongest dependent variable and combinations of the environmental variables as independent variables were used in multiple regression analyses. Tissue age rating at the time of infection was a good predictor for disease resulting from spray inoculation on fruits and leaves and also on fruits following a wound inoculation. Temperature, as expressed by T(min) or T(max), was also a significant factor in determining disease development described by AUDPC. Mature green stems were highly susceptible after wounding, similarly to leaves, but buds and leaf scars expressed the lowest susceptibility. These variations in disease expression according to the tissues will have different impacts on ACC epidemiology.

  2. Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP, Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples′ turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.

  3. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  4. Postembryonic organogenesis and plant regeneration from tissues:two sides of the same coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan ePerianez-Rodriguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have extraordinary developmental plasticity as they continuously form organs duringpostembryonic development. In addition they may regenerate organs upon in vitro hormonalinduction. Advances in the field of plant regeneration show that the first steps of de novoorganogenesis through in vitro culture in hormone containing media (via formation of aproliferating mass of cells or callus require root postembryonic developmental programs as wellas regulators of auxin and cytokinin signaling pathways. We review how hormonal regulation isdelivered during lateral root initiation and callus formation. Implications in reprograming, cellfate and pluripotency acquisition are discussed. Finally, we analyze the function of cell-cycleregulators and connections with epigenetic regulation. Future work dissecting plantorganogenesis driven by both endogenous and exogenous cues (upon hormonal induction mayreveal new paradigms of common regulation.

  5. Application of a Novel and Automated Branched DNA in Situ Hybridization Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Localization of mRNA Molecules in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH, originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. Methods and Results: Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. Conclusions: RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  6. Microfluidic monitoring of programmed cell death in living plant seed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    , et al., (2006), BioEssays, 28, p. 1091). Microfluidic cell culture enables in vitro experiments to approach in vivo conditions. Combining microfluidics with the Lab-On-a-Chip concept allows implementing a wide range of assays for real-time monitoring of effects in a biological system of factors...... such as concentration of selected compounds, external pH, oxygen consumption, redox state and cell viability. The aleurone layer of the barley seed is a 2-3 single cell type thick tissue that can be dissected from the embryo and starchy endosperm. During incubation in vitro this mechanically very robust maintains...

  7. Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2010-07-01

    Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence of applied loads and could induce cavity opening. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous growth-induced cavitation in elastic materials and consider the implications of this phenomenon to biological tissues and in particular to the problem of schizogenous aerenchyma formation. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.

  8. Characterization of viruses associated with garlic plants propagated from different reproductive tissues from Italy and other geographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo PARRANO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an important crop cultivated worldwide and several different viruses have been associated with propagative material. Garlic is propagated from bulbs and/or from vegetative topsets of the inflorescences known as bulbils. The effects of the geographic origin and the type of the propagative material on the phylogenetic relationships and genetic variability of the coat protein genes of four allium viruses are presented here. Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV, Garlic virus X (GVX, and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV were detected in single and mixed infections in plants grown either from bulbils and/or bulbs originating from Italy, China, Argentina, and the U.S.A. OYDV and LYSV fell into five and three well supported clades respectively whereas isolates of GVX and GCLV all clustered into one well-supported clade each. Some of the OYDV and LYSV clades presented evidence of host tissue selection while some phylogenetic structuring based on the geographic origin or host was also observed for some virus clades. Unique haplotypes and novel coat protein amino acid sequence patterns were identified for all viruses. An OYDV coat protein amino acid signature unique to Chenopodium quinoa, an uncommon host of the virus, was of particular interest. The type of propagative material affected the population dynamics of all of the viruses. The virus populations in plants propagated from bulbs were more diverse than in plants propagated from bulbils.

  9. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbasha Sarkar

    Full Text Available Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm, and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF, cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we

  10. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator

  11. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L [Univ Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator.

  12. Toxicity of arsenic (III) and (V) on plant growth, element uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2008-01-01

    The effects of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] on the growth of roots, stems, and leaves and the uptake of arsenic (As), micro- and macronutrients, and total amylolytic activity were investigated to elucidate the phytotoxicity of As to the mesquite plant (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina). The plant growth was evaluated by measuring the root and shoot length, and the element uptake was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The root and leaf elongation decreased significantly with increasing As(III) and As(V) concentrations; whereas, stem elongation remained unchanged. The As uptake increased with increasing As(III) or As(V) concentrations in the medium. Plants treated with 50 mg/L As(III) accumulated up to 920 mg/kg dry weight (d wt) in roots and 522 mg/kg d wt in leaves, while plants exposed to 50 mg/L As(V) accumulated 1980 and 210 mg/kg d wt in roots and leaves, respectively. Increasing the As(V) concentration up to 20 mg/L resulted in a decrease in the total amylolytic activity. On the contrary, total amylolytic activity in As(III)-treated plants increased with increasing As concentration up to 20 mg/L. The macro- and micronutrient concentrations changed in As-treated plants. In shoots, Mo and K were reduced but Ca was increased, while in roots Fe and Ca were increased but K was reduced. These changes reduced the size of the plants, mainly in the As(III)-treated plants; however, there were no visible sign of As toxicity.

  13. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Lan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. RESULTS: In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569 outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN. PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection

  14. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate

  15. Extraction of carbon 14-labeled compounds from plant tissue during processing for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, J.; van der Merwe, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Loss of 14 C-labeled compounds from bean leaf tissue was monitored during all the stages of routine specimen preparation. No significant differences in extraction were associated with the use of acetone, ethanol, or dioxane as dehydration fluids. Fixation at low temperature increased the loss of label. Prolonged fixation in glutaraldehyde increased the loss, but fixation in osmium solutions for periods as long as 4 hr had no influence on extraction. Buffer rinses and dehydration fluids caused appreciable amounts of label to be extracted. The use of propylene oxide as transition fluid resulted in low extraction. Some embedding media caused the loss of small amounts of labeled compounds, but one of the media tested (LR-white) extracted significant amounts of label

  16. Assessment of total soil and plant trace elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori, Livia; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Macro- and micronutrients concentrations, and PTEs contents in soils and plants (rice) from the rice district in the Venetian territory (NE Italy) have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry, with the following aims: - to determine the background levels of macro- and microelements in the study area; - to assess possible contamination of soils and plants; - to calculate the Translocation Factor (TF) of metals from soil to plant, and the possible hazard for human health. Four rice plots with different rotation systems were investigated from seedling time to harvesting; sampling of soils (0-30cm) and plants was carried out 4 times during growing season (three replicates). Rice plants were separated into roots, stems, leaves and grains, and then oven-dried. Chemical and physical analyses were carried out at the Soil Science Lab of the University of Bologna and Venice, respectively. The results obtained point to a land with moderate soil contamination by trace elements (namely Li, Sn, Tl, Sr, Ti, Fe). Heavy metal (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn ) concentrations in soils are below the threshold indicated by the Italian legislation (DM 152/2006). Cd, Sn, and Ti contents in soils are positively correlated with soil pH, while As, Fe, Li, Ti, Tl and Zn are negatively correlated with organic matter content. With the exception of Strontium, soil metal contents are always correlated between variable couples. HMs in plants vary according to the sampling season, texture and moisture, and soil pH. Most non-essential trace elements are accumulated in rice roots and, only in cases of essential micronutrients, in leaves. Therefore, rice can be assumed as an accumulator plant of As, Pb, Cr, Ba, and Ti, whereas it is as an indicator plant for Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil pH has a larger effect on Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti and Zn concentrations in grain than other soil parameters. The average translocation of

  17. Extraction and analysis of fumonisins and compounds indicative of fumonisin exposure in plant and mammalian tissues and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas C; Riley, Ronald T

    2011-01-01

    Fumonisin mycotoxins are common contaminants in many grains, often at very low levels. Maize is -particularly problematic as one of the organisms that commonly produce fumonisins, the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, often exists as an endophyte of maize. Fumonisin is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme ceramide synthase, and this inhibition results in the accumulation of a variety of upstream compounds, most notably, the sphingoid bases sphingosine, sphinganine, 1-deoxysphinganine and, in plants, phytosphingosine. Fumonisin exposure results in a wide variety of species, sex, and strain-specific responses. This method provides a relatively fast means of extracting fumonisins, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base 1-phosphates from tissues and cells, as well as the subsequent analyses and quantification of these compounds using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

  18. The use of plant tissue culture system in the mutagenesis of Secale cereale L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybczynski, J.J.; KozIowska, W.; Turzynski, D.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Among cereals, Secale cereale L. is the worst species for 'in vitro' mutagenesis. In the case of seed mutagenesis of rye each seed is expected to be a different genotype and only somatic embryogenesis assures propagation towards numerous individuals possessing the same genotype. Therefore, another system of in-vitro mutagenesis is explored. Immature embryos were isolated from spikes of field growing plants. The established cultures were irradiated with 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kR gamma rays on the first day of the culture and after 6 weeks in culture. After irradiation all cultures were subcultured. For mutagenesis in general uniformity of the original material is very important. Therefore, in rye, irradiation of regenerated somatic embryos may be a good approach. (author)

  19. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Carica papaya L. tissue culture derived from root explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Wang, P J; Maeda, E

    1987-10-01

    The regeneration potential of shoot tip, stem, leaf, cotyledon and root explants of two papaya cultivars (Carica papaya cv. 'Solo' and cv. 'Sunrise') were studed. Callus induction of these two cultivars of papaya showed that the shoot tips and stems are most suitable for forming callus, while leaves, cotyledons and roots are comparatively difficult to induce callus. Callus induction also varied with the varities. Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from 3-month-old root cultures. A medium containing half strength of MS inorganic salts, 160 mg/l adenine sulfate, 1.0 mg/1 NAA, 0.5 mg/1 kinetin and 1.0 mg/1 GA3 was optimal for embryogenesis. The callus maintained high regenerative capacity after two years of culture on this medium. Plants derived from somatic embryos were obtained under green-house conditions.

  20. Reduction of negative environmental impact generated by residues of plant tissue culture laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleidys Cortés Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the activity developed by teaching and research laboratories for biotechnology purposes with an environmental approach to determine potential contamination risk and analyze the residuals generated. The physical - chemical characterization of the residuals was carried out from contamination indicators that can affect the dumping of residual water. In order to identify the environmental risks and sources of microbial contamination of plant material propagated by in vitro culture that generate residuals, all the risk activities were identified, the type of risk involved in each activity was analyzed, as well as whether or not the standards were met of aseptic normative. The dilution and neutralization was proposed for residuals with extreme values of pH. Since the results of the work a set of measures was proposed to reduce the negative environmental impact of the laboratory residuals. Key words: biosafety, environmental management, microbial contamination

  1. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-09-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO(2) and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO(2)] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C (day/night) and 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. Photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. When measured under a PAR >or=600 micromol m(-2) s(-1), elevated RZ [CO(2)] resulted in significantly higher A, lower g(s), and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO(2)], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO(2)] was greater at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C although the total biomass was higher at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO(2)] than under ambient RZ [CO(2)] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO(2)], NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO(2)], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO(2)] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO(2)] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between

  2. Metaproteomic identification of diazotrophic methanotrophs and their localization in root tissues of field-grown rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study by our group, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the roots of wild-type rice plants in a paddy field with no N input; both processes are likely controlled by a rice gene for microbial symbiosis. The present study examined which microorganisms in rice roots were responsible for CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation under the field conditions. Metaproteomic analysis of root-associated bacteria from field-grown rice (Oryza sativa Nipponbare) revealed that nitrogenase complex-containing nitrogenase reductase (NifH) and the alpha subunit (NifD) and beta subunit (NifK) of dinitrogenase were mainly derived from type II methanotrophic bacteria of the family Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp. Minor nitrogenase proteins such as Methylocella, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Anaeromyxobacter were also detected. Methane monooxygenase proteins (PmoCBA and MmoXYZCBG) were detected in the same bacterial group of the Methylocystaceae. Because these results indicated that Methylocystaceae members mediate both CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation, we examined their localization in rice tissues by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The methanotrophs were localized around the epidermal cells and vascular cylinder in the root tissues of the field-grown rice plants. Our metaproteomics and CARD-FISH results suggest that CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation are performed mainly by type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp., inhabiting the vascular bundles and epidermal cells of rice roots. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Stimulate The Growth of Rice Using Endophytic Bacteria from Lowland Rice Plant Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and selection of endophytic bacteria from healthy food crops grown in lowland ecosystem is important to be conducted in order to get growth-stimulating endophytic bacteria at soil with low fertility level so that capable to optimize initial growth of food crops and subsequently can increase productivity level of lowland soil.The research objective was to isolate and to test the IAA-producing endophytic bacteria isolate in stimulating the rice crop growth at lowland area. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from tissues of rice, corn and peanut crops which grown at shallow swamp land in Ogan Ilir and Ogan Komering Ilir Districts, South Sumatra, Indonesia. There was nine isolates of nitrogen-fixer endophytic bacteria that capable to contribute IAA phytohormone into their growth media. The P31 isolate from rice crop tisssue of 2 months old produce the best rice sprouts than other isolates. This isolate can contribute of about 10 mg kg-1 IAA to its growth medium and increase the crowns dry weight and the roots dry weight respectively with magnitudes of 133% and 225% compared to control treatment. Concentration and absorbtion of N for rice crops innoculated with P31 isolates had increased by 169% and 400%, recpectively. The P31 isolates had been identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

  4. The Interrelationship of pCO2, Soil Moisture Content, and Biomass Fertilization Expressed in the Carbon Isotope Signature of C3 Plant Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of chamber and field experiments have shown an increase in C3 plant biomass in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2); however, secondary water and nutrient deficits are thought to limit this response. Some have hypothesized that secondary limitation might be self-alleviating under elevated pCO2 as greater root biomass imparts enhanced access to water and nutrients. Here we present results of growth chamber experiments designed to test this hypothesis: we grew 206 Arabidopsis thaliana plants within 5 growth chambers, each set at a different level of pCO2: 390, 685, 1075, 1585, and 2175 ppmv. Within each growth chamber, soil moisture content (θm) was maintained across a spectrum: 1.50, 0.83, 0.44, and 0.38 g g-1. After 3 weeks of total growth, tissues were analyzed for both biomass and net carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) value. From these values, we calculated Δresidual, which represents the residual effect of water stress after subtraction of the effect of pCO2 due to photorespiration. Across the full range of moisture content, Δresidual displayed a significant 2.5‰ increase with increasing pCO2. This further implies a 0.1 unit increase in ci/ca, consistent with decreased water stress at elevated pCO2. The influence of CO2 fertilization on the alleviation of water stress was further evidenced in a positive correlation between percent biomass change and Δresidual, such that a doubling of plant biomass yielded a 1.85‰ increase in carbon isotope discrimination. In addition to providing new insight into water uptake in plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide, these data underscore the importance of separating the effects of increased pCO2 (via photorespiration) and altered ci/ca (via stomatal conductance) when considering changes in the Δ13C value of C3 land plants during the Anthropocene, or across any geological period that includes a marked change in global carbon cycling.

  5. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-01-01

    Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants. PMID:15904535

  6. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-05-18

    Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  7. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling Terry

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  8. Study on the biological effect of radiation-degraded alginate and chitosan on plant in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Luan; Vo Thi Thu Ha; Le Hai; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Nguyen Duy Hang; Nguyen Tuong Ly Lan; Le Huu Tu

    2003-01-01

    The solution of chitosan (10%) and alginate (4%) were irradiated at doses of 10-250 kGy for degradation and the products were used for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The chitosan and alginate irradiated at 100 kGy and 75 kGy, respectively showed the strongest growth-promotion effect for plants namely L. latifolium, E. grandiflorum and C. morifolium in tissue culture. For shoot multiplication, the suitable concentrations are found to be ca. 50-200 mg/l for C. morifolium, 70-100 mg/l for L. latifolium and 30-100 mg/l E. grandiflorum with irradiated chitosan, while with irradiated alginate, it was 30-200 mg/l, 30-50 mg/l and 10-200 mg/l, respectively. The optimum concentrations for C. morifolium, E. grandiflorum, L. latifolium incubated on rooting medium are ca. 100 mg/l, 30 mg/l and 40 mg/l, respectively for irradiated chitosan and 100 mg/l for irradiated alginate. After acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse, the survival ratio of the transferred C. morifolium, E. grandiflorum, L. latifolium plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved 18%, 39% and 13%, respectively. (author)

  9. Regeneration and acclimatization of salt-tolerant arachis hypogaea plants through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Excised embryos of Arachis hypogaea were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS medium) supplemented with different combinations of growth hormones. The highest frequency of callus proliferation (80%) was recorded on MS medium mixed with 1.0 mg/1 of 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/1 of BAP. These cultures were treated with 0.65 mg/l of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (HyP) a:1d various concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of NaCl. In all cases the presence of salt reduced the fresh mass of callus. Shoot regeneration in the cultures took place when transferred to MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 of kinetin (Kin) and 0.5 mg/1 of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Percentage of shoot regeneration decreased with the increase of NaCl (0.1- 0.5%) in the shoot regeneration medium. Root formation in these cultures took place when the cultures were nurtured on MS medium free of growth hormones. Regeneration, hardening and acclimatization of the salt tolerant plants was conducted. (author)

  10. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part II: One-cycle PLE in determining total amount of analyte in plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is recognised as one of the most effective sample preparation methods. Despite the enhanced extraction power of PLE, the full recovery of an analyte from plant material may require multiple extractions of the same sample. The presented investigations show the possibility of estimating the true concentration value of an analyte in plant material employing one-cycle PLE in which plant samples of different weight are used. The performed experiments show a linear dependence between the reciprocal value of the analyte amount (E*), extracted in single-step PLE from a plant matrix, and the ratio of plant material mass to extrahent volume (m(p)/V(s)). Hence, time-consuming multi-step PLE can be replaced by a few single-step PLEs performed at different (m(p)/V(s)) ratios. The concentrations of rutin in Sambucus nigra L. and caffeine in tea and coffee estimated by means of the tested procedure are almost the same as their concentrations estimated by multiple PLE.

  11. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , after 144 h of enzymatic hydrolysis the cortex had vanished, exposing the heavier lignified vascular tissue. Accumulation of lignin droplets and exposure of residual lignin could be part of the explanation for the decreasing hydrolysis rate. Flattening of macrofibrils after pretreatment together...... with more indentations on the surfaces was also observed, possibly caused by a proposed synergistic effect of cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. Keywords: Lignocellulose; Plant tissues; Lignin accumulation; Atomic Force Microscopy; Scanning Electron Microscopy...

  12. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-05-31

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  13. Closing the sky. The total dismantling of the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant demonstrates maturity in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to put the situation of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the world into perspective as an already consolidated activity and with an important future of industrial activity. The decommissioning project that Enresa is currently performing in the old Jose Cabrera plant is being explained in detail, by providing data of the newest and most relevant technical aspects as well as the lessons learned to be reusable in other decommissioning projects. The previous background, the project planning, the activities performed and those still to be done as well as their timing are being explained in detail. (Author)

  14. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-02-01

    Amending soil with biosolids or livestock manure provides essential nutrients in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater allows for agriculture in regions where water resources are limited. However, biosolids, manure and wastewater have all been shown to contain pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have shown that PPCPs can accumulate in the tissues of plants but the risk that accumulated residues may pose to humans via consumption of edible portions is not well documented. This study reviewed the literature for studies that reported residues of PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants grown in biosolids- or manure-amended soils or irrigated with wastewater. These residues were used to determine the estimated daily intake of PPCPs for an adult and toddler. Estimated daily intake values were compared to acceptable daily intakes to determine whether PPCPs in plant tissue pose a hazard to human health. For all three amendment practices, the majority of reported residues resulted in hazard quotients plants to concentrations of PPCPs that would not be considered relevant based on concentrations reported in biosolids and manure or unrealistic methods of exposure, which lead to artificially elevated plant residues. Our assessment indicates that the majority of individual PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants due to biosolids or manure amendment or wastewater irrigation represent a de minimis risk to human health. Assuming additivity, the mixture of PPCPs could potentially present a hazard. Further work needs to be done to assess the risk of the mixture of PPCPs that may be present in edible tissue of plants grown under these three amendment practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimated radiological effects of the normal discharge of radioactivity from nuclear power plants in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 3500 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugt, G. van der; Wijker, H.; Kema, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands discussions are going on about the installation of three nuclear power plants, leading with the two existing plants to a total capacity of 3500 MWe. To have an impression of the radiological impact of this program, calculations were carried out concerning the population doses due to the discharge of radioactivity from the plants during normal operation. The discharge via the ventilation stack gives doses due to noble gases, halogens and particulate material. The population dose due to the halogens in the grass-milk-man chain is estimated using the real distribution of grass-land around the reactor sites. It could be concluded that the population dose due to the contamination of crops and fruit is negligeable. A conservative estimation is made for the dose due to the discharge of tritium. The population dose due to the discharge in the cooling water is calculated using the following pathways: drinking water; consumption of fish; consumption of meat from animals fed with fish products. The individual doses caused by the normal discharge of a 1000 MWe plant appeared to be very low, mostly below 1 mrem/year. The population dose is in the order of some tens manrems. The total dose of the 5 nuclear power plants to the dutch population is not more than 70 manrem. Using a linear dose-effect relationship the health effects to the population are estimated and compared with the normal frequency

  16. Plant assemblage composition and soil P concentration differentially affect communities of AM and total fungi in a semi-arid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabi, Rim; Bell, Terrence H; Hamel, Chantal; Iwaasa, Alan; Schellenberg, Mike; Raies, Aly; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adding inorganic P- and N-fixing legumes to semi-arid grasslands can increase forage yield, but soil nutrient concentrations and plant cover may also interact to modify soil fungal populations, impacting short- and long-term forage production. We tested the effect of plant assemblage (seven native grasses, seven native grasses + the domesticated N-fixing legume Medicago sativa, seven native grasses + the native N-fixing legume Dalea purpurea or the introduced grass Bromus biebersteinii + M. sativa) and soil P concentration (addition of 0 or 200 P2O5 kg ha(-1) at sowing) on the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and total fungi over two consecutive years, using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS amplicons. Treatment effects were stronger in the wet year (2008) than the dry year (2009). The presence of an N-fixing legume with native grasses generally increased AM fungal diversity, while the interaction between soil P concentration and plant assemblage modified total fungal community structure in 2008. Excluding interannual variations, which are likely driven by moisture and plant productivity, AM fungal communities in semi-arid grasslands appear to be primarily affected by plant assemblage composition, while the composition of other fungi is more closely linked to soil P. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Total and bioavailable arsenic concentration in arid soils and its uptake by native plants from the pre-Andean zones in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Tapia, Y; Pastene, R; Montes, S; Núñez, N; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic is the most important contaminant of the environment in northern Chile. Soil samples and plant organs from three native plant species, Pluchea absinthioides, Atriplex atacamensis and Lupinus microcarpus, were collected from arid zones in order to determine the total and bioavailable arsenic concentrations in soils and to assess the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transport index (Ti) of arsenic in the plants. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (pH 8.3-8.5) where A. atacamensis and P. absinthioides were collected, reached levels considered to be contaminated (54.3 ± 15.4 and 52.9 ± 9.9 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), and these values were approximately ten times higher than in soils (pH 7.6) where L. microcarpus was collected. Bioavailable arsenic ranged from 0.18 to 0.42% of total arsenic concentration. In the three plant species, arsenic concentration in leaves were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than in roots. L. microcarpus showed the highest arsenic concentration in its leaves (9.7 ± 1.6 mg kg⁻¹) and higher values of BCF (1.8) and Ti (6.1), indicating that this species has a greater capacity to accumulate and translocate the metalloid to the leaf than do the other species.

  18. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid) bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the regio...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  20. Total chain dynamical assessment with an integrated model of a Post Combustion Capture Plant at a Pulverized Coal Plant and CO2 downstream infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kler, R.C.F. de; Haar, A.M. van de

    2013-01-01

    The application of Post Combustion Capture has a significant advantage for mitigating the anthropogenic greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, in comparison to other capture technologies, since it is a so called “End of the Pipe” retrofit and therefore potentially applicable to existing power plants.

  1. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  2. Investigation of gold nanoparticles uptake and their tissue level distribution in rice plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmel, Jeremy; Leland, Thomas; Wang, Huanhua; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    The tissue level uptake and spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots and shoots under hydroponic conditions was investigated using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Rice plants were hydroponically exposed to positively, neutrally, and negatively charged AuNPs [AuNP1(+), AuNP2(0), AuNP3(−)] with a core diameter of 2 nm. Plants were exposed to AuNPs having 1.6 mg Au/L for 5 days or 0.14 mg Au/L for 3 months to elucidate how the surface charges of the nanoparticles affects their uptake into living plant tissues. The results demonstrate that terminal functional groups greatly affected the AuNP uptake into plant tissues. Au concentration determined by LA-ICP-MS in 5 day treated rice roots followed this order: AuNP1(+) > AuNP2(0) > AuNP3(−) but this order was reversed for rice shoots, indicating preferential translocation of AuNP3(−). Bioimages revealed distributions of mesophyll and vascular AuNP dependent on organ or AuNP concentration. Highlights: ► LA-ICP-MS technique was effectively used to quantify engineered AuNP in rice plant. ► Uptake and translocation of AuNPs are evident in rice roots and shoots. ► Organ level distribution of AuNPs is affected by their surface charges. ► Bioimaging of AuNP distribution in rice tissues by LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated. -- The tissue level uptake and spatial distribution of engineered gold nanoparticles (AuNP) by rice plants was demonstrated by LA-ICP-MS bioimaging

  3. Distributions of imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues and roots of rapeseed (Brassica napus) from artificially contaminated potting soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifrtova, Marcela; Halesova, Tatana; Sulcova, Klara; Riddellova, Katerina; Erban, Tomas

    2017-05-01

    Imidacloprid-urea is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid. We artificially contaminated potting soil and used quantitative UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS to determine the imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea distributions in rapeseed green plant tissues and roots after 4 weeks of exposure. In soil, the imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios decreased similarly after the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatments. The imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios in the root and soil were similar, whereas in the green plant tissue, imidacloprid-urea increased more than twofold compared with the root. Although imidacloprid-olefin was prevalent in the green plant tissues, with imidacloprid/imidacloprid-olefin molar ratios of 2.24 and 1.47 for the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 treatments respectively, it was not detected in the root. However, imidacloprid-olefin was detected in the soil after the 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatment. Significant proportions of imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues were demonstrated. The greater imidacloprid supply increased the imidacloprid-olefin/imidacloprid molar ratio in the green plant tissues. The absence of imidacloprid-olefin in the root excluded its retransport from leaves. The similar imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea ratios in the soil and root indicated that the root serves primarily for transporting these substances. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Determination of total tritium in urine from residents living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Qinshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bao-Ming; Ji, Yan-Qin; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xiang-Zhang; Yin, Liang-Liang; Su, Xu

    2015-01-16

    To estimate the tritium doses of the residents living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant, urine samples of 34 adults were collected from residents living near the Qinshan nuclear power plant. The tritium-in-urine (HTO plus OBT) was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The doses of tritium-in-urine from participants living at 2, 10 and 22 km were in a range of 1.26-6.73 Bq/L, 1.31-3.09 Bq/L and 2.21-3.81 Bq/L, respectively, while the average activity concentrations of participants from the three groups were 3.53 ± 1.62, 2.09 ± 0.62 and 2.97 ± 0.78 Bq/L, respectively. The personal committed effective doses for males were 2.5 ± 1.7 nSv and for females they were 2.9 ± 1.3 nSv. These results indicate that tritium concentrations in urine samples from residents living at 2 km from a nuclear power plant are significantly higher than those at 10 km. It may be the downwind direction that caused a higher dose in participants living at 22 km. All the measured doses of tritium-in-urine are in a background level range.

  5. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  6. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  7. RED DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus costaricensis Britt. Et R. PEEL EXTRACT AS A NATURAL DYE ALTERNATIVE IN MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF PLANT TISSUES: THE PRACTICAL GUIDE IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Wagiyanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prepared slide of plant tissue needs to be staining to facilitate observations under microscope. Laboratorium activities in schools usually use synthetic dyes which expensive and can be damaged the student. Therefore the exploration of alternative dyes need to be established, such as utilizing of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus castaricensis Britt. Et R.. This study aims to (1 find out the best concentration of dragon fruit peel extract for staining plant tissue prepared slide and (2 to develop the practical guide related to plant tissue observation. The qualitative research used different concentration of red dragon fruit peel extract, namely: 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% with 3 repetitions. Data were obtained from observation photos of prepared slide. The result showed that the most contrast prepared slide was used red dragon fruit extract in 60% concentration. The result use to arrange practical guide in observation of plant tissues which is validated by material expert. The validation result showed “very good” criteria (86.01%.

  8. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay and evaluation of their total phenolic content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Biradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic constituents and polyphenolic compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. In this context, we have selected six Indian medicinal plants based on the literature claims and an attempt was made to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and total phenolic content (TPC of their methanol extracts and fractions. Materials and Methods: Six plants have been selected for the study, namely, Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae, Oroxylum indicum (Linn. Vent. (Bignoniaceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb. Kunth. (Araceae, Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae, and Premna serratifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to extraction with methanol by cold maceration and hot percolation methods. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out for all extracts and fractions. All extracts and their fractions were subjected to cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay. The plants with significant cytotoxicity were evaluated for TPC by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium and P. serratifolia and F1 fraction of M. pudica have shown significant cytotoxicity (lethal concentration (LC 50 < 100 ppm compared with other fractions. F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium show the LC 50 values 32.52, 14.27, and 24.02, respectively; F1, F2, and F3 of P. serratifolia show LC 50 values 7.61, 4.01, and 10.91 and same for F1 fraction of M. pudica was 34.82 μg/ml, respectively. TPC was found to be significantly higher (39.11 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g in P. serratifolia compared with other two plants. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity screening system confirmed the proposed anticancer plants used by traditional healers and literature claims.

  9. Epiphyte-cover on seagrass (Zostera marina L. leaves impedes plant performance and radial O2 loss from the below-ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Elgetti Brodersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The O2 budget of seagrasses is a complex interaction between several sources and sinks, which is strongly regulated by light availability and mass transfer over the diffusive boundary layer (DBL surrounding the plant. Epiphyte growth on leaves may thus strongly affect the O2 availability of the seagrass plant and its capability to aerate its rhizosphere as a defence against plant toxins.We used electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors to quantify the O2 flux, DBL and light microclimate around leaves with and without filamentous algal epiphytes. We also quantified the below-ground radial O2 loss from roots (~1 mm from the root-apex to elucidate how this below-ground oxic microzone was affected by the presence of epiphytes.Epiphyte-cover on seagrass leaves (~21% areal cover resulted in reduced light quality and quantity for photosynthesis, thus leading to reduced plant fitness. A ~4 times thicker diffusive boundary layer around leaves with epiphyte-cover impeded gas (and nutrient exchange with the surrounding water-column and thus the amount of O2 passively diffusing into the leaves in darkness. During light exposure of the leaves, radial oxygen loss from the below-ground tissue was ~2 times higher from plants without epiphyte-cover. In contrast, no O2 was detectable at the surface of the root-cap tissue of plants with epiphyte-cover during darkness, leaving the plants more susceptible to sulphide intrusion.Epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves thus negatively affects the light climate and O2 uptake in darkness, hampering the plants performance and thereby reducing the oxidation capability of its below-ground tissue.

  10. Operation of the main feedwater system turbopump following plant trip with total failure of the auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas Alvaro, A.M. de; Rosa Martinez, B. de la; Alcaide, F.; Toledano Camara, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Auxiliary Feedwater System (AF) is a safeguard system which has been designed to supply feedwater to the steam generators, cool the primary system and remove decay heat from the reactor when the main feedwater pumps fail due to loss of power or any other reason. Thus, when plant trip occurs, the AF system pumps start up automatically, allowing removal of decay heat from the reactor. However, even though this system (2 motor-driven pumps and 1 turbopump) is highly reliable, injection of water to the steam generators must be ensured when it fails completely. To do this, if plant trip has not been caused by loss of off site power or failure of the Main Feedwater System (FW) turbopumps, one of these turbopumps can be used to achieve removal of decay heat. Since a large amount of steam is consumed by these turbopumps, an analysis has been performed to determine whether one of these pumps can be used and what actions are necessary to inject water into the steam generators. Results show that, for the case in question, a FW turbopump can be used to remove decay heat from the reactor. (author)

  11. Efficient extraction of proteins from recalcitrant plant tissue for subsequent analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2015-10-01

    Protein extraction for two-dimensional electrophoresis from tissues of recalcitrant species is quite problematic and challenging due to the low protein content and high abundance of contaminants. Proteomics in Shorea robusta is scarcely conducted due to the lack of a suitable protein preparation procedure. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis in Shorea robusta, four procedures (borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction, organic solvent/trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sucrose/Tris/phenol, and organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate) were evaluated. Following these, proteins were isolated from mature leaves and were analyzed for proteomics, and also for potential contaminants, widely reported to hinder proteomics. The borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction had the lowest protein yield and did not result in any banding even in one-dimensional electrophoresis. In contrast, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction allowed the highest protein yield. Moreover, during proteomics, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extracted protein resolved the maximum number (144) of spots. Further, when proteins were evaluated for contaminants, significant (77-95%) reductions in the nucleic acids, phenol, and sugars were discernible with refinement in extraction procedure. Accumulated data suggested that the organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction was the most effective protocol for protein isolation for proteomics of Shorea robusta and can be used for plants that have a similar set of contaminants. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erukainure, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA, total phospholipid (TP content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p Ratas albinas machos fueron alimentadas con aceites de soja y de cáscara de naranja (C. sinensis para determinar su efecto sobre el malondialdehído (MDA, fosfolípidos (TP y el contenido total de biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo de su tejido cerebral. Además de alimento para ratones, cuatro dietas fueron diseñadas conteniendo el 50% de la energía en forma de carbohidratos, el 35% en forma de grasa, y el 15% como proteína, y una cuarta dieta libre de lípidos donde se había sustituido la grasa por agua destilada. Grupos de cinco ratas fueron alimentadas cada uno con estas dietas, mientras que un quinto grupo fue alimentado con alimento para ratones peletizado. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en TP del grupo alimentado concomida para ratón. Los TP fue mayor (p < 0,05 en los alimentados con mezcla de aceite de soja y de cáscaras de naranja, en comparación con los alimentados con estos aceites por separado. La alimentación con aceite de soja llevó a una disminución del MDA en los tejidos del cerebro e influyó en el contenido de TP. Se observó un descenso significativo (p < 0,05 de las actividades de GSH y SOD en los grupos alimentados con aceite de soja+aceite de piel de naranja, y con las dietas de aceite de soja. Se observaron actividades significativamente más altas (p < 0,05 en el grupo alimentado con aceite de naranja. Una actividad catalasa significativamente mas alta (p < 0,05 se observ

  13. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  14. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  15. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  16. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjiang Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Development of coal liquefaction plant (Research on total system); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika plant no kaihatsu (total system no kenkyu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For a quantitative analysis of a coal liquefaction process and its constituent sub-processes from both engineering and economic viewpoints, research is conducted for the development of a coal liquefaction process simulator. In the development of a liquefaction simulator, surveys and studies are performed relative to a coal liquefaction process, which is the object of this development effort, its system, existing like simulators, computation for the estimation of the physical properties that a liquefaction simulator should be equipped with, liquefaction yield prediction model, unit operation model, etc. Based on the results of these studies, a conceptual system design is drawn, which is the first step toward the programming of a more concrete software program. Also compiled into this book are the contents of advice and guidance provided by the total system committee in the period September 1981-February 1982 on the research for the development of a liquefaction simulator, and reports by researchers who were dispatched to the U.S. etc. for the development of a coal liquefaction simulator. (NEDO)

  18. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. The estimation of the total number of fissions with related reactor physics parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, Kojiro; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Shunsuke; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Kazuki; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2000-01-01

    This accident occurred when workers were pouring a uranium solution into a precipitation tank with handy operation against the established procedure and both the cylindrical diameter and the total mass exceeded the limited values. As a result, nuclear fission chain reactor in the solution reached not only a 'criticality' state continuing it independently but also an instantly forming criticality state exceed the criticality and increasing further nuclear fission number. The place occurring the accident at this time was not reactor but a place having not to form 'criticality' called by a processing process of uranium fuel. In such place, as because of relating to mechanism of chain reaction, it is required naturally for knowledge on the reactor physics, it is also necessary to understand chemical reaction in chemical process, and functions of tanks, valves and pumps mounted at the processes. For this purpose, some information on uranium concentration ratio, atomic density of nuclides largely affecting to chain reaction such as uranium, hydrogen, and so forth in the solution, shape, inner structure and size of container for the solution, and its temperature and total volume, were necessary for determining criticality volume of the accident uranium solution by using nuclear physics procedures. Here were described on estimation of energy emission in the JCO accident, estimation from analytical results on neutron and solution, calculation of various nuclear physics property estimation on the JCO precipitation tank at JAERI. (G.K.)

  19. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion.

  20. Digital photography provides a fast, reliable, and noninvasive method to estimate anthocyanin pigment concentration in reproductive and vegetative plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, José C; Gallardo-López, Antonio; Buide, Mª Luisa; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanin pigments have become a model trait for evolutionary ecology as they often provide adaptive benefits for plants. Anthocyanins have been traditionally quantified biochemically or more recently using spectral reflectance. However, both methods require destructive sampling and can be labor intensive and challenging with small samples. Recent advances in digital photography and image processing make it the method of choice for measuring color in the wild. Here, we use digital images as a quick, noninvasive method to estimate relative anthocyanin concentrations in species exhibiting color variation. Using a consumer-level digital camera and a free image processing toolbox, we extracted RGB values from digital images to generate color indices. We tested petals, stems, pedicels, and calyces of six species, which contain different types of anthocyanin pigments and exhibit different pigmentation patterns. Color indices were assessed by their correlation to biochemically determined anthocyanin concentrations. For comparison, we also calculated color indices from spectral reflectance and tested the correlation with anthocyanin concentration. Indices perform differently depending on the nature of the color variation. For both digital images and spectral reflectance, the most accurate estimates of anthocyanin concentration emerge from anthocyanin content-chroma ratio, anthocyanin content-chroma basic, and strength of green indices. Color indices derived from both digital images and spectral reflectance strongly correlate with biochemically determined anthocyanin concentration; however, the estimates from digital images performed better than spectral reflectance in terms of r 2 and normalized root-mean-square error. This was particularly noticeable in a species with striped petals, but in the case of striped calyces, both methods showed a comparable relationship with anthocyanin concentration. Using digital images brings new opportunities to accurately quantify the

  1. Tritiated water uptake kinetics in tissue-free water and organically-bound fractions of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    The kinetics of tritiated water (HTO) vapour uptake into tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) fractions of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Vendor, were investigated under controlled growing conditions. Most uptake data fitted a first-order kinetic model, C t = C ∞ (1-e -kt ), where C t is the tritium concentration at time t, Ca the steady-state concentration and k the uptake rate constant. During atmospheric-HTO exposure with clean-water irrigation in open pots the TFWT k values were 0.024 ± 0.023 h -1 for new foliage, 0.104 ± 0.067 h -1 for old foliage and 0.042 ± to 0.136 h -1 for new green fruit. OBT uptake rate constants were 20 percent less for new foliage and 76 percent less for new green fruit. Under steady-state conditions the ratio of tritium specific activities of TWFT to atmospheric HTO were 0.43 in new foliage, 0.46 in old foliage and 0.19 in green fruit. Within the plant, OBT and TFWT ratios were 0.70 for new foliage, 0.63 for old foliage (maximum) and between 0.72 and 1.92 for green fruit. The greater than unity tritium specific activity ratios in green fruit were not attributed to tritium enrichment but rather to the translocation of foliar OBT to the growing fruit which contained lower specific activity TFWT derived from soil water

  2. Solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of boron in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Briceno, J.; Aramendia, M.; Belarra, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the potential of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of B in plant tissues has been investigated. Three certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves, NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves and BCR CRM 679 white cabbage) were selected for this study, the goal always being to develop a fast procedure that could be robust enough to provide a satisfactory performance for all of them, without any modifications in the conditions applied. The use of a suitable chemical modifier was found to be essential for obtaining a reproducible and sufficiently sensitive signal for boron solutions. In this regard, the performance of the combination of citric acid plus W (added as a permanent modifier) was noteworthy, resulting in well-defined signal profiles, a remarkable analyte stabilization during the pyrolysis step (up to 2100 deg. C) and minimal memory effects. This mixture of modifiers provided a good performance for the direct analysis of solid samples as well, but only if a suitable temperature program, favoring the interaction between the analyte and the modifiers, was used. Thus, such a temperature program, with two pyrolysis steps and the addition of NH 4 NO 3 in order to carry out the in situ sample microdigestion, was optimized. Under these conditions, the peak areas obtained for both solid samples and aqueous standards were comparable. Finally, the analysis of the samples was carried out. In all cases, a good agreement with the certified values was obtained, while R.S.D. values ranged between 6 and 10%. It can be concluded that the method proposed shows significant advantages for the determination of this complicated element in solid samples such as the use of aqueous standards for calibration, a high sample throughput (20 min per sample), a suitable limit of detection (0.3 μg g -1 ) and reduced risk of analyte losses and contamination

  3. Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, M.A.; Breier, C.F.; Henderson, P.B.; Pike, S.M.; Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry; Rypina, I.I.; Jayne, S.R. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Physical Oceanography

    2013-07-01

    Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs) concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ∝ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2-3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope ({sup 223}Ra, t{sub 1/2} = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (T{sub r}) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. T{sub r} = 27 days). From these independent T{sub r} values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore {sup 134}Cs flux of 3.9-4.6 x 10{sup 13} Bq d{sup -1}. Radium-228 (t{sub 1/2} = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (K{sub z}) of 0.7 m{sup 2} d{sup -1} (0.1 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}); from this K{sub z} and {sup 134}Cs inventory, we estimated a {sup 134}Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 x 10{sup 4} Bq d{sup -1} for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ∝ 10{sup 9} greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of {sup 134}Cs from the FNPP of 11-16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011

  4. Effects of long-term Salix cultivation on total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jan; Ledin, S.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the project was to study how total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil are affected by the large amounts of Cadmium that are removed during the harvesting of Salix. Eight long-term Salix plantations, 8-30 years old, were chosen. At each place soil samples were taken in 4 areas in the stands of Salix and in 4 neighbouring areas with comparable soil conditions, but without Salix (reference areas). Cd in three fractions of different bonding strength were determined in the soil samples. The fractions roughly correspond to the total concentration, the exchangeable fraction, and the fraction dissolved in the soil solution. The result showed a relatively minor effect of the Salix plantation on the total concentrations. In six of eight cases, however, the concentrations tended to be lower in the Salix plantations than in the reference areas. When consideration was given to certain pH differences, the exchangeable, and particularly the most soluble fraction, showed a clear tendency for concentrations to be lower in the Salix stands than in the reference areas.The concentrations in stem samples from growing stands were generally lower than those measured in harvest-mature stems in other studies. The concentrations in foliage were of the same magnitude as those in the stems, implying that there is an important return of Cd to the soil at leaf-fall. The negligible effect on the total content in the soil may depend on uptake occurring both in the topsoil and in the subsoil. Re-circulation via the leaves will also result in redistribution of Cd from the subsoil to the topsoil, compensating the uptake from the topsoil. The conclusion reached was that Salix cultivation results in a reduction of the plant-available Cd in the soil, but the effect is not concentrated to the topsoil. 13 refs, 5 tabs, 4 figs

  5. The effect of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl on total lipid contents of placenta and some material and fetal tissues of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulay, L; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Siciliano, S F; Kulay, M N

    1978-12-01

    Female rats received 1.25 mg/kg body weight of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl (Fenproporex chlorhydrate) by oral route, once daily from the 5th to the 21st day of pregnancy, and compared to untreated pregnant rats, showed an increased total lipid content in maternal blood and fetal hearts; liver and heart have had total lipids decrease, while in placenta and fetal livers they were not observed significant differences.

  6. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com, E-mail: lucarla24@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  8. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  9. Total content and bioavailability of plant essential nutrients and heavy metals in top-soils of an industrialized area of Northwestern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouchas, Pantelis; Avramidis, Pavlos; Salachas, Georgios; Koulopoulos, Athanasios; Christodoulopoulou, Kyriaki; Liopa-Tsakalidi, Aglaia

    2017-04-01

    Thirty surface soil samples from northwestern Greece in the Ptolemais-Kozani basin, were collected and analyzed for their total content in thirteen elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) by ICP-AES and bioavailable content from a plant nutrition scope of view for (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn) by AAS and colorimetric techniques. Particle size distribution, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and the magnetic susceptibility, in a low and a high frequency (at 47kHz and 0.47kHz), of soil samples were measured also in order to correlate the results. Total carbonates were tested by the pressure technique (BD Inventions, FOGII digital soil calcimeter). The concentrations of these elements were compared with international standards and guidelines. The results indicated that Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb are found enriched in the top soils of the study area, mainly as a consequence of natural processes from the surrounding rocks. Moreover, the bioavailability of some of these elements with a plant nutrition interest was tested and results indicate that they do not pose an immediate threat to the environment or crops as it all demonstrated values in an adequate range. Magnetic susceptibility in low and high frequency was correlated with clay content.

  10. The sesquiterpene botrydial produced by Botrytis cinerea induces the hypersensitive response on plant tissues and its action is modulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franco Rubén; Gárriz, Andrés; Marina, María; Romero, Fernando Matías; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Collado, Isidro González; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis

    2011-08-01

    Botrytis cinerea, as a necrotrophic fungus, kills host tissues and feeds on the remains. This fungus is able to induce the hypersensitive response (HR) on its hosts, thus taking advantage on the host's defense machinery for generating necrotic tissues. However, the identity of HR effectors produced by B. cinerea is not clear. The aim of this work was to determine whether botrydial, a phytotoxic sesquiterpene produced by B. cinerea, is able to induce the HR on plant hosts, using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model. Botrydial induced the expression of the HR marker HSR3, callose deposition, and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and phenolic compounds. Botrydial also induced the expression of PR1 and PDF1.2, two pathogenesis-related proteins involved in defense responses regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), respectively. A. thaliana and tobacco plants defective in SA signaling were more resistant to botrydial than wild-type plants, as opposed to A. thaliana plants defective in JA signaling, which were more sensitive. It can be concluded that botrydial induces the HR on its hosts and its effects are modulated by host signaling pathways mediated by SA and JA.

  11. Novel use of positively charged nylon transfer membranes for trapping indoleacetic acid or other small anions during efflux from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Positively charged nylon blotting membranes were used as an anion binding medium to trap [14C]indoleactic acid (IAA) as it exited cells at the basal ends of Coleus blumei L. stem and Zea mays L. coleoptile segments. Autoradiography was used to visualize where the [14C] that moved out of the cut ends was localized on the nylon membrane. Diffusion of [14C]IAA from the initial point of contact with the nylon membrane was minimal. Comparison of the autoradiograms with anatomical tissue prints of the cut ends of the segments was used to determine what tissues participate in IAA movement. The results of these initial studies were consistent with other reports suggesting that [14C]IAA movement was primarily associated with vascular tissues in both C. blumei stems and corn coleoptiles, but the resolution was not sufficient to identify which vascular tissues were involved in IAA transport. With further refinements, this technique could also be used for studying the movement of other small charged molecules through plant tissues.

  12. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  13. The combination of quantitative PCR and western blot detecting CP4-EPSPS component in Roundup Ready soy plant tissues and commercial soy-related foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Honghong; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; He, Jian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Guanghong; Huang, Ming

    2012-06-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the comprehensive detection of genetically modified component in foodstuffs is of significant interest, but few protein-based approaches have been found useful in processed foods. In this report, the combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different RRS plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing both meat and plant protein concentrates. The validity of the 2 methods was confirmed first. We also showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein existed in different RRS plant tissues. In certain cases, the results from the western blot and the qPCR were not consistent. To be specific, at least 2 degraded fragments of CP4-EPSPS protein (35.5 and 24.6 kDa) were observed. For dried bean curd crust and deep-fried bean curd, a degraded protein fragment with the size of 24.6 kDa appeared, while cp4-epsps gene could not be traced by qPCR. In contrast, we found a signal of cp4-epsps DNA in 3 foodstuffs, including soy-containing ham cutlet product, meat ball, and sausage by qPCR, while CP4-EPSPS protein could not be detected by western blot in such samples. Our study therefore concluded that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods would compensate each other, thus resulting in a more comprehensive detection from nucleic acid and protein levels. The combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing a combination of both meat and plant protein concentrates. This study indicated that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods

  14. Plant DNA detection from grasshopper guts: A step-by-step protocol, from tissue preparation to obtaining plant DNA sequences1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. • Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA) gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. • Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions. PMID:25202604

  15. Studies and developments for the analysis of products of nuclear reprocessing plants with the help of the X-ray fluorescence analysis on totally reflecting sample holders (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, H.; Eggers, I.; Gibau, F.; Haarich, M.; Hastenteufel, S.; Haurand, M.; Knoechel, A.; Salow, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies with inactive and active simulates of products of nuclear reprocessing plants show the suitability of the X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Totally Reflecting Sample Holders (TXRF), to detect the available elements simultaneously by direct measurements of specially prepared thin samples. High dilution enables in the most cases, to avoid working in hot cells and to carry out the analysis in glove boxes. The analysis of uranium products and great amounts of matrix elements containing solutions like LAW and MAW demands the separation of the matrix elements before TXRF measurement. Procedures for this task have been developed. The potential of the new analytical procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of two samples of highly diluted high active wastes. (orig.) With 65 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  16. Novel determination of the total phenolic content in crude plant extracts by the use of 1H NMR of the -OH spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerantzaki, A.A.; Tsiafoulis, C.G.; Charisiadis, P.; Kontogianni, V.G.; Gerothanassis, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of the total phenolic content using 1 H NMR spectroscopy in the -OH spectral region is presented. The use of DMSO-d 6 , which is an aprotic and strongly hydrogen bonding solvent, allows the 'appearance' of the relative sharp resonances of phenolic hydroxyl protons in the region of 8-14 ppm. The determination of the total phenolic -OH content requires three steps: (i) a 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is obtained in DMSO-d 6 ; (ii) a subsequent 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is recorded with irradiation of the residual water signal which results in the elimination or reduction of the phenolic -OH groups, due to proton exchange; and (iii) 1D 1 H NMR spectra are recorded with the addition of a progressively increased amount of salt, NaHCO 3 , which results in extensive linebroadening of the COOH resonances thus allowing the discrimination of the phenolic from the carboxylic acid signals. Integration, with respect to the internal standard TSP-d 4 , of the signal resonances between 14 and 8 ppm in spectrum (i) which are either eliminated or reduced in intensity in steps (ii) and (iii) allows the quantitation of the total phenolic content. The method was applied to model compounds, a mixture of them and several extracts of natural products. The results of the proposed 1 H NMR method were compared to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Additionally, since 1 H NMR refers to the total phenolic hydroxyl protons, a reaction factor, A e , is proposed that corresponds to the hydroxyl reactivity. The 1 H NMR method is rapid and accurate bearing the inherent advantages of the NMR spectroscopy and can be applied directly in complex extracts. Furthermore, it can be applied in a wide range of matrixes from crude plant extracts and food products to biological samples.

  17. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Gnanaraj, Charles; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil. The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  19. Conservation strategy for Pelargonium sidoides DC: Phenolic profile and pharmacological activity of acclimatized plants derived from tissue culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moyo, M.; Aremu, A.O.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2013), s. 557-561 ISSN 0378-8741 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial * Antioxidant * Medicinal plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2013

  20. Analytical and Radio-Histo-Chemical Experiments of Plants and Tissue Culture Cells Treated with Lunar and Terrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The nature and mechanisms of the apparent simulation of growth originally observed in plants growing in contact with lunar soil during the Apollo project quarantine are examined. Preliminary experiments employing neutron activated lunar soil indicate uptake of a few elements by plants. It was found that while the preliminary neutron activation technique allowed demonstration of uptake of minerals it presented numerous disadvantages for use in critical experiments directed at elucidating possible mechanisms of stimulation.

  1. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Bardhan, Pratirupa

    2016-05-15

    This study established a mechanistic linkage between Cd speciation and bioavailability in mangrove system from the west coast of India. High bioaccumulation of Cd was found in the oyster (Crassostrea sp.) even at low Cd loading in the bottom sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd in the oyster gradually increased with the increasing concentrations of water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate/bicarbonate forms of Cd in the sediments. Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase was found to control Cd bioavailability in the sediment system. Cd-associated with sedimentary organic matter was bioavailable and organic ligands in the sediments were poor chelating agents for Cd. This study suggests that bioaccumulation of Cd in oyster (Crassostrea sp.) depends not on the total Cd concentration but on the speciation of Cd in the system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7±17.1 and 40.4±16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7±4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7±12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma

  3. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7{+-}17.1 and 40.4{+-}16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7{+-}4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7{+-}12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  4. Effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on different enzyme activities in the nervous tissue of Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I G; Singh, Amrita; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2003-01-01

    Effect of single and binary treatments of plant-derived molluscicides on different enzymes--acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid/alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP)--in the nervous tissue of the harmful terrestrial snail Achatina fulica were studied. Sublethal in vivo 24-h exposure to 40% and 80% LC(50) of Azadirachta indica oil, Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, Nerium indicum bark powder and binary combinations of A. sativum (AS) + C. deodara (CD) and CD + A. indica (AI) oils significantly altered the activity of these enzymes in the nervous tissue of Achatina fulica. The binary treatment of AS + CD was more effective against AChE, LDH, and ALP than the single ones. However, binary treatment of AI + CD was more effective against ALP. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Dealing with the problem of non-specific in situ mRNA hybridization signals associated with plant tissues undergoing programmed cell death

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    Jokela Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situ hybridization is a general molecular method typically used for the localization of mRNA transcripts in plants. The method provides a valuable tool to unravel the connection between gene expression and anatomy, especially in species such as pines which show large genome size and shortage of sequence information. Results In the present study, expression of the catalase gene (CAT related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the polyamine metabolism related genes, diamine oxidase (DAO and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, were localized in developing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seeds. In addition to specific signals from target mRNAs, the probes continually hybridized non-specifically in the embryo surrounding region (ESR of the megagametophyte tissue, in the remnants of the degenerated suspensors as well as in the cells of the nucellar layers, i.e. tissues exposed to cell death processes and extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during Scots pine seed development. Conclusions In plants, cell death is an integral part of both development and defence, and hence it is a common phenomenon in all stages of the life cycle. Our results suggest that extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during cell death processes can be a considerable source of non-specific signals in traditional in situ mRNA hybridization. Thus, the visualization of potential nucleic acid fragmentation simultaneously with the in situ mRNA hybridization assay may be necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of the signals in the case of non-specific hybridization of probes in plant tissues.

  6. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  7. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  8. Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in wild plants grown at wastelands composed of mine tailings: Insights into potential candidates for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoli; Wu, Yonggui; Zhou, Hongyun; Xu, Xiaohang; Xu, Zhidong; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2018-08-01

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MMHg) were investigated in 259 wild plants belonging to 49 species in 29 families that grew in heavily Hg-contaminated wastelands composed of cinnabar ore mine tailings (calcines) in the Wanshan region, southwestern China, the world's third largest Hg mining district. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of THg and MMHg from soil to roots ([THg] root /[THg] soil , [MMHg] root /[MMHg] soil ) were evaluated. The results showed that THg and MMHg in both plants and soils varied widely, with ranges of 0.076-140 μg/g THg and 0.19-87 ng/g MMHg in roots, 0.19-106 μg/g THg and 0.06-31 ng/g MMHg in shoots, and 0.74-1440 μg/g THg and 0.41-820 ng/g MMHg in soil. Among all investigated species, Arthraxon hispidus, Eremochloa ciliaris, Clerodendrum bunge, and Ixeris sonchifolia had significantly elevated concentrations of THg in shoots and/or roots that reached 100 μg/g, whereas Chenopodium glaucum, Corydalisedulis maxim, and Rumex acetosa contained low values below 0.5 μg/g. In addition to the high THg concentrations, the fern E. ciliaris also showed high BCF values for both THg and MMHg exceeding 1.0, suggesting its capability to extract Hg from soils. Considering its dominance and the tolerance identified in the present study, E. ciliaris is suggested to be a practical candidate for phytoextraction, whereas A. hispidus is identified as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of Hg mining-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Temperature and Nutrients on Carbon: Nutrient Tissue Stoichiometry of Submerged Aquatic Plants: An Experiment and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Velthuis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We hypothesized that elevated temperature leads to higher carbon:nutrient ratios through enhanced nutrient-use efficiency, while nutrient addition leads to lower carbon:nutrient ratios by the luxurious uptake of nutrients. We addressed these hypotheses with an experimental and a meta-analytical approach. We performed a full-factorial microcosm experiment with the freshwater plant Elodea nuttallii grown at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on sediment consisting of pond soil/sand mixtures with 100, 50, 25, and 12.5% pond soil. To address the effect of climatic warming and nutrient addition on the carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged freshwater and marine plants we performed a meta-analysis on experimental studies that elevated temperature and/or added nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus. In the microcosm experiment, C:N ratios of Elodea nuttallii decreased with increasing temperature, and this effect was most pronounced at intermediate nutrient availability. Furthermore, higher nutrient availability led to decreased aboveground C:P ratios. In the meta-analysis, nutrient addition led to a 25, 22, and 16% reduction in aboveground C:N and C:P ratios and belowground C:N ratios, accompanied with increased N content. No consistent effect of elevated temperature on plant stoichiometry could be observed, as very few studies were found on this topic and contrasting results were reported. We conclude that while nutrient addition

  10. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content and Mineral Composition of Different Fruit Tissue of Five Apple Cultivars Grown in Chile Determinación de la Capacidad Antioxidante, contenido de Fenoles totales y Composición Mineral de Diferentes Tejidos de Frutos de Cinco Variedades de Manzana cultivadas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henríquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica Borkh. have been identified as one of the main dietary sources of antioxidants, mainly phenolic compounds. These compounds vary in their composition and concentration, among cultivars and fruit tissues. In this research, the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau assay, antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, FRAP assay and mineral composition in three fruit tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit, of apple cultivars commonly used for dried apple production in Chile, were studied. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics (dry weight, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids content and color were also evaluated. The results indicated that the total phenolic content, the antioxidant capacity, and the mineral composition, of peel were substantially higher than those of whole fruit, and pulp for all the cultivars studied. Among cultivars, ‘Red Delicious’ apple peels have a significantly much higher content of total phenolic (11.6 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1 FW and a higher FRAP (209.9 µmol Fe+2 g-1 FW. Additionally, a high correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in all the cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed, except in the apple pulp. On the other hand, the physical and chemical composition differed among cultivars and fruit tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, mineral composition, and physical and chemical characteristics vary considerably depending on the apple cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed.Las manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. han sido identificadas como una de las principales fuentes de antioxidantes en la dieta, principalmente de compuestos fenólicos. Estos compuestos varían en su composición y concentración según el cultivar y el tejido del fruto. En esta investigación se determinó: el contenido de fenoles totales (ensayo de Folin-Ciocalteau, la capacidad

  11. Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates' Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-Based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…

  12. THE EFFECT OF PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING MODEL BASED JUST IN TIME TEACHING (JiTT ON SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS (SPS ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLANT TISSUE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resha Maulida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Problem Solving learning model based Just in Time Teaching (JiTT on students' science process skills (SPS on structure and function of plant tissue concept. This research was conducted at State Senior High School in South Tangerang .The research conducted using the quasi-experimental with Nonequivalent pretest-Postest Control Group Design. The samples of this study were 34 students for experimental group and 34 students for the control group. Data was obtained using a process skill test instrument (essai type that has been tested for its validity and reliability. Result of data analysis by ANACOVA, show that there were significant difference of postest between experiment and control group, by controlling the pretest score (F = 4.958; p <0.05. Thus, the problem-solving learning based on JiTT proved to improve students’ SPS. The contribution of this treatment in improving the students’ SPS was 7.2%. This shows that there was effect of problem solving model based JiTT on students’ SPS on the Structure and function of plant tissue concept.

  13. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Nuclear Morphology and Heterochromatin Organization from Whole-Mount Plant Tissue Using NucleusJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desset, Sophie; Poulet, Axel; Tatout, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Image analysis is a classical way to study nuclear organization. While nuclear organization used to be investigated by colorimetric or fluorescent labeling of DNA or specific nuclear compartments, new methods in microscopy imaging now enable qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatin pattern, and nuclear size and shape. Several procedures have been developed to prepare samples in order to collect 3D images for the analysis of spatial chromatin organization, but only few preserve the positional information of the cell within its tissue context. Here, we describe a whole mount tissue preparation procedure coupled to DNA staining using the PicoGreen ® intercalating agent suitable for image analysis of the nucleus in living and fixed tissues. 3D Image analysis is then performed using NucleusJ, an open source ImageJ plugin, which allows for quantifying variations in nuclear morphology such as nuclear volume, sphericity, elongation, and flatness as well as in heterochromatin content and position in respect to the nuclear periphery.

  14. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  15. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  16. Tissue and cell-specific transcriptomes in cotton reveal the subtleties of gene regulation underlying the diversity of plant secondary cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Colleen P; Birke, Hannah; Chuah, Aaron; Brill, Elizabeth; Tsuji, Yukiko; Ralph, John; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny; Pettolino, Filomena A

    2017-07-18

    Knowledge of plant secondary cell wall (SCW) regulation and deposition is mainly based on the Arabidopsis model of a 'typical' lignocellulosic SCW. However, SCWs in other plants can vary from this. The SCW of mature cotton seed fibres is highly cellulosic and lacks lignification whereas xylem SCWs are lignocellulosic. We used cotton as a model to study different SCWs and the expression of the genes involved in their formation via RNA deep sequencing and chemical analysis of stem and seed fibre. Transcriptome comparisons from cotton xylem and pith as well as from a developmental series of seed fibres revealed tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of several NAC transcription factors some of which are likely to be important as top tier regulators of SCW formation in xylem and/or seed fibre. A so far undescribed hierarchy was identified between the top tier NAC transcription factors SND1-like and NST1/2 in cotton. Key SCW MYB transcription factors, homologs of Arabidopsis MYB46/83, were practically absent in cotton stem xylem. Lack of expression of other lignin-specific MYBs in seed fibre relative to xylem could account for the lack of lignin deposition in seed fibre. Expression of a MYB103 homolog correlated with temporal expression of SCW CesAs and cellulose synthesis in seed fibres. FLAs were highly expressed and may be important structural components of seed fibre SCWs. Finally, we made the unexpected observation that cell walls in the pith of cotton stems contained lignin and had a higher S:G ratio than in xylem, despite that tissue's lacking many of the gene transcripts normally associated with lignin biosynthesis. Our study in cotton confirmed some features of the currently accepted gene regulatory cascade for 'typical' plant SCWs, but also revealed substantial differences, especially with key downstream NACs and MYBs. The lignocellulosic SCW of cotton xylem appears to be achieved differently from that in Arabidopsis. Pith cell walls in

  17. Effect of sucrose concentration and gamma irradiation on growth and essential oil composition of spearmint plant through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro culture of spearmint plant (Mentha spicata L) using different sucrose concentrations and different gamma irradiation treatments was investigated. The shoot tips of spearmint plant were cultured on MS medium without hormones and supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) then exposed to different gamma irradiation treatments (2,4,6 and 8 Krad) to determine their effects on growth and chemical composition in different sub-culturing media . The data showed that culturing shoots of Mentha spicata on MS medium containing 10 g/l sucrose produced the highest values of callus than other treatments and the maximum number of shoots was produced on MS medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose. Irradiation of spearmint shoots at 8 Krad when cultured on MS medium containing 30 or 40 g/l sucrose caused minimum number of shoots, whereas the longest shoots were produced with MS medium containing 20 g/l sucrose after irradiation at 60 Gy gamma dose. Treating shoots of Mentha spicata by gamma irradiation at 8 Krad and culturing on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose produced all sub-cultures in shortest length of shoots. Moreover, adding 40 g/l of sucrose in MS medium gave the highest number of leaves than other treatments. Exposing shoots of spearmint plant to gamma irradiation at 8 Krad decreased the number of leaves when culturing on MS medium containing 10 or 30 g/l sucrose. Furthermore, the selected samples showed many differences on spearmint oil composition and proline content regarding sucrose levels and gamma irradiation doses

  18. Thallium speciation in plant tissues-Tl(III) found in Sinapis alba L. grown in soil polluted with tailing sediment containing thallium minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata; Sadowska, Monika; Ostrowska, Sylwia

    2012-05-15

    Besides the dominant species in plants-Tl(I), noticeable amounts of Tl(III) (about 10% of total Tl content) were found in extracts of plants cultivated in the presence of tailing sediments, which are the main source of anthropogenic thallium already present in the environment. It is an important step of gaining knowledge about the detoxification mechanisms developed by Sinapis alba. This plant species is highly tolerant to Tl and it is able to cumulate high amounts of Tl and transport it into the above-ground organs. For more adequate estimation of accumulating abilities of S. alba, the elements' bioavailability was taken into consideration. The obtained bioconcentration factors of Cd (AF=0.6) and Zn (AF=1-2) were significantly lower than of Tl (AF=100-200). The biomass production was similar to the biomass of control cultivation. The results were based on ICP MS measurements of total elements' content and HPLC ICP MS for speciation analysis. The quality of obtained results was evaluated based on the intermethod comparison with voltammetry as a reference method. Comparison of data obtained using ICP MS and electrochemical methods (after a proper chemical treatment) was also used for indication of Tl(III) presence and for proving that Tl(I) was not transferred into Tl(III) during analytical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sclerorhachis Platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech Ex Rech. F.: an Indigenous Medicinal Plant from Northeastern Iran; Essential Oil Composition, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Sclerorhachis platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech ex Rech. f. (Compositae, growing wild in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The total yield of volatiles was 0.38% (w/w. Sixty- three compounds representing 89.2% of the aerial parts oil were identified.  The main components of the oil were β-pinene (17.5% and γ-terpinene (15.4%. The oil was rich in monoterpenoids, and among them, monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.7% predominated over oxygenated monoterpenes (11.8%. The total flavonoid content of different extracts of the plant was in the range 52.4-172.3 mg/g, with the maximum amount being in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were also measured based on radical scavenging activity of antioxidants using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that IC50 values of extracts of S. platyrachis are higher than for the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  20. COMPARATION OF SEVERAL PLANTS EXTRACT AND VITAMIN C INHIBITION ACTIVITY TO TYROSINE PHOTODEGRADATION INDUCED BY KETOPROFEN AND ITS TOTAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Irianti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant is known to inhibit free radical reaction. Tyrosine photodegradation can be caused by radical reaction. Nowadays, plant with antioxidants are widely used to inhibit free radical reaction. Study of inhibition of photodegradation used four groups. Those groups are: P1 consisted of 2mL tyrosine 0,05 %; P2 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, and 600 μL Rhetoflam (topical ketoprofen 1 %; P3 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 60μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL tea leaf water ekstract 0,15 %; P4 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 600 μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL mahkota dewa fruit water ekstract 0,15 %; P5 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 600 μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL finger root etanolic ekstract 0,15 %; P6 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 600 μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL vitamin C 0,15 %; each group is added with aquadest up to 5,0 mL and illuminated with mercuric lamp for four hours. Level of remaining tyrosine was measured with visible spectrophotometric method. We used ANOVA to analyse the data with convidence level of 0,95 and then continued by Tukey (HSD. Follin-Ciocalteu method with galic acid calibration curve was used to determine total phenolic level. The level of total phenolic of tea leaf aquoeus extract, mahkota dewa fruit aquoeus extract, fingerroot ethanolic extract were 29.64±0.86 %; 8.29 % 0.27 %; and 7.11 %, 0.15 %, respectively. Our investigation also found gallic acid equivalent (GAE with the inhibition activity of 4.03; 1.58; and 2.09 and they were bigger than Vitamin C with the same concentration of 0.15 %.

  1. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  3. Gamma spectrometry analysis for simultaneous detection of 54Mn, 65Zn and 59Fe in aqueous solutions and plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanheiro, M.N.S.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology to detect the activities of 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 59 Fe in the same sample, with a single channel spectrometer coupled to a scintilation detector of NaI(tl), 3'' x 3'', well type has been developed. Initially a selection of the energy channel was made based on the criteria of maximizing the signal-background ratio and consequently, the minimization of the variation coefficient. In the channels, a study of minimal detectable activities was conducted for each radioisotopes. Secondly, samples containing diferent combinations of these radioisotopes were prepared and their activities were calculated using simultaneous equations. As a mean of demonstrating the pratical utility of this methodology, an experiment was developed in which the roots, isolated from beam plants (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were examined to determine levels of ionic absorption interference among micronutrients (Mn, Zn and Fe)

  4. Effective half-lives of 137Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011–2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March–April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured 137 Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T eff ) of 137 Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April–May) and mature (June–November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in 137 Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T eff values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216–243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of T eff . For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including 137 Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T eff for persimmon trees. Values of T eff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d. - Highlights: • 137 Cs decreased exponentially from persimmon trees in Chiba after the Fukushima accident. • The effective half-lives (T eff ) of 137 Cs from fruit, leaf and new branch tissues were similar. • The Food monitoring data were used to calculate effective half-lives for persimmon trees in Fukushima. • The average of T eff in Chiba was ca. 230 d while that in Fukushima was ca. 400 d

  5. Environmental interaction, additive and non-additive genetic variability is involved in the expression of tissue and whole-plant heat tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez-ur-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat tolerance is measured at tissue level by cellular membrane thermostability (CMT and at the whole plant level by the heat tolerance index (HTI. Eight upland cotton cultivars and 15 crosses were used to determine the type and extent of genetic variability associated with the expression of these traits between and within environments. Heat stress and non-stress conditions were used as the CMT environments and years for HTI. The wide variation in heterotic expression and combining ability effects observed for CMT and HTI suggest multigenic inheritance of these traits. Significant genetic variability across environments was evident but the traits were not highly heritable because of substantial environmental interaction. The available genetic variability included both additive and non-additive components, but the proportion of additive genetic variability was high for HTI. The parental cultivars CRIS-19 and CIM-448 were good donor parents for high CMT under heat-stressed conditions, and MNH-552 and N-Karishma under non-stressed conditions. Cultivar FH-634 was a good donor parent for HTI. The results show two types of general combining ability (GCA inheritance among high CMT parents: positive GCA inheritance expressed by CRIS-19 in the presence of heat stress and MNH-552 and N-Karishma in the absence of heat stress; and negative GCA inheritance expressed by FH-900 in the presence of heat stress. It was also evident that genes controlling high CMT in cultivar CRIS-19 were different from those present in the MNH-552, N-Karishma and FH-900 cultivars. Similarly, among high HTI parents, FH-634 showed positive and CIM-443 negative GCA inheritance. No significant relationship due to genetic causes existed between tissue and whole plant heat tolerance, diminishing the likelihood of simultaneous improvement and selection of the two traits.

  6. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  7. Development and function of membrane systems in plant tissue. Annual technical progress report, 15 September 1981-15 August 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 11 months we have continued investigation of ion transport mechanisms in corn roots and mitochondria. In mitochondria we find that only citrate and isocitrate are transported by the H + /citrate symporter. However, the in vivo function of this carrier remains in doubt because citrate does not appear to be an effective substrate for corn mitochondria. Studies with roots have been directed to why various types of injury or shock all result in temporary blockage of the H + -efflux pump in the plasmamembrane. It appears this may be due to an injury-mediated Ca 2 + influx into the tissue, which by raising free Ca 2 + in the cytosal activates calmodulin (CaM). In turn, the Ca.CaM complex appears to activate protein kinase, phosphorylating membrane proteins. It is possible that one of these phosphorylated proteins is responsible for inactivation of the H + -ATPase. Future work is planned around the consequences of Ca 2 + influx into the root cell subsequent to injury, investigating the recovery of the H + -ATPase and the initiation of the biosyntheses which lead to augmented ion transport

  8. Effects of nitrogen infiltration into plant tissue on the metabolism of carbon, with special reference to Themeda triandra Forssk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amory, A M

    1983-01-01

    The infiltration of nitrate and ammonia into Themeda triandra and Zea mays leaf tissue influenced the carbon dioxide gas exchange characteristics: 1) the carbon dioxide compensation point increased, 2) the net photosynthetic rate was increased by the nitrate ion and decreased by the ammonium ion, and 3) dark respiration was unaffected. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and the partitioning of /sup 14/C by Themeda triandra leaves were influenced by the infiltration of both forms of nitrogen; the amino acid fraction changed in both composition and concentration. Nitrogen infiltration increased the activities of the following enzymes: aspartate amino-transferase, PEP carboxylase and RuBP carboxylase. Methionine sulphoximine (inhibitor of glutamate synthetase) increased the carbon dioxide compensation point and formate pool size. Infiltration of nitrate and ammonia enhanced the /sup 14/C uptake from labelled glycolate, glyoxylate and formate into the water soluble fraction of Themeda triandra leaves. The activities of RuBP carboxylase and RuBP oxygenase (to a greater extent) were increased by the addition of nitrate and ammonia in vitro.

  9. Comparative enzymology of the adenosine triphosphate sulfurylases from leaf tissue of selenium-accumulator and non-accumulator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W H; Anderson, J W

    1974-01-01

    ATP sulfurylases were partially purified (20-40-fold) from leaf tissue of Astragalus bisulcatus, Astragalus racemosus (selenium-accumulator species) and Astragalus hamosus and Astragalus sinicus (non-accumulator species). Activity was measured by sulfate-dependent PP/sub 1/-ATP exchange. The enzymes were separated from pyrophosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase activities. The properties of the Astragalus ATP sulfurylases were similar to the spinach enzyme. The ATP sulfurylases from both selenium-accumulator and non-accumulator species catalyzed selenate-dependent PP/sub 1/-ATP exchange; selenate competed with sulfate. The ratio of V(selenate)/V(sulfate) and K/sub m/ (selenate)/K/sub m/(sulfate) was approximately the same for the enzyme from each species. Sulfate-dependent PP/sub 1/-ATP exchange was inhibited by ADP, chlorate and nitrate. The kinetics of the inhibition for each enzyme were consistent with an ordered reaction mechanisms, in which ATP is the first substrate to react with the enzyme and PP/sub 1/ is the first product released. Synthesis of adenosine 5'-(/sup 35/S)sulfatophosphate from (/sup 35/S)sulfate was demonstrated by coupling the Astrgalus ATP sulfurylases with Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent pyrophosphatase; the reaction was inhibited by selenate. An analogous reaction using (/sup 75/Se)selenate as substrate could not be demonstrated.

  10. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  11. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  12. Analyses of heavy metals in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna, using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-rayfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.C.F.; Canteras, F.B.; Moreira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A major consequence of accelerated urban and industrial development in the last decades is water pollution. In particular, metal contamination is a significant problem, causing serious changes to the environment and adversely affecting human health. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy, accounting for 2.7% of Gross National Product (GNP) and 7.83% of São Paulo State Product—or approximately $ 70.7 billion per year. Besides having a strong economy, the region also presents an infrastructure that provides the development of the entire metropolitan area. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, the evaluation of the quality of raw and treated effluent and, the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STP), especially with regard to heavy metals was performed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation technique. The results were compared with the allowed values established by Brazilian Legislation. For raw and treated effluents collected in Jaguariúna and Campinas city in the Stations of Treatment of Sewage (Camanducaia and Anhumas), Cr presented higher concentrations than the maximum allowed values established by CONAMA 357. However, it is necessary to do other studies to define the fraction of Cr +3 and Cr +6 to compare to the new legislation. The other elements were in agreement with established regulations. For sludge sampled in the same locations, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared with the CONAMA 375 and showed values smaller than the maximum allowed values, indicating the possibility to re-use the sludge. - Highlights: ► Analysis of sewage and sludge composition using SR-TXRF. ► Determination of the potentially toxic elements like Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. ► Concentrations determined were compared with Brazilian quality standards. ► It was discovered possible illegal

  13. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  14. Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated period of ca. 24 min

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum period of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min periodicity observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges. The length of the 24-min period is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.

  15. Diversity and abundance of Beauveria bassiana in soils, stink bugs and plant tissues of common bean from organic and conventional fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yordanys; Portal, Orelvis; Lysøe, Erik; Meyling, Nicolai V; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in soil, from infections in the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii, an important pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and as endophytes in bean plant tissue. Twelve conventional and 12 organic common bean fields in the Villa Clara province, Cuba were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015. One hundred and fifty Beauveria isolates were obtained from soil samples, bean plant parts and stink bugs. The overall frequency of occurrence of Beauveria isolates in conventional fields (8.4%) was significantly lower than that in organic fields (23.6%). Beauveria were also obtained significantly more frequently from bean roots in organic fields (15.0%) compared to bean roots in conventional fields (3.3%). DNA sequencing of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for Beauveria species identification. All isolates where characterized as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, and clustered with isolates of neotropical origin previously described as AFNEO_1. The Cuban B. bassiana isolates formed five clusters in the phylogeny. Isolates of two clusters originated from all four locations, organic and conventional fields, as well as soil, plants and stink bugs. Organic fields contained isolates of all five clusters while conventional fields only harbored isolates of the two most frequent ones. Mating type PCR assays revealed that mating type distribution was skewed, with MAT1/MAT2 proportion of 146/4, indicating limited potential for recombination. The present study is the first to report of B. bassiana as a naturally occurring endophyte in common bean. Further, it shows that B. bassiana occurs naturally in diverse environments of common bean fields, and constitutes a potential reservoir of natural enemies against pest insects particularly in organic fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geay Florian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM or fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD, but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD. Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663. Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein

  17. Potential of high isostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields for the processing of potato and pea proteins:structural and techno-functional characterization in model solutions and plant tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Anne Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the potential of high isostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields for the production of high quality plant proteins. Induced changes in protein solutions and plant tissue of potato and pea were analyzed by means of structural and techno-functional characterization as well as by investigation of diffusion and extractions procedures. The application of high isostatic pressure provides a gentle alternative to conventional heat preservation. Especially ...

  18. Beta-ray depth dose in tissue equivalent material due to gaseous radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadt, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The magnitude of the absorbed dose to skin from beta particles emitted by the radionuclides in gaseous effluents from boiling water nuclear power reactors is investigated in this dissertation. Using the radionuclide release patterns of F. Brutschy and the beta dosimetry methods of M. Berger, an equation is derived which gives the dose rate in rads per day when the total radionuclide concentration is one microcurie per gram of air. The coefficients in the equation are presented for a wide range of reactor gas hold-up times (48 minutes to 6 days) and plume environmental transit time (0.5 to 60 minutes). The beta dose rates at the skin surface are found to range from 3.9 to 26.7 rads per day. An upper limit of the relative standard deviation in the dose rate is estimated to be 30 percent. The techniques used to develop the equation are applied to data from the Millstone Nuclear Power Station obtained during the summer of 1972. The beta dose at a site 1.7 miles from the reactor is determined to have been 675 millirads per year at the skin surface and 476 millirads per year at a depth of 200 micrometers. At a site 5.1 miles from the reactor these dose rates were 138 and 100 millirads per year respectively

  19. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  20. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic impacts of drought and herbivory on Pinus sylvestris: leaf, tissue and whole-plant responses and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Hallsby, Göran; Löfvenius, Mikael O; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2013-05-01

    Forests typically experience a mix of anthropogenic, natural and climate-induced stressors of different intensities, creating a mosaic of stressor combinations across the landscape. When multiple stressors co-occur, their combined impact on plant growth is often greater than expected based on single-factor studies (i.e., synergistic), potentially causing catastrophic dysfunction of physiological processes from an otherwise recoverable situation. Drought and herbivory are two stressors that commonly co-occur in forested ecosystems, and have the potential to 'overlap' in their impacts on various plant traits and processes. However, the combined impacts from these two stressors may not be predictable based on additive models from single-stressor studies. Moreover, the impacts and subsequent recovery may be strongly influenced by the relative intensities of each stressor. Here, we applied drought stress and simulated bark-feeding herbivory at three levels of intensity (control, moderate and severe) in a full factorial design on young Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings. We assessed if the combined effects from two stressors were additive (responses were equal to the sum of the single-factor effects), synergistic (greater than expected) or antagonistic (less than expected) on a suite of morphological and physiological traits at the leaf-, tissue- and whole-plant level. We additionally investigated whether recovery from herbivory was dependent on relief from drought. The two stressors had synergistic impacts on specific leaf area and water-use efficiency, additive effects on height and root-to-shoot ratios, but antagonistic effects on photosynthesis, conductance and, most notably, on root, shoot and whole-plant biomass. Nevertheless, the magnitude and direction of the combined impacts were often dependent on the relative intensities of each stressor, leading to many additive or synergistic responses from specific stressor combinations. Also, seedling recovery was far more

  1. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fischer

    Full Text Available Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA in the accumulation of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAAT abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET, or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA, or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02 than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07, but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05 than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3. Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3 and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3 in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005. They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  2. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  3. FY 1992 report on the results of the demonstration test on the methanol conversion at oil-fired power plant. Demonstration test on a methanol reformation type power generation total system; 1992 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken. Metanoru kaishitsu gata hatsuden total system jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    For the promotion of introduction of methanol to oil-fired power plant, based on the results of the element study, operational study was conducted of a 1,000kW class total system plant for which each of the elements was combined, and the FY 1992 results were summarized. In the operational study, data on various kinds of operational study were sampled of each of the simple cycle/regeneration cycle of liquid methanol and simple cycle/regeneration cycle of gas methanol. As to the reformed gas/water injection/regeneration cycle, all functions as a total system plant worked normally, and it was confirmed that the reformed gas/water injection/regeneration cycle operation could be made possible. Besides, the following were conducted: confirmation test on the performance of the developmental catalyst used in the operational study by bench-scale test device, trial operation for adjustment of gas turbine and combustion study such as the performance test in each cycle, manufacture/study of catalyst for the total system, study for longevity of catalyst for the total system, etc. (NEDO)

  4. Effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in total knee arthroplasty; Jinko kansetsu okikaeji no one cement no hatsunetsu ga seitai soshiki ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M.; Uchida, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Iwatsubo, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurosawa, M.; Hashimoto, Y. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Fukushima, H.

    1998-01-25

    Bone cement is often applied to fix the components in a surgical operation, such as TKA (total knee arthroplasty). In this paper, we consider the effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in TKA by using numerical simulation. First, we applied an axisymmetric model of tibia to finite element method and analyzed heat generation of bone cement. To confirm the results of analysis by experiment, we measured the temperature determined by 6 points i.e., 2 points each in component-cement interface, cement and bone-cement interface. As a result, the temperature determined by analysis agrees with that determined by experiment. Next, we proposed the evaluation formula of the bone necrosis. We constructed a bone necrosis map from the simulation. From the map, we found that the bone necrosis region was about 2 mm from the bone-cement interface. In addition, the bone necrosis is severe at the base of the tibial component. 7 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The induction of stromule formation by a plant DNA-virus in epidermal leaf tissues suggests a novel intra- and intercellular macromolecular trafficking route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eKrenz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stromules are dynamic thin protrusions of membrane envelope from plant cell plastids. Despite considerable progress in understanding the importance of certain cytoskeleton elements and motor proteins for stromule maintenance, their function within the cell has yet to be unraveled. Several viruses cause a remodulation of plastid structures and stromule biogenesis within their host plants. For RNA-viruses these interactions were demonstrated to be relevant to the infection process. An involvement of plastids and stromules is assumed in the DNA-virus life cycle as well, but their functional role needs to be determined. Recent findings support a participation of heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein (cpHSC70-1-containing stromules induced by a DNA-virus infection (Abutilon mosaic virus, AbMV, Geminiviridae in intra- and intercellular molecule exchange. The chaperone cpHSC70-1 was shown to interact with the AbMV movement protein (MP. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation confirmed the interaction of cpHSC70-1 and MP, and showed a homo-oligomerization of either protein in planta. The complexes were detected at the cellular margin and co-localized with plastids. In healthy plant tissues cpHSC70-1-oligomers occurred in distinct spots at chloroplasts and in small filaments extending from plastids to the cell periphery. AbMV-infection induced a cpHSC70-1-containing stromule network that exhibits elliptical dilations and transverses whole cells. Silencing of the cpHSC70-gene revealed an impact of cpHSC70 on chloroplast stability and restricted AbMV movement, but not viral DNA accumulation. Based on these data, a model is suggested in which these stromules function in molecule exchange between plastids and other organelles and perhaps other cells. AbMV may utilize cpHSC70-1 for trafficking along plastids and stromules into a neighboring cell or from plastids into the nucleus. Experimental approaches to investigate this hypothesis are discussed.

  6. Determination of total ribonucleotide pool in plant materials by high-pH anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography following extraction with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondet, Christophe; Morel, Sylvain; Alcaraz, Gérard

    2005-06-10

    A new, improved method that only requires a potassium hydroxide extraction procedure is presented for the analysis of a full nucleotide pool in plant materials. Quantification was performed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with UV detection after a potassium hydroxide extraction, and allowed the quantification of 13 linear ribonucleotides in a single run. The method has been validated by comparison of six extraction methods and also by measurement of the intracellular nucleotide levels of three plant species (cell cultures and leaves). The evolution of the nucleotide pool of Nicotiana tabacum cell culture during growth has also been measured, and showed an increase in the pool until the fifth day, where the growth rate reaches a maximum, after which a decrease was observed.

  7. Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and abscisic acid constituents in the aquatic plants Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Myriophyllum triphyllum Orchard exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaci, Aysel; Sivaci, E Ridvan; Sökmen, Münevver

    2007-07-01

    Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and abscisic acid (ABA) constituents of Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Myriophyllum triphyllum Orchard, cadmium (Cd) aqueous macrophytes, were investigated exposed to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 mg l(-1) Cd concentrations. M. triphyllum exhibited strong antioxidant activity but not M. spicatum before and after exposure. Free radical scavenging activity of M. triphyllum was significantly affected from the Cd concentrations and a significant increase was observed at 6 mgl(-1) Cd concentration. Total phenolic constituent and ABA concentration of M. triphyllum is higher than that of M. spicatum with or without heavy metal exposure (P macrophytes that grown in polluted aqueous ecosystem.

  8. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhupinder Singh; Sumedha Ahuja; Renu Pandey; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14 C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source ( 60 Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14 C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  10. In situ analysis of plant tissue underivatized carbohydrates and on-probe enzymatic degraded starch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using carbon nanotubes as matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2008-12-15

    Underivatized carbohydrates of tulip bulb and leaf tissues were characterized in situ by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as matrix. Two sample preparation methods--(i) depositing CNTs on the fresh tissue slices placed on the probe and (ii) locating semitransparent tissues on a dried layer of CNTs on the probe--were examined. Furthermore, practicability of in situ starch analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was examined by detection of glucose originated from on-probe amyloglucosidase-catalyzed degradation of starch on the tissue surface. Besides, CNTs could efficiently desorb/ionize natural mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides extracted from tulip bulb tissues as well as glucose resulting from starch enzymatic degradation in vitro. These results were compared with those obtained by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis of similar tissues. Positive ion mode showed superior signal reproducibility. CNTs deposited under semitransparent tissue could also desorb/ionize neutral carbohydrates, leading to nearly complete elimination of matrix cluster signals but with an increase in tissue-originated signals. Furthermore, several experiments were carried out to compare the efficiency of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and CNTs as matrices for MALDI of neutral carbohydrates from the intact plant tissue surface and for enzymatic tissue starch degradation; these results are discussed in brief. Among matrices studied, the lowest laser power was needed to acquire carbohydrate signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution when CNTs were used.

  11. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Erleen F. [Univ. of Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  12. Effects of cooking process on the changes of concentration and total amount of radioactive caesium in beef, wild plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain information about effects of the cooking process on the changes of concentration and amount of radioactive materials in foods, we determined the concentration of radioactive caesium in several foods such as beef, edible wild plants, blueberries and mushrooms, before and after cooking. Our results showed that drying after soaking in liquid seasoning and the removal of astringent taste were effective in removing radioactive caesium from foods. More than 80% of radioactive caesium could be removed by these cooking methods. These results suggest that cooking processes such as boiling and soaking in liquid seasoning or water are effective to remove radioactive caesium from foods. Moreover, appropriate food additives such as baking soda were useful to promote the removal of radioactive caesium from foods. On the other hand, simple drying, jam making, grilling and tempura cooking could not remove radioactive caesium from foods. In addition, we showed that the concentration of radioactive caesium in foods was raised after simple drying, although the amount of radioactive caesium was unchanged. It would be necessary to monitor radioactive caesium concentration in processed foods because they might have undergone dehydration by cooking, which could result in concentrations exceeding regulatory levels. (author)

  13. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  14. Bienzymatic sensor based on the use of redox enzymes and chitosan-MWCNT nanocomposite. Evaluation of total phenolic content in plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, M.; Litescu, S.C.; Radu, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    We are presenting a bienzymatic sensor for the determination of polyphenols. An ITO electrode was modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the enzymes laccase and tyrosinase were co-entrapped into a chitosan matrix. The resulting biosensor was calibrated at -50 mV (vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode) using rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid as the substrates. The new biosensor resulted in a 10.7-fold increase in response sensitivity and a considerable improvement of the detection limit (42 nM for rosmarinic acid). Fouling of the surface of the biosensor was prevented by applying the surfactant Tween 20. The data recorded in surfactant medium revealed a significant improvement of the operational stability and an enlarged linear concentration ranges (up to 12 μM for rosmarinic acid). The sensor was used to evaluate the total phenolic content from extracts of Salvia officinalis and cultures of Basilicum callus. (author)

  15. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  16. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  17. Influência de épocas de plantio e cultivares no rendimento total da cultura do alho (Allium sativum l. em Santa Maria, RS Planting date and cultivar influence on the total yield of garlic (Allium sativum L. in Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nadir Trevisan

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agrícola de 1984, afim de avaliar a influência de três épocas de plantio (27 de abril, 18 de maio e 14 de julho na produção total de bulbos de nove cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os maiores rendimentos totais de bulbos foram obtidos no plantio de 18 de maio. Gigante Lavínia foi a cultivar mais produtiva. As cultivares São Lourenço e Gigante Inconfidentes destacaram-se pelos rendimentos, os quais não diferiram significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria, in southernmost Brazil, during the growing season of 1984, to determine the influence of three different planting dates (April 27, May 18 and July 14 on the yield of nine garlic, Allium sativum Z., cultivars. The experimental design was a split plot complete block, with planting dates as main plots and cultivars as subplots. Blocks were replicated four times. The highest yields were obtained with planting date May 18. Gigante Lavínia ranked first among cultivars. The outstanding performances of São Lourenço and Gigante Inconfidentes were not significantly different.

  18. Early evaluation and on field conditions of resistance to Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet of plants from Grande naine (AAA cultivar, obtained through out tissue culture and mutations induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes R. García

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in the Plants Biotechnology Institute of the Central University of Las Villas. The plant material from the cv. Grande Naine (AAA was treated with physical mutagenic agents(gamma radiation 60Co source to induce genetic variability. The behaviour of the population to the black Sigatoka was evaluated. A somaclone was selected by its disease resistance and was in vitro multiplied and the plants were acclimatized to evaluate its behaviour facing the disease on greenhouse conditions and in a second cycle of multiplication in the field. The results showed that in the majority of the plants were not found differences respect cv Grande Naine, just one presented similar reaction to cv. ‘FHIA 18’ (AAAB (partially resistant as for the variable evaluated, being obtained a frequency of 0.018% for this character. This plant was named IBP 446. After 60 days of application of the mycelial homogenized of M. fijiensis in micropropagated plants of this somaclone, differences in the respect affectation states were found at susceptible witness in greenhouse conditions. When plants of the IBP 446 were evaluated in a second cycle of multiplication differences were found with the susceptible control only at flowering, while they behaved similar at susceptible control in the crop. Key words: early detection, breeding, mutation, Black Sigatoka

  19. Use of Tissue Culture Techniques for Producing Virus-Free Plant in Garlic and Their Identification through Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatıra Taşkın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed for comparison of meristem culture technique with shoot tip culture technique for obtaining virus-free plant, comparison of micropropagation success of two different nutrient media, and determination of effectiveness of real-time PCR assay for the detection of viruses. Two different garlic species (Allium sativum and Allium tuncelianum and two different nutrient media were used in this experiment. Results showed that Medium 2 was more successful compared to Medium 1 for both A. tuncelianum and A. sativum (Kastamonu garlic clone. In vitro plants obtained via meristem and shoot tip cultures were tested for determination of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV through real-time PCR assay. In garlic plants propagated via meristem culture, we could not detect any virus. OYDV and LYSV viruses were detected in plants obtained via shoot tip culture. OYDV virus was observed in amount of 80% and 73% of tested plants for A. tuncelianum and A. sativum, respectively. LYSV virus was found in amount of 67% of tested plants of A. tuncelianum and in amount of 87% of tested plants of A. sativum in this study.

  20. Physicochemical processes in embryonic plant tissue during the transition to the state of cold anabiosis and storage at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodko, A. T.; Lysak, Yu. S.

    2017-10-01

    Critical opalescence phenomenon was observed in the cytoplasm of garlic embryonic tissue—meristem—upon cooling in liquid nitrogen vapor, indicating liquid-liquid phase transition in the system. It was established that cells of the meristem tissue survive the cooling-thawing cycle. We suggest that the transition of meristem tissue to the state of anabiosis is mainly due to a drastic slowing of the diffusion in the cytoplasm caused by the passage of the solution through the critical point, followed by the formation of a dispersed system—a highly concentrated emulsion—as a result of a liquid-liquid phase transition. This macrophase separation is characteristic of polymer-solvent systems. We established the regime of cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature and subsequent thawing in the cryopreservation cycle for the biological object under study, which ensures the preservation of tissue viability.

  1. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  2. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  3. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  4. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  5. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  6. [Investigations on the physiology of the glands of carnivorous plants : IV. The kinetics of chloride secretion by the gland tissue of Nepenthes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, U

    1966-03-01

    The transport of chloride in isolated tissue from Nepenthes pitchers was investigated using (36)Cl(-), an Aminco-Cotlove chloride-titrator for the determinations of Cl(-) concentrations, and KCN and AsO 4 (-) -as metabolic inhibitors.The tissue was brought in contact with different experimental solutions (=medium). The surface corresponding to the outside of the pitchers was cut with a razor blade to remove the cutinized epidermal layer. At this surface the Cl(-) uptake from the medium is a metabolic process which depends on the Cl(-)-concentration of the medium in a manner that corresponds to the MICHAELIS-MENTEN kinetics. The Michaelis-constant of this transport step was 3×10(-2)M. The Cl(-)-efflux into the medium, however, is a passive process.The opposite surface of the tissue slices (corresponding to the inside of the pitchers) carries the glands. The chloride secretion taking place here is also dependent on metabolism. In vitro it occurs even when a high gradient of chloride concentration has been set up between the medium and the solution which is in contact with the glands. In vivo the Cl(-)-concentration of the pitcher fluid and the amount of Cl(-) per gram of tissue water are almost equal.The rôle of chloride in the physiology of Nepenthes is still under investigation, A correlation between the chloride content of the pitcher fluid and its enzymatic activity (Casein-test), however, could already be demonstrated.

  7. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  8. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2013-01-01

    that 15N also had a heterogeneous distribution (up to two orders of magnitude). Conclusion Bicarbonate can efficiently be used to introduce 14C or 13C into plant via the leaf-labeling method. Both 14C and 15N showed heterogeneous distribution in the plant, although the distribution of 15N was more even......Aims: Application of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes is an essential tool to study C and N flows in plant-soil-microorganisms systems. When targeting single plants in a community the tracers need to be added via e.g., leaf-labeling or stem-feeding approaches. In this study we: (i) investigated...... if bicarbonate can be used to introduce 14C (or 13C) into white clover and ryegrass, and (ii) compared the patterns of 14C and 15N allocation in white clover and ryegrass to evaluate the homogeneity of tracer distribution after two alternative labeling approaches. Methods Perennial ryegrass and white clover were...

  9. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Garcia, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical Forest Engineering School, University of Extremadura, 10600 (Plasencia) Caceres (Spain); Paniagua, J.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic School, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of {sup 3}H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant.

  10. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Garcia, E.; Paniagua, J.M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of 3 H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant

  11. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    H?lscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  12. Project subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1982. Report on achievements in the project commissioned from NEDO for development of a total flow power generation plant (Two-phase rotation inflator); 1982 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Developmental research has been performed on a two-phase rotation inflator in the total flow power generation technology to inflate gas-liquid two-phase fluid containing a great amount of hot water in the form as it is to draw out output. Subsequently from the previous fiscal year, the present fiscal year has improved the performance of a 300-kW class two-phase rotation inflator. The factory test data acquired in the previous fiscal year were analyzed, and an investigation was given on the cause of leakage loss and machine loss which were greater than what has been expected initially. The result revealed leakage from the circumferential seal grooves and leakage due to increase in the side seal clearance as a result of deformation of the external rotor flange. In addition, the static pressure bearing was found to have small displacement in the shaft center, but have large loss. Small modifications on these deficiencies raised the engine efficiency by about 44% at a rotation speed of 1,200 rpm, proving the effect of the improvement. However, the inflator showed a trend that, at the rotation speed higher than 1,600 rpm, air intake amount has increased, and the output has decreased. Therefore, analyses and investigations were carried out on water film loss, bearing loss and machine loss, and total modification was given on the inner and outer rotors, the inner wheel chamber, the sealing device, and the bearings. (NEDO)

  13. Transformation and mass hyperplasia technique of the garden plant (lily) by radiation and so forth. Mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Koji; Hamada, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    For an aim of more uniform child bulb production and good quality kind conservation using tissue culture of the lily, some hyperplasia from organs over ground of the lily were tried. In particular, optimum culture media with higher hyperplasia rate of the child bulb, redifferentiation due to difference among kinds of the lilies, and difference of hyperplasia of the child bulbs were investigated. As a result, it was found that pollution due to various germs attached to used materials often occurs, that efficiency obtainable for initial child bulb by redifferentiation from the organs was low at 20%, and that pollution due to various germs was often found at 25degC of cultivation temperature, which was inferior to that at 20degC. And, when conducting mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture, an optimum culture medium of formation and hyperplasia of child bulb could be obtained for its each kind. As a result of conducting some investigations on configuration of the lily nourished from its child bulb and flowered by the tissue culture, it was also found that cultured bulb had the same character as its parent bulb had. (G.K.)

  14. The plant Extracts of Momordica Charantia and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Have Antioxidant and Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties for Cardiac Tissue During Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nath Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG extracts (aqueous on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001 and significant increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH contents in heart tissue of diabetic rats were observed (group V and VI upon MC and TFG treatment. Our studies demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue.

  15. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  16. Avaliação por RAPD de plantas de abacaxizeiro cultivar Smooth Cayenne derivadas do seccionamento do talo e cultura de tecidos Evaluation of pineapple plants cultivar Smooth Cayenne from peduncle division and tissue culture by RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VITÓRIA CECCHETTI GOTTARDI

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas, em área comercial da fazenda Córrego dos Bois, município de Canápolis -- MG, plantas de abacaxizeiro cultivar Smooth Cayenne, para serem avaliadas quanto à propagação pelo método do seccionamento do talo e cultura de tecidos, bem como análise por RAPD das mudas decorrentes destes dois processos de propagação. A propagação pelo seccionamento do talo foi eficiente na produção de mudas, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade, em um curto espaço de tempo, além de apresentar a mesma característica genotípica (análise por RAPD das plantas-matrizes de origem. Já no processo de produção de mudas por cultura de tecidos, não foi obtida uma quantidade suficiente de mudas que comprovasse a utilização de uma metodologia mais sofisticada. Além da perda por contaminação em laboratório de 70% do material em estudo, foi necessária a utilização de um longo período, aproximadamente 18 meses, para a obtenção das mudas. Na análise por RAPD das plantas decorrentes deste processo de propagação, foram observados padrões de bandas diferentes em algumas amostras, as quais podem estar relacionadas com uma possível variação somaclonal.Plants of pineapple Smooth Cayenne cultivar were collected from a commercial area, Córrego dos Bois farm, in Canápolis, state of Minas Gerais, to evaluate two different processes of propagation, peduncle division and tissue culture. These same plants were characterized by RAPD analysis. According to the two propagation method, the peduncle division was efficient in seedlings propagation, in quantity as well as in quality, at a short period of time, resulting the same phenotype and genetic characteristics (RAPD analysis from the matrix descent plants. In the tissue culture method, the quantity of seedlings obtained were not good enough that could prove the use of a sophisticated methodology. Besides loosing 70% of the material, it was necessary to expend a long period of time, at

  17. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  18. Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marianne Molander; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Søgaard, Søren Vinter

    2014-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all p...... patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. Therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom....

  19. Crescimento e produtividade do almeirão em concentrações de N total contendo NH4+ na solução nutritiva Growth and yield of chicory plants under total N concentrations containing NH4+ in the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo dos Santos Godoi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a produtividade do almeirão foram determinados em cultivo hidropônico fechado com cinco concentrações de N contendo NH4+ na solução nutritiva. As cultivares "Amarelo" e "Pão de Açúcar" foram semeadas diretamente em fileiras distanciadas de 0,05m, em uma camada de areia de 0,15m, distribuída sobre telhas de fibrocimento. Após a emergência, foi efetuado o desbaste, mantendo-se uma densidade de 1.600plantas m-2. Foi empregada uma solução nutritiva padrão com a composição de, em mmol L-1, 11,0 de NO3-; 1,5 de H2PO4-; 6,5 de SO4-2; 7,5 de Ca+2; 10,0 de K+ e 1,5 de Mg+2 e, em mg L-1, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0,04 de Mo, e 4,82 de Fe quelatizado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por concentrações totais de N de 11,0 (T1; 16,0 (T2; 21,0 (T3; 26,0 (T4 e 31,0 (T5mmol L-1, contendo concentrações de NH4+ de, zero; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0mmol L-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado foi empregado, com quatro repetições e parcelas subdivididas. Foram efetuadas colheitas aos 35, 59, 76 e 97 dias após a semeadura, mediante corte da parte aérea das plantas a 0,02m acima da superfície da areia, para determinar a matéria seca e fresca. A maior produtividade foi obtida com a solução nutritiva contendo 16mmol L-1 de N total e 2,5mmol L-1 de NH4+.Chicory plants, cv. Amarela and Pão de Açúcar, were hidroponically grown to determine growth and yield under five ammonium and nitrate N concentrations in the nutrient solution. Sowing was made in rows placed 0.05m apart, over a 0.15m deep sand growing bed supported by fibber cement tiles. After emergency, plants were thinned to a plant density of 1,600plants m-2. A standard nutrient solution was used, with the composition of, in mmol L-1, 11.0 de NO3-; 1.5 H2PO4-; 6.5 SO4-2; 7.5 Ca+2; 10.0 K+ and 1.5 Mg+2, and, in mg L-1, 0.42 Mn; 0.26 Zn; 0.05 Cu; 0.50 B; 0.04 Mo, and 4.82 chelated Fe. Treatments were total N

  20. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  1. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  2. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  3. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  4. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  5. The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum have antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Uma Nath

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. There is an increasing demand of natural anti-diabetic agents, as continuous administration of existing drugs and insulin are associated with many side effects and toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG) extracts (aqueous) on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in heart tissue of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into six groups (I-VI) of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day) and TFG (9 g seeds powder/kg body weight/day) extracts in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (pMomordica charantia and Trigonella foenum graecum, which could exert beneficial effects against the diabetes and associated free radicals complications in heart tissue. PMID:20716916

  6. Total knee arthroplasty in ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav G. Patel, MBBS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is disorder of tyrosine metabolism due to deficiency of homogentisic oxidase characterized by excretion of homogentisic acid in urine, deposition of oxidized homogensitate pigments in connective tissues and articular cartilages (ochronosis. The result is dark pigmentation and weakening of the tissues resulting in chronic inflammation and osteoarthritis. Management of alkaptonuric ochronic osteoarthritis is usually symptomatic and replacements have comparable outcomes to osteoarthritis in patients without ochronosis. I report a case of a patient with ochronosis of knee treated with total knee replacement and report operative pearls for surgery in this rare disorder.

  7. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  8. Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral, Lidia; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2012-01-30

    Alpha-tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol form in sunflower seeds. Sunflower lines that accumulate increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds as well as lines with reduced and increased total seed tocopherol content have been developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the modified tocopherol levels are expressed in plant tissues other than seeds. Lines with increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds also possessed increased levels of these tocopherols in leaves, roots and pollen. Correlation coefficients for the proportion of individual tocopherols in different plant tissues were significantly positive in all cases, ranging from 0.68 to 0.97. A line with reduced tocopherol content in seeds also showed reduced content in roots and pollen. Genetic modifications producing altered seed tocopherol profiles in sunflower are also expressed in leaves, roots and pollen. Reduced total seed tocopherol content is mainly expressed at the root and pollen level. The expression of tocopherol mutations in other plant tissues will enable further studies on the physiological role of tocopherols and could be of interest for early selection for these traits in breeding programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Different Explants on the Response of Tissue Culture and Cell Suspension Cultures of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koohi,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. is one of the most important medicinal plants that its essential oils used in different medicinal industries. In this study which was carried out in 2013 growing season at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, the in vitro response of leaf and hypocotyl explants of German Chamomile in B5 medium supplemented with different levels of plant growth regulators including 2,4-D, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP were investigated in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD.In addition, cell suspension cultures were established and characterized. Hypocotyl and leaf explants exhibited cell proliferation and produced callus within 1-2 weeks. The highest fresh weight of the callus (264.1 mg was produced by leaf explants in the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAP. However, the leaf explants cultured on medium containing 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D showed the lowest cell proliferation and callus yield (40.42 mg. The highest percentage of root induction from leaf explants (58.73% was observed on the medium containing 4 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin, and from hypocotyl explants (48.61% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l NAA. The 42.22% of calli derived from hypocotyl explants on B5 medium supplemented with 4 mg/l NAA and 3 mg/l BAP, were friable. Cell suspension cultures of German chamomile were established by transferring of hypocotyl-derived friable calli into the MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l kinetin. The growth curve of cell proliferations started 4 days after culture and continued to grow until day 13th, where the cells entered stationary phase.

  10. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962); Etude de l'influence des facteurs climatiques sur l'accumulation des radioelements dans les tissus vegetaux (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, J; Gilly-Heuze, C; Nizia, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors) [French] 1. Nous proposons un traitement special du sol pour favoriser l'absorption et l'accumulation de radioelements dans les parties aeriennes de jeunes arbres. 2. Grace a ce traitement, il semble possible d'utiliser de jeunes arbres appartenant a plusieurs especes convenablement choisies pour detecter une contamination eventuelle du sol par un radioelement pendant un cycle vegetatif complet. Le pouvoir de concentration de leurs tissus est important: apres quatre semaines seulement de culture sur sol contamine, le facteur de concentration (FC) est de l'ordre de 85 dans les aiguilles d'epiceas. Les mesures d'activite sur des echantillons de tissus vegetaux peuvent devenir une methode de routine pour un controle de contamination des sols. (auteurs)

  11. Characterization of carotenoid profiles in goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits at various ripening stages and in different plant tissues by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzbach, Lara; Pfeiffer, Anne; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2018-04-15

    Carotenoid profiles of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits differing in ripening states and in different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, and calyx of ripe fruits) were investigated by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n . Out of the 53 carotenoids detected, 42 were tentatively identified. The carotenoid profile of unripe fruits is dominated by (all-E)-lutein (51%), whereas in ripe fruits, (all-E)-β-carotene (55%) and several carotenoid fatty acid esters, especially lutein esters esterified with myristic and palmitic acid as monoesters or diesters, were found. In overripe fruits, carotenoid conversion products and a higher proportion of carotenoid monoesters to diesters compared to ripe fruits were observed. Overripe fruits showed a significant decrease in total carotenoids of about 31% due to degradation. The observed conversion and degradation processes included epoxidation, isomerization, and deesterification. The peel of ripe goldenberries showed a 2.8 times higher total carotenoid content of 332.00 µg/g dw compared to the pulp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave dissolution of plant tissue and the subsequent determination of trace lanthanide and actinide elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, J.S.; Neal, T.J.; Smith, L.L.; Erickson, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently there has been much concern with the ability of plants to uptake heavy metals from their surroundings. With the development of instrumental techniques with low detection limits such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), attention is shifting toward achieving faster and more elegant ways of oxidizing the organic material inherent in environmental samples. Closed-vessel microwave dissolution was compared with conventional methods for the determination of concentrations of cerium, samarium, europium, terbium, uranium and thorium in a series of samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and from fields in Idaho. The ICP-MS technique exhibited detection limits in parts-per-trillion and linear calibration plots over three orders of magnitude for the elements under study. The results obtained by using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave digestion system for the analysis of reference materials showed close agreement with the accepted values. These values were compared with results obtained from dry- and wet-ashing procedures. The findings from an experiment comparing radiometric techniques for the determination of actinide elements to ICP-MS are reported

  13. Survival of plant tissue at super-low temperatures v. An electron microscope study of ice in cortical cells cooled rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Otsuka, K

    1967-12-01

    Experiments were carried out with cortical cells in twig bark of mulberry trees in winter in order to clarify the mechanism of survival at super-low temperatures with rapid cooling and rewarming. Attention was given to the relation between the existence of intracellular ice crystals and survival.Cortical cells were cooled rapidly by direct immersion into liquid nitrogen or isopentane cooled at various temperatures. After immersion, they were freeze-substituted with absolute ethanol at -78 degrees . They were then embedded, sectioned and examined under the electron microscope for the presence and distribution of cavities left after ice removal.Cells were found to remain alive and contain no ice cavities when immersed rapidly into isopentane baths kept below -60 degrees . Those cells at intermediate temperatures from -20 degrees to -45 degrees , were almost all destroyed. It was also observed that many ice cavities were contained in the cells immersed rapidly into isopentane baths at -30 degrees . The data seem to indicate that no ice crystals were formed when cooled rapidly by direct immersion into isopentane baths below -60 degrees or into liquid nitrogen.The tissue sections immersed in liquid nitrogen were rapidly transferred to isopentane baths at temperatures ranging from -70 degrees to -10 degrees before rapid rewarming. There was little damage when samples were held at temperatures below -50 degrees for 10 minutes or below -60 degrees for 16 hours. No cavities were found in these cells. Above -45 degrees , and especially at -30 degrees , however, all cells were completely destroyed even when exposed only for 1 minute. Many ice cavities were observed throughout these cells. The results obtained may be explained in terms of the growth rate of intracellular ice crystals.

  14. Hydrolyzable Tannins of Tamaricaceous Plants. 7.1 Structures and Cytotoxic Properties of Oligomeric Ellagitannins from Leaves of Tamarix nilotica and Cultured Tissues of Tamarix tetrandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Taniguchi, Shoko; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2016-04-22

    Partially unacylated new oligomeric hydrolyzable tannins, nilotinin T2 (1, trimer) and nilotinin Q1 (2, tetramer), together with four known trimers, nilotinin T1 (3) and hirtellins T1-T3 (4-6), and a dimer, tamarixinin B (7), were isolated from the aqueous acetone extracts of leaves of Tamarix nilotica. Among them, the new trimer 1 and the known trimers 4 and 6, in addition to the partially unacylated new trimer nilotinin T3 (8), the known dimers nilotinin D3 (9) and tamarixinin C (10), and the monomer tellimagrandin I (11), were isolated from the cultured shoots of Tamarix tetrandra. The structures of the new hydrolyzable tannins were established by chromatographic analyses and extensive 1D and 2D NMR, HRESI-TOFMS, and ECD spectroscopic experiments. Among the new oligomeric tannins, the particular unacylated position of a glucose core is attributed to a possible biosynthetic route. Isolation of the same oligomeric tannins from cultured shoots of T. tetrandra emphasizes the unique biogenetic ability of the obtained cultures on production of the structurally and biologically characteristic tamaricaceous tannins commonly produced by the intact Tamarix plants. Additionally, tannins obtained in the present study together with gemin D (12) and 1,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(aS)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucose (13), from our previous investigation of the leaves of T. nilotica, exhibited variable tumor-specific cytotoxic effects. The ellagitannin trimers 4, 6, and 8 and the dimer 9 exerted predominant tumor-selective cytotoxic effects with high specificity toward human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

  15. Fertile transgenic wheat from microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Brettschneider, R; Lörz, H

    1994-02-01

    A reproducible transformation system for hexaploid wheat was developed based on particle bombardment of scutellar tissue of immature embryos. Particle bombardment was carried out using a PDS 1000/He gun. Plant material was bombarded with the plasmid pDB1 containing the beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) under the control of the actin-1 promoter of rice, and the selectable marker gene bar (phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Selection was carried out using the herbicide Basta (Glufosinate-ammonium). From a total number of 1050 bombarded immature embryos, in seven independent transformation experiments, 59 plants could be regenerated. Putative transformants were screened for enzyme activity by the histochemical GUS assay using cut leaf material and by spraying the whole plants with an aqueous solution of the herbicide Basta. Twelve regenerants survived Basta spraying and showed GUS-activity. Southern-blot analysis indicated the presence of introduced foreign genes in the genomic DNA of the transformants and both marker genes were present in all plants analysed. To date, four plants have been grown to maturity and set seed. Histochemically stained pollen grains showed a 1:1 segregation of the uidA gene in all plants tested. A 3:1 segregation of the introduced genes was demonstrated by enzyme activity tests and Southern blot analysis of R1 plants.

  16. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  17. Tritium in water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.

    1977-10-01

    A summary is presented of the results obtained in programs on the measurement of the T concentration in the immediate and more distant environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KFK). The amount of T released with the waste water and the exhaust air from the KFK in the years 1969 until 1976 is indicated. The total releases ranged from 2000 Ci/a to 5200 Ci/a in the period of reporting. The fractions contained in the exhaust air and in the waste water were subjected to considerable variations over the years. The results of measurements for water samples are presented as annual mean values. The annual values of measured results obtained for precipitations on the site clearly exceed the values measured at sampling stations outside the KFK. Of the surface waters monitored the rivers Rhine and Neckar showed the highest T values. In smaller flowing waters the T concentration is also influenced by the percentage of waste water from communities. Obviously the tritium content of the ground and drinking water depends on the depth of sampling. Drinking water raised from a small depth in the vicinity of the Rhine is subjected to the same variations as the water from the river Rhine. To find out relations to the T offer of the relevant media close to the plants, the T concentrations in tissue water of plants and in air humidity, ground water and precipitations were investigated. Variations of the T concentration in air humidity correlate with the variations of the T concentration in the tissue water of plants. The T concentration level in the tissue water of plants is close to the T concentration in air humidity. The following time constants and half-lives, respectively, are found: for oak and hornbeam leaves 2+-1 days, for spruce needles 3+-1.5 days, for pine needles 6+-3 days. The dispersion of T released into the air and into the water is dealt with briefly. (orig.) [de

  18. The influence of freezing and tissue porosity on the material properties of vegetable tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralfs, Julie D

    2002-07-01

    Tissue porosity and fluid flow have been shown to be important parameters affecting the mechanical and sensorial behaviour of edible plant tissues. The quantity of fluid and the manner with which it was released on compression of the plant tissue were also important regarding the sensory perception and a good indication of any structural damage resulting from freezing, for example. Potato, carrot and Chinese water chestnut were used to study the effects freezing has on model plant tissues. Mechanical and structural measurements of the plant tissue were correlated with sensory analysis. Conventional freezing was shown to cause severe structural damage predominantly in the form of cavities between or through cells, resulting in decreases in mechanical strength and stiffness, and samples that were perceived in the mouth as 'soft' and 'wet'. The location and size of the cavities formed from ice crystals, depended on the particular plant tissue being frozen, the processing it was subjected to prior to freezing, the size of the sample and the cooling regime employed to freeze the tissue. Cavitation in the tissue resulted in an increase in tissue porosity, which enabled fluid to flow more easily from the tissue on compression, thus affecting the mechanical properties and sensory perception. Freezing damage to plant tissues was shown to be reduced, and sometimes prevented, when active antifreeze proteins (AFPs) were introduced into the tissues by vacuum infiltration or transformation and the tissue was frozen at a suitable cooling rate. Theoretical modelling was applied to the fluid flow and porosity data to test the validity of the models and to subsequently predict the mechanical behaviour of potato from the structural properties of the tissue. (author)

  19. The influence of freezing and tissue porosity on the material properties of vegetable tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralfs, Julie D.

    2002-01-01

    Tissue porosity and fluid flow have been shown to be important parameters affecting the mechanical and sensorial behaviour of edible plant tissues. The quantity of fluid and the manner with which it was released on compression of the plant tissue were also important regarding the sensory perception and a good indication of any structural damage resulting from freezing, for example. Potato, carrot and Chinese water chestnut were used to study the effects freezing has on model plant tissues. Mechanical and structural measurements of the plant tissue were correlated with sensory analysis. Conventional freezing was shown to cause severe structural damage predominantly in the form of cavities between or through cells, resulting in decreases in mechanical strength and stiffness, and samples that were perceived in the mouth as 'soft' and 'wet'. The location and size of the cavities formed from ice crystals, depended on the particular plant tissue being frozen, the processing it was subjected to prior to freezing, the size of the sample and the cooling regime employed to freeze the tissue. Cavitation in the tissue resulted in an increase in tissue porosity, which enabled fluid to flow more easily from the tissue on compression, thus affecting the mechanical properties and sensory perception. Freezing damage to plant tissues was shown to be reduced, and sometimes prevented, when active antifreeze proteins (AFPs) were introduced into the tissues by vacuum infiltration or transformation and the tissue was frozen at a suitable cooling rate. Theoretical modelling was applied to the fluid flow and porosity data to test the validity of the models and to subsequently predict the mechanical behaviour of potato from the structural properties of the tissue. (author)

  20. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  1. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  2. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  3. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  4. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  7. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  8. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  9. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  10. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  11. Walnut tissue culture: research and field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Vitrotech Biotecnologia Vegetal began researching propagating Juglans regia (English walnut) and various Juglans hybrids by tissue culture in 1993 and has operated on a commercial scale since 1996. Since this time, more than one and a half million walnuts of different species have been propagat